. 10 4 kJ 0.30 kJ work
0.80 L 35 1h 1 kW
7.1 = 2.33 kW 2.3 kW
h L 1 kJ heat 3600 s 1 k J s
2.33 kW 10 3 W 1.341 10 3 hp
= 312
. hp 3.1 hp
1 kW 1W
mu 2
(a) E k =
2
5500 lbm 552 miles 2 52802 ft 2 12 h 2 1 lbf 9.486 10 4 Btu
=
2 h2 12 mile 2 36002 s 2 32.174 lbm ft / s2 0.7376 ft lb f
= 715 Btu
(b)
3 108 brakings 715 Btu 1 day 1h 1W 1 MW
4 = 2617 MW
day braking 24 h 3600 s 9.486 10 Btu/s 106 W
3000 MW
7- 1
7.3 (contd)
Emissions:
400 sacks 0.0510 oz 1 lb m 1000 sacks 0.0516 oz 1 lb m
Paper + = 4.5 lb m
sack 16 oz sack 16 oz
30% reduction
Kinetic energy: E k =
mu 2 0.330 lb m
=
b1225
. g ft
2 2
1 1 lb f
= 7.70 103
ft lb f
2 s s 2
2 32.174 lb m ft / s2 s
iFGH 01341
. 10 hp I 3
d
= 7.70 103 ft lb f / s
.7376 ft lb / sJK
= 140
. 10
f
5
hp
7- 2
7.5 (a) Mass flow rate:
m =
42.0 m 0.07 m b g 2
10 3 L 273 K 130 kPa 1 mol 29 g
= 127.9 g s
s 4 1m 3
573 K 101.3 kPa 22.4 L STP b g mol
2 127.9 g 1 kg
mu 42.0 2 m2 1N 1J
E k = = = 113 J s
2 2 s 1000 g s 2
1 kg m / s2 Nm
(b)
127.9 g 1 mol 673 K 101.3 kPa 22.4 L ( STP ) 1 m3 4
= 49.32 m s
s 29 g 273 K 130 kPa 1 mol 103 L (0.07)2 m2
2 127.9 g 1 kg
mu 49.32 2 m2 1N 1J
E k = = = 1558
. J/s
2 2 s 1000 g s 2
1 kg m / s N m
2
(c) Some of the heat added goes to raise T (and hence U) of the air
7.7 (a) E k positive When the pressure decreases, the volumetric flow rate increases, and
hence the velocity increases.
E negative The gas exits at a level below the entrance level.
p
(b) m =
b g
5 m 1.5 cm 2
2
1 m3 273 K 10 bars 1 kmol 16.0 kg CH 4
s 10 4 cm 2 303 K 1.01325 bars 22.4 m 3 STP b g 1 kmol
= 0.0225 kg s
PoutVout nRT
V P u (m/s) A(m2) P
= out = in out = in
PinVin
nRT
Vin Pout uin (m/s) A(m ) Pout
2
Pin 10 bar
uout = uin = 5( m s) = 5.555 m s
Pout 9 bar
1 0.5(0.0225) kg (5.5552 5.0002 )m 2 1N 1W
E k = m (uout
2
uin2 ) =
2 s s 2
1 kg m/s 1 N m/s
2
= 0.0659 W
0.0225 kg 9.8066 m -200 m 1N 1W
E p = mg
( zout zin ) =
s s kg m/s 1 N m/s
2
= 44.1 W
7- 3
7.8 . m 75 m
105 m3 103 L 1 kg H2O 981 1N 1 J 2.778 107 kW h
E p = mg
z =
h 1 m3 1L s2 1 kg m/ s2 1 N m 1J
= 204
. 104 kW h h
The maximum energy to be gained equals the potential energy lost by the water, or
2.04 10 4 kW h 24 h 7 days
= 3.43 10 6 kW h week (more than sufficient)
h 1 day 1 week
7.9 (b) Q W = U + E k + E p
b
E k = 0 system is stationary g
E p = 0 b no height changeg
Q W = U , Q < 0, W > 0
(c) Q W = U + E k + E p
b g b
Q = 0 adiabatic , W = 0 no moving parts or generated currents g
b
E k = 0 system is stationary g
b
E p = 0 no height change g
U = 0
(d). Q W = U + E k + E p
b
W = 0 no moving parts or generated currents g
b
E k = 0 system is stationary g
b
E p = 0 no height change g
Q = U , Q < 0 Even though the system is isothermal, the occurrence of a chemical
reaction assures that U 0 in a non-adiabatic reactor. If the
temperature went up in the adiabatic reactor, heat must be transferred
from the system to keep T constant, hence Q < 0 .
7- 4
7.11 A=
bg
3
2
cm 2
1 m2
= 2.83 10 3 m 2
10 4 cm 2
(a) Downward force on piston:
Fd = Patm A + mpiston+weight g
1 atm 1.01325 105 N / m2 2.83 10 3 m2 24.50 kg 9.81 m 1N
= + = 527 N
atm s 2
1 kg m / s2
d
Upward force on piston: Fu = APgas = 2.83 10 3 m 2 Pg N m 2 i d i
Equilibrium condition:
Fu = Fd 2.83 10 3 m2 P0 = 527 P0 = 186
. 10 5 N m 2 = 186
. 10 5 Pa
Step 1: Q 0 U = W
. 10 5 Pa
P
Since T0 = T f = 30 C , Pf V f = P0V0 V f = V0 0 = 0.677 L
Pf
186
b
. 10 5 Pa
116
g
= 1.08 L
7- 5
7.13 (a) d i
Ref state U = 0 liquid Bromine @ 300 K, 0.310 bar
d i
H = U + PV = U + PV (Pressure Constant)
0.310 bar ( 0.0516 79.94) L 8.314 J 1 kJ
H = 28.24 kJ mol + = 30.7 kJ mol
mol 0.08314 L bar 103 J
b gb
H = n H = 5.00 mol 30.7 kJ / mol = 15358 g
. kJ 154 kJ
b g b
(c) U independent of P U 300 K, 0.205 bar = U 300 K, 0.310 bar = 28.24 kJ mol g
d i b
U 340 K, Pf = U 340 K, 1.33 bar = 29.62 kJ mol g
U = U final U initial
E
U = 29.62 28.24 = 1380
. kJ mol
(d) Some heat is lost to the surroundings; the energy needed to heat the wall of the container is
being neglected; internal energy is not completely independent of pressure.
