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Σ

n

=0

JOYCE P. BOWEN, Ph.D.

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©2003 Joyce P. Bowen revised 2004 revised 2008 All Rights Reserved

ISBN 0-9615454-2-9

Cover Art by Yaounde Olu

The author may be contacted at astropoint@aol.com

Astropoint Research Associates Chicago, Illinois

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful for constructive criticism, advice and/or philosophical support from Emanuel Gugwor, Dr. Sow Aboubacar Sidy, Christine Bowen, Pamela Dominguez, Charmaine Anderson, Jeanne Ricks, Lerone Bennett, Jr., and Jeffrey Shallit. Thank you all.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Introduction……………………………………………………………………….7 Chapter One ………………………………………………………………….…..8 Rules of Analysis Chapter Two……………………………………………………………………. 12 Circular and Periodic Numbers Chapter Three………………………………………………………………..…14 Other Numbers Chapter Four………………………………………………………………….... 22 Pi Patterns Chapter Five…………………………………………………………………..…31 Whole Number Increments Chapter Six………………………………………………………………….…..36 Irrational and Transcendental Numbers Chapter Seven……………………………………………………………….....41 Base Two Chapter Eight……………………………………………………………….. …42 Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers Chapter Nine………………………………………………………………...….46 Pascal’s Triangle Chapter Ten………………………………………………………………….….48 Prime Numbers Chapter Eleven………………………………………………………………....53 Square Business Chapter Twelve………………………………………………………………....63 Numbers of Proton and Neutron Stability Chapter Thirteen……………………………………………………..……..….66 Notions about Nothing and Everything 4

Chapter Fourteen…………………………………………………………………….69 Additive Assessment Chapter Fifteen……………………………………………………………………….74 Multiplicative Assessment Chapter Sixteen…………………………………………………………………..….78 Factorials Chapter Seventeen……………………………………………………………..……79 Conclusions and Implications/The end of randomness Analysis Catalogue…………………………………………………………………..82 Natural Numbers – 1 – 100…………………………………………………..83

Reciprocals of 1 – 100…………………………………………………..……98 Mirrors……………………………………………………………………..….112 Other Number Sequences……………………………………….……..…..118 Bibliography……………………………………..……………………………….…125

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For every continuous symmetry of the laws of physics, there must exist a conservation law. For every conservation law, there must exist a continuous symmetry.

(Proved by Emmy Noether in 1905)

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INTRODUCTION

In today=s society numbers are merely seen as tools for calculation. The notion that numbers are things in themselves@ and have deeper import is not always considered. In this book I will examine numbers with the goal of uncovering deeper meanings and evidence of an underlying order to seemingly random numerical systems. Increment Analysis, assessing number relationships between adjacent numbers in numerical sequences, is a technique used to identify and synthesize number relationships. Increment Analysis differs from the calculus of sequence differences in that the result of analysis is a charged number line. Increment Analysis reveals previously unobserved patterns in Fibonacci numbers, Lucas numbers and prime numbers. In a nutshell, Increment Analysis reveals obvious, arithmetical characteristics of number sequences that were heretofore hidden, and where the increments of all whole numbers, or fragments of irrational or transcendental numbers sum to zero while exhibiting beautiful symmetries.

There are mirror image groupings that cancel each other with a resultant of zero in circular numbers. In some cases, 58 and 60 element mirror image sequences are revealed. In addition, there are oscillating digits denoting a wave pattern whose sum tends to converge to zero in non-circular number sequences. When zeros are added before and after any sequence, the result is digits which cancel to zero. Increment Analysis, therefore, may uncover a type of numerical homeostasis with zero as a focal point. In other words, there seems to be a Law of Digit Balance wherein the digits of all numbers in all number sequences have increments that sum to zero in beautifully arranged symmetries.

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CHAPTER ONE

RULES OF ANALYSIS

1. Select a number sequence and evaluate the increments between adjacent numbers so that they become positive or negative in relation to each other. Ignore decimal points and treat the number as a continuous sequence. For example, the reciprocal of seven is a series of repeating numbers 0.01428571…:

CONJECTURE

1 4 2 8 5

The increment between “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ 1 and 4 is 4 and 2 is 2 and 8 is 8 and 5 is 5 and 7 is 7 and 1 is +3 –2 +6 –3 +2 -6

7 1…:

The resulting number string, therefore, is

+3 -2 +6 -3 +2 -6…

2. Isolate the resulting binary patterns and cancel them to zero, leaving one or more remainders. In the above case, +3 -2 and –3 +2 cancel each other, and the +6 and –6 also cancel each other, resulting in 0. 3. To see the underlying patterns of any sequence or sequence segment that is not a circular number, you add zeros before and after the sequence and proceed with the methodology outlined in number 1 above. The digits will always cancel to zero. 4. Though it is important to keep in mind that each digit is an increment that is ten times more precise than the last in the decimal expansion of numbers, the numbers are taken at face value. 5. For further details on analysis and extracting 2nd, 3rd, or N order sequences from non-circular number segments without adding zeros, see the chapter on Pi Patterns. 8

CONJECTURE: The increments between adjacent numbers in circular,1 or revolving number sequences generate oscillating mirror image number groupings that always cancel to 0.

