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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010

Quality of Service Issues in Wireless


Ad Hoc Network (IEEE 802.11B)
Mohammed Ali Hussain1, Mohammed Mastan2, Syed Umar3
1
Research Scholar, Dept.of CSE, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, A.P., India.
hussain_ma2k@yahoo.co.in
2
Research Scholar, Dept.of CSE, JNT University, Kakinada, A.P., India.
mastanmohd@gmail.com
3
Research Scholar, Dept.of CSE, Dravidian University, Kuppam, A.P., India.
umar332@gmail.com

Abstract --- A wireless Ad-hoc network consists networks, Quality of Service support is
of wireless nodes communicating without the
need for a centralized administration, in which becoming an inherent necessity rather
all nodes potentially contribute to the routing
process. In this paper, we report Fluctuations in than an “additional feature” of the
channel quality effect the QoS metrics on each
link and the whole end-to-end route. The network. Wireless channel fluctuates
interference from non-neighboring nodes affects
the link quality. QoS is an essential component rapidly and the fluctuations severely
of ad-hoc networks. The most commonly studied
QoS metrics are throughput, bandwidth, delay effect multi-hop flows. As opposed to
and jitter. Bandwidth is the QoS metric that has
received the most attention in the QoS literature. the wired network, the capacity of the
The QoS requirements are typically met by soft
assurances rather than hard guarantees from the wireless channel fluctuates rapidly due
network. Most mechanisms are designed for
providing relative assurances rather than to various physical layer phenomena
absolute assurances.
including fading and multi-path
Keywords: QoS, Ad-hoc, Throughput,
Bandwidth, Delay, Jitter, 802.11. interference. In addition, background
noise and interference from nearby
I. INTRODUCTION
nodes further effect the channel
Wireless Ad-hoc network consists of quality. In ad-hoc networks, the end-
wireless nodes communicating without to-end quality of a connection may
the need for a centralized vary rapidly as change in channel
administration. The idea of such quality on any link may effect the end-
networking is to support robust and to-end QoS metrics of multi-hop paths.
efficient operation ad-hoc wireless The Packets contend for the shared
networks in which all nodes potentially media of the same stream at different
contribute to the routing process, the nodes impacts the QoS metrics of a
fluctuations in channel quality effect connection. Such contention arises as
the QoS metrics on each link and the the wireless channel is shared by nodes
whole end-to-end route. In ad-hoc in the vicinity. Interference effects are

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ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010

pronounced in ad-hoc networks where high data rates are also prone to high
typically a single frequency is used for bit error rates.
communication in the shared channel. The 802.11b standard operates in the
In Single hop infrastructured wireless 2.4 GHz band and supports 1, 2, 5.5
networks frequency planning is mostly and 11 Mbps. For efficient use of a
used where nearby base stations can be multi-rate physical layer, there have
configured to function at different been several algorithms proposed at
frequencies for reducing interference. the physical layer. One of the
Transmissions in the wireless media algorithm which is closely tied to the
are not received correctly beyond the MAC layer is Opportunistic Auto Rate
transmission range. But even beyond (OAR) for improving throughput in the
the transmission range, the remaining presence of multi-rate links in ad-hoc
power may be enough to interfere with networks. The key idea is to send
other transmission. So, interference multiple packets when the channel rate
from nonneighboring nodes may result is higher.
in packet drops. In order to support
QoS on multi-hop paths, QoS must be III.IMPORTANCE OF MEDIUM

designed for the end-to-end path as ACCESS LAYER

well as for each hop. The physical and The original IEEE 802.11 [1] standard
MAC layers are responsible for QoS specifies the physical layer and the
properties on a single-hop. The routing medium access layer mechanisms and
layer is responsible for QoS metrics on provides a data rate up to 2 Mbps.
an end-to-end route. Further the standards IEEE 802.11b
modifies the physical layer part of the
II.OVERVIEW OF IEEE 802.11 standard and increases the maximum
PHYSICAL LAYER data rates to 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps
One of the fundamental challenges in respectively. In this paper we discuss
wireless networks is the continuously the basic 802.11 MAC layer
changing physical layer properties of functionality called Distributed
the channel. The physical layer of Coordination Function (DCF) for
802.11b can support multiple data distributed access to the shared
rates. Depending on the channel medium. DCF is a natural choice for
quality the data rate can be altered to ad-hoc networks, as there is no
keep the bit error rate acceptable, as centralized controller such as an

