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24)

Arithmetic in GF(2)

Group

A set G on which a binary operation * is defined is called a Group if:

1. * is associative

(identity)

Rings

A set of elements R on which two binary operations, called addition +

and multiplication . are defined satisfying the following conditions:

2. Multiplication is associative

Fields

A set of elements F forming a ring satisfying the following condition:

P

shuch that i=1 1 = 0

1

Table 1: Module-2 Addition

+ 0 1

0 0 1

1 1 0

. 0 1

0 0 0

1 0 1

i) Being a a non zero element in GF(q), then aq1 = 1

ii) Let n be the order of a, then n divides q 1

Fundamental Definition

In a field GF(q), a nonzero element a is said to be primitive if the order

of a is q 1.

Fundamental Property

Every finite field has a primitive element. The powers of a primitive

element generate all the nonzero elements of GF(q).

Vector Spaces

Let V be a set of elements on which a binary operation + is defined.

Let F be a field. A multiplication operation . between F an V is also

defined. The set V is called a vector space if:

V

4. (a.b)v = a.(b.v)

5. 1.v = v

2

Linear Codes

Linear block codes are a vector space on GF(2)

Block codes in systematic form

c = b0 b1 bnk1 m0 m1 mk1

| {z }| {z }

Parity bits Message bits

= (b m) (1)

b = mP

c = m (P Ik )

= mG (2)

Closure

ci + cj = mi G + m j G

= (mi + mj ) G (3)

H = (Ink P T )

!

Ink

HT =

P

!

T

T

PT

HG = Ink P

Ik

= PT + PT

= 0 (4)

c HT = m G H T

= 0 (5)

Syndrome

r=c+e

s = r HT

3

Property 1

s = e HT

Property 2

All error patterns that differ by a code have the same syndrome

ei = e + c i

e i HT = e H T

Hamming distance

Hamming weight

Hamming minimum distance dmin , the smallest Hamming distance be-

tween pairs.

est Hamming weight of the nonzero code vec-

tors Why?

2. The minimum distance is related to the number

of linearly independendent column vectors of H

Why (Hint: see (5))?

dmin can detect error patterns of weight dmin 1

or less

4. A linear block code {n, k} can correct pattern

errors of weight t or less iif t 21 (dmin 1) Why?

Remember jointly typical sequences decoding.

Syndrome decoding:

The set of 2n possible outcomes is partitioned in 2k disjoint subsets D1 , D2 , , D2k .

Each Di is built by adding each error pattern of weight t or less to the cod-

word ci .

In the same way, cosets are defined by adding each codeword ci to the

error pattern ei corresponding to one of the 2nk syndromes. The error

pattern correspondig to each coset is called coset leader.

4

Decoding procedure: Given a received syndrome, identify the coset, then

choose the coset leader e0 . The estimated codewrod is r + e0 .

References

[1] Simon Haykin. Communications Systems. John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2001.

[2] Shu Lin and Daniel J. Costello Jr. Error Control Coding: Fundamentals

and Applications. Prentice-Hall, 1983.

neira Moreira and Patrick Guy Farrel. Essentials of Error-

Control Coding. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2006.

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