EXPERIMENTAL DATA Let nC = digits in a circular number sequence Let ∆ = the increments between adjacent numbers in the sequence If nc is extended indefinitely,

Then:

Σ∆n

C

=0

The Reciprocal of Number Seven The sum of the increments between the digits of the circular number, the reciprocal of seven, yields oscillating digits that cancel to 0. The reciprocal of the number seven, 1/7, = 0.01428571428571… Analysis: the increment between 1 and 4 is +3; between 4 and 2 is –2; between 2 and 8 is +6; between 8 and 5, -3; between 5 and 7 is +2, etc. The resultant number string is +3 –2 +6

–3 +2 –6

+3 –2 +6

–3 +2 –6 …∞ = 0 ∞

Hence, the outcome yields 6-element mirror image groupings that cancel to zero.

1 Circular numbers produce the same arithmetic sequence of numbers, but starting in different positions, when multiplied or divided by given numbers.

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The Reciprocal of Number Thirteen The sum of the increments between the digits of the reciprocal of thirteen yields oscillating mirror-image digits that cancel to 0. The reciprocal of the number thirteen, 1/13, is

0.0769230769230…

The resultant number string after increment analysis is:

+7 -1 +3

-7 +1 –3

+7 -1 +3

-7 +1 - 3…∞ = 0 ∞

Again, the outcome yields 6-element mirror image groupings that cancel to zero. The number thirteen, when divided by any number between one and nine, yields two cyclic variations based on the numbers 0.076923 and 0.1538461. The 0.076923 pattern was analyzed above. Let’s look at 0.15384615…

15384615… after analysis yields +4 - 2 +5 -4 +2 - 5 +4 -2 +5 - 4 +2 - 5…∞ = 0 ∞

Once again, we see 6-element mirror image groupings that cancel to zero. The Reciprocal of Number 17 The sum of the increments between the digits of the cyclic number, the reciprocal of seventeen, 1/17, yield oscillating digits that cancel to 0. The reciprocal of the number seventeen = 1/17=0.05882352941176470… After synthesis:

+5 +3 0 - 6

+1 +2 - 3 +7

- 5 - 3 0 +6

-1 -2 +3 -7…∞ = 0 ∞

**This is a 16-element mirror image grouping that cancels to zero.
**

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**The Reciprocal of Seven divided by its mirror image and then divided by the result:
**

Dividing the reciprocal of seven (142857) by its mirror image (758241) and then dividing the result (5.30769203…) by seven results in oscillating digits that cancel to zero.

5.30769203 ÷ 7 = 0.7582417… 7 5 8 2 4 1 7… The resultant number string, after synthesis, is -2 +3 -6 +2 -3 +6…∞ = 0 ∞

…a 6-element mirror image grouping that cancels to zero.

The number seven divided by thirteen results in oscillating digits that cancel to zero. 7/13 = 0.538461538461538461…: 53 8 4 6 1 5… After synthesis yields

-2 +5 -4 +2 -5 +4… ∞ = 0

6-element mirror images that cancel to zero.

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CHAPTER TWO

CIRCULAR NUMBERS AND THE NUMBER NINE All circular numbers are related to the number nine, in that they produce series of nines when they are divided in half. It may be surmised, therefore, that the number nine is related to zero, since the increments between the digits of circular numbers cancel to zero. Consider the following results when the digits of circular numbers are added together to produce a final number:

1/7=0.142857; 1 + 4 + 2 + 8 + 5 + 7 = 27; 2 + 7 = 9

1/13 = 0.076923; 7 + 6 + 9 + 2 + 3 = 27; 2 + 7 = 9 1/17 = 0.0588235294117647; 5+8 + 8 +3 + 3 + 5 + 2 + 9 + 4 + 1 + 1 + 7 + 6 + 4 + 7 = 72; 7+2=9

2/13 = 153846; 1 + 5 + 3 + 8 + 4 + 6 = 27; 2 + 7 = 9

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Number

1/7=0.142857;

**Pattern after synthesis
**

+3 -2 +6 -3 +2 -6…. ∞ = 0

1/13 = 0.076923;

+7 -1 +3

-7 +1 -3… ∞ = 0

1/17 = 0.0588235294117647; +5 +3 0 -6 +1 +2 -3 +7 =0 2/13 = 153846; +4 -2 +5 -4 +2 -5…∞ = 0 ∞

-5 -3 0 +6 -1 -2 +3 -7…∞ ∞

The mirror image symmetry produced by increment analysis of these numbers is sheer beauty. Consider the reciprocal of 17 where a 16-element mirror image grouping is generated! THE NUMBER NINE CYCLES TO ZERO In a related matter, whenever nine divides any number between 1 and 8 the result is repeating digits (repdigits) whose increments equal zero. For example:

1/9 = 0.111111111 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞ 2/9 = 0.222222222 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞ 3/9 = 0.333333333 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞ 4/9 = 0.444444444 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞ 5/9 = 0.555555555 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞ 6/9 = 0.666666666 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞ 7/9 = 0.777777777 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞ 8/9 = 0.888888888 = 00000000........∞ = 0 ∞

All of the foregoing implies a “zero-ness” of cycles (circles). 13

CHAPTER THREE

**NON-CIRCULAR NUMBERS
**

The previous chapters illustrated the tendency of circular numbers to generate mirror image oscillating digits that cancel to zero. The case will be made in this chapter that non-monotonic increasing or decreasing number sequences generate number patterns with adjacent binary pairs and mirror image symmetries. Sometimes there is a remainder, a Point of Synthesis, and a mode of 0. Increment Analysis reveals hidden patterns in all number sequences.

