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E E

A A

T T

T T

R R

A

SMR 4792 A

N

S

N

S

Introduction

INSTRUCTOR: ASSOC. PROF. DR. MAZLAN ABDUL WAHID

F

E

R

http://www.fkm.utm.my/~mazlan

F

E

R

Basic of Heat Transfer

TEXT: Heat Transfer A Practical Approach

by Yunus A. Cengel Dr. Mazlan Abdul Wahid

Mc Graw Hill Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

www.fkm.utm.my/~mazlan

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E

A Introduction E

A Thermodynamics

T T

T

Thermodynamics: T Thermodynamics is about:

R R

A Energy can be transferred between a system and its surroundings. A Interaction of energy with system and surroundings.

N N

S

A system interacts with its surroundings by exchanging work and heat S

F Deals with equilibrium states F

surroundings

E E

R

Does not give information about: R system

Rates at which energy is transferred W boundary

Mechanisms through with energy is transferred

Q

In this chapter we will learn C C

What is heat transfer H H

How is heat transferred A Energy can move in and out of a system in two forms A

P P

Relevance and importance T Work (W) and Heat (Q) T

E E

R R

1

H H

E

A Definitions E

A

T T

T T

R Heat transfer is thermal energy transfer that is induced by R

A a temperature difference (or gradient) A

N N

S S

F F

E

Modes of heat transfer E

R Conduction heat transfer: Occurs when a temperature gradient exists R

through a solid or a stationary fluid (liquid or gas).

solid surface and a moving fluid, when they are at different C C

temperatures H H

A A

P P

Thermal radiation: Heat transfer between two surfaces (that are not in T T

contact), often in the absence of an intervening medium. E E

R R

H C H

E Heat Transfer Overview H

E

A A A

T T

P

T

T E T

R R R

A A

N

S

1 N

S

F F

E E

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

2

H H

E E

A A

T T EXAMPLE

T T Consider a can of drinks which you want to cool down

R R

A A you would put it in a refrigerator.

N N 20oC

S S Surrounding Air

F F

E E T = 4oC

R R

fridge ultimately it will reach equilibrium with its

C surroundings C

H H

A BUT HOW LONG? Thermodynamics can not A

P P

T answer that. T

E E

R R

H H

E E

A Where is heat transfer falls at? A

T T The topic of Heat Transfer is about

T There are three principle laws upon which T

R R

A

Engineering studies are derived A

N N understanding, determining and predicting

S Conservation of Momentum (Fluid Mechanics, S flows of heat

F Mass Transfer) F

E E

R R

Conservation of Energy (Thermodynamics, Heat All of Heat Transfer study is about answering the

Transfer) question:

Conservation of Mass (Continuity, Mass What is the heat flow rate from A to B?

Transfer) C C

H H

In this course we are primarily interested in the A A

P P

T T

Conservation of Energy in Heat Transfer E E

R R

3

H H

E E

A A

T T

What is temperature ?

T T

R R

A Thermal energy: atomic/molecular/electronic A

N kinetic energy N

S S

F Measure to determine how hot/cold a material is F

E (intensity of thermal energy) E

R R

Criterion to determine the direction of thermal-

energy transport

atomic or molecular kinetic energy (translation / H H

vibration / rotation) A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E E

A A Turbine blade cooling

T T

Importance of heat transfer in engineering

T T

R R

A A

N

S

Power N

S

F F

E

High turbine inlet temperatures desired for efficiency. E

R Heat transfer from gas or steam to turbine blades R

Predict/control temperature of blades. Cooling strategies

internal cool air passages,

C C

cool air bleed through perforated blade surface. H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

Mazlan 2013 1 Mazlan 2013 1

4

H H

E E

A A

T T

Building

T

Biomedical T

R R

A A Heat is transferred through walls (conduction) to outside

N Thermal cancer treatments electromagnetic radiation N

S (laser, radio), ultrasonic waves, etc used to heat tumor. S air (convection), through

F F

E E

windows (radiation, convection, conduction), open

R Necessary to predict tumor temperature and understand heat R doors/windows (convection)

transfer to surrounding Heat loss (or gain) determines heating (air-conditioning)

tissue (conduction, convection). requirements.

lowered, maintained water C C

H H

and air blanket devices (convection and conduction), IR lamps A A

P P

(radiation).