b g bg b g bg bg
U T , P = U T H T , P = U T + RT = H T independent of P
cal 1987
. cal 50 K
(b) H = U + RT = 3500 + = 3599 cal mol
mol mol K
b gb g
H = n H = 2.5 mol 3599 cal / mol = 8998 cal 9.0 10 3 cal
7.15 U + E k + E p = Q Ws
b
E k = 0 no change in m and u g
b
E p = 0 no elevation change g
b
Ws = PV since energy is transferred from the system to the surroundings g
U = Q W U = Q PV Q = U + PV = (U + PV ) = H
7- 6
b
7.16. (a) E k = 0 u1 = u2 = 0 g
b
E p = 0 no elevation change g
P = 0 (the pressure is constant since restraining force is constant, and area is constrant)
b
Ws = PV the only work done is expansion work g
. H = 34980 + 355
. T (J / mol), V1 = 785 cm3, T1 = 400 K, P = 125 kPa, Q = 83.8 J
PV 125 103 Pa 785 cm3 1 m3
n= = = 0.0295 mol
RT 8.314 m3 Pa / mol K 400 K 106 cm3
-H
Q = H = n(H ) = 0.0295 mol 34980 + 35.5T - 34980 - 35.5(400K) (J / mol)
2 1 2
(b) Ep = 0
7.17 (a) "The gas temperature remains constant while the circuit is open." (If heat losses could
occur, the temperature would drop during these periods.)
(b) U + E p + E R = Q t W t
E p = 0, E k = 0, W = 0, U ( t = 0) = 0
0.90 1.4 W 1 J s
Q = = 1.26 J s
1W
U (J ) = 126
. t
1 atm 2.10 L 1 mol K
Moles in tank: n = PV RT = = 0.0859 mol
b 25 + 273 K g 0.08206 L atm
U 126
. t (J)
U = = = 14.67t
n 0.0859 mol
Thermocouple calibration: T = aE + b
T = 0 , E =0.249
b g
T C = 181 b g
. E mV + 4.51
T =100 , E = 5.27
7- 7
7.18 (b) H + E k + E p = Q W s (The system is the liquid stream.)
c
E k = 0 no change in m and u h
c
E p = 0 no elevation change h
c
Ws = 0 no moving parts or generated currents h
H = Q , Q > 0
H + E k + E p = Q W s
E k = E p = 0 given c h
c
Ws = 0 no moving parts h
43.37 mol 1 min 3640 J kW
Q = H = n H = = 2.63 kW
min 60s mol 10 3 J / s
(b) More information would be needed. The change in kinetic energy would depend on the
cross-sectional area of the inlet and outlet pipes, hence the internal diameter of the inlet
and outlet pipes would be needed to answer this question.
7- 8
7.20 (a) H = 1.04 T C 25b g H in kJ kg
H out = 104
P=
. 34.0 25 = 9.36 kJ kg
11
H = 1.04 30.0 25 = 5.20 kJ kg
in
n 0
(m kP 34
H = 9.36 5.20 = 4.16 kJ kg ol/ a o
C
H + E + E = Q W s)
k p s
N2 Q
E k = E p = 0 assumedc h 30 =1
c
Ws = 0 no moving parts h o
C .25
Q = H = n H
k
W
Q 1.25 kW kg 1 kJ / s 103 g 1 mol
n = = = 10.7 mol s
H 4.16 kJ kW 1 kg 28.02 g
V =
10.7 mol 22.4 L STP b g 303 K 1013
. kPa
= 2455
. L / s 246 L s
s mol 273 K 110 kPa
(b) Some heat is lost to the surroundings, some heat is needed to heat the coil, enthalpy is
assumed to depend linearly on temperature and to be independent of pressure, errors in
measured temperature and in wattmeter reading.
7.21 (a) H = aT + b a = H 2 H1 = 129.8 258 .
= 5.2
U|
T2 T1 50 30 H kJ kg = 5.2T C 130.2 V| b g b g
b = H 1 aT1 = 258
. 5.2 30 = 130.2 b gb g W
130.2
H = 0 Tref = = 25 C
5.2
Table B.1 S . G. b g bg
C 6 H 14 l
= 0.659 V =
1 m3
659 kg
. 10 3 m 3 kg
= 152
b g
U kJ kg = H PV = 5.2T 130.2 kJ / kgb g
1 atm 1.0132 105 N / m2 1.52 10 3 m3 1J 1 kJ
1 atm 1 kg 1 N m 103 J
b g
U kJ kg = 5.2T 130.4
7- 9
7.22 m (kg/s) m (kg/s)
260C, 7 bars 200C, 4 bars
H = 2974 kJ/kg H = 2860 kJ/kg
u0 = 0 u (m/s)
H + E k + E p = Q Ws
E p = Q = W s = 0
2
E k = H
mu
2
H out H in
= m d i
d
u 2 = 2 H in H out = i b g
(2) 2974 2860 kJ 103 N m 1 kg m / s2 m2
= 2.28 105 2 u = 477 m / s
kg 1 kJ 1N s
Qin Qout
Since there is only one inlet stream and one outlet stream, and m in = m out m ,
Eq. (7.4-12) may be written
m
d i
m U + m PV + u 2 + mg
2
z = Q W s d i
U = 0 (given )
m PV = mV a
Pout Pin = VP f
u = 0 (assume for incompressible fluid )
2
z = 0
W s = 0 (all energy other than flow work included in heat terms)
Q = Q in Q out
VP = Q in Q out
7- 10
7.24 (a) H + E k + E p = Q W s ; E k , E p , W s = 0 H = Q
b g
H 400 C, 1 atm = 3278 kJ kg (Table B.7)
b g
H 100 C, sat' d 1 atm = 2676 kJ kg (Table B.5)
Q (kW)
Q =
100 kg b3278 2676.0gkJ 10 3 J
= 6.02 10 7 J s
s kg 1 kJ
(b) U + E k + E p = Q W ; E k , E p , W = 0 U = Q
kJ m3
Table B.5 U (100 C, 1 atm ) = 2507 , V (100 C, 1 atm ) = 1.673 = V ( 400 C, Pfinal )
kg kg
Interpolate in Table B.7 to find P at which V =1.673 at 400oC, and then interpolate again
to find U at 400oC and that pressure:
3.11 1.673
V = 1.673 m 3 /g Pfinal = 1.0 + 4.0 = 3.3 bar , U (400 C, 3.3 bar) = 2966 kJ/kg
o
3.11 0.617
Q = U = m U = 100 kg [( 2966 2507 ) kJ kg ] 10 3 J kJ = 4.59 10 7 J ( )
The difference is the net energy needed to move the fluid through the system (flow work).
