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CHAPTER SEVEN

. 10 4 kJ 0.30 kJ work
0.80 L 35 1h 1 kW
7.1 = 2.33 kW 2.3 kW
h L 1 kJ heat 3600 s 1 k J s
2.33 kW 10 3 W 1.341 10 3 hp
= 312
. hp 3.1 hp
1 kW 1W

7.2 All kinetic energy dissipated by friction

mu 2
(a) E k =
2
5500 lbm 552 miles 2 52802 ft 2 12 h 2 1 lbf 9.486 10 4 Btu
=
2 h2 12 mile 2 36002 s 2 32.174 lbm ft / s2 0.7376 ft lb f
= 715 Btu

(b)
3 108 brakings 715 Btu 1 day 1h 1W 1 MW
4 = 2617 MW
day braking 24 h 3600 s 9.486 10 Btu/s 106 W
3000 MW

7.3 (a) Emissions:


1000 sacks (0.0510 + 0.0516) oz 1 lb m
Paper = 6.41 lb m
sack 16 oz
2000 sacks ( 0.0045 + 0.0146) oz 1 lb m
Plastic = 2.39 lb m
sack 16 oz
Energy:
1000 sacks (724 + 905) Btu
Paper = 163
. 10 6 Btu
sack
2000 sacks (185 + 464) Btu
Plastic = 1.30 10 6 Btu
sack
(b) For paper (double for plastic)

Raw Materials Sack 1000 sacks 400 sacks


Acquisition and Production and Disposal
Materials Production Use
for 400 sacks

7- 1
7.3 (contd)

Emissions:
400 sacks 0.0510 oz 1 lb m 1000 sacks 0.0516 oz 1 lb m
Paper + = 4.5 lb m
sack 16 oz sack 16 oz
30% reduction

800 sacks 0.0045 oz 1 lb m 2000 sacks 0.0146 oz 1 lb m


Plastic + = 2.05 lb m
sack 16 oz sack 16 oz
14% reduction
Energy:
400 sacks 724 Btu 1000 sacks 905 Btu
Paper + = 119
. 10 6 Btu; 27% reduction
sack sack
800 sacks 185 Btu 2000 sacks 464 Btu
Plastic + = 1.08 10 6 Btu; 17% reduction
sack sack

3 10 8 persons 1 sack 1 day 1h 649 Btu 1J 1 MW


(c) .
person - day 24 h 3600 s 1 sack 9.486 10 -4
Btu 10 6 J / s
= 2,375 MW
Savings for recycling: 017
. (2,375 MW) = 404 MW

(d) Cost, toxicity, biodegradability, depletion of nonrenewable resources.

3.00 gal 1 ft 3 (0.792)(62.43) lb m 1 min


7.4 (a) Mass flow rate: m = 3
= 0.330 lb m s
min 7.4805 gal 1 ft 60 s
3.00 gal 1728 in 3 1 1 ft 1 min
Stream velocity: u = = 1225
min 7.4805 gal 0.5 b g 2
in 2
12 in 60 s
. ft s

Kinetic energy: E k =
mu 2 0.330 lb m
=
b1225
. g ft
2 2
1 1 lb f
= 7.70 103
ft lb f
2 s s 2
2 32.174 lb m ft / s2 s

iFGH 01341
. 10 hp I 3
d
= 7.70 103 ft lb f / s
.7376 ft lb / sJK
= 140
. 10
f
5
hp

(b) Heat losses in electrical circuits, friction in pump bearings.

7- 2
7.5 (a) Mass flow rate:

m =
42.0 m 0.07 m b g 2
10 3 L 273 K 130 kPa 1 mol 29 g
= 127.9 g s
s 4 1m 3
573 K 101.3 kPa 22.4 L STP b g mol

 2 127.9 g 1 kg
mu 42.0 2 m2 1N 1J
E k = = = 113 J s
2 2 s 1000 g s 2
1 kg m / s2 Nm
(b)
127.9 g 1 mol 673 K 101.3 kPa 22.4 L ( STP ) 1 m3 4
= 49.32 m s
s 29 g 273 K 130 kPa 1 mol 103 L (0.07)2 m2
 2 127.9 g 1 kg
mu 49.32 2 m2 1N 1J
E k = = = 1558
. J/s
2 2 s 1000 g s 2
1 kg m / s N m
2

E k = E k (400 D C) - E k (300 D C) = (155.8 - 113) J / s = 42.8 J / s 43 J / s

(c) Some of the heat added goes to raise T (and hence U) of the air

7.6 (a) 1 gal 1 ft 3 . ft 10 ft


62.43 lb m 32174 1 lbf
E p = mgz = = 834
. ft lb f
7.4805 gal 1 ft 3
s2 32.174 lbm ft / s2
mu 2
b g b g 12 LM FG ft IJ b gOP 12
ft
(b) E k = E p
2
= mg z u = 2 g z
NH
= 2 32.174
s2 K Q
10 ft = 25.4
s
(c) False

7.7 (a) E k positive When the pressure decreases, the volumetric flow rate increases, and
hence the velocity increases.
E negative The gas exits at a level below the entrance level.
p

(b) m =
b g
5 m 1.5 cm 2
2
1 m3 273 K 10 bars 1 kmol 16.0 kg CH 4
s 10 4 cm 2 303 K 1.01325 bars 22.4 m 3 STP b g 1 kmol
= 0.0225 kg s

PoutVout nRT
 V P u (m/s) A(m2) P
= out = in out = in

PinVin 
nRT 
Vin Pout uin (m/s) A(m ) Pout
2

Pin 10 bar
uout = uin = 5( m s) = 5.555 m s
Pout 9 bar
1 0.5(0.0225) kg (5.5552 5.0002 )m 2 1N 1W
E k = m (uout
2
uin2 ) =
2 s s 2
1 kg m/s 1 N m/s
2

= 0.0659 W
0.0225 kg 9.8066 m -200 m 1N 1W
E p = mg
 ( zout zin ) =
s s kg m/s 1 N m/s
2

= 44.1 W

7- 3
7.8 . m 75 m
105 m3 103 L 1 kg H2O 981 1N 1 J 2.778 107 kW h
E p = mg
 z =
h 1 m3 1L s2 1 kg m/ s2 1 N m 1J
= 204
. 104 kW h h
The maximum energy to be gained equals the potential energy lost by the water, or
2.04 10 4 kW h 24 h 7 days
= 3.43 10 6 kW h week (more than sufficient)
h 1 day 1 week

7.9 (b) Q W = U + E k + E p
b
E k = 0 system is stationary g
E p = 0 b no height changeg
Q W = U , Q < 0, W > 0

(c) Q W = U + E k + E p
b g b
Q = 0 adiabatic , W = 0 no moving parts or generated currents g
b
E k = 0 system is stationary g
b
E p = 0 no height change g
U = 0

(d). Q W = U + E k + E p
b
W = 0 no moving parts or generated currents g
b
E k = 0 system is stationary g
b
E p = 0 no height change g
Q = U , Q < 0 Even though the system is isothermal, the occurrence of a chemical
reaction assures that U 0 in a non-adiabatic reactor. If the
temperature went up in the adiabatic reactor, heat must be transferred
from the system to keep T constant, hence Q < 0 .

7.10 4.00 L, 30 C, 5.00 bar V (L), T (C), 8.00 bar

(a). Closed system: U + E k + E p = Q W


RSE k b
= 0 initial / final states stationary g
|TE p b
= 0 by assumption g
U = Q W

(b) 7.65 L bar 8.314 J transferred from


Constant T U = 0 Q = W = = 765 J gas to
0.08314 L bar
surroundings

(c) Adiabatic Q = 0 U = W = 7.65 L bar > 0, Tfinal > 30 C

7- 4
7.11 A=
bg
3
2
cm 2
1 m2
= 2.83 10 3 m 2
10 4 cm 2
(a) Downward force on piston:
Fd = Patm A + mpiston+weight g
1 atm 1.01325 105 N / m2 2.83 10 3 m2 24.50 kg 9.81 m 1N
= + = 527 N
atm s 2
1 kg m / s2

d
Upward force on piston: Fu = APgas = 2.83 10 3 m 2 Pg N m 2 i d i
Equilibrium condition:
Fu = Fd 2.83 10 3 m2 P0 = 527 P0 = 186
. 10 5 N m 2 = 186
. 10 5 Pa

nRT 1.40 g N 2 1 mol N 2 303 K 1.01325 105 Pa 0.08206 L atm


V0 = = = 0.677 L
P0 28.02 g 1.86 105 Pa 1 atm mol K

(b) For any step, U + E k + E p = Q W U = Q W


E k = 0
E p = 0

Step 1: Q 0 U = W

Step 2: U = Q W As the gas temperature changes, the pressure remains constant, so


that V = nRT Pg must vary. This implies that the piston moves, so that W is not zero.