T T

E E

R R

H H

E E

Heat exchangers

A A

T devices designed specifically to promote heat transfer between T

two fluids

Fuel cells

T T

R R

car radiators, boilers, condensers, chip cooling, equipment

A A

N cooling N

S S

F

and so on F

E E

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

5

H H

E

A

E

A Example: Design of a container

T T

T T A closed container filled with hot coffee is in a room whose air and

R R walls are at a fixed temperature. Identify all heat transfer processes

A A that contribute to cooling of the coffee. Comment on features that

N N

S S would contribute to a superior container design.

F F

E E

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E E

A A Symbols and units

T

Notation T

R R

A Notation used in this course A same unit as work

N N (=forcedisplacement)

S S

F F

E

R .

Q - a quantity of heat transfer (same as in thermo) E

R

Temperature: T=[oC] or [K] T(oC)=T(K)+273.15

Q

. - heat transfer rate (per unit time), [J/s = W]

Note: When oC or K unit is in the denominator, unit

.

q = Q/A - heat flux (per unit time, per unit area), [W/m2] change doesn't affect the numerical value, e.g., specific

heat Cp 1 J/kg.oC=1 J/kg.K, thermal conductivity 1

. .

G

g =G/V

- heat generation, [W]

- heat generation per unit volume, [W/m3]

C

H

A

W/m.oC=1 W/m.K

C

H

A

P P

T T

E E

R R

ALWAYS PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO YOUR UNITS

Mazlan 2013 1 Mazlan 2013 1

6

H H

E

Methods of Heat Transfer E

A

T

A

T

Modes of Heat Transfer

T

Objectives are to: T

R describe the three methods of heat transfer R

A

N give practical/environmental examples of each

A

N

There are three principle mode of heat transfer

S S

F F

E E

R R Conduction

C C

H H

A Radiation A

P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E E CONDUCTION

A A

T CONDUCTION T

T T

R R

A A

N N

S S

F F

E E

R R Straightforward transmission of heat within a stationary medium

Solid, liquid, or gas (usually most important in solids)

-Usually in solid(s) , maybe liquids

C -Rarely gases (negligible to convection) C

H Mechanisms are on molecular/atomic level: molecular vibrations, H

A motion of free electrons A

P P

T Can often come up with exact mathematical solutions T

E E

R Need a temperature gradient R

7

H H

E

A

E

A Conduction

T T

T T

R R

Transfer of energy from the more energetic to less energetic particles

A A of a substance by collisions between atoms and/or molecules.

N N Atomic and molecular activity random molecular motion (diffusion)

S S

F F

E E

T1

R R T1>T

2

xo qx

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T2 T2 T

E x E

R R

H H

E E

A A

T T

Conduction is simply:

.

T T

Transfer of energy from more energetic to less

T

R R

A A

N

S

energetic particles of a substance due to

interactions between particles

N

S

Qcond = kA

F

E

F

E

L

R From empirical observations (experiments) R

.

Q: heat transfer rate

Fouriers Law A: cross-sectional area

.

Q

C

H

A

L: length

k: thermal conductivity

T: temperature difference across conductor

C

H

A

P P

T T

E E

R R

8

H H

E

A Conduction E

A Conduction

T T

T

Consider a brick wall, of thickness L=0.3 m which in a cold winter day T

The proportionality constant is a transport property, known as thermal

R is exposed to a constant inside temperature, T1=20C and a constant R conductivity k (units W/m.K)

A outside temperature, T2=-20C. A

T1 T2 T

N

S Under steady-state conditions

N

S

q"x = k =k

F the temperature varies linearly F

L L

E

Wall Area, A as a function of x. E

R

T1=20 qx R For the brick wall, k=0.72 W/m.K (assumed constant), therefore

The rate of conductive heat

C qx= 96 W/m2

transfer in the x-direction

depends on How would this value change if instead of the brick wall we had

a piece of polyurethane insulating foam of the same

T T2= -20C dimensions? (k=0.026 W/m.K)