(The energy change associated with the pressure change in Part (b) is insignificant.)
c bg h
7.25 H H 2 O l , 20 C = 83.9 kJ kg (Table B.5)
b g
H steam , 2 0 bars, sat' d = 2 7 97 .2 k J kg (Table B.6)
m [kg H 2 O(l)/h] m [kg H 2 O(v)/h]
20o C 20 bar (sat'd)
(a) H + E k + E p = Q W s ; E k , E p , W s = 0 H = Q
H = m H
Q 528 kW kg 1 kJ / s 3600 s
m = = = 701 kg h
H b2797.2 83.9 gkJ 1 kW 1 h
b gd i
(b) V = 701 kg h 0.0995 m 3 kg = 69.7 m 3 h sat' d steam @ 20 bar
A
Table B.6
nRT 701 kg / h 103 g / kg 485.4 K 0.08314 L bar 1 m3
(c) V = = = 78.5 m3 / h
P 18.02 g / mol 20 bar mol K 103 L
The calculation in (b) is more accurate because the steam tables account for the effect of
pressure on specific enthalpy (nonideal gas behavior).
(d) Most energy released goes to raise the temperature of the combustion products, some is
transferred to the boiler tubes and walls, and some is lost to the surroundings.
7- 11
c bg h
7.26 H H 2 O l , 24 C, 10 bar = 100.6 kJ kg (Table B.5 for saturated liquid at 24oC; assume H
independent of P).
b g
H 10 bar, sat' d steam = 2776.2 kJ kg (Table B.6) H = 2776.2 100.6 = 2675.6 kJ kg
[kg H2O(l)/h]
m [kg H2O(v)/h]
m
24oC, 10 bar 15,000 m3/h @10 bar (sat'd)
Q (kW)
15000 m 3 kg
m = h 01943
. m 3 = 7.72 10 kg h
4
A
b Table 8.6 g
d
Energy balance E p , W s = 0 : H + E k = Q i
E kinitial 0
E k = E kfinal E kinitial E k = E kfinal
f
mu 2 7.72 10 4 kg d15,000 m h i 3 2
1 1 h3 1J
5
E k = = 0.15 4 1 kg m 2 / s 2 = 5.96x10 J/s
2 2 2 3 3
h m 2 3600 s
2 A
A = D 2 4
= 5.96 10 5 J / s
7.72 10 4 kg 2675.6 kJ 1h 5.96 10 5 J 1 kJ
Q = m H + E k = +
h kg 3600 s s 10 3 J
= 57973 kJ s = 5.80 10 4 kW
Q ( kW) =0
228 g 1 min ( H out H in ) J
Energy balance: Q = H Q W =
E x , E p , Ws =0 min 60 s
b g g
b g
H out J g = 0.263Q W b g
T C b g 25 26.4 27.8 29.0 32.4
b g
H J g = 0.263Q W b g 0 4.47 9.28 13.4 24.8
b g
H J g = 3.34 T C 25 b g
(c) Q = H =
350 kg 10 3 g 1 min 3.34 40 20 J b g kW s
= 390 kW heat input to liquid
min kg 60 s g 10 3 J
(d) Heat is absorbed by the pipe, lost through the insulation, lost in the electrical leads.
7- 12
7.28
m w [ kg H 2 O(v) / min] m w [ kg H 2 O(l) / min]
3 bar, sat' d Q ( kW) 27 o C
m e [ kg C 2 H 6 / min] m e [ kg C 2 H 6 / min]
16 o C, 2.5 bar 93 o C, 2.5 bar
3 3
(a) C H mass flow: m = 795 m 10 L 2.50 bar 1 K - mol 30.01 g 1 kg
2 6 e
min m 3 289 K 0.08314 L - bar mol 1000 g
= 2.487 103 kg min
H ei = 941 kJ kg , H ef = 1073 kJ kg
Energy Balance on C 2 H 6 : E p , W s = 0, E k 0 Q = H
Q = 2.487 103
kg
1073 941
LMb
kJ
= g OPQ
2.487 103 kJ 1 min
= 5.47 103 kW
min N
kg min 60 s
b g
(b) H s1 3.00 bar, sat' d vapor = 2724.7 kJ kg (Table B.6)
H s2 bliquid, 27 Cg = 1131. kJ kg (Table B.5)
Assume that heat losses to the surroundings are negligible, so that the heat given up by the
condensing steam equals the heat transferred to the ethane 5.47 10 3 kW d i
Energy balance on H 2 O: Q = H = m H s2 H s1 d i
Q 5.47 10 3 kJ kg
m = = = 2.09 kg s steam
H s2 H s1 s b1131. 2724.7gkJ
b gd
Vs = 2.09 kg / s 0.606 m 3 kg = 1.27 m 3 s i
A
Table B.6
Too low. Extra flow would make up for the heat losses to surroundings.
(c) Countercurrent flow Cocurrent (as depicted on the flowchart) would not work, since it
would require heat flow from the ethane to the steam over some portion of the exchanger.