Overall: Tinitial = Tfinal U = 0 Q W = 0


In step 1, the gas expands W > 0 U < 0 T decreases

(c) Downward force Fd = 100


. b gd
101325
. id i b gb gb g
10 5 2.83 10 3 + 4.50 9.81 1 = 331 N (units
as in Part (a))
F 331 N
Final gas pressure Pf = = 3
= 116
. 10 5 N m 2
A 2.83 10 m 2

. 10 5 Pa
P
Since T0 = T f = 30 C , Pf V f = P0V0 V f = V0 0 = 0.677 L
Pf
186
b
. 10 5 Pa
116
g
= 1.08 L

Distance traversed by piston = =


b
V 1.08 0.677 L g 1 m3
= 0142
. m
A 103 L 2.83 10 3 m2
b
W = Fd = 331 N 0142
. gb g
m = 47 N m = 47 J
Since work is done by the gas on its surroundings, W = +47 J Q = +47 J
Q W = 0
(heat transferred to gas)

32.00 g 4.684 cm3 103 L


7.12 V = = 01499
. L mol
mol g 106 cm3
41.64 atm 0.1499 L 8.314 J / (mol K)
H = U + PV = 1706 J mol + = 2338 J mol
mol 0.08206 L atm / (mol K)

7- 5
7.13 (a) d i
Ref state U = 0 liquid Bromine @ 300 K, 0.310 bar

(b) U = U final U initial = 0.000 28.24 = 28.24 kJ mol

d i
H = U + PV = U + PV (Pressure Constant)
0.310 bar ( 0.0516 79.94) L 8.314 J 1 kJ
H = 28.24 kJ mol + = 30.7 kJ mol
mol 0.08314 L bar 103 J
b gb
H = n H = 5.00 mol 30.7 kJ / mol = 15358 g
. kJ 154 kJ

b g b
(c) U independent of P U 300 K, 0.205 bar = U 300 K, 0.310 bar = 28.24 kJ mol g
d i b
U 340 K, Pf = U 340 K, 1.33 bar = 29.62 kJ mol g
U = U final U initial
E
U = 29.62 28.24 = 1380
. kJ mol

V changes with pressure. At constant temperature PV = P' V'


 V'
 = PV / P'

 (T = 300K, P = 0.205 bar) = (0.310 bar)(79.94 L / mol) = 120.88 L / mol


V'
0.205 bar
5.00 L 1 mol
n= = 0.0414 mol
120.88 L
b
U = nU = 0.0414 mol 138 gb
. kJ / mol = 0.0571 kJ g
U + E k + E p = Q W Q = 0.0571 kJ
0 0 0

(d) Some heat is lost to the surroundings; the energy needed to heat the wall of the container is
being neglected; internal energy is not completely independent of pressure.

7.14 (a) By definition H = U + PV ; ideal gas PV = RT H = U + RT

b g bg b g bg bg
U T , P = U T H T , P = U T + RT = H T independent of P

cal 1987
. cal 50 K
(b) H = U + RT = 3500 + = 3599 cal mol
mol mol K
b gb g
H = n H = 2.5 mol 3599 cal / mol = 8998 cal 9.0 10 3 cal

7.15 U + E k + E p = Q Ws
b
E k = 0 no change in m and u g
b
E p = 0 no elevation change g
b
Ws = PV since energy is transferred from the system to the surroundings g
U = Q W U = Q PV Q = U + PV = (U + PV ) = H

7- 6
b
7.16. (a) E k = 0 u1 = u2 = 0 g
b
E p = 0 no elevation change g
P = 0 (the pressure is constant since restraining force is constant, and area is constrant)
b
Ws = PV the only work done is expansion work g
. H = 34980 + 355
. T (J / mol), V1 = 785 cm3, T1 = 400 K, P = 125 kPa, Q = 83.8 J
PV 125 103 Pa 785 cm3 1 m3
n= = = 0.0295 mol
RT 8.314 m3 Pa / mol K 400 K 106 cm3
 -H
Q = H = n(H  ) = 0.0295 mol 34980 + 35.5T - 34980 - 35.5(400K) (J / mol)
2 1 2

83.8 J = 0.0295 35.5T2 - 35.5(400) T2 = 480 K

nRT 0.0295 mol 8.314 m3 Pa 106 cm3 480 K


i) V = = = 941 cm3
P 125 105 Pa mol K 1 m3
125 105 N (941 - 785)cm3 1 m3
ii ) W = PV = = 19.5 J
m2 106 cm3
iii ) Q = U + PV U = Q PV = 838 . J 19.5 J = 64.3 J

(b) Ep = 0

7.17 (a) "The gas temperature remains constant while the circuit is open." (If heat losses could
occur, the temperature would drop during these periods.)
(b) U + E p + E R = Q t W t
E p = 0, E k = 0, W = 0, U ( t = 0) = 0
0.90 1.4 W 1 J s
Q = = 1.26 J s
1W
U (J ) = 126
. t
1 atm 2.10 L 1 mol K
Moles in tank: n = PV RT = = 0.0859 mol
b 25 + 273 K g 0.08206 L atm
U 126
. t (J)
U = = = 14.67t
n 0.0859 mol
Thermocouple calibration: T = aE + b
T = 0 , E =0.249
b g
T C = 181 b g
. E mV + 4.51
T =100 , E = 5.27

U = 14.67t 0 440 880 1320


T = 181. E + 4.51 25 45 65 85
(c) To keep the temperature uniform throughout the chamber.
(d) Power losses in electrical lines, heat absorbed by chamber walls.
(e) In a closed container, the pressure will increase with increasing temperature. However, at
the low pressures of the experiment, the gas is probably close to ideal U = f T only. bg
Ideality could be tested by repeating experiment at several initial pressures same
results.

7- 7
7.18 (b) H + E k + E p = Q W s (The system is the liquid stream.)
c
E k = 0 no change in m and u h
c
E p = 0 no elevation change h
c
Ws = 0 no moving parts or generated currents h
H = Q , Q > 0

(c) H + E k + E p = Q W s (The system is the water)


c
H = 0 T and P ~ constant h
c
E k = 0 no change in m and u h
c
Q = 0 no T between system and surroundings h
E p = W s , W s > 0 for water system b g
(d) H + E k + E p = Q W s (The system is the oil)
c
E k =0 no velocity change h
H + E p = Q W s Q < 0 (friction loss); W s < 0 (pump work).

(e) H + E k + E p = Q W s (The system is the reaction mixture)


E k = E p = 0 given c h
c
Ws = 0 no moving parts or generated current h
H = Q , Q pos. or neg. depends on reaction

1.25 m3 273 K 122 kPa 1 mol 103 L


= 43.4 mol min
7.19 (a) molar flow:
min 423 K 101.3 kPa 22.4 L STP b g 1 m3

H + E k + E p = Q W s
E k = E p = 0 given c h
c
Ws = 0 no moving parts h
43.37 mol 1 min 3640 J kW
Q = H = n H = = 2.63 kW
min 60s mol 10 3 J / s
(b) More information would be needed. The change in kinetic energy would depend on the
cross-sectional area of the inlet and outlet pipes, hence the internal diameter of the inlet
and outlet pipes would be needed to answer this question.

7- 8
7.20 (a) H = 1.04 T C 25b g H in kJ kg
H out = 104
P=
. 34.0 25 = 9.36 kJ kg
11
H = 1.04 30.0 25 = 5.20 kJ kg
in
n 0
(m kP 34
H = 9.36 5.20 = 4.16 kJ kg ol/ a o
C
H + E + E = Q W s)
k p s
N2 Q
E k = E p = 0 assumedc h 30 =1
c
Ws = 0 no moving parts h o
C .25
Q = H = n H
k
W
Q 1.25 kW kg 1 kJ / s 103 g 1 mol
n = = = 10.7 mol s
H 4.16 kJ kW 1 kg 28.02 g

V =
10.7 mol 22.4 L STP b g 303 K 1013
. kPa
= 2455
. L / s 246 L s
s mol 273 K 110 kPa
(b) Some heat is lost to the surroundings, some heat is needed to heat the coil, enthalpy is
assumed to depend linearly on temperature and to be independent of pressure, errors in
measured temperature and in wattmeter reading.

