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What We Did This

Keynote By: Erika Heideman
In this keynote presentation I will describe what we did
and what we learned in Mr. DeArmouns semester 2
sociology class. We covered many chapters during the
semester and I will just briefly explain the concepts to
you in a short keynote presentation.
Chapter 1
The Sociological Point of View
Sociology- the science that studies human society and
social behavior.

Social Interaction- how people relate to one another

and influence each others behavior. This is the main
thing sociologist are interested in.

Social Sciences- Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology,

Economics, Political Science, and History. All of these

study aspects of human social behavior.

Function- the positive consequence that an element of

society has for the maintenance of the social system.

Sociologist tend to focus more on groups rather than


Influential Early Sociologist- Auguste Comte, Karl

Marx, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, and Max
Chapter 2
Cultural Diversity
Culture- all the shared products of human groups.

The products include both physical object and the beliefs, values,
and behaviors shared by a group.

Physical objects that people create form a groups material culture.

Abstract human creation form a gougers nonmaterial culture.

Society- group of mutually interdependent people who have

organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of

The Components of Culture- Symbols, Language, Values, and


Levels of Culture can be divided into traits, complexes, and patterns.

Cultural Universals- common features that are found in all human


Ethnocentrism- the tendency to view ones own culture and group as

superior to other groups.
Chapter 4
Social Structure
Social Structure- the network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interaction.

Status- socially defined position in a group or in a society.

Role- the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status.

A status that is assigned according to standards that are beyond a persons control is an ascribed status. A status
that is acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, or ability is an achieved status.

Group- a set of two or more people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some
degree of common identity.

Types of Groups- Primary, Secondary, Reference, In-group, Out-group

A primary group is a small group who interact over a relatively long period of time and on a personal basis. A
secondary group is where interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature.

A reference group is any group with whom individuals identity and whose attitudes and values are often adopted.

A group that a person identifies with is called an in-group. Any group that the person does not belong to or identify
with is called an out-group.

Social Network- the web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a persons interactions with others.

Types of Social Interaction- Exchange, Competition, Conflict, Cooperation, and Accommodation.

Chapter 5
Socializing the Individual
Personality- the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs,
and values that are characteristic of an individual.

Socialization- interactive process through which

individuals learn basic skills, values, beliefs, and behavior.

Looking Glass Self- interactive process by which we

develop an image of ourselves.

Agents of Socialization- Family, Peer Groups, Schools,

Mass Media, Religion, and other Clubs

Nature vs. Nurture

Nature- believe that much of human behavior is

instinctual in origin.

Nurture- believe human behavior and personality to

environmental factors and social learning.
Chapter 6
The Adolescent in Society
Adolescence- the period between the normal onset of
puberty and the beginning of adulthood.

Puberty- physical maturing that makes an individual

capable of sexual reproduction. Occurs in all human

Characteristics of Adolescence-

Biological Growth and Development, Undefined

Status, Increased Decision Making, Increased

Pressure, and the Search for Self.

Homogamy- the tendency for individuals to marry

people who have social characteristics similar to
their own.
Chapter 9
Social Stratification
Social Stratification- the ranking of individuals or categories of people on the basis of
unequal access to scarce resources and social rewards.

Social Inequality- the unequal sharing of social rewards and resources.

Types of Stratification Systems- Caste System and Class System

Caste System- resources and rewards are distributed on the basis of ascribed statuses.

Class System- distribution of resources and rewards is determined on the basis of achieved

Exogamy is marriage outside ones own social category. Endogamy is marriage within ones
own social category.

Social Class- grouping of people with similar levels of wealth, power, and prestige.

Poverty- defined as a standard of living that is below the minimum level considered decent
and reasonable by society.
Chapter 10
Racial and Ethnic Relations
Ethnicity- the set of cultural characteristics that
distinguishes one group from another group.

Ethnic Group- individuals who share a common

cultural background and a common sense of

Minority Group- category of people who share

physical characteristics or cultural practices that
result i the group being denied equal treatment.

Discrimination- denial of equal treatment to

members of a group. Prejudice is an unsupported
generalization about a category of people.

Racism- the belief that ones own race or ethnic

group is naturally superior to other races or ethnic
Chapter 12
The Family
Family- a group of people who are related by marriage,
blood, or adoption and who live together and share
economic resources.

Extended Family- consists of three or more generations

of family sharing the same residence.

The Functions of the Family- Regulation of Sexual

Activity, Reproduction, Socialization, Economic and
Emotional Security.

Marriage between individuals with similar social
characteristics is called homogamy. Heterogamy is
marriage between individuals who have different social

Marriage Partners-

Monogamy- the marriage of one man to one woman.

Polygamy- marriage with multiple partners

Chapter 13
The Economy and Politics
Economic Institution- system of roles and norms that every society develops so govern
production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

Capitalism- factors of production are owned by the individuals rather then by the government.

Socialism- factors of production are owned by the government, which regulates all economic

Communism- political and economic system in which property is communally owned.

Monarchy- type of government in which one person rules.

Authoritarianism- power rests firmly with the state.

Dictatorship- power is in the hands of a single individual.

Totalitarianism- government leaders accept few limits on their authority. Most extreme form of
Chapter 14
Education and Religion
Education- system of roles and norms that
ensures the transmission of knowledge, values,
and patterns of behavior from one generation to
the next.

Schooling- formal education, which involves

instruction by specially trained teachers who
follow officially recognized policies.

Hidden Curriculum- transmission by schools of

cultural goals that are not openly acknowledged.

Tracking- assignment of students to different

types of educational programs.

Religion- a system of roles and norms organized

around the sacred realm that binds people
together in social groups.

Ritual- an established pattern of behavior through

which a group of believers experience the sacred.
Chapter 15
Science and Sport
Science- the pursuit of knowledge through systematic

The sociological perspective that examines how

scientific knowledge develops is the sociology of

Sport- competitive games that are won or lost on the

basis of physical skills and are played according to
specific rules.

Rationalization- the processes by which every feature of human behavior becomes subject to calculation,
measurement, and control.

The Institutionalization of Sport

Secularization, Equality, Specialization,

Rationalization, Bureaucratization, Quantification
Textbook- The Study of Human Relationships (Sociology Fifth Edition)