(Observe the two outlet temperatures)
7- 13
7.29
250 kg H2 O(v )/min 250 kg/min Heat 250 kg/min
Turbine
40 bar, 500C 5 bar, T 2 (C), H 2 (kJ/kg) exchanger 5 bar, 500C
H 1 (kJ/kg) H3 (kJ/kg)
W s =1500 kW Q(kW)
b g
H 2 O v , 40 bar, 500 C : H 1 = 3445 kJ kg (Table B.7)
b g
H O v , 5 bar, 500 C : H = 3484 kJ kg (Table B.7)
2 3
d i
H = W s m H 2 H 1 = W s H 2 = H 1 W s m
3445 kJ 1500 kJ min 60 s
= = 3085 kJ kg
kg s 250 kg 1 min
d
H 3 H 2 =
Q = H = m
250 kg
i b3484 3085gkJ 1 min 1 kW
= 1663 kW
min kg 60 s 1 kJ / s
d
H = Q W s m s H 3 H 1 = Q W s i
Q = H + W s =
250 kg b3484 3445gkJ 1 min 1 kW 1500 kJ 1 kW
+
min kg 60 s 1 kJ / s s 1 kJ / s
= 1663 kW
b g
(d) H 2 O v , 40 bar, 500 C : V1 = 0.0864 m 3 kg (Table B.7)
E k =
m 2
u2 u12 =
250 kg 1 1 min b11.3g b183
2
. g
2
m2 1N 1 kW s
2 min 2 60 s s 2
1 kg m / s 2
10 3 N m
= 0.26 kW << 1500 kW
7- 14
b
7.30 (a) E p , E k , W s = 0 Q = H hA Ts To = 300 kJ h 18 g
. h Ts To = 300
kJ
h
b g
(b) Clothed: h = 8 To = 13.4 C
Ts =34.2
Nude, immersed: h = 64 To = 316
. C (Assuming Ts remains 34.2C)
Ts =34.2
(c) The wind raises the effective heat transfer coefficient. (Stagnant air acts as a thermal
insulator i.e., in the absence of wind, h is low.) For a given To , the skin temperature
must drop to satisfy the energy balance equation: when Ts drops, you feel cold.
1 kg H2O(l)@30oC
3 kg H2O(l)@Tf(oC)
2 kg H2O(l)@90oC
(a) T f =
1
3
b 2
g b
30 o C + 90 D C = 70 D C
3
g
b
(b) Internal Energy of feeds: U 30 C, liq. = 125.7 kJ kg g U|V
b
U 90 C, liq. = 376.9 kJ kg g |W
(Table B.5 - neglecting effect of P on H )
Q =W = E p = E k = 0
Energy Balance: Q - W = U + E p + E k U = 0
b g
3U f (1 kg) 125.7 kJ / kg (2 kg) 376.9 kJ / kg = 0 b g
U f = 293.2 kJ kg T f = 70.05 C (Table B.5)
70.05 70.00
Diff. = 100% = 0.07% (Any answer of this magnitude is acceptable).
70.05
7.32 .
m(kg/h) 52.5 m3 H2O(v)/h
. kg H2 O( v)/kg .
0.85 m(kg/h)
0.15 kg H2 O( l)/kg 5 bar, T(oC)
5 bar, saturated, T(oC) .
Q (kW)
P = 5 bars
(a) Table B.6 . C , H L = 6401
T = 1518 . kJ kg , H V = 2747.5 kJ kg
7- 15
7.33 (a) P = 5 bar Tsaturation = 1518
Table B.6
. o C . At 75C the discharge is all liquid
min 60 s
100 kg oil/min 100 kg oil/min
135C 185C
m (kg H2O(v)/s) m (kg H2O(l)/s)
25 bars, sat'd 25 bars, sat'd
Energy balance on H 2 O: Q = H = m H out H in d i
E p , E k , W s = 0
H (l , 25 bar, sat' d ) = 962.0 kJ kg , H (v , 25 bar, sat' d ) = 2800.9 kJ kg (Table B.6)
Q 167 kJ kg
m =
H out H in
=
s b962.0 2800.9gkJ = 0.091 kg s
1200 g 1s 1 kg
Time between discharges: = 13 s discharge
discharge 0.091 kg 10 3 g
7-16
7.35 Basis: Given feed rate
200 kg H2O(v)/h
10 bar, satd, H = 2776.2 kJ / kg n 3 [ kg H 2 O(v) / h]
10 bar, 250oC, H = 2943 kJ / kg
n 2 [ kg H 2 O(v) / h]
10 bar, 300 o C, H = 3052 kJ / kg
Q(kJ / h)
b g b g b
Energy balance: Q = H = n 3 2943 200 2776.2 n 2 3052 , Q in kJ h
E K , E p , W = 0
g (2)
(1) ( 2)
(a) n 3 = 300 kg h n 2 = 100 kg h Q = 2.25 10 4 kJ h
(1), (2)
(b) Q = 0 n 2 = 306 kg h , n 3 = 506 kg h
(b) T is unchanged. The temperature will still be the saturation temperature at the given final
pressure. The system undergoes expansion, so assuming the same pipe diameter, E k > 0.
yv would be less (less water evaporates) because some of the energy that would have
vaporized water instead is converted to kinetic energy.
(c) Pf = 39.8 bar (pressure at which the water is still liquid, but has the same enthalpy as the feed)
(d) Since enthalpy does not change, then when Pf 39.8 bar the temperature cannot increase,
because a higher temperature would increase the enthalpy. Also, when Pf 39.8 bar , the product
is only liquid no evaporation occurs.
7-17
7.36 (contd)
0.4 300
250
0.3
200
Tf (C)
0.2 150
y
100
0.1
50
0 0
0 20 40 60 80 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 36 39.8 60
Pf (bar) Pf (bar)
7.37 10 m3, n moles of steam(v), 275C, 15 bar 10 m3, n moles of water (v+l), 1.2 bar
Table B.6
(a) P=1.2 bar, saturated, T2 = 104.8 D C
10 m 3 1 kg
(b) Total mass of water: min = = 55 kg
0.1818 m 3
Mass Balance: mv + ml = 55.0
Volume additivity: Vv + Vl = 10.0 m 3 = mv (1428
. m 3 / kg) + ml (0.001048 m 3 / kg)
mv = 7.0 kg, ml = 48.0 kg condensed
7.38 (a) Assume both liquid and vapor are present in the valve effluent.