CONJECTURE

All number sequences that are non-monotonic increasing or decreasing generate non-random number patterns with oscillating digits that result in a residual Point of Synthesis and a mode of 0.

Let n = digits in a number sequence. Let ∆ = increments between adjacent digits. Let Ps = Point of Synthesis

If n is a non- monotonic increasing or decreasing number sequence,

Then:

Σ∆n=P

14

s

≥ 0

EXPERIMENTAL DATA The reciprocal of a rough approximation of the fine structure constant (1/137) produces digits that cancel to zero.

1/137 = 0.007299270…

=0 +7 -5 +7 0 -7 +5 -7 0 ∞=0

The result is 6-element mirrors that cancel to zero, the Point of Synthesis. (1/137 is a natural palindrome, i.e., 729 927, which forms a palindrome mirror)

RECIPROCAL OF # 22

The reciprocal of the number 22 is 0.0454545454545… 454545454545 The resultant number string after analysis is:

+1 –1

+ 1 –1

+1 –1 =0

+1 –1

+1 –1…

After canceling the binaries, the remainder is 0. Zero, therefore, is the Ps.

**THE NUMBER 4 ÷ 22 = 0.181818181818181818…
**

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1 8 1 8 1 8 1 8 1… After synthesis yields +7 –7 +7 –7 +7 –7 +7 –7…∞= 0 ∞ The Ps is 0.

The reciprocal of thirteen subtracted from the reciprocal of seven is the same as the reciprocal of seven subtracted from the reciprocal of thirteen, only negative.

0.142857142 (carried out to nine digits) -0.076923076 0.065934066 and interestingly, 0.076923076 -0.142857142 0.065934066

The resulting number sequence in both cases is 0 6 5 9 3 4 0 6 6

**After analysis we get
**

+6 -1 +4 -6 +1 -4 +6 0

After canceling the 6-element mirror-image grouping of +6 -1 +4, -6 +1 -4, we are left with a Ps of +6, or simply 6. It must be kept in mind that this is carried out to nine digits; the

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remainder of +6 will be replaced by another digit if more decimal places are included. If a final zero is added to the original sequence, it cancels to zero.

THE RECIPROCAL OF SEVEN DIVIDED BY ITS MIRROR IMAGE

The reciprocal of the number seven divided by its mirror image yields a seeming variant of the reciprocal of thirteen:

758241 ÷ 142857 = 5.30769203769203769203…; 5 3 0 7 6 9 2 0 3 7 6 9 2 0 3 7 6 9 2 0 3…

The result after synthesis yields:

-2 –3 +7 –1 +3 –7 – 2

+3 +4 -1 +3 – 7 –2 +3 +4 –1 +3 –7 –2 +1…; ↓ ↓ +7 +7

results in the following second order sequence: -2 –3 +7 –1 +3 - 7 –2 +7 -1 +3 –7 –2 +7 –1 +3… ;

**A third order sequence reveals: -2 -3 ↓ -5 +7 +7 -1 +3 ↓ +2 -7 -2 +7 -1 +3 -7 -2 +7 +2 ↓ -7 -2 +7 +2 -7 -2 +7 +2;
**

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**After canceling the 4-element oscillating mirrors (+7 +2, -7 -2) the resulting Ps is –5.
**

RECIPROCAL OF 82.9 1 ÷ 82.9 = 0.012062726176115… After synthesis, this yields: +1 +1 -2 +6 -4 +5 -5 +4 -5 +6 -1 -5 0 +4 second order sequence: +1 +1 -2 +6 -4 +5 -5 +4 -5 +6 -1 -5 0 +4 ↓ +2 -2 ↓ +2 +5 -5 +4 -5 ↓ +5 -5 0 +4

third order sequence: +2 -2 +2 +5 -5 +4 -5 +5 -5 0 +4

fourth order sequence: +4 +4 Ps = +8

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SQUARE ROOT OF THE RECIPROCAL OF THIRTEEN In some number sequences such as those in the last two examples, the mirrors and oscillating digits are not obvious, though they exist nevertheless. Consider the following example. 1 ÷ √13 = 1 ÷ √769230 = 877.05758 8 7 7 0 5 7 5 8: After analysis we get: -1 0 -7 +5 +2 -2 +3 -1 0 –7 = --8; +5 +3= +8;

--8 +8 = 0 The Ps, therefore, is 0. FIVE DIVIDED BY TWENTY-ONE: 5 ÷21 =0.2380952; 2 3 8 0 9 5 2 Yields + 1 +5 +1 +5 = +6; -8 +9 -8 +9 =+1; -4 -3; -4 -3=-7;

+6 +1 = +7;

-4 -3 = -7

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+7 -7 = 0 The Ps = 0. SIX DIVIDED BY TWENTY-ONE 6 /21 = 0.2857142; 2 8 5 7 1 4 2 After analysis we get: +6 -3 +2 -6 +3 -2

6-element mirror with the Ps = 0.