 
7.21 (a) H = aT + b a = H 2 H1 = 129.8 258 .
= 5.2
U|
T2 T1 50 30 H kJ kg = 5.2T C 130.2 V| b g b g
b = H 1 aT1 = 258
. 5.2 30 = 130.2 b gb g W
130.2
H = 0 Tref = = 25 C
5.2

Table B.1 S . G. b g bg
C 6 H 14 l
= 0.659 V =
1 m3
659 kg
. 10 3 m 3 kg
= 152

b g
U kJ kg = H PV = 5.2T 130.2 kJ / kgb g
1 atm 1.0132 105 N / m2 1.52 10 3 m3 1J 1 kJ

1 atm 1 kg 1 N m 103 J

b g
U kJ kg = 5.2T 130.4

20 kg [(5.2 20 - 130.4) - (5.2 80 - 130.4)] kJ


(b) Energy balance: Q = U = = 6240 kJ
E k , E p , W = 0 1 kg
6240 kJ 1 min
Average rate of heat removal = = 20.8 kW
5 min 60 s

7- 9
7.22 m (kg/s) m (kg/s)
260C, 7 bars 200C, 4 bars
H = 2974 kJ/kg H = 2860 kJ/kg
u0 = 0 u (m/s)

H + E k + E p = Q Ws
E p = Q = W s = 0

 2
E k = H
mu
2
 H out H in
= m d i
d
u 2 = 2 H in H out = i b g
(2) 2974 2860 kJ 103 N m 1 kg m / s2 m2
= 2.28 105 2 u = 477 m / s
kg 1 kJ 1N s

7.23 (a) 5 L/min 5 L/min


0 mm Hg (gauge) 100 mm Hg (gauge)

Qin Qout
Since there is only one inlet stream and one outlet stream, and m in = m out m ,
Eq. (7.4-12) may be written
m
d i
m U + m PV + u 2 + mg
2
 z = Q W s d i
U = 0 (given )
m PV = mV a
  Pout Pin = VP f
u = 0 (assume for incompressible fluid )
2

z = 0
W s = 0 (all energy other than flow work included in heat terms)
Q = Q in Q out
VP = Q in Q out

(b) Flow work: VP =


5 L 100 0 mm Hg b1 atm g
8.314 J
= 66.7 J min
min 760 mm Hg 0.08206 liter atm
5 ml O 2 20.2 J
Heat input: Q in = = 101 J min
min 1 ml O 2
V P 66.7 J min
Efficiency: = 100% = 66%
Q in 101 J min

7- 10
7.24 (a) H + E k + E p = Q W s ; E k , E p , W s = 0 H = Q
b g
H 400 C, 1 atm = 3278 kJ kg (Table B.7)
b g
H 100 C, sat' d 1 atm = 2676 kJ kg (Table B.5)

100 kg H 2 O(v)/s 100 kg H 2 O(v)/s


100o C, saturated 400o C, 1 atm

Q (kW)

Q =
100 kg b3278 2676.0gkJ 10 3 J
= 6.02 10 7 J s
s kg 1 kJ

(b) U + E k + E p = Q W ; E k , E p , W = 0 U = Q

kJ m3
Table B.5 U (100 C, 1 atm ) = 2507 , V (100 C, 1 atm ) = 1.673 = V ( 400 C, Pfinal )
kg kg

Interpolate in Table B.7 to find P at which V =1.673 at 400oC, and then interpolate again
to find U at 400oC and that pressure:
3.11 1.673
V = 1.673 m 3 /g Pfinal = 1.0 + 4.0 = 3.3 bar , U (400 C, 3.3 bar) = 2966 kJ/kg
o

3.11 0.617
Q = U = m U = 100 kg [( 2966 2507 ) kJ kg ] 10 3 J kJ = 4.59 10 7 J ( )
The difference is the net energy needed to move the fluid through the system (flow work).
(The energy change associated with the pressure change in Part (b) is insignificant.)
c bg h
7.25 H H 2 O l , 20 C = 83.9 kJ kg (Table B.5)
b g
H steam , 2 0 bars, sat' d = 2 7 97 .2 k J kg (Table B.6)
m [kg H 2 O(l)/h] m [kg H 2 O(v)/h]
20o C 20 bar (sat'd)

Q =0.65(813 kW) = 528 kW

(a) H + E k + E p = Q W s ; E k , E p , W s = 0 H = Q
H = m H

Q 528 kW kg 1 kJ / s 3600 s
m = = = 701 kg h
H b2797.2 83.9 gkJ 1 kW 1 h

b gd i
(b) V = 701 kg h 0.0995 m 3 kg = 69.7 m 3 h sat' d steam @ 20 bar
A
Table B.6


nRT 701 kg / h 103 g / kg 485.4 K 0.08314 L bar 1 m3
(c) V = = = 78.5 m3 / h
P 18.02 g / mol 20 bar mol K 103 L
The calculation in (b) is more accurate because the steam tables account for the effect of
pressure on specific enthalpy (nonideal gas behavior).
(d) Most energy released goes to raise the temperature of the combustion products, some is
transferred to the boiler tubes and walls, and some is lost to the surroundings.

7- 11
c bg h
7.26 H H 2 O l , 24 C, 10 bar = 100.6 kJ kg (Table B.5 for saturated liquid at 24oC; assume H
independent of P).

b g
H 10 bar, sat' d steam = 2776.2 kJ kg (Table B.6) H = 2776.2 100.6 = 2675.6 kJ kg

 [kg H2O(l)/h]
m  [kg H2O(v)/h]
m
24oC, 10 bar 15,000 m3/h @10 bar (sat'd)
Q (kW)

15000 m 3 kg
m = h 01943
. m 3 = 7.72 10 kg h
4

A
b Table 8.6 g

d
Energy balance E p , W s = 0 : H + E k = Q i
E kinitial 0
E k = E kfinal E kinitial E k = E kfinal

 f
mu 2 7.72 10 4 kg d15,000 m h i 3 2
1 1 h3 1J
5
E k = = 0.15 4 1 kg m 2 / s 2 = 5.96x10 J/s
2 2 2 3 3
h m 2 3600 s
2 A
A = D 2 4
= 5.96 10 5 J / s
7.72 10 4 kg 2675.6 kJ 1h 5.96 10 5 J 1 kJ
Q = m H + E k = +
h kg 3600 s s 10 3 J
= 57973 kJ s = 5.80 10 4 kW

7.27 (a) 228 g/min 228 g/min


25oC T(oC)

Q ( kW) =0
228 g 1 min ( H out H in ) J
Energy balance: Q = H Q W =
E x , E p , Ws =0 min 60 s
b g g

b g
H out J g = 0.263Q W b g
T C b g 25 26.4 27.8 29.0 32.4
 b g
H J g = 0.263Q W b g 0 4.47 9.28 13.4 24.8

(b) H = b T 25 b g Fit to data by least squares (App. A.1)


b= H i i bT 25g bT 25g
i i i
2
= 3.34

b g
H J g = 3.34 T C 25 b g
(c) Q = H =
350 kg 10 3 g 1 min 3.34 40 20 J b g kW s
= 390 kW heat input to liquid
min kg 60 s g 10 3 J
(d) Heat is absorbed by the pipe, lost through the insulation, lost in the electrical leads.

7- 12
7.28
m w [ kg H 2 O(v) / min] m w [ kg H 2 O(l) / min]
3 bar, sat' d Q ( kW) 27 o C
m e [ kg C 2 H 6 / min] m e [ kg C 2 H 6 / min]
16 o C, 2.5 bar 93 o C, 2.5 bar

3 3
(a) C H mass flow: m = 795 m 10 L 2.50 bar 1 K - mol 30.01 g 1 kg
2 6 e
min m 3 289 K 0.08314 L - bar mol 1000 g
= 2.487 103 kg min

H ei = 941 kJ kg , H ef = 1073 kJ kg
Energy Balance on C 2 H 6 : E p , W s = 0, E k 0 Q = H

Q = 2.487 103
kg
1073 941
LMb
kJ
= g OPQ
2.487 103 kJ 1 min
= 5.47 103 kW
min N
kg min 60 s

b g
(b) H s1 3.00 bar, sat' d vapor = 2724.7 kJ kg (Table B.6)
H s2 bliquid, 27 Cg = 1131. kJ kg (Table B.5)
Assume that heat losses to the surroundings are negligible, so that the heat given up by the
condensing steam equals the heat transferred to the ethane 5.47 10 3 kW d i
Energy balance on H 2 O: Q = H = m H s2 H s1 d i
Q 5.47 10 3 kJ kg
m = = = 2.09 kg s steam
H s2 H s1 s b1131. 2724.7gkJ
b gd
Vs = 2.09 kg / s 0.606 m 3 kg = 1.27 m 3 s i
A
Table B.6

Too low. Extra flow would make up for the heat losses to surroundings.

(c) Countercurrent flow Cocurrent (as depicted on the flowchart) would not work, since it
would require heat flow from the ethane to the steam over some portion of the exchanger.
(Observe the two outlet temperatures)

7- 13
7.29
250 kg H2 O(v )/min 250 kg/min Heat 250 kg/min
Turbine
40 bar, 500C 5 bar, T 2 (C), H 2 (kJ/kg) exchanger 5 bar, 500C
H 1 (kJ/kg) H3 (kJ/kg)
W s =1500 kW Q(kW)

b g
H 2 O v , 40 bar, 500 C : H 1 = 3445 kJ kg (Table B.7)
b g
H O v , 5 bar, 500 C : H = 3484 kJ kg (Table B.7)
2 3

(a) Energy balance on turbine: E p = 0, Q = 0, E k 0

d i
H = W s m H 2 H 1 = W s H 2 = H 1 W s m
3445 kJ 1500 kJ min 60 s
= = 3085 kJ kg
kg s 250 kg 1 min

H = 3085 kJ kg and P = 5 bars T = 310 C (Table B.7)

(b) Energy balance on heat exchanger: E p = 0, W s = 0, E k 0

d
 H 3 H 2 =
Q = H = m
250 kg
i b3484 3085gkJ 1 min 1 kW
= 1663 kW
min kg 60 s 1 kJ / s