C C

H qx is the heat flux (units W/m2 or (J/s)/m2), which is the heat transfer H

A rate in the x-direction per unit area perpendicular to the direction of A

x

L=0.3 m P P

T1 T2 T transfer. T

q"x E The heat rate, qx (units W=J/s) through a plane wall of area A is the E

L R

product of the flux and the area: qx= qx. A

R

H H

E

A Conduction E

A Convection

T T

T T

R

In the general case the rate of heat transfer in the x-direction is R

A expressed in terms of the Fourier law: A

N N

S S

F dT T1(high) F

E q"x = k qx E

R dx R

high to low T

For a linear profile x1 x2 C C

x H H

dT (T2 T1 ) A A

= <0 P P

dx ( x2 x1 ) T T

E E

R R

9

H H

E E

A

T

Convection A

T

T T

R R

A A

N N

S S

F F

E E

R R

Convection

C C

H at H

A A

P

T

Home P

T

E E

R R

H H

E

A

E

A Convection

T T

T T

R R

Energy transfer by random molecular motion (as in conduction)

A A plus bulk (macroscopic) motion of the fluid.

N N Convection: transport by random motion of molecules and by bulk motion

S S of fluid.

F F

E E Advection: transport due solely to bulk fluid motion.

R R

Forced convection: Caused by external means

Natural (free) convection: flow induced by buoyancy forces, arising

from density differences arising from temperature variations in the fluid

C C

H The above cases involve sensible heat (internal energy) of the fluid H

A A

P Latent heat exchange is associated with phase changes boiling and P

T condensation. T

E E

R R

10

H Convection H

E E Convection

A A

T T T Convection is what happens when the motion of a heat

conducting fluid increases the rate of heat transfer.

T T

R R

A Ts A

N N

S The convection heat transfer mode is comprised two S In other words, the

F F

E mechanisms: E convective air currents

R R increase the rate of

1. Energy transfer due to random molecular motion (diffusion) heat transfer by

improving the

2. Energy transfer due to bulk (or macroscopic) motion of the conduction at the

fluid (called advection) C surface. C

H H

A A

If both transport of energy is present, the term CONVECTION P P

T T

is generally used. E E

If transport of energy due only to bulk motion of the fluid, the R R

term ADVECTION is used.

Mazlan 2013 1 Mazlan 2013 1

H H

E E Convection

A A

T T

Convection heat transfer normally takes place in a moving We are interested mainly in cases where there is heat

T T transfer between a fluid in motion and a bounding

R

liquid or gas R

A A surface.

N N

S Conduction still takes place S a. Velocity boundary layer

F F

E E b. Thermal boundary layer

R R

Usually interested in cooling or heating of a solid object by

a fluid stream e.g. pipes in a boiler, cooling fin on an

engine

There are two types of convection:

C C

Exact mathematical analysis usually impossible usually H Forced convection - flow caused by externalH

A A

rely on empirical correlations P means P

T T

E E

R Free convection - caused by buoyancy R

forces

Mazlan 2013 1 Mazlan 2013 1

11

H H

E E

A

T Newtons Law of Cooling: A

T

Convection

T

R . T

R

A

N Qconv = hAs (Ts T ) A

N

S

F

E

.Q is the convective heat transfer rate (W), and is S

F

E

R R

proportional to the difference between surface and

fluid temps.

C C

h (W/m2 K) is convective heat transfer coefficient H H

A A

- depends on conditions in boundary layer, surface P P

geometry, nature of fluid motion, and fluid thermo T T

E E

and transport properties. R R

H H

E

A Convection E

A Convection

T T

T T

R

Air at 20C blows over a hot plate, which is mainta ined at a R

The proportionality constant is the convection heat transfer coefficient,

A temperature Ts=300C and has dimensions 20x40 cm. A h (W/m2.K)

N N

S T = 20o C S

q"x = h(TS T ) Newtons law of Cooling

F F

E Air E

R R For air h=25 W/m2.K, therefore the heat flux is qx= 7,000 W/m2

q How would this value change if instead of blowing air we had still air (h=5

W/m2.K) or flowing water (h=50 W/m2.K)

TS = 300o C

The heat rate, is qx= qx. A = qx. (0.2 x 0.4) = 560 W.