1 kg H 2 O(v ) / s
15 bar, Tsat + 150o C m l [ kg H 2 O(l ) / s]
m v [ kg H 2 O( v ) / s]
1.0 bar, saturated
7-18
7.38 (contd)
Energy balance: H = 0 m l H l + m v H v m in H in = 0
E p , E k ,Q , Ws = 0
m v + m l
m in H in = m l H l + m v H v 3149 kJ / kg = m l ( 417.5) + (1 m l )( 2675.4)
There is no value of m l between 0 and 1 that would satisfy this equation. (For any value
in this range, the right-hand side would be between 417.5 and 2675.4). The two-phase
assumption is therefore incorrect; the effluent must be pure vapor.
m in = m out = 1
(c) Energy balance m out H out = m in H in 3149 kJ / kg = H (1 bar, Tout )
Table B.7
Tout 337 D C
40 X v lb m R v bg +
b g
77.8 Btu 40 1 X v lb m R l bg 9.6 Btu 40 lb m
27.8 Btu
=0
min lb m min lb m min lb m
E
b
X v = 0.267 26.7% evaporates g
(b) Evaporator coil
Q =
40 lb m 77.8 Btu 40 0.267 lb m R v
b gb g bg 77.8 Btu
b gb g
40 0.733 lb m R l bg 9.6 Btu
min lb m min lb m min lb m
= 2000 Btu min
7-19
7.39 (contd)
(c) We may analyze the overall process in several ways, each of which leads to the same
result. Let us first note that the net rate of heat input to the system is
and the compressor work Wc represents the total work done on the system. The system is
b g
closed (no mass flow in or out). Consider a time interval t min . Since the system is at
steady state, the changes U , E k and E p over this time interval all equal zero. The
total heat input is Q t , the work input is W t , and (Eq. 8.3-4) yields
c
n1 (mol / h)
nC 3H 8 (mol C 3 H 8 / h)
0.2 C 3 H 8
0.8 C 4 H 10 nC 4 H10 (mol C 4 H 10 / h)
0o C, 1.1 atm 227 o C
n2 (mol / h)
Q (kJ / h) 0.40 C 3 H 8
0.60 C 4 H 10
25o C, 1.1 atm
N H N H
6.54 mol C 3 H 8 20.685 kJ 17.16 mol C 4 H 10 27.442 kJ
Q = H = i i i i = +
h mol h mol
out in
b0.40 9.00g mol C H 3 8
b g
1.772 kJ 0.60 9.00 mol C 4 H 10 2.394 kJ
= 587 kJ h
h mol h mol
7-20
510 m 3 273 K 10 3 L 1 mol 1 kmol
7.41 Basis:
min 291 K m 3 22.4 L STP b g 10 3 mol
= 214
. kmol min
(a)
.
n0 (kmol/min) 21.4 kmol/min
38C, h r = 97% 18C, sat'd
y 0 (mol H 2 O/mol) y 1 (mol H 2 O/mol)
(1 yx0) (mol dry air/mol) (1 y 1) (mol dry air)
.
n2 (kmol H 2O(l )/mol)
Q (kJ/min) 18C
b g
(b). Enthaphies: H air 38 C = 0.0291 38 25 = 0.3783 kJ mol b g
b g b g
H air 18 C = 0.0291 18 25 = 0.204 kJ mol
H H 2 O bv, 18 Cg = 2534.5 kgkJ 101 kgg 18.02molg = 45.67 kJ mol |VTable B.5
3
||
H H 2 O bl, 18 Cg = kg 10 g mol = 1.36 kJ mol |W
75.5 kJ 1 kg 18.02 g
3
Energy balance:
E , W = 0, E 0
n H n H gd ib g b
p s k
Q = H = i i i i Q = 1 0.0204 214
. 10 3 0.204
+b0.0204gd214
. 10 ib45.67g + d0.98 10 ib136
. g b1 0.0634gd22.4 10 ib0.3783g
out in
3 3 3
7-21
7.42 Basis: 100 mol feed
n2 (mol), 63.0C
A - Acetone 0.98 A(v )
Qc (cal)
B - Acetic Acid 0.02 B(v )
0.5n2 (mol) 0.5n2 (mol)
100 mol, 67.5C
0.98 A(l ) 56.8C 0.98 A(l )
0.65 A(l )
0.02 B(l ) 0.02 B(l )
0.35 B(l )
n5 (mol), 98.7C
0.544 A(v )
0.456 B(v )
n5 (mol), 98.7C
0.155 A(l )
0.845 B(l )
Qr (cal)
b g
(b) Flow through condenser: 2 58.8 = 117.6 mols A
2b12
. g = 2.4 mols B
Energy balance on condenser: Qc = H
E , W = 0, E 0
p 3 k
b g b g
Qc = 117.6 0 7322 + 2.4 0 6807 = 8.77 10 5 cal heat removed from condenser
Assume negligible heat transfer between system & surroundings other than Qc & Qr
( )
Qr = Q Qc = 1.82 104 8.77 105 = 8.95 105 cal heat added to reboiler
Q= 0
7-22
7.43 (contd)
(a) T2 = T ( P = 7.0 bar, sat' d steam) = 165.0 o C
H 3 ( H 2 O(v ), P = 7.0 bar, T = 250 o C) = 2954 kJ kg (Table B.7)
H 2 ( H 2 O(v ), P = 7.0 bar, sat' d) = 2760 kJ kg (Table B.6)
Energy balance
E , Q , W , E 0
p s k
H = 0 = 2.96 H 3 196
. H 1 10
. H 2 196
. H 1 = 2.96 kg(2954 kJ / kg) - 1.0 kg(2760 kJ / kg)
H (10.0 bar, T ) = 3053 kJ / kg T 300 D C
1 1 1
(b) The estimate is too low. If heat is being lost the entering steam temperature would have to
be higher for the exiting steam to be at the given temperature.
U l ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d.) = 906.2 kJ / kg; U v ( P = 20.0 bar, sat' d.) = 2598.2 kJ / kg
U ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d.) = 561.1 kJ / kg; U ( P = 3.0 bar, sat' d.) = 2543 kJ / kg
l v
Heat lost to the surroundings, energy needed to heat the walls of the tank
7-23
7.44 (contd)
(d) (i) The specific volume of liquid increases with the temperature, hence the same mass of
liquid water will occupy more space; (ii) some liquid water vaporizes, and the lower
density of vapor leads to a pressure increase; (iii) the head space is smaller as a result of
the changes mentioned above.