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ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010

access-point. However, PCF can window used for backoffs. Initially cw


support QoS metrics in single-hop is set to cwmin . In the chosen slot the
wireless networks due to its centralized node sends a MAC layer control
design. Both DCF and PCF are packet called RTS (request-to-send), to
enhanced in the upcoming standard the receiver. If the receiver correctly
802.11e [2] that are designed for receives the RTS and is not deferring
supporting QoS in WLANs. transmission, it responds with CTS
(clear-to-send). This is followed by
IV. 802.11 DISTRIBUTED transmission of the data packet by the
COORDINATION
sender, and a subsequent
FUNCTION (DCF)
acknowledgment from the receiver.
The DCF protocol attempts to provide The transmissions of these four packets
equal access (in terms of number of are separated by short durations called
packets) to all backlogged nodes that SIFS (Short Inter-Frame Space). The
share a channel. In an ad-hoc network SIFS allows time for switching the
the throughput that a node obtains transceiver between sending and
using DCF is a function of the number receiving modes. The sequence of
of neighbors that it has and the state of transmission of these four packets. The
their queues (backlogged or not). MAC header of all these packets
SIF SIF SIF contains a “duration” field indicating
S S S
the remaining time till the end of the
RT DATA reception of the ACK packet. Based on
Sourc S
e
this advertisement, the neighboring
nodes update a data structure called
CT AC
Destinati
on
S KC
K
NAV (Network Allocation Vector).
This structure maintains the remaining
NAV
(DATA)
NAV(C time for which the node has to defer all
TS)
NAV(R
Other TS) transmissions.
s

Figure 1: IEEE 802.11 DCF If the packet transmission fails, the


sender doubles its contention window
Each node that has a packet to send
(cw [2*cw-1]) and backs off before
picks a random slot for transmission in
attempting a retransmission. The
[0, cw], where cw is the contention
number of retransmissions is limited to

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Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010

4 for small packets (including RTS priorities, the backoff computation can
packets) and 7 for larger (typically be changed as follows:
DATA) packets. If these counts are Backofftime = [ Pj (2+i) x rand( ) ] x Slottime
exceeded, the data packet is dropped
and cw is reset to cwmin if the data where pj is the priority of node j
packet is successfully delivered, both 2. DIFS: As shown in Fig.1, this is the
the sender and the receiver reset cw to minimum interval of time required
cwmin. before initiating a new packet
transmission after the channel has been
V. PROPOSED QOS SUPPORT USING DCF busy. To lower the priority of a flow
BASED SERVICE DIFFERENTIATION
we can increase the DIFS (Distributed
As it is difficult to provide absolute Coordination Function Inter Frame
QoS guarantees, relative QoS Spacing) period for packets of that
assurance can be provided by service flow. However, it is difficult to find an
differentiation. However, to provide exact relation between the DIFS period
differentiated services, the 802.11 for a flow and its throughput. Fig.2
protocol needs to be modified. [3] shows the different DIFS values and
proposes three ways to modify the the corresponding relative priorities.
DCF functionality of 802.11 to support
service differentiation. The parameters
Priority j+1 DIFS j+1
(high) RTS
that need to be modified to achieve
Priority j DIFS j defer
(intermediate)
service differentiation are.
Priority j-1 (low) DIFS j-1 defer

1. Backoff increase function: Upon an


unsuccessful attempt to send an RTS
or a data packet, the maximum backoff
Figure 2: Service Differentiation using
time is doubled. More specifically the
different DIFS values
backoff time is calculated as follows:

3. Maximum Frame Length: Channel


Backofftime = [ 2 (2+i) x rand ( )] x Slottime contention using the DCF functionality
is typically used to send a single frame.
Where i is the number of consecutive By using longer frames, higher
backoffs experienced for the packet to throughput can be provided to high-
transmitted. To support different priority flows.