(c) Overall energy balance: E p = 0, E k 0

d
H = Q W s m s H 3 H 1 = Q W s i
Q = H + W s =
250 kg b3484 3445gkJ 1 min 1 kW 1500 kJ 1 kW
+
min kg 60 s 1 kJ / s s 1 kJ / s
= 1663 kW

b g
(d) H 2 O v , 40 bar, 500 C : V1 = 0.0864 m 3 kg (Table B.7)

H Obv , 5 bar, 310 Cg: V


2 2 = 0.5318 m 3 kg (Table B.7)

250 kg 1 min 0.0864 m 3 1


u1 = = 183
. ms
min 60 s kg 0.5 4 m 2
2

250 kg min 0.5318 m 3 1


u2 = = 113
. ms
min 60 s kg 0.5 4 m 2
2

E k =
m 2
u2 u12 =
250 kg 1 1 min b11.3g b183
2
. g
2
m2 1N 1 kW s
2 min 2 60 s s 2
1 kg m / s 2
10 3 N m
= 0.26 kW << 1500 kW

7- 14
b
7.30 (a) E p , E k , W s = 0 Q = H hA Ts To = 300 kJ h 18 g
. h Ts To = 300
kJ
h
b g
(b) Clothed: h = 8 To = 13.4 C
Ts =34.2
Nude, immersed: h = 64 To = 316
. C (Assuming Ts remains 34.2C)
Ts =34.2
(c) The wind raises the effective heat transfer coefficient. (Stagnant air acts as a thermal
insulator i.e., in the absence of wind, h is low.) For a given To , the skin temperature
must drop to satisfy the energy balance equation: when Ts drops, you feel cold.

7.31 Basis: 1 kg of 30C stream

1 kg H2O(l)@30oC
3 kg H2O(l)@Tf(oC)
2 kg H2O(l)@90oC

(a) T f =
1
3
b 2
g b
30 o C + 90 D C = 70 D C
3
g
b
(b) Internal Energy of feeds: U 30 C, liq. = 125.7 kJ kg g U|V
b
U 90 C, liq. = 376.9 kJ kg g |W
(Table B.5 - neglecting effect of P on H )
Q =W = E p = E k = 0
Energy Balance: Q - W = U + E p + E k U = 0

b g
3U f (1 kg) 125.7 kJ / kg (2 kg) 376.9 kJ / kg = 0 b g
U f = 293.2 kJ kg T f = 70.05 C (Table B.5)
70.05 70.00
Diff. = 100% = 0.07% (Any answer of this magnitude is acceptable).
70.05
7.32 .
m(kg/h) 52.5 m3 H2O(v)/h
. kg H2 O( v)/kg .
0.85 m(kg/h)
0.15 kg H2 O( l)/kg 5 bar, T(oC)
5 bar, saturated, T(oC) .
Q (kW)

P = 5 bars
(a) Table B.6 . C , H L = 6401
T = 1518 . kJ kg , H V = 2747.5 kJ kg

 bar, sat' d) = 0.375 m 3 / kg m 52.5 m3 1 kg


V(5  = = 140 kg h
h 0.375 m3
(b) H 2 O evaporated = 015 b gb
. 140 kg h = 21 kg h g
Energy balance: Q = H =
21 kg b2747.5 6401. gkJ 1h 1 kW
= 12 kW
h kg 3600 s 1 kJ s

7- 15
7.33 (a) P = 5 bar Tsaturation = 1518
Table B.6
. o C . At 75C the discharge is all liquid

(b) Inlet: T=350C, P=40 bar Table B.7


H in = 3095 kJ / kg , Vin = 0.0665 m 3 / kg

Outlet: T=75C, P=5 bar Table B.7


H out = 314.3 kJ / kg , Vout = 1.03 10 -3 m 3 / kg

Vin 200 kg 1 min 0.0665 m / kg


3
uin = = = 5018
. m/s
Ain min 60 s (0.075) 2 / 4 m 2
Vout 200 kg 1 min 0.00103 m 3 / kg
uout = = = 175
. m/s
Aout min 60 s ( 0.05) 2 / 4 m 2
m
Energy balance: Q W s H + E k = m ( H 2 H 1 ) + (u22 u12 )
2
200 kg 1 min (314-3095) kJ 200 kg 1 min (1.752 -50.182 ) m 2
Q Ws = +
min 60 s kg 2 min 60 s s2
= 13, 460 kW ( 13,460 kW transferred from the turbine)

7.34 (a) Assume all heat from stream transferred to oil


Q = 1.00 10 kJ 1 min = 167 kJ s
4

min 60 s
100 kg oil/min 100 kg oil/min
135C 185C
m (kg H2O(v)/s) m (kg H2O(l)/s)
25 bars, sat'd 25 bars, sat'd
Energy balance on H 2 O: Q = H = m H out H in d i
E p , E k , W s = 0
H (l , 25 bar, sat' d ) = 962.0 kJ kg , H (v , 25 bar, sat' d ) = 2800.9 kJ kg (Table B.6)
Q 167 kJ kg
m =
H out H in
=
s b962.0 2800.9gkJ = 0.091 kg s
1200 g 1s 1 kg
Time between discharges: = 13 s discharge
discharge 0.091 kg 10 3 g

(b) Unit Cost of Steam:


$1
6
b2800.9 83.9g kJ 0.9486 Btu
= $2.6 10 3 / kg
10 Btu kg kJ
Yearly cost:
1000 traps 0.091 kg stream 0.10 kg last 2.6 10 3$ 3600 s 24 h 360 day
trap s kg stream kg lost h day year
= $7.4 10 5 / year

7-16
7.35 Basis: Given feed rate

200 kg H2O(v)/h
10 bar, satd, H = 2776.2 kJ / kg n 3 [ kg H 2 O(v) / h]
10 bar, 250oC, H = 2943 kJ / kg
n 2 [ kg H 2 O(v) / h]
10 bar, 300 o C, H = 3052 kJ / kg

Q(kJ / h)

H from Table B.6 (saturated steam) or Table B.7 (superheated steam)


Mass balance: 200 + n 2 = n 3 (1)

b g b g b
Energy balance: Q = H = n 3 2943 200 2776.2 n 2 3052 , Q in kJ h
E K , E p , W = 0
g (2)

(1) ( 2)
(a) n 3 = 300 kg h n 2 = 100 kg h Q = 2.25 10 4 kJ h
(1), (2)
(b) Q = 0 n 2 = 306 kg h , n 3 = 506 kg h

7.36 (a) Tsaturation @ 1.0 bar = 99.6 C T f = 99.6 D C


H 2 O (1.0 bar, sat' d) H l = 417.5 kJ / kg, H v = 2675.4 kJ / kg
H 2 O (60 bar, 250 D C) = 1085.8 kJ / kg
Mass balance: mv + ml = 100 kg (1)
Energy balance: H = 0
E K , Q , E p , W = 0

mv H v + ml H l m1 H 1 = mv H v + ml H l (100 kg)(1085.8 kJ / kg) = 0 (2)

(1,2) 29.6 kg vapor kg vapor


ml = 70.4 kg, mv = 29.6 kg y v = = 0.296
100 kg kg

(b) T is unchanged. The temperature will still be the saturation temperature at the given final
pressure. The system undergoes expansion, so assuming the same pipe diameter, E k > 0.
yv would be less (less water evaporates) because some of the energy that would have
vaporized water instead is converted to kinetic energy.

(c) Pf = 39.8 bar (pressure at which the water is still liquid, but has the same enthalpy as the feed)

(d) Since enthalpy does not change, then when Pf 39.8 bar the temperature cannot increase,
because a higher temperature would increase the enthalpy. Also, when Pf 39.8 bar , the product
is only liquid no evaporation occurs.

7-17
7.36 (contd)
0.4 300
250
0.3
200

Tf (C)
0.2 150

y
100
0.1
50
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 36 39.8 60
Pf (bar) Pf (bar)

7.37 10 m3, n moles of steam(v), 275C, 15 bar 10 m3, n moles of water (v+l), 1.2 bar

10.0 m3 H2O (v) 10.0 m3


min (kg) mv [kg H2O (v)]
275oC, 1.5
, 15bar
bar ml [kg H2O (l)]
Q
1.2 bar, saturated

Table B.6
(a) P=1.2 bar, saturated, T2 = 104.8 D C

10 m 3 1 kg
(b) Total mass of water: min = = 55 kg
0.1818 m 3
Mass Balance: mv + ml = 55.0
Volume additivity: Vv + Vl = 10.0 m 3 = mv (1428
. m 3 / kg) + ml (0.001048 m 3 / kg)
mv = 7.0 kg, ml = 48.0 kg condensed

(c) Table B.7 U in = 2739.2 kJ / kg; Vin = 0.1818 m 3 / kg


 R| 
S| 3
Table B.6 U l = 439.2 kJ / kg; Vl = 0.001048 m / kg
T
U v = 2512.1 kJ / kg; Vv = 1.428 m 3 / kg

Energy balance: Q = U = mv U v + ml U l minU in


E p , E k , W = 0

= [(7.0)(2512.1 kJ / kg) + (48.0)( 439.2) - 55 kg (2739.2)] kJ


= 1.12 10 5 kJ

7.38 (a) Assume both liquid and vapor are present in the valve effluent.