EIGHT DIVIDED BY 21 ( 8/21)

= 0.3809523

**=3 8 0 9 5 2 3 5 -8 +9 -4 -3 +1 ↓ ↓ ↓ -3 +9 -7 +1 second order sequence ↓ ↓ +6 -6; third order sequence +6 - 6 + ↓ 0 The Ps of 8/21 is, therefore, 0.
**

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**NINE DIVIDED BY TWENTY-ONE ( 9/21): = 0.4285714… 4 2 8 5 7 1 4 -2 +6 -3 0 The Ps = 0
**

THE NUMBER 13492 --

+2 -6 +3

=1819801 +7 –7 +8 -1 -8 +1

+7 ↓ 0 Ps = 0 Note: The Ps of 1349 squared is, therefore, 0. The number 1349, by the way, was derived in the following manner: The reciprocal of the number thirteen is a circular number, as is the reciprocal of the number seven. Unlike seven, however, thirteen cycles two groups of numbers when a number between one and nine is divided by thirteen: 0.076923 and 0.153846. The numbers 1, 3, 4, and 9 cycle on the digits 076923, hence the #1349. The remaining numbers cycle the digits 153846. 0 -7 +8 -1 -8 +1

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CHAPTER FOUR

PI PATTERNS

ORGANIZED PATTERNS IN THE DIGITS OF PI

Pi, the number that expresses the relationship between the diameter and circumference of a circle, has fascinated people for centuries. Around 2000 B.C. the Babylonians used pi as 3 1/8. During that same period the ancient Egyptians identified the relationship as (16/9)2 =3.1605. In the 12th century B.C. the Chinese used pi = 3, and in the Bible in 550 B.C., I Kings vii, 23 implies pi = 3. In the 3rd century B.C. Archimedes establishes pi using a geometric method as pi = 3.14163. These earlier researchers did not use the Greek letter as a symbol for pi, however. It has only been used for the past 250 years. In 1766 Johann Heinrich Lambert proves the irrationality of pi and in 1882 F. Lindemann proves the transcendence of pi. Digit hunters throughout the centuries have tried to determine the number of digits in pi. To date, more than 51.5 billion digits have been identified, and no identifiable pattern has emerged. Until now, that is. David Blatner in his delightful book entitled The "Joy of Pi" (Walker Publishing Co., 1997) states "There's little doubt that if we understood this number better--if we could find a pattern in its digits or a deeper awareness of why it appears in so many seemingly unrelated equations--we'd have a deeper understanding of mathematics and the physics of our universe." He goes on to say "The digits of pi appear so random that if there were a rule to the sequence, it may require billions--or trillions--of digits to begin to see it." Perhaps not.

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The following number experiment uses a quaternary, reiterative skip sequence on the first 218 digits of pi to create new digits for increment analysis.

THE FIRST 218 DIGITS OF PI 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510582097494459230781 640628620899862803482534211706798214808651328230664709384460955058223 172535940812848111745028410270193852110555964462294895493038196442881 097566593344 QUATERNARY REITERATIVE SKIP SEQUENCE A quaternary reiterative skip sequence was used. This is done in the following manner: 1 - 2 - 3-4 1 -2-3 -4 1 -2-3 - 4 1 - 2 - etc. etc.

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In this sequence 1 reiterates 4, i.e., the one in the next sequence is the same as the 4 in the last sequence. The following digits are the result of using this quaternary, reiterative skip sequence on the first 218 digits of pi:

312393823398113312442848888831684632694952734281547 3259428439487634

Analysis: First Order Sequence

Once these skip sequence digits were identified, a relationship between them was assessed. The following first order sequence resulted from determining the positive or negative increments between digits of the resultant skip sequence. (It is important to keep in mind that though each digit is an increment that is ten times more precise than the last in this decimal expansion of pi, the numbers are taken at face value. For example, the first numbers in the resulting sequence are 3 1 2 3 9 3....therefore, from 3 to 1 is -2; from 1 to 2 is +1; from 2 to 3 is +1; from 3 to 9 is +6; from 9 to 3 is -6; etc. etc.