The heat transfer coefficient depends on surface geometry, nature of

C the fluid motion, as well as fluid properties. For typical ranges of

C

The convective heat flux is proportional to H H

A values, see Table 1.1 textbook. A

P In this solution we assumed that heat flux is positive when heat is P

T T

transferred from the surface to the fluid

q"x TS T E E

R R

12

H H

E E

A

T

RADIATION A

T

T T

R R

A Radiation is energy emitted by matter that A

N N

S is at a finite temperature. S

F F

E E

R

The emission is due to changes in R

atoms or molecules.

Transported by electromagnetic radiation. C C

H H

A A

Does not require a material medium, P P

T T

occurs most efficiently in vacuum. E E

R R

H H

E E

A A

T T

T T

R R

A A

N N

S S

F F

E E

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

13

H H

E E

A A Heat flux emitted by a real object (less than that of a

T Ideal Radiator T

blackbody)

T T ..

R

A

Stefan-Boltzmann Law for Blackbody (Ideal Radiator):

.

R

A Qrad AT4s s or

N N

S

F Qrad = Ideal radiator

S

F : emissivity, a radiative property of surface, how

E E

efficient

R

A or Blackbody R

Maximum flux at which radiation may be emitted from a surface, 0 1

where,

C Determination of the net rate at which radiation is C

H H

Ts is the absolute temp (K) of the surface A exchanged between surfaces is complicated A

P P

T Most often, we only need to know the net exchange T

is the Stefan Boltzmann constant (5.67 x 10 W/m K )ER

-8 2 4 between a small surface and the surroundings. E

R

H H

E E

A

T

Small surface and large surroundings A

T

.

Previous equation can also be written in the following form,

T

R

The net rate of radiation heat exchange between a small surface and T

R

Q = hrA(Ts Tsur)

A a large surroundings per a unit area of the small surface A

N N

S S Where hr is the radiation heat transfer

F T su r A su r F

E E coefficient

R A R

hr= (T

s + Tsur) (Ts2 + Tsur2)

. Ts

Qradq = A(TS 4 TSUR 4 ) C where we have linearized the equation shown earlier. C

: emissivity

H H

0 1

Maximum = 1.00, black charcoal surface,

A A

Minimum = 0.01, shiny gold surface

P P

: Stefan-Boltzmann constant, 5.67 x 10-8 W/m2K4

T T

E E

R R

14

H H

E E

A A

T T

T T

Greenhouse

R R

A

N Greenhouse

A

N

Effect

S S

F

E

Effect F

E

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E

A

E

A Radiation

T T

T T

R R

Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter

A A Energy is transported by electromagnetic waves (or photons).

N N

S S

Can occur from solid surfaces, liquids and gases.

F F Dos not require presence of a medium

E E

R R Surroundings at Tsur

Emissive power E is the

radiation emitted by the

surface

"

qincident = G qemitted

"

=E Irradiation G is the rate of

C incident radiation per unit C

H H

A

area of the surface, A

P originating from its P

T surroundings T

E E

R Surface at Ts R

15

H H

E

A Radiation E

A Radiation

T T

For an ideal radiator, or blackbody:

T

. T

The net radiation heat transfer from the surface, per unit area is

qemitted = Eb = Ts4

R R

A Stefan-Boltzmann law A

N N qrad = (Ts4 Tsur

4

)

S where Ts is the absolute temperature of the surface (K) and is the Stefan- S

F Boltzmann constant, ( = 5.67x10-8 W/m2.K4) F

E E

The net radiation heat exchange can be also expressed in the form:

R For a real surface: R

. qrad = hr A(Ts Tsur ) where hr = (Ts + Tsur )(Ts2 + Tsur

2

)

qemitted = E = Ts4 is the emissivity 0 1

The irradiation G, originating from the surroundings is:

C C

q

. = G = T 4

is the absorptivity 0 a 1

H

A

H

A

incident sur

For a grey surface, = P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E

A Example E

A Example

T T

T T

R

Satellites and spacecrafts are exposed to extremely high radiant R

On a hot summer day you place a black, metal disk on the ground.