1 kg H 2 O(v ) / s
15 bar, Tsat + 150o C m l [ kg H 2 O(l ) / s]
m v [ kg H 2 O( v ) / s]
1.0 bar, saturated

(b) Table B.6 Tsat'n (15 bar) = 198.3o C Tin = 348.3o C


Table B.7 H in = H (348.3D C, 15 bar) 3149 kJ / kg
Table B.6 H l (1.0 bar, sat' d) = 417.5 kJ / kg; H v (1.0 bar, sat' d) = 2675.4 kJ / kg

7-18
7.38 (contd)
Energy balance: H = 0 m l H l + m v H v m in H in = 0
E p , E k ,Q , Ws = 0
m v + m l
m in H in = m l H l + m v H v 3149 kJ / kg = m l ( 417.5) + (1 m l )( 2675.4)

There is no value of m l between 0 and 1 that would satisfy this equation. (For any value
in this range, the right-hand side would be between 417.5 and 2675.4). The two-phase
assumption is therefore incorrect; the effluent must be pure vapor.
m in = m out = 1
(c) Energy balance m out H out = m in H in 3149 kJ / kg = H (1 bar, Tout )
Table B.7
Tout 337 D C

(This answer is only approximate, since E k is not zero in this process).

7.39 Basis: 40 lb m min circulation

(a) Expansion valve


R = Refrigerant 12
40 lbm R(l)/min 40 lb m / min
93.3 psig, 86F x v lb m R ( v ) / lb m
H = 27.8 Btu/lbm (1 x v ) lb m R( l ) / lb m
H v = 77.8 Btu / lb m , H l = 9.6 Btu / lb m

Energy balance: E p , W s , Q = 0, neglect E k H = n H n H


out
i i
in
i i =0

40 X v lb m R v bg +
b g
77.8 Btu 40 1 X v lb m R l bg 9.6 Btu 40 lb m

27.8 Btu
=0
min lb m min lb m min lb m
E
b
X v = 0.267 26.7% evaporates g
(b) Evaporator coil

40 lbm /min 40 lb m R( v )/min


0.267 R(v ) 11.8 psig, 5F
0.733 R( l ) H = 77.8 Btu/lbm
11.8 psig, 5F
H v = 77.8 Btu/lbm , H l = 9.6 Btu/lbm
Energy balance: E p , W s = 0, neglect E k Q = H

Q =
40 lb m 77.8 Btu 40 0.267 lb m R v

b gb g bg 77.8 Btu

b gb g
40 0.733 lb m R l bg 9.6 Btu
min lb m min lb m min lb m
= 2000 Btu min

7-19
7.39 (contd)
(c) We may analyze the overall process in several ways, each of which leads to the same
result. Let us first note that the net rate of heat input to the system is

Q = Q evaporator Q condenser = 2000 2500 = 500 Btu min

and the compressor work Wc represents the total work done on the system. The system is
b g
closed (no mass flow in or out). Consider a time interval t min . Since the system is at
steady state, the changes U , E k and E p over this time interval all equal zero. The
total heat input is Q t , the work input is W t , and (Eq. 8.3-4) yields
c

500 Btu 1 min 1.341 10 3 hp


Q t W c t = 0 W c = Q = = 118
. hp
min 60 s 9.486 10 4 Btu s

7.40 Basis: Given feed rates

n1 (mol / h)
nC 3H 8 (mol C 3 H 8 / h)
0.2 C 3 H 8
0.8 C 4 H 10 nC 4 H10 (mol C 4 H 10 / h)
0o C, 1.1 atm 227 o C
n2 (mol / h)
Q (kJ / h) 0.40 C 3 H 8
0.60 C 4 H 10
25o C, 1.1 atm

Molar flow rates of feed streams:


300 L 1.1 atm 1 mol
n1 =
hr 1 atm 22.4 L STP
= 14.7 mol h
b g
200 L 273 K 1.1 atm 1 mol
n 2 =
hr 298 K 1 atm 22.4 L STP
= 9.00 mol h
b g
14.7 mol 0.20 mol C 3 H 8 9.00 mol 0.40 mol C 3 H 8
Propane balance n C3H 8 = +
h mol h mol
= 6.54 mol C 3 H 8 h
Total mole balance: n C4 H10 = (14.7 + 9.00 6.54) mol C 4 H 20 h = 17.16 mol C 4 H 20 h

Energy balance: E p , W s = 0, neglect E k Q = H

N H N H
6.54 mol C 3 H 8 20.685 kJ 17.16 mol C 4 H 10 27.442 kJ
Q = H = i i i i = +
h mol h mol
out in


b0.40 9.00g mol C H 3 8

b g
1.772 kJ 0.60 9.00 mol C 4 H 10 2.394 kJ
= 587 kJ h
h mol h mol

( H i = 0 for components of 1st feed stream)

7-20
510 m 3 273 K 10 3 L 1 mol 1 kmol
7.41 Basis:
min 291 K m 3 22.4 L STP b g 10 3 mol
= 214
. kmol min

(a)
.
n0 (kmol/min) 21.4 kmol/min
38C, h r = 97% 18C, sat'd
y 0 (mol H 2 O/mol) y 1 (mol H 2 O/mol)
(1 yx0) (mol dry air/mol) (1 y 1) (mol dry air)
.
n2 (kmol H 2O(l )/mol)
Q (kJ/min) 18C

hr PH2O ( 38C ) 0.97 ( 49.692 mm Hg )


Inlet condition: yo = = = 0.0634 mol H 2 O mol
P 760 mm Hg
PH2O (18C ) 15.477 mm Hg
Outlet condition: y1 = = = 0.0204 mol H 2 O mol
P 760 mm Hg
b
Dry air balance: 1 0.0634 n o = 1 0.0204 214 g b
. n o = 22.4 kmol min g
b g b
Water balance: 0.0634 22.4 = n 2 + 0.0204 21.4 n 2 = 0.98 kmol min g
0.98 kmol 18.02 kg
= 18 kg / min H 2 O condenses
min kmol

b g
(b). Enthaphies: H air 38 C = 0.0291 38 25 = 0.3783 kJ mol b g
b g b g
H air 18 C = 0.0291 18 25 = 0.204 kJ mol

H H 2 O bv, 38 Cg = 2570.8 kJkg 101 kgg 18.02molg = 46.33 kJ molU|


|
3

H H 2 O bv, 18 Cg = 2534.5 kgkJ 101 kgg 18.02molg = 45.67 kJ mol |VTable B.5
3
||
H H 2 O bl, 18 Cg = kg 10 g mol = 1.36 kJ mol |W
75.5 kJ 1 kg 18.02 g
3

Energy balance:
E , W = 0, E 0
n H n H gd ib g b
p s k

Q = H = i i i i Q = 1 0.0204 214
. 10 3 0.204

+b0.0204gd214
. 10 ib45.67g + d0.98 10 ib136
. g b1 0.0634gd22.4 10 ib0.3783g
out in
3 3 3

b0.0634gd22.4 10 ib46.33g = 5.67 10 kJ min


3 4

5.67 10 kJ 60 min 0.9486 Btu 1 ton cooling = 270 tons of cooling


4

min h kJ 12000 Btu

7-21
7.42 Basis: 100 mol feed
n2 (mol), 63.0C
A - Acetone 0.98 A(v )
Qc (cal)
B - Acetic Acid 0.02 B(v )
0.5n2 (mol) 0.5n2 (mol)
100 mol, 67.5C
0.98 A(l ) 56.8C 0.98 A(l )
0.65 A(l )
0.02 B(l ) 0.02 B(l )
0.35 B(l )
n5 (mol), 98.7C
0.544 A(v )
0.456 B(v )
n5 (mol), 98.7C
0.155 A(l )
0.845 B(l )
Qr (cal)

(a) Overall balances:


Total moles: 100 = 0.5n2 + n5 n2 = 120 mol UV
b g b g
. n5 n5 = 40 mol
A: 0.65 100 = 0.98 0.5n2 + 0155 W
b g
Product flow rates: Overhead 0.5 120 0.98 = 58.8 mol A
b g
0.5 120 0.02 = 1.2 mol B
Bottoms 0.155b40g = 6.2 mol A
0.845b40g = 338. mol B
Overall energy balance: Q = H =
E , W = 0, E 0
n H n H
out
i i
in
i i
p 2 x

interpolate in table interpolate in table



Q = 58.8 ( 0 ) + 1.2 ( 0 ) + 6.2 (1385 ) + 33.8 (1312 ) 65 ( 354 ) 35 ( 335 ) = 1.82 10 4 cal

b g
(b) Flow through condenser: 2 58.8 = 117.6 mols A
2b12
. g = 2.4 mols B
Energy balance on condenser: Qc = H
E , W = 0, E 0
p 3 k

b g b g
Qc = 117.6 0 7322 + 2.4 0 6807 = 8.77 10 5 cal heat removed from condenser
Assume negligible heat transfer between system & surroundings other than Qc & Qr
( )
Qr = Q Qc = 1.82 104 8.77 105 = 8.95 105 cal heat added to reboiler

7.43 1.96 kg, P1= 10.0 bar, T1


2.96 kg, P3= 7.0 bar, T3=250oC

1.00 kg, P2= 7.0 bar, T2

Q= 0

7-22
7.43 (contd)
(a) T2 = T ( P = 7.0 bar, sat' d steam) = 165.0 o C
H 3 ( H 2 O(v ), P = 7.0 bar, T = 250 o C) = 2954 kJ kg (Table B.7)
H 2 ( H 2 O(v ), P = 7.0 bar, sat' d) = 2760 kJ kg (Table B.6)
Energy balance
E , Q , W , E 0
p s k

H = 0 = 2.96 H 3 196
. H 1 10
. H 2 196
. H 1 = 2.96 kg(2954 kJ / kg) - 1.0 kg(2760 kJ / kg)
H (10.0 bar, T ) = 3053 kJ / kg T 300 D C
1 1 1

(b) The estimate is too low. If heat is being lost the entering steam temperature would have to
be higher for the exiting steam to be at the given temperature.