Resultant Patterns—First Order Sequence -2 +1 +1 +6 -6 +5 -6 +1 0 +6 -1 -7 0 +2 0 -2 +1 +2 0 -2 +6 -4 +4 0 0 0 0 -5 -2 +5 +2 -4 +2 -3 -1 +4 +3 -5 +5 -4 -3 +5 -4 +1 -2 +6 -7 +4 -1 +3 -4 -1 +3 +4 -5 -2 +6 -4 -1 +6 -5 +4 -1 -1 -3 +1

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The following mirrors and oscillating digits were found in the previous number string. -2 +1 +1 +6 -6 +5 -6 +1 0 +6 -1 -7 0 +2 0 -2 +1

+2 0 -2 +6 -4 +4 0 0 0 0 -5 -2 +5 +2 -4 +2 -3 -1

+4 +3 -5 +5 -4 -3 +5 -4 +1 -2 +6 -7 +4 -1 +3

-4 -1 +3 +4 -5 -2 +6 -4 -1 +6 -5 +4 -1 -1 -3 +1

Binary patterns emerge in the first 218 digits of pi. A remarkable symmetry seems evident where positive and negative numbers in reciprocal positions occur in a seeming non-random manner. In addition, without exception, numbers or number groupings on the opposite sides of zeroes are have opposite or balancing polarities in the first order sequence. Observe the following while keeping in mind the fact that this is the exact order in which they appeared in the number string: +6 -6 -6 +1 0 +6 -1 +2 0 -2 + 1 +2 0 -2 -4 +4 0000 -5 -2, +5 +2

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+4 +3, -5 +5, -4 -3 +4 -1 +3, -4 -1 +3 In addition, note the fact that +5 -4 or +4 -5 repeat five times in various places in the string. Also note that there are no 8s or 9s in the string.

The numbers not included in the number groupings identified in the first order sequence noted above were found to also have binary relationships when a synthesis methodology was employed.

Synthesis of the First Order Sequence to Create a Second Order Sequence A synthesis methodology was devised to test the apparent binary nature of the digits. Basically, synthesis is the resolution of binaries. The following "rules" were utilized: 1. only adjacent numbers or number groupings were used, or those that are separated by one or more zeroes; 2. these are subsequently added until a final result, i.e., resolution of binaries, is achieved. For the first 218 digits, it took four sequence generations to reach neutralization. The italicized numbers below result from the number groupings beneath them and represent a subsequent order. -2 | +2 / \ 0 / \ +5 | -5 / \ 0 | +5 / \ -7 (second order) |

-2 [+1 +1] [+6 -6]

+5 [-6 +1]

0 [+6 -1] -7

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0 | /

0 \

+1 | /

0 \

+6 |

0 / \ /

0 (second order) \

0 [+2 0 -2] +1 [+2 0 -2] +6 [-4 +4] [0 0 0 0]

-7 / \

+7 / \ /

-6 (second order) \

[-5 -2] [+5 +2] [-4 +2 -3 -1]

+7 / \

0 / \

-7 / \

+1 / \

-1 / \

-1 (second order.) / \

[+4 +3] [-5 +5] [-4 -3] [+5 -4] [+1 -2] [+6 -7]

+6 / \

(second order)

[+4 -1 +3]

-2 / \

-1 / \

+4 / \

-4 -1 | |

+1 / \

+4 (second order) |

[-4 -1 +3] [+4 -5] [-2 +6] -4 -1 [+6 -5] +4

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-1 | -1 /

-4 \

+1 (second order.) | +1

[ -1 -3]

Third Order Sequence 0 / \ 0 | 0 / \/ 0 \ -7 | 0 | 0 0 | 0 +7 (third order) / \

[-2 +2] 0 [+5 -5 0 +5] -7

+1 0 +6

0 | 0

0 | 0

0 / \ -7 +7

-6 | -6

0 / \

0 / \

-1 |

+6 | +6

-2 (third order) | -2

+7 0 -7 +1 -1 -1

-1 |

0 / \

0 / \

+3 / \

-3 (third order) / \

-1 +4 -4 -1 +1 +4 -1 -4 +1

Fourth Order Sequence 0 | 0 0 | 0 0 | 0 0 | / 0 \ / 0 \ +6 (fourth order) |

0 -7 0 0 +7

[-6 0 0 -1] +6

28

(-7 0 0 +7 0 0 0 -7 )

0 / \

0 / \ +3 -3 +3 -3)

(fourth order)

[-2 -1] 0 0 (-3 0 0

A resolution of increments in the first 218 digits of pi, therefore, results in the following sequence: 0 0 0 0 0 0 +6 0 0 ; where the mode is zero and the Point of Synthesis is +6.

SUMMARY OF 2ND THROUGH 4TH ORDER SEQUENCES SECOND ORDER: -2 +2 0 +5 - 5 0 +5 -7 0 0 +1 0 +6 0 0 -7 +7 -6 +7 0 -7 +1 -1 -1 +6 -2 -1 +4 -4 -1 +1 [+4 -1] [ -4 +1]

THIRD ORDER: 0 0 0 0 -7 0 0 +7 0 0 0 -7 +6 -3 0 0 +3 -3 FOURTH ORDER: 0 0 0 0 0 0 +6 0 0

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Based on the foregoing number experiment there are mirrors and binary patterns underlying the first 218 digits of pi where the increments tend toward zero. More research would have to be done, of course, to determine whether or not this pattern is ongoing up to and beyond the more than 51.5 billion digits of pi that have been identified thus far. What is definite, however, is that any sequence extracted from the digits of pi have increments that sum to zero, as will be demonstrated later.

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CHAPTER FIVE

**WHOLE NUMBER INCREMENTS
**

The major focus thus far has been on reciprocals of numbers and their increments that sum to zero. Now I will examine whole number increments. It will be found that they always sum to zero.