(e) Using an automatic control system that interrupts the heating at a set value of pressure
A safety valve for pressure overload.
Never leaving a tank under pressure unattended during operations that involve
temperature and pressure changes.
b g
Enthalpies: H v , 20 bars, sat' d = 2797.2 kJ kg U|Vb g
b g
H l , 20 bars, sat' d = 908.6 kJ kg
Table B.7
|W
Energy balance on condenser: H = 0 H 2 = H 1 = 0.97 2797.2 + 0.03 908.6
E , E , Q , W =0
b g b g
p K 3
Table B.7
H 2 = 2740 kJ / kg T 132 o C
(b) As the steam (which is transparent) moves away from the trap, it cools. When it reaches
its saturation temperature at 1 atm, it begins to condense, so that T = 100 C . The white
plume is a mist formed by liquid droplets.
7.46 Basis:
bg
8 oz H 2 O l1 quart 1 m3 1000 kg
= 0.2365 kg H 2 O l bg
32 oz 1057 quarts m3
(For simplicity, we assume the beverage is water)
7-24
7.47 (a) When T = 0 o C, H = 0, Tref = 0 o C
25 g Fe, 175C
25 g Fe
1000 g H2O(l) 1000 g H2O
20C Tf (C)
d i d i b g b g
U Fe T f + U H 2O T f U Fe 175 C U H 2 O 20 C, 1 atm = 0 or U Fe + U H 2 O = 0
Table B.5 U H 2 O = e
1.0 L 10 3 g U H 2 O T f 83.9 J d i j e
= 1000 U H 2 O T f 83.9 J d i j
1 L g
d i
432T f + 1000U H 2 O T f 160
. 10 5 = f T f = 0 d i
Tf C 30 40 35 34 Interpolate
T f = 34.6 C
d i
f Tf 2.1 10 4
+2.5 10 4
1670 2612
7-25
7.48 I II
H 2 O(v ) H 2 O(v )
760 mm Hg (760 + 50.1) mm Hg
100C Tf 1.08 bar sat'd
Tf = 101.8C (Table 8.5)
H 2 O( l ), 100 C H 2 O( l ), Tf
T0 Tf
b . bar, 100 C
I 101 g II b108
. bar, 101.8 Cg
Vl bL kgg 1044
. 1046
.
Vv bL kgg 1673 1576
U l bL kgg 419.0 426.6
U v bL kgg 2506.5 2508.6
b g
Final vapor mass: mvII = 14.4 L 1576 L kg = 9.14 10 3 kg H 2 O v bg
Initial energy of the bar:
U bI =
1
5.0 kg
d b g b g b g
9.14 10 3 2508.6 + 4.79 426.6 + 5.0 36.6 8.61 10 3 2506.5 4.79 419.0 b g b gi
= 441. kJ kg
44.1 kJ / kg
(a) Oven Temperature: To = = 122.5 C
0.36 kJ / kg o C
H 2 O evaporated = mvII mvI = 9.14 10 3 kg - 8.61 10 3 kg = 5.30 10 4 kg = 0.53 g
7-26
weight of piston
7.49 (a) Pressure in cylinder = + atmospheric pressure
area of piston
P=
30.0 kg 9.807 N b100 cmg 2
10
. bar
+
1 atm 1.013 bar
= 108
. bar
1 bmg
2
400.0 cm2 kg 2
105 N m2 atm
Tsat = 1018
. C
Heat required to bring the water and block to the boiling point
d b
Q = U = mw U wl 108 g b gi d b g
. bar, sat' d U wl l, 20 C + m Al U Al Tsat U Al 20 C b gi
=
7.0 kg b426.6 83.9gkJ + 3.0 kg . 20)]kJ
[0.94(1018
= 2630 kJ
kg kg
2630 kJ < 3310 kJ Sufficient heat for vaporization
V = 1046
. L kg , U l = 426.6 kJ kg
(b) T f = Tsat = 1018
. C . Table B.5 l
Vv = 1576 L kg , U v = 2508.6 kJ kg
mv (kg H 2 O(v ))
7.0 kg H 2 O(l ) T 101.8C 1576 L/kg, 2508.6 kJ/kg
H = 426.6 kJ / kg P 1.08 bars
V = 1.046 L / kg 1.046 L/kg, 426.6 kJ/kg
ml (kg H 2 O(l ))
Q (kJ) W (kJ)
(Since the Al block stays at the same temperature in this stage of the process, we can
ignore it -i.e., U in = U out )
Water balance: 7.0 = ml + mv (1)
Work done by the piston: W = F z = w piston + Patm A z
=
LM w + P OPb A zg = PV W = b1.08 bar g 1576m + 1.046m b1.046gb7.0g L
NA atm
Q v l
8.314 J / mol K
= b170.2 m + 0.113m 0.7908g kJ
1 kJ
v l
0.08314 liter - bar / mol K 10 J 3
Energy balance: U = Q W
U
Q
W
bg
2508.6mv + 426.6m L 426.6 7 = (3310 2630) (170.2mv + 0.113m L 0.7908)
2679mv + 426.7m L 3667 = 0 (2)
Solving (1) and (2) simultaneously yields mv = 0.302 kg , ml = 6.698 kg
b gb
Liquid volume = 6.698 kg 1046
. g
L kg = 7.01 L liquid
Vapor volume = b0.302 kggb1576 L kgg = 476 L vapor
7-27
7.50 . L H 2 O( v ), 25o C
100
m v1 (kg)
m v2 [kg H 2 O(v)]
= m v1 + m e UV Assume not all the liquid
W Tis vaporized.
f f e
Eq. at
, P . m = kg H O vaporized.