7.44 (a) T1 = T ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d.) = 133.5D C Vapor


Vl ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d.) = 0.001074 m / kg 3
P=3 bar
V ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d.) = 0.606 m 3 / kg
v Liquid
0.001074 m 3 1000 L 165 kg
Vl = = 177.2 L m=165.0 kg
kg m3
Vspace = 200.0 L - 177.2 L = 22.8 L V=200.0 L
3 Pmax=20 bar
22.8 L 1 m 1 kg
mv = = 0.0376 kg
1000 L 0.606 m 3

(b) P = Pmax = 20.0 bar; mtotal = 165.0 + 0.0376 = 165.04 kg


T1 = T ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d.) = 212.4 D C
Vl ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d.) = 0.001177 m 3 / kg; Vv ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d.) = 0.0995 m 3 / kg
Vtotal = m V + m V m V + (m
l l v v m )V
l l total l v
3
200.0 L 1 m = m kg(0.001177 m 3 / kg) + (165.04 - m ) kg(0.0995 m 3 / kg)
l l
1000 L
ml = 164.98 kg; mv = 0.06 kg
0.001177 m 3 1000 L 164.98 kg
Vl = = 194.2 L; Vspace = 200.0 L - 194.2 L = 5.8 L
kg m3
(0.06 - 0.04) kg 1000 g
mevaporated = = 20 g
kg

(c) Energy balance Q = U = U ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d) U ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d)


E , W , E 0
p s k

U l ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d.) = 906.2 kJ / kg; U v ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d.) = 2598.2 kJ / kg
U ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d.) = 561.1 kJ / kg; U ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d.) = 2543 kJ / kg
l v

Q = 0.06 kg(2598.2 kJ / kg) + 164.98 kg(906.2 kJ / kg) - 0.04 kg(2543 kJ / kg)


165.0 kg (561.1 kJ / kg) = 5.70 10 4 kJ

Heat lost to the surroundings, energy needed to heat the walls of the tank

7-23
7.44 (contd)
(d) (i) The specific volume of liquid increases with the temperature, hence the same mass of
liquid water will occupy more space; (ii) some liquid water vaporizes, and the lower
density of vapor leads to a pressure increase; (iii) the head space is smaller as a result of
the changes mentioned above.

(e) Using an automatic control system that interrupts the heating at a set value of pressure
A safety valve for pressure overload.
Never leaving a tank under pressure unattended during operations that involve
temperature and pressure changes.

7.45 Basis: 1 kg wet steam

(a) 1 kg H2 O 20 bars 1 kg H 2O,(v) 1 atm 1 kg H2 O


0.97 kg H2 O(v) Tamb, 1 atm
H2 (kJ/kg)
0.03 kg H2 O(l)
H1 (kJ/kg) Q=0 Q

b g
Enthalpies: H v , 20 bars, sat' d = 2797.2 kJ kg U|Vb g
b g
H l , 20 bars, sat' d = 908.6 kJ kg
Table B.7
|W
Energy balance on condenser: H = 0 H 2 = H 1 = 0.97 2797.2 + 0.03 908.6
E , E , Q , W =0
b g b g
p K 3

Table B.7
H 2 = 2740 kJ / kg T 132 o C

(b) As the steam (which is transparent) moves away from the trap, it cools. When it reaches
its saturation temperature at 1 atm, it begins to condense, so that T = 100 C . The white
plume is a mist formed by liquid droplets.

7.46 Basis:
bg
8 oz H 2 O l1 quart 1 m3 1000 kg
= 0.2365 kg H 2 O l bg
32 oz 1057 quarts m3
(For simplicity, we assume the beverage is water)

0.2365 kg H2O (l)


(m + 0.2365) (kg H2O (l))
18C
m (kg H2O (s)) 4C
32F (0C) Assume P = 1 atm

Enthalpies (from Table B.5):


H ( H 2 O(l ), 18C ) = 75.5 kJ/kg; H ( H 2 O(l ), 4C ) = 16.8 kJ/kg; H ( H 2 O(s), 0C ) =-348 kJ/kg

Energy balance ( closed isobaric system ) : H = n H n H


out
i i
in
i i =0
E p , Ek , Q, W = 0

(m + 0.2365) kg(16.8 kJ / kg) = 0.2365 kg(75.5 kJ / kg) + m kg (-348 kJ / kg)


m = 0.038 kg = 38 g ice

7-24
7.47 (a) When T = 0 o C, H = 0, Tref = 0 o C

(b) Energy Balance-Closed System: U = 0


E , E , Q , W = 0
k p

25 g Fe, 175C
25 g Fe
1000 g H2O(l) 1000 g H2O
20C Tf (C)

d i d i b g b g
U Fe T f + U H 2O T f U Fe 175 C U H 2 O 20 C, 1 atm = 0 or U Fe + U H 2 O = 0

25.0 g 4.13dT 175ical 4.184 J


U Fe = f
= 432 T 175 J f
g cal

Table B.5 U H 2 O = e
1.0 L 10 3 g U H 2 O T f 83.9 J d i j e
= 1000 U H 2 O T f 83.9 J d i j
1 L g
d i
432T f + 1000U H 2 O T f 160
. 10 5 = f T f = 0 d i
Tf C 30 40 35 34 Interpolate
T f = 34.6 C
d i
f Tf 2.1 10 4
+2.5 10 4
1670 2612

7-25
7.48 I II
H 2 O(v ) H 2 O(v )
760 mm Hg (760 + 50.1) mm Hg
100C Tf 1.08 bar sat'd

Tf = 101.8C (Table 8.5)
H 2 O( l ), 100 C H 2 O( l ), Tf
T0 Tf

Energy balance - closed system:


E p , E K , W , Q = 0
v -vapor
U = 0 = mvIIU vII + mlIIU lII + mbIIU bII mvI U vI mlI U lI mbI U bI l -liquid
b -block

b . bar, 100 C
I 101 g II b108
. bar, 101.8 Cg
Vl bL kgg 1044
. 1046
.
Vv bL kgg 1673 1576
U l bL kgg 419.0 426.6
U v bL kgg 2506.5 2508.6

Initial vapor volume: VvI = 20.0 L 5.0 L


50 kg 1L
8.92 kg
= 14.4 L H 2 O v bg
b g
Initial vapor mass: mvI = 14.4 L 1673 L kg = 8.61 10 3 kg H 2 O v bg
b g
Initial liquid mass: mlI = 5.0 L 1.044 L kg = 4.79 kg H 2 O l bg
Final energy of bar: U bII = 0.36b101.8g = 36.6 kJ kg

Assume negligible change in volume & liquid VvII = 14.4 L

b g
Final vapor mass: mvII = 14.4 L 1576 L kg = 9.14 10 3 kg H 2 O v bg
Initial energy of the bar:

U bI =
1
5.0 kg
d b g b g b g
9.14 10 3 2508.6 + 4.79 426.6 + 5.0 36.6 8.61 10 3 2506.5 4.79 419.0 b g b gi
= 441. kJ kg
44.1 kJ / kg
(a) Oven Temperature: To = = 122.5 C
0.36 kJ / kg o C
H 2 O evaporated = mvII mvI = 9.14 10 3 kg - 8.61 10 3 kg = 5.30 10 4 kg = 0.53 g

(b) U bI = 44.1 + 8.3 5.0 = 458


. kJ kg
To = 458 . 0.36 = 127.2 C

(c) Meshuggeneh forgot to turn the oven on ( To < 100 C )

7-26
weight of piston
7.49 (a) Pressure in cylinder = + atmospheric pressure
area of piston

P=
30.0 kg 9.807 N b100 cmg 2
10
. bar
+
1 atm 1.013 bar
= 108
. bar
1 bmg
2
400.0 cm2 kg 2
105 N m2 atm
Tsat = 1018
. C
Heat required to bring the water and block to the boiling point

d b
Q = U = mw U wl 108 g b gi d b g
. bar, sat' d U wl l, 20 C + m Al U Al Tsat U Al 20 C b gi
=
7.0 kg b426.6 83.9gkJ + 3.0 kg . 20)]kJ
[0.94(1018
= 2630 kJ
kg kg
2630 kJ < 3310 kJ Sufficient heat for vaporization