With whole numbers, to assess the increments, you must add a zero to the beginning of the number and a zero to the end (unless the number ends in zero. In that case, you don’t add an extra zero). The rationale for this is that there is an understood zero, or absence of a number at the beginning and ending of a whole number.

CONJECTURE;

The increments of any whole number sum to zero. EXPERIMENTAL DATA: Let n = a whole (natural) number Let

∈ = increment ∞

Then,

Σ ∆=0

0…n

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EXPERIMENTAL DATA

Number sample Synthesis

1

0 1 0 = +1 -1 = 0

2

0 2 0= +2 -2 = 0

13

0 1 3 0= + 1 +2 –3 = +3 -3 = 0

477

0 4 7 7 0= +4 +3 0 -7 = +7 -7 = 0

4579

045790 = +4 +1 +2 +2 –9 = +9 -9 = 0

36920

036920= +3 +3 +3 –7 –2= +9 -9 = 0

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7787537

077875370 +7 0 +1 –1 –2 –2 +4 – 7= +8 –5 +4 -7 +8 +8 -1 -7 =

-8 = 0

3123

031230 = +3 – 2 +1 +1 –3 = +3 -2 +2 -3 = 0

2138

021380 = +2 -1 +2 +5 –8 = +1 +8 +7 -8 = -8 = 0

146

01460 = +1 +3 +2 -6 = +6 -6 = 0

175

01750 = +1 +6 -2 -5 = +7 -7 = 0

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2903

029030 +2 +7 –9 +3 –3 = +9 -9 +3 -3 = 0

3167

031670 = +3 –2 +5 +1 -7 = +1 +7 +6 -7 = -7 = 0

1699

016990 = +1 +5 +3 0 -9 = +9 0 -9 = 0

3851

038510 = +3 +5 -3 -4 -1 = +8 -8 = 0

797

0790 = +7 +2 –2 –7 = 0

4049

040490 = +4 -4 +4 +5 -9 = 0 +9 -9

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877

08770 = +8 –1 0 -7 = +8 -8 =0

953

09530 = +9 -4 -2 -3 = +9 -9 =0

2459

024590 = +2 +2 +1 +4 -9 = +9 -9 = 0

382

03820 = +3 +5 -6 -2 = +8 -8 = 0

267

02670 = +2 +4 +1 -7 = +7 -7 = 0

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CHAPTER SIX

**IRRATIONAL AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS
**

An irrational number is a number that is not capable of being expressed as an integer or as a quotient of an integer. A transcendental number is a number, such as pi, which is not the root of any polynomial equation with integer coefficients; i.e., it is not an algebraic number. Pi is also irrational. When any series of consecutive digits is lifted from any irrational or transcendental number and zero is placed in front of and behind the fragment, the sum of the increments is always 0!

Conjecture: The sum of increments in number sequences extracted from irrational and transcendental numbers always equals 0.

Pi, to 24 digits = 3.14159265358979323846264….

Extract the sequence:

6535897;

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Add zeros before and after the fragment:

065358970 = +6 +6 +6 +8 -1 -2 -3 +2 +2 +3 +5 +1 -2 -7 = -1 -7= -8 = -8 = 0

Extracting another sequence from the pi expansion:

8462= 084620 = +8 -4 +2 -4 -2 = +8 -2 +6 -6 -6 = 0

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Feigenbaum numbers have not proven to be transcendental, but are generally believed to be. They are related to properties of dynamical systems with period doubling. The ratio of successive differences between period doubling bifurcation parameters approaches the number 4.669…..

Feigenbaum constant to the 30th digit:

4.66920160910299067185320388204…

Extracting sequence :

6718532:

Adding zeros:

067185320 = +6 +1 -6 +7 +8 -3 -2 -1 -2 = -8 = 0

38

**The irrational square root of 2 = √2 = 1.4142135623730950488016887242097…;
**

Extract sequence:

73095:

add zeros:

0730950 = +7 -4 -3 +7 -7 +9 +9 -4 -5 = -9 = 0

39

**A “PROOF” THAT ALL OF THE INCREMENTS BETWEEN DIGITS IN TRANCENDENTAL NUMBERS SUM TO ZERO
**

If it can be proven that the increments between all digits of transcendental numbers sum to zero, it may lend credence to the position that the digits in transcendental numbers are not random. To demonstrate this point, I will use a variation of the proof that the late Middle Ages French scholar Nicole d’Oresme (ca.1323 – 1382) used to prove the divergence of the harmonic series. D’Oresme pointed out that 1/3 + ¼ is greater than ½; so is 1/5 + 1/6+ 1/7 + 1/8; so is 1/9 + 1/10 + 1/11 + 1/12 + 1/13 + 1/14 + 1/15 + 1/ 16 ; and so on. In other words, by taking 2 terms, then 4 terms, then 8, then 16 terms, and so on, you can group the series into an infinite number of blocks, every one of which is bigger than one-half. The entire sum must, therefore, be infinite. No matter what, there is always another one-half to be added; and that means that the total increases without limit.2 In the following proof, larger and larger blocks of the decimal expansion of a transcendental number are considered utilizing a process called additive assessment (see chapter 14). If the digits in transcendental numbers are taken in larger and larger blocks with zeroes added before and after the blocks, the sum of increments is always zero, therefore, the sum of increments in the digit expansion will always be zero through infinity. Let n = integer Let nts = any number segment in a transcendental number Let 02 = zeroes before and after any segment Let ∆ = increment segments through infinity If ∆ nts +n + 02 = 0; Then Σ ∆ nts + n + 02 ----- ∞ = 0

Q.E.D.