2
o m L2 [kg H 2 O(l)]
4.00 L H 2 O(l ), 25 C
m L1 (kg) = m L1 + m e
Q=2915 kJ
b gb
mv1 = 1.00 l 43400 l kg = 2.304 10 g 5
b
kg , m LI = 4.00 l g b1.003 l kgg = 3.988 kg
Energy balance:
d i d i b
U = Q 2.304 10 5 + me U v T f + 3.988 me U L T f 2.304 10 5 2409.9 g d i d ib g
b g
3.988 (104.8) = 2915 kJ
d i dEi b g d i
2.304 10 5 + me U v T f + 3.988 me U v T f = 3333
me =
Vv VL
v L
b2g
b1g b2g f dT i =
d i d i
3333 2.304 10 5 U v T f 3.988U L T f d i
U U
f
v L
d
5.00 2.304 10 5 Vv 3.988VL i
=0
V V v L
d i Find T d i
Table 8.5
Procedure: Assume T f U v , U L , Vv , VL f T f f such that f T f = 0
Tf U v U L Vv VL f
2014. 2593.8 856.7 123.7 1159
. . 10 2
512
198.3 2592.4 842.9 131.7 1154
. 1.93 10 2
195.0 2590.8 828.5 140.7 1149
. . 10 2
134
196.4 25915 . 834.6 136.9 1151
. 4.03 10 4 T f 196.4 C, Pf = 14.4 bars
Eq 1bg
me = 2.6 10 3 kg 2.6 g evaporated
bg
or Eq 2
7-28
7.51. Basis: 1 mol feed
B = benzene
nV (mol vapor)
T = toluene
y B(mol B(v)/mol)
(1 y B ) (mol T(v)/mol)
1 mol @ 130C in equilibrium
z B (mol B(l)/mol) at T(C), P(mm Hg)
(1 z B )(mol T(l)/mol) nL (mol liquid)
x B(mol B(l)/mol)
(1 x B ) (mol T(l)/mol)
bg d i d i
C 6 H 6 l : T = 0, H = 0 , T = 80, H = 10.85 H BL = 01356
. T (3)
C H bv g: dT = 80, H = 4161
6 6 . i , dT = 120, H = 45.79i H = 01045
. T + 33.25 BV (4)
C H bl g: dT = 0, H = 0i , dT = 111, H = 18.58i H = 01674
7 8 . T TL (5)
C H bv g: dT = 89, H = 49.18i , dT = 111, H = 52.05i H = 01304
7 8 . T + 37.57 TV (6)
7-29
7.51 (contd)
Substituting (3), (4), (5), and (6) in (7)
Q = 0.446(0.625)[01045
. (90) + 33.25] + 0.446(1 0.625)[01304
. (90) + 37.57]
+ 0.554(0.399)[01356
. (90)] + 0.554(1 0.399)[01674
. (90)] 0.5[ 01356
. (130)]
0.5[01674
. (130)] Q = 814
. kJ / mol
(c). If P<Pmin, all the output is vapor. If P>Pmax, all the output is liquid.
(d) At P=652 mmHg it is necessary to add heat to achieve the equilibrium and at P=714
mmHg, it is necessary to release heat to achieve the equilibrium. The higher the pressure,
there is more liquid than vapor, and the liquid has a lower enthalpy than the equilibrium
vapor: enthalpy out < enthalpy in.
zB T P pB pT xB yB nV nL Q
0.5 90 652 1021 406.7 0.399 0.625 0.446 0.554 8.14
0.5 90 714 1021 406.7 0.500 0.715 -0.001 1.001 -6.09
0.5 90 582 1021 406.7 0.285 0.500 0.998 0.002 26.20
0.5 90 590 1021 406.7 0.298 0.516 0.925 0.075 23.8
0.5 90 600 1021 406.7 0.315 0.535 0.840 0.160 21.0
0.5 90 610 1021 406.7 0.331 0.554 0.758 0.242 18.3
0.5 90 620 1021 406.7 0.347 0.572 0.680 0.320 15.8
0.5 90 630 1021 406.7 0.364 0.589 0.605 0.395 13.3
0.5 90 640 1021 406.7 0.380 0.606 0.532 0.468 10.9
0.5 90 650 1021 406.7 0.396 0.622 0.460 0.540 8.60
0.5 90 660 1021 406.7 0.412 0.638 0.389 0.611 6.31
0.5 90 670 1021 406.7 0.429 0.653 0.318 0.682 4.04
0.5 90 680 1021 406.7 0.445 0.668 0.247 0.753 1.78
0.5 90 690 1021 406.7 0.461 0.682 0.176 0.824 -0.50
0.5 90 700 1021 406.7 0.477 0.696 0.103 0.897 -2.80
0.5 90 710 1021 406.7 0.494 0.710 0.029 0.971 -5.14
1
0.8
0.6
nV
0.4
0.2
0
582 632 682 732
P (mm Hg)
7-30
P u 2
7.52 (a). Bernoulli equation: + + gz = 0
2
P
=
d0.977 10 5
15 i
. 10 5 Pa 1 N / m 2 m3
= 46.7
m2
Pa 1.12 10 3 kg s2
bg
gz = (9.8066 m / s 2 ) 6 m = 58.8 m 2 / s 2
u 2
Bernoulli
2
b g
= 46.7 58.8 m 2 / s 2 u22 = u12 + 2 12.1 m 2 / s 2 d i
b g 2
= 5.00 m 2 / s 2 (2)(12.1) m 2 / s 2 = 0.800 m 2 / s 2 u2 = 0.894 m / s
d i
(b). Since the fluid is incompressible, V m 3 s = d 12 u1 4 = d 22 u2 4
d1 = d 2
u2
u1
b g
= 6 cm
0.894 m s
5.00 m s
= 2.54 cm
d i b g d i b g
A1 = 4 A2
d i A
7.53 (a). V m 3 s = A1 m 2 u1 m s = A2 m 2 u2 m s u2 = u1 1
A2
u2 = 4u1
P
+
u 2
= 0 P = P2 P1 =
u22 u12 d i
2 2
Multiply both sides by 1
Substitute u 2 = 16u1
2 2
2
Multiply top and bottom of right - hand side by A1
note V = A1 u1
2 2 2
15V 2
P1 P2 =
2 A12
15 H 2 OV 2 F
2 A12 gh Hg I
d
(c) P1 P2 = Hg H 2 O gh = i 2 A12
V 2 =
15 GH
H 2O
1 JK
2
V =
b g
2 7.5
2 2
cm4 1 m4 9.8066 m 38 cm 1m b13.6 1g = 1955
. 10 3 m6
15 108 cm4 s2 102 cm s2
V = 0.044 m 3 s = 44 L s
7-31
7.54 (a). Point 1 - surface of fluid . P1 = 31
. bar , z1 = +7 m , u1 = 0 m s b g
Point 2 - discharge pipe outlet . P2 = 1 atm , z 2 = 0 m , u2 = ?