V = 1046
. L kg , U l = 426.6 kJ kg
(b) T f = Tsat = 1018
. C . Table B.5  l
Vv = 1576 L kg , U v = 2508.6 kJ kg
mv (kg H 2 O(v ))
7.0 kg H 2 O(l ) T 101.8C 1576 L/kg, 2508.6 kJ/kg
H = 426.6 kJ / kg P 1.08 bars
V = 1.046 L / kg 1.046 L/kg, 426.6 kJ/kg
ml (kg H 2 O(l ))
Q (kJ) W (kJ)
(Since the Al block stays at the same temperature in this stage of the process, we can
ignore it -i.e., U in = U out )
Water balance: 7.0 = ml + mv (1)
Work done by the piston: W = F z = w piston + Patm A z

=
LM w + P OPb A zg = PV W = b1.08 bar g 1576m + 1.046m b1.046gb7.0g L
NA atm
Q v l

8.314 J / mol K
= b170.2 m + 0.113m 0.7908g kJ
1 kJ
v l
0.08314 liter - bar / mol K 10 J 3

Energy balance: U = Q W
 U 
 Q
  W 
bg
2508.6mv + 426.6m L 426.6 7 = (3310 2630) (170.2mv + 0.113m L 0.7908)
2679mv + 426.7m L 3667 = 0 (2)
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously yields mv = 0.302 kg , ml = 6.698 kg
b gb
Liquid volume = 6.698 kg 1046
. g
L kg = 7.01 L liquid
Vapor volume = b0.302 kggb1576 L kgg = 476 L vapor

V 7.01 + 476 b7.0gb1046


. gL 10 3 cm3 1
Piston displacement: z = = = 1190 cm
A 1 L 400 cm2
(c) Tupper All 3310 kJ go into the block before a measurable amount is transferred to the
b g b g
water. Then U AL = Q 3.0 kg 0.94 Tu 20 kJ kg = 3310 Tu = 1194 C if melting is
o
neglected. In fact, the bar would melt at 660 C.

7-27
7.50 . L H 2 O( v ), 25o C
100
m v1 (kg)
m v2 [kg H 2 O(v)]
= m v1 + m e UV Assume not all the liquid

W Tis vaporized.
f f e
Eq. at
, P . m = kg H O vaporized.
2
o m L2 [kg H 2 O(l)]
4.00 L H 2 O(l ), 25 C
m L1 (kg) = m L1 + m e

Q=2915 kJ

Initial conditions: Table B.5 U L1 = 104.8 kJ kg , VL1 = 1.003 L kg P = 0.0317 bar


T = 25 C, sat' d U = 2409.9 kJ kg , V = 43,400 L kg
v1 L1

b gb
mv1 = 1.00 l 43400 l kg = 2.304 10 g 5
b
kg , m LI = 4.00 l g b1.003 l kgg = 3.988 kg
Energy balance:
d i d i b
U = Q 2.304 10 5 + me U v T f + 3.988 me U L T f 2.304 10 5 2409.9 g d i d ib g
b g
3.988 (104.8) = 2915 kJ

d i dEi b g d i
2.304 10 5 + me U v T f + 3.988 me U v T f = 3333

3333 d2.304 10 iU 3.988U 5


v L
me = (1)
U v U L
F I
GG J d i b
V L + Vv = Vtan k 2.304 10 5 + me VL T f + 3.988 me VL T f = 5.00 L
A JK A
g d i
H kg liters kg

5.00 d2.304 10 iV 3.988V


5

me =
Vv VL
v L
b2g
b1g b2g f dT i =
d i d i
3333 2.304 10 5 U v T f 3.988U L T f d i
U U
f
v L


d
5.00 2.304 10 5 Vv 3.988VL i
=0
V V v L

d i Find T d i
Table 8.5
Procedure: Assume T f U v , U L , Vv , VL f T f f such that f T f = 0

Tf U v U L Vv VL f
2014. 2593.8 856.7 123.7 1159
. . 10 2
512
198.3 2592.4 842.9 131.7 1154
. 1.93 10 2
195.0 2590.8 828.5 140.7 1149
. . 10 2
134
196.4 25915 . 834.6 136.9 1151
. 4.03 10 4 T f 196.4 C, Pf = 14.4 bars
Eq 1bg
me = 2.6 10 3 kg 2.6 g evaporated
bg
or Eq 2

7-28
7.51. Basis: 1 mol feed
B = benzene
nV (mol vapor)
T = toluene
y B(mol B(v)/mol)
(1 y B ) (mol T(v)/mol)
1 mol @ 130C in equilibrium
z B (mol B(l)/mol) at T(C), P(mm Hg)
(1 z B )(mol T(l)/mol) nL (mol liquid)
x B(mol B(l)/mol)
(1 x B ) (mol T(l)/mol)

(a) 7 variables: (nV , y B , n L , x B , Q, T , P)


2 equilibrium equations
2 material balances
1 energy balance
2 degrees of freedom. If T and P are fixed, we can calculate nV , y B , n L , x B , and Q.
(b) Mass balance: nV + n L = 1 nV = 1 n2 (1)
Benzene balance: z B = nV y B + n L x B (2)

bg d i d i
C 6 H 6 l : T = 0, H = 0 , T = 80, H = 10.85 H BL = 01356
. T (3)
C H bv g: dT = 80, H = 4161
6 6 . i , dT = 120, H = 45.79i H = 01045
. T + 33.25 BV (4)
C H bl g: dT = 0, H = 0i , dT = 111, H = 18.58i H = 01674
7 8 . T TL (5)
C H bv g: dT = 89, H = 49.18i , dT = 111, H = 52.05i H = 01304
7 8 . T + 37.57 TV (6)

Energy balance: E p , Ws = 0, neglect E k


b g b
Q = H = nV y B H BV + nV 1 y B H TV + n L x B H BL + n L 1 x B H TL 1 z B H BL TF g bg b g
b gb
1 1 z H T B g b g
TL F
(7)

Raoult' s Law: y B P = x B p B* (8)


(1 - y B ) P = (1 x B ) pT* (9)
Antoine Equation. For T= 90C and P=652 mmHg:
pB* (90o C) = 10[6.892721203.531/(90+ 219.888)] = 1021 mmHg
pT* (90o C) = 10[6.958051346.773/(90 + 219.693)] = 406.7 mmHg

Adding equations (8) and (9)


P pT* P pT* 652 406.7
P = x B pB* + (1 x B ) pT* x B = = = = 0.399 mol B(l) / mol
pB* pT* pB* pT* 1021- 406.7
x B p*B
0.399(1021 mmHg)
yB =
= = 0.625 mol B(v) / mol
P 652 mmHg
z xB 0.5 0.399
Solving (1) and (2) nV = B = = 0.446 mol vapor
y B x B 0.625 0.399
n L = 1 nV = 1 0.446 = 0.554 mol liquid

7-29
7.51 (contd)
Substituting (3), (4), (5), and (6) in (7)

Q = 0.446(0.625)[01045
. (90) + 33.25] + 0.446(1 0.625)[01304
. (90) + 37.57]
+ 0.554(0.399)[01356
. (90)] + 0.554(1 0.399)[01674
. (90)] 0.5[ 01356
. (130)]
0.5[01674
. (130)] Q = 814
. kJ / mol

(c). If P<Pmin, all the output is vapor. If P>Pmax, all the output is liquid.

(d) At P=652 mmHg it is necessary to add heat to achieve the equilibrium and at P=714
mmHg, it is necessary to release heat to achieve the equilibrium. The higher the pressure,
there is more liquid than vapor, and the liquid has a lower enthalpy than the equilibrium
vapor: enthalpy out < enthalpy in.

zB T P pB pT xB yB nV nL Q
0.5 90 652 1021 406.7 0.399 0.625 0.446 0.554 8.14
0.5 90 714 1021 406.7 0.500 0.715 -0.001 1.001 -6.09
0.5 90 582 1021 406.7 0.285 0.500 0.998 0.002 26.20
0.5 90 590 1021 406.7 0.298 0.516 0.925 0.075 23.8
0.5 90 600 1021 406.7 0.315 0.535 0.840 0.160 21.0
0.5 90 610 1021 406.7 0.331 0.554 0.758 0.242 18.3
0.5 90 620 1021 406.7 0.347 0.572 0.680 0.320 15.8
0.5 90 630 1021 406.7 0.364 0.589 0.605 0.395 13.3
0.5 90 640 1021 406.7 0.380 0.606 0.532 0.468 10.9
0.5 90 650 1021 406.7 0.396 0.622 0.460 0.540 8.60
0.5 90 660 1021 406.7 0.412 0.638 0.389 0.611 6.31
0.5 90 670 1021 406.7 0.429 0.653 0.318 0.682 4.04
0.5 90 680 1021 406.7 0.445 0.668 0.247 0.753 1.78
0.5 90 690 1021 406.7 0.461 0.682 0.176 0.824 -0.50
0.5 90 700 1021 406.7 0.477 0.696 0.103 0.897 -2.80
0.5 90 710 1021 406.7 0.494 0.710 0.029 0.971 -5.14