2 John Derbyshire. Prime Obsession: Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics. Joseph Henry Press. Washington, D.C. 2003

40

CHAPTER SEVEN

BASE TWO

When assessing numbers in base two, we get a similar result when assessing the face value of the numbers. For example, #7 in Base 10 equals 111 in base 2.

111 = 01110 = +1 0 0 -1 = 0 #13 in base 2 equals 1101: 1101 = 011010 = +1 0 -1 +1 -1 = 0 #17 in base 2 equals 10001: 10001 = 0100010 = +1 -1 00 +1 -1 = 0

41

CHAPTER EIGHT

FIBONACCI AND LUCAS NUMBERS The Fibonacci Numbers

Fibonacci numbers were first demonstrated by Leonardo of Pisa, better known as Fibonacci, in his book titled Liber Abaci published in 1202. In it he discussed the number of rabbits that would be born from a pair of rabbits at the beginning of every month. The resulting number of rabbits revealed the following pattern: 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55, etc. This series converges to a number called the “golden ratio,” which is rounded off here to 1.6180339887….. Basically, you take a term, divide it by the previous term, and the number converges to the golden ratio. This number is found in many places in nature. The formula that generates this number is: ( 1 + √5) = 1.6180339887…..

2

In an examination of the first 500 Fibonacci numbers, Increment Analysis has revealed an interesting pattern– when the digits are summed modulo nine, a recurring sequence with a mirror pattern emerges. The sequence is:

112358437189887641562819…1…….

This series of numbers repeats continually beginning again at every 24th digit. The 24th digit always sums to nine. The increment pattern that emerges is:

0 +1 +1 +2 +3 -4 -1 +4 -6 +7 +1 -1 0 –1 -1 -2 -3 +4 +1 -4 +6 -7 +8 -8

The series sums to a perfect mirror with an anomaly, +1 +8, -1 –8, which sums to +9 and –9, which sums to zero.

42

**The Lucas Numbers
**

The Lucas Numbers are similar to the Fibonacci numbers, but they start with 2 and 1 instead of the Fibonacci’s 0 and 1. The series is named after Edouard Lucas (1842 – 1891), professor of mathematics at the Lycee Charlemagne in Paris who developed a well-known formula for the Fibonacci numbers as well as the numbers that bear his name. The first few Lucas numbers are: 2,1,3,4,7,11,18,29,47,76,123,199,322, etc.

When the first 200 Lucas numbers are summed modulo nine, as with the Fibonacci numbers, a recurring series emerges which also repeats at every 24th number. In every case, the pivot number sums to eight. The series is:

213472922461786527977538…2…

The resulting mirror becomes evident:

-1 +2 +1 +3 -5 +7 -7 +1 -2 -1 -3 +5 +2 -2

0 +2 +2 -5 +6 0 -2 -2 +5 -6

This is a perfect mirror with an anomaly, +7 +2, -7 -2, that sums to +9 -9, which = 0.

43

**The first 25 Fibonacci numbers
**

Number 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 17711 28657 46368 (F#24) 75025 ∑ mod 9 1 1 2 3 5 8 4 3 7 1 8 9 8 8 7 6 4 1 5 6 2 8 1 9 1

44

**The first twenty-five Lucas numbers
**

Number 2 1 3 4 7 11 18 29 47 76 123 199 322 521 843 1364 2207 3571 5778 9349 15127 24476 39603 64079 (L#24) 103682 ∑ mod 9 2 1 3 4 7 2 9 2 2 4 6 1 7 8 6 5 2 7 9 7 7 5 3 8 2

45

CHAPTER NINE

PASCAL’S TRIANGLE

Pascal’s Triangle was designed by Blaise Pascal in the 17th century. The Chinese, however, knew of this triangle centuries before Pascal. It has been found that the permutations relate directly to terms of the Binomial Theorem. It can also be used in the analysis of probabilities. From an Increment Analysis standpoint, Pascal’s Triangle creates a series of palindrome mirrors. (A palindrome is a number that reads the same way forward or backward).

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 5 15 4 3 6 10 2 3 4 10 20 1 1 1 1 5 15 6 1 1

46

The previous triangle, completed through the seventh row, demonstrates the following pattern:

0 +1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +9 +2 +5 0 -2 0 +5 -5 -5 -1 -2 -3 -4 -9 -5

The sum of the increments in this triangle, and to one of any power, is equal to one, i.e., unity. An intriguing question: would the sum of increments be 1 in a Pascal Pyramid?.