b =1.013 bar g b g
=
b1.013 31. gbar 10 5 N 1 m3
= 2635
. m 2 s2
m 2 bar 0.792 10 3 kg
9.8066 m 7 m
gz = = 68.6 m 2 s 2
s2
u 2 P
Bernoulli equation
2
=
b
gz = 263.5 + 68.6 m 2 s 2 = 332.1 m 2 s 2 g
u = u 2 0
2 2 2
(100
. 2 ) cm 2 2580 cm 1 L 60 s
V = = 122 L / min
4 1 s 10 3 cm 3 1 min
(b) The friction loss term of Eq. (7.7-2), which was dropped to derive the Bernoulli equation,
becomes increasingly significant as the valve is closed.
H sin 30 K
W -8 hp 0.7376 ft lb f / s 1 min 7.4805 gal 1 ft 3 60 s
Shaft work: s =
m 1.341 10 3 hp 95 gal 1 ft 3
62.4 lb m 1 min
= 333 ft lb f lb m
Kinetic energy: u 2 2 =
b35.3g 2
0 2 ft 2 1 lb f
= 19.4 ft lb f lb m
2 s 2
32.174 lb m ft / s 2
Potential energy: gz =
32.174 ft bg
z ft 1 lb f
b
= z ft lb f lb m g
s2 32.174 lb m ft / s 2
P u 2 W s
b
Eq. 7.7 - 2 g
+
2
+ gz + F =
m
19.4 + z + 0.082 z = 333 z = 290 ft
7-32
7.56 Point 1 - surface of reservoir . P1 = 1 atm (assume), u1 = 0 , z1 = 60 m
Point 2 - discharge pipe outlet . P2 = 1 atm (assume), u2 = ? , z 2 = 0
P = 0
u 2 u22
= =
V A d h 2
=
V 2 (m 6 / s 2 ) 1 10 8 cm 4 1 N
2 2 2 (2) b g 35
2 2
cm 4 1 m4 1 kg m / s 2
= 3.376V 2 bN m kgg
9.8066 m 65 m 1N
gz = = 637 N m kg
s2 1 kg m / s 2
W s 0.80 10 W 1 N m / s
6
1 m3
m
=
W
s
d i
V m3 1000 kg
= 800 V N m kg b g
Mechanical energy balance: neglect F b Eq. 7.7 - 2g
P u 2 W s 800 T + E 127
. m 3 60 s
+ + gz = 3.376V 2 637 = V= = 76.2 m 3 min
2 m V s 1 min
Include friction (add F > 0 to left side of equation) V increases.
=b
P u 2 u22 7.96 m sg
2
1 J
= 0; = = 31.7 J / kg
2 2 2 1 kg m 2 / s 2
gz =
9.807 m c0 Hbmgh 1 J
= 9.807 H (J / kg)
s 2
1 kg m 2 / s 2
P u 2
Bernoulli Equation: + + gz = 0 H = 3.23 m
2
(b). Point 1: Fluid in washing machine. P1 = 1 atm , u1 0 , z1 = 0
Point 2: Entrance to storage tank (within pipe). P2 = 1 atm , u2 = 7.96 m s , z 2 = 3.23 m
P u 2
= 0;
2
= 317
.
J
kg
; gz = 9.807 3.23 0 = 317
.
J
kg
b
; F = 72
J
kg
g
Mechanical energy balance: W s = m
P u 2
+ + gz + F
LM OP
2 N Q
W s =
600 L 0.96 kg 1 min b31.7 + 31.7 + 72g J 1 kW
= 1.30 kW
min L 60 s kg 10 3 J s
(work applied to the system)
Rated Power = 130
. kW 0.75 = 1.7 kW
7-33
7.58 Basis: 1000 liters of 95% solution . Assume volume additivity.
1 xi 0.95 0.05 l
Density of 95% solution: = = + = 0.804 = 124
. kg liter
b Eq. 6.1-1g i 1.26 100
. kg
1 0.35 0.65 l
Density of 35% solution: = + = 0.9278 = 108
. kg liter
126
. 100
. kg
1000 liters 1.24 kg
Mass of 95% solution: = 1240 kg
liter
G = glycerol
W = water
1240 kg (1000 L) m2 (kg)
0.95 G 0.60 G
0.05 W 0.40 W
23 m
m1 (kg)
0.35 G
5 cm I.D.
0.65 W
1740 kg 1L
Volume of 35% solution added = = 1610 L
1.08 kg
b
Final solution volume = 1000 + 1610 L = 2610 L g
Point 1. Surface of fluid in 35% solution storage tank. P1 = 1 atm , u1 = 0 , z1 = 0
Point 2. Exit from discharge pipe. P2 = 1 atm , z 2 = 23 m
1610 L 1 m 3 1 min 1 10 4 cm 2
u2 = = 1.051 m s
13 min 3
10 L 60 s 2.5 cm 2
2
b g 1 m2
P = 0,
u 2 u22
= =
2
b g
1.051 m 2 / s 2 1 N
= 0.552 N m kg
2 2 (2) 1 kg m / s 2
9.8066 m 23 m 1N
gz = = 225.6 N m kg , F = 50 J kg = 50 N m kg
s2 1 kg m / s 2
1740 kg 1 min
Mass flow rate: m = = 2.23 kg s
13 min 60 s
b
Mechanical energy balance Eq. 7.7 - 2 g
LM
W s = m
P u 2
+ + gz + F =
OP
2.23 kg b0.552 + 225.6 + 50gN m 1J 1 kW
N 2 s Q kg 1 N m 10 3 J s
= 0.62 kW 0.62 kW delivered to fluid by pump.
7-34