(e). Pmax = 714 mmHg, Pmin = 582 mmHg


nV vs. P

1
0.8
0.6
nV

0.4
0.2
0
582 632 682 732
P (mm Hg)

nV = 0.5 @ P 640 mmHg

7-30
P u 2
7.52 (a). Bernoulli equation: + + gz = 0
2
P
=
d0.977 10 5
15 i
. 10 5 Pa 1 N / m 2 m3
= 46.7
m2
Pa 1.12 10 3 kg s2
bg
gz = (9.8066 m / s 2 ) 6 m = 58.8 m 2 / s 2
u 2
Bernoulli
2
b g
= 46.7 58.8 m 2 / s 2 u22 = u12 + 2 12.1 m 2 / s 2 d i
b g 2
= 5.00 m 2 / s 2 (2)(12.1) m 2 / s 2 = 0.800 m 2 / s 2 u2 = 0.894 m / s

d i
(b). Since the fluid is incompressible, V m 3 s = d 12 u1 4 = d 22 u2 4

d1 = d 2
u2
u1
b g
= 6 cm
0.894 m s
5.00 m s
= 2.54 cm

d i b g d i b g
A1 = 4 A2
d i A
7.53 (a). V m 3 s = A1 m 2 u1 m s = A2 m 2 u2 m s u2 = u1 1
A2
u2 = 4u1

(b). Bernoulli equation (z = 0)

P
+
u 2
= 0 P = P2 P1 =
u22 u12 d i
2 2
Multiply both sides by 1
Substitute u 2 = 16u1
2 2

2
Multiply top and bottom of right - hand side by A1

note V = A1 u1
2 2 2

15V 2
P1 P2 =
2 A12

15 H 2 OV 2 F
2 A12 gh Hg I
d
(c) P1 P2 = Hg H 2 O gh = i 2 A12
V 2 =
15 GH
H 2O
1 JK
2
V =
b g
2 7.5
2 2
cm4 1 m4 9.8066 m 38 cm 1m b13.6 1g = 1955
. 10 3 m6
15 108 cm4 s2 102 cm s2
V = 0.044 m 3 s = 44 L s

7-31
7.54 (a). Point 1 - surface of fluid . P1 = 31
. bar , z1 = +7 m , u1 = 0 m s b g
Point 2 - discharge pipe outlet . P2 = 1 atm , z 2 = 0 m , u2 = ?
b =1.013 bar g b g

=
b1.013 31. gbar 10 5 N 1 m3
= 2635
. m 2 s2
m 2 bar 0.792 10 3 kg

9.8066 m 7 m
gz = = 68.6 m 2 s 2
s2
u 2 P
Bernoulli equation
2
=

b
gz = 263.5 + 68.6 m 2 s 2 = 332.1 m 2 s 2 g
u = u 2 0
2 2 2

u22 = 2(332.1 m 2 s 2 ) = 664.2 m 2 s 2 u2 = 258


. m/s

(100
. 2 ) cm 2 2580 cm 1 L 60 s
V = = 122 L / min
4 1 s 10 3 cm 3 1 min
(b) The friction loss term of Eq. (7.7-2), which was dropped to derive the Bernoulli equation,
becomes increasingly significant as the valve is closed.

7.55 Point 1 - surface of lake . P1 = 1 atm , z1 = 0 , u1 = 0


Point 2 - pipe outlet . P2 = 1 atm , z 2 = z ft bg
V 95 gal 1 ft 3 1 144 in 2 1 min
u2 = = = 35.3 ft s
A min 7.4805 gal b
0.5 1049
.
2
in 2 g 1 ft 2 60 s
Pressure drop: P = 0 bP = P g1 2

Friction loss: F = 0.041b2 z g ft lb lb = 0.0822 z (ft lb f lb m )


FG L = Z = 2 zIJ f m

H sin 30 K
W -8 hp 0.7376 ft lb f / s 1 min 7.4805 gal 1 ft 3 60 s
Shaft work: s =
m 1.341 10 3 hp 95 gal 1 ft 3
62.4 lb m 1 min
= 333 ft lb f lb m

Kinetic energy: u 2 2 =
b35.3g 2
0 2 ft 2 1 lb f
= 19.4 ft lb f lb m
2 s 2
32.174 lb m ft / s 2

Potential energy: gz =
32.174 ft bg
z ft 1 lb f
b
= z ft lb f lb m g
s2 32.174 lb m ft / s 2
P u 2 W s
b
Eq. 7.7 - 2 g
+
2
+ gz + F =
m
19.4 + z + 0.082 z = 333 z = 290 ft

7-32
7.56 Point 1 - surface of reservoir . P1 = 1 atm (assume), u1 = 0 , z1 = 60 m
Point 2 - discharge pipe outlet . P2 = 1 atm (assume), u2 = ? , z 2 = 0

P = 0

u 2 u22
= =
V A d h 2

=
V 2 (m 6 / s 2 ) 1 10 8 cm 4 1 N
2 2 2 (2) b g 35
2 2
cm 4 1 m4 1 kg m / s 2
= 3.376V 2 bN m kgg
9.8066 m 65 m 1N
gz = = 637 N m kg
s2 1 kg m / s 2
W s 0.80 10 W 1 N m / s
6
1 m3
m
=
W 
s
d i
V m3 1000 kg
= 800 V N m kg b g
Mechanical energy balance: neglect F b Eq. 7.7 - 2g

P u 2 W s 800 T + E  127
. m 3 60 s
+ + gz = 3.376V 2 637 = V= = 76.2 m 3 min
2 m V s 1 min
Include friction (add F > 0 to left side of equation) V increases.

7.57 (a). Point 1: Surface at fluid in storage tank, P1 = 1 atm , u1 = 0 , z1 = H m b g


Point 2 (just within pipe): Entrance to washing machine. P2 = 1 atm , z 2 = 0
600 L 10 3 cm 3 1 min 1m
u2 = = 7.96 m s
min 4.0 cm b g 2
4 1 L 60 s 100 cm

=b
P u 2 u22 7.96 m sg
2
1 J
= 0; = = 31.7 J / kg
2 2 2 1 kg m 2 / s 2

gz =
9.807 m c0 Hbmgh 1 J
= 9.807 H (J / kg)
s 2
1 kg m 2 / s 2
P u 2
Bernoulli Equation: + + gz = 0 H = 3.23 m
2
(b). Point 1: Fluid in washing machine. P1 = 1 atm , u1 0 , z1 = 0
Point 2: Entrance to storage tank (within pipe). P2 = 1 atm , u2 = 7.96 m s , z 2 = 3.23 m
P u 2

= 0;
2
= 317
.
J
kg
; gz = 9.807 3.23 0 = 317
.
J
kg
b
; F = 72
J
kg
g
Mechanical energy balance: W s = m
P u 2
+ + gz + F
LM OP
2 N Q
W s =
600 L 0.96 kg 1 min b31.7 + 31.7 + 72g J 1 kW
= 1.30 kW
min L 60 s kg 10 3 J s
(work applied to the system)
Rated Power = 130
. kW 0.75 = 1.7 kW

7-33
7.58 Basis: 1000 liters of 95% solution . Assume volume additivity.


1 xi 0.95 0.05 l
Density of 95% solution: = = + = 0.804 = 124
. kg liter
b Eq. 6.1-1g i 1.26 100
. kg
1 0.35 0.65 l
Density of 35% solution: = + = 0.9278 = 108
. kg liter
126
. 100
. kg
1000 liters 1.24 kg
Mass of 95% solution: = 1240 kg
liter
G = glycerol
W = water
1240 kg (1000 L) m2 (kg)
0.95 G 0.60 G
0.05 W 0.40 W
23 m
m1 (kg)
0.35 G
5 cm I.D.
0.65 W

Mass balance: 1240 + m1 = m2 UV m = 1740 kg 35% solution


b gb g b gb g b gb gW m = 2980 kg 60% solution
1
Glycerol balance: 0.95 1240 + 0.35 m1 = 0.60 m2 2

1740 kg 1L
Volume of 35% solution added = = 1610 L
1.08 kg
b
Final solution volume = 1000 + 1610 L = 2610 L g
Point 1. Surface of fluid in 35% solution storage tank. P1 = 1 atm , u1 = 0 , z1 = 0
Point 2. Exit from discharge pipe. P2 = 1 atm , z 2 = 23 m
1610 L 1 m 3 1 min 1 10 4 cm 2
u2 = = 1.051 m s
13 min 3
10 L 60 s 2.5 cm 2
2
b g 1 m2

P = 0,
u 2 u22
= =
2
b g
1.051 m 2 / s 2 1 N
= 0.552 N m kg
2 2 (2) 1 kg m / s 2
9.8066 m 23 m 1N
gz = = 225.6 N m kg , F = 50 J kg = 50 N m kg
s2 1 kg m / s 2
1740 kg 1 min
Mass flow rate: m = = 2.23 kg s
13 min 60 s

b
Mechanical energy balance Eq. 7.7 - 2 g
LM
W s = m
P u 2
+ + gz + F =
OP
2.23 kg b0.552 + 225.6 + 50gN m 1J 1 kW
N 2 s Q kg 1 N m 10 3 J s
= 0.62 kW 0.62 kW delivered to fluid by pump.

7-34