A energy from the sun. Propose a method to dissipate the heat, so that A Assuming that the bottom surface of the disk is insulated by the

N the surface temperature of a spacecraft in orbit can be maintained to N ground, calculate the temperature of the plate when the heat absorbed

S 300 K. S equals the heat lost.

F F

E E

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

16

H H

E

A Quiz: Heat Transfer Processes E

A Quiz: Heat Transfer Processes

T T

T T Identify the heat transfer processes that occur on your forearm, when

R Identify the heat transfer processes that determine the temperature of R you are wearing a short-sleeved shirt, while you are sitting in a room.

A an asphalt pavement on a summer day A Suppose you maintain the thermostat of your home at 15C

N N

S S throughout the winter months. You are able to tolerate this if the

F F outside air temperature exceedes 10C, but feel co ld if the

E E temperature becomes lower. Are you imagining things?

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E

A Conservation of Energy E

A Steady-Flow Energy Equation

T T

T Surroundings, S T For an open system mass flow provides for the transport of internal,

R R

A A

kinetic and potential energy into and out of the system

-Accumulation The work term is devided in two contributions: Flow work, associated

N N

S

Control Volume (Storage) E& st S to pressure forces (=p, where is the specific volume) and work

(CV) Addition Loss

F -Generation E& g

F done by the system.

E through inlet through outlet E

Boundary,

R B

E& in E& out

R V2 V2

(Control Surface, CS) m& i u + p + +g z m& out u + p + +g z +

2 i 2 out

dE

Energy conservation on a rate basis: E& in + E& g E& out = st = E& st + q W& = 0

dt C C

Units W=J/s

H H

A Recall: m& = VAc Mass flow rate (kg/s) A

Inflow and outflow are surface phenomena P P

Generation and accumulation are volumetric phenomena

T

E

& = VA = m&

Volumetric flow rate (m3/s)

T

E

c

R R

17

H H

E

A Example E

A Surface Energy Balance

T T

In an orbiting space station, an electronic package is housed in a

T T

R

compartment having a surface area As=1 m2, which is exposed to space. R

For a control surface:

A Under normal operating conditions, the electronics dissipate 1kW, all of A

N which must be transferred from the exposed surface to space. N

S S qrad

F

(a) If the surface emissivity is 1.0 and the surface is not exposed to the F

sun, what is its steady-state temperature? qcond

E E

R R T1 E& in E& out = 0

(b) If the surface is exposed to a solar flux of 750 W/m2 and its absorptivity

to solar radiation is 0.25, what is its steady-state temperature? or

qconv

"

qcond qconv

"

q"rad = 0

C T2 C

H T H

A A

P T P

T T

E x E

R R

H H

E

Example E Conservation of energy

A A

T T

T

The roof of a car in a parking lot absorbs a solar radiant flux of 800 T

R W/m2, while the underside is perfectly insulated. The convection R

A coefficient between the rool and the ambient air is 12 W/m2.K. A

N N

S

a) Neglecting radiation exchange with the surroundings, calculate the S

F temperature of the roof under steady-state conditions, if the ambient F

E air temperature is 20C. E

R R

b) For the same ambient air temperature, calculate the temperature of

the roof it its surface emissivity is 0.8

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

18

H H

E E The surface energy balance

A A

T T

Ein

T T

R R

A A

N N

S S

F F

E E

R R

= dEst/dt =

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

H H

E E Analysis of h.t problem Mesti buat seperti ini !!!

A A

T T

T

R

Surface energy balance T

R

A A

N N

S S

F F

E E

R R

C C

H H

A A

P P

T T

E E

R R

19

H

E

A

T

T

R

A

.

Q

N

S

F

E

.

Q

R

IMPORTANT !!!

C

.

Q

H

A

P

T

E

R

Mazlan 2013 1

20

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