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VI. CONCLUSION REFERENCES

In this paper, the QoS issues discussed


[1] IEEE Std. 802.11. Wireless LAN Medium
at various networking layers for ad-hoc Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer
(PHY) Specifications, 1999.
networks. The physical layer and the
[2] S. Mangold, S. Choi, G. R. Hiertz, O.
MAC layers are primarily responsible Klein and B. Walke. Analysis of IEEE
for QoS metrics on each link and the 802.11e for QoS Support in Wireless
LANs .IEEE Wireless Communications
whole end-to-end route. The DCF Magazine, Special Issue on Evolution of
Wireless LANs and PANs, Jul. 2003.
functionality of 802.11 is being
[3] I. Aad and C. Caselluccia. Differentiation
extended and specifically designed for mechanisms for IEEE 802.11. In Proc.
IEEE Infocom, volume 2, pages 594–602,
QoS support in multi-hop networks. 1996.
The algorithm which is needed to be
[4] A.Veres, A. T. Campbell, M.Barry, and L.
adapted for use in multi-hop ad-hoc H. Sun. Supporting service differentiation
in wireless packet networks using
networks is Opportunistic Auto Rate distributed control. IEEE Journal on
Selected Areas in Communications,
(OAR) for improving throughput in the October 2001.
presence of multi-rate links in ad-hoc [5] B.Sadeghi,V.Kanodia,A.Sabharwal, and E.
networks. Knightly. Opportunistic Media Access for
Multirate Ad-hoc Networks. In Proc.
QoS is currently an active research ACM MOBICOM, 2002.

area in ad-hoc networks. However,


AUTHORS PROFILE
there are several avenues that require
further exploration for designing a QoS Mohammed Ali Hussain
enabled ad-hoc network. For packets received the Master’s
degree M.Sc Computer
that traverse multiple hops, the end-to- Science from Alagappa
University in 2003. He
end QoS is a function of the QoS received Master’s degree
M.Tech in Information
metrics at each intermediate link. End- Technology from Allahabad Deemed
University in 2005. He received Ph.D. degree
to-end QoS properties can be improved In Computer Science from Magadh University,
by designing a MAC layer that Bihar, India in 2008. He is doing Post Doctoral
degree in Computer Science & Engineering
coordinates with other intermediate from Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur,
Andhra Pradesh, India. He is currently an
nodes on a multi-hop path. We find Associate Professor in the Department of
Computer Science in Nimra College of
that QoS is an inherent component of Engineering & Technology, Vijayawada,
Andhra Pradesh, India. He had published
ad-hoc networking and that there are several papers in National and International
several unsolved challenges that need Conferences & International Journals. His
research interests are Wireless Networks with
to be addressed to design QoS enabled specialization in Quality of Service (QoS) in
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs. & Ad-Hoc
ad-hoc networks in future. Networks. He is a member of IACSIT and
ISTE.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2010

Mohammed Mastan
received the Master’s
degree in Computer
Applications from
Kakatiya University,
Warangal in 2006. He
received Master’s degree
in M.Tech Computer Science & Engineering
from JNT University, Hyderabad in 2008. He
is pursuing Ph.D. in Computer Science &
Engineering from JNT University, Kakinada,
Andhra Pradesh, India. He is currently as
Asst.Professor in Department of Computer
Science & Engineering in Nimra College of
Engineering & Technology, Vijayawada,
Andhra Pradesh, India. He has published
several papers in National and International
Conferences. His research interests are
Computer Networks & Wireless Networks.

Syed Umar received the


B.Tech degree Electronics
and Communication
Engineering from JNT
University, Hyderabad in
2003. He received
Master’s degree M.Tech
in Computer Science &
Engineering from JNT University, Hyderabad
in 2008. He is pursuing Ph.D. in Computer
Science from Dravidian University, Kuppam,
Chittoor Dist, Andhra Pradesh, India. He is
currently an Asst.Professor in Department of
Computer Science & Engineering in Nimra
College of Engineering & Technology,
Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. He had
published several papers in National and
International Conferences. His research
interests are Computer Networks & Wireless
Networks.

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