47

CHAPTER TEN

PRIME NUMBERS

Prime numbers are numbers that have only factor of themselves and one. They are enigmatic, in that no discernable pattern of organization is evident. When Einstein said God doesn’t play dice when expressing exasperation about quantum physics, he could have said the same thing about prime numbers. There have been some advances in understanding them. Researchers have been able to make progress regarding the conjecture that there are an infinite number of pairs of prime numbers that differ only by two. It has also been found that the frequency of twin primes decreases as one gets to larger numbers. Brun’s constant, another revealing aspect of their nature, is found by adding the reciprocals of successive twin primes. When this is done, the sum converges to a specific numerical value which is 1.902160582310… The reciprocals of all of the primes, on the other hand, diverge. The Goldbach Conjecture, that every even number is the sum of two primes has not yet been proven. It is known, however, that all twin primes are of the multiple 6k +/- 1. Other mathematicians who have thrown their hats into the prime ring are Mersenne (Mersenne Primes), Sophie Germaine ( Sophie Germaine Primes) and Fermat (Fermat Primes) just to name a few. One of the most intriguing of prime conjectures, however, is the Riemann Hypothesis. Briefly stated, when studying the distribution of prime numbers, Riemann extended Euler’s zeta function, defined for real part greater than one, to the entire complex plane. When he did, he noted that his zeta function had trivial zeros at –2, -4, -6,… and that all

48

nontrivial zeros were symmetric about the line Re(s) + ½. The hypothesis is that all nontrivial zeros are on this line. The Clay Mathematics Institute has offered to pay $1 million dollars to anyone that can prove this hypothesis to be true.

Increment Analysis has uncovered some peculiarities about primes. When the primes are assessed as sums modulo nine, they all resolve to digits of the reciprocal of the number seven. Those digits are 0.142857 142857…..The primes, however, do not follow in a particular order that has yet been noted. What has been revealed by Increment Analysis is:

• No prime number with two or more digits sums to 6, 3, or 9. • No prime with two or more digits ends with the number 5. • The final digit of any prime number of two or more digits can only be 1, 3,

7, or 9.

**• There is a yin yang configuration of the primes. The only even prime,
**

number 2, is separated from every other prime by odd numbered increments. Every odd prime is separated from every other prime by an even numbered increment. • Though it has been shown that the frequency of twin primes decreases as one gets to larger numbers, Increment Analysis demonstrates the fact that the frequency of larger increments increases as one gets to larger numbers.

49

FREQUENCY OF ALL ADJACENT NUMBER INCREMENTS IN THE FIRST 101 PRIMES:

25 20 15 10 5 #10 #14 #2 #6 0 3-D Column 1 3-D Column 2 3-D Column 3

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

# 2 appears 25 x # 4 appears 25 x # 6 appears 25 x # 8 appears 7 x # 10 appears 8 x # 12 appears 4 x # 14 appears 3 x # 18 appears once

In addition, the increment between the 20,861st and 20,862nd prime (235,397 and 235,439) is 42. THE FIRST 101 PRIMES SUMMED MODUL0 9 DEMONSTRATING DIGITS FROM THE RECIPROCAL OF THE NUMBER SEVEN (1)23 = The Supernal Triad 5724815241572857481287248151524574152812481472485785281724515727 4572874152154578172872482154858117

50

PRIME EXCLUSION PRINCIPLES Based on the foregoing, it is safe to assume that, when assessing a number with two or more digits, you know it is not prime if the final digit is a 5. It is also not prime if the sum modulo nine is not one of the digits of the reciprocal of seven.

PRIMAL ELEMENTS

When considering the Periodic Table of the Elements, the prime number elements are arranged in interesting patterns. The periodic table is divided into classes numbered from 1 through 18. The 18th division is comprised of the “noble gases.”

I 1 II 2 IIIb IVb Vb Vib VIIb 3 4 5 6

none

VIIIb 8 9 10

none

Ib 11

IIb 12

none

III 13

IV 14

none

V 15

VI 16

none

VII 17

0 18

7

Li Na K Rb

none Ac none

V Nb Ta Pr

Tc noneMt Bh Pm

Cu Ag Au Bk

B Al Ga Ho

N Bi Md

Cl I Lu Lr

He

Totals 4 0 1 0 4 0 3 0 1 0 4 0 4 0 3 0 4 1

The “prime” elements, i.e., the elements with the same number of protons as the prime numbers, tend to alternate, and they tend to fall in prime numbered columns, with a few exceptions. When the total number of prime elements in each group is reduced to a number, the following sequence results: 4 0 1 0 4 0 3 0 1 0 4 0 4 0 3 0 4 1;

401040301040403041 = 04010403010404030410 =

51

+4 -4 +1 -1 +4 -4 +3 -3 +1 -1 +4 -4 +4 -4 +3 -3 +4 -3 -1 = +28 -28; Sum modulo 9 = +10 -10 = +1 -1

This last section, the analysis of the resulting number sequence reveals a pattern of primes in the natural elements that resolves to ±1.

52

CHAPTER ELEVEN

SQUARE BUSINESS

In this chapter we will examine the increments in “squares”-- zero sum squares, magic squares, and Latin squares. 2 x 2 ZERO SUM SQUARES I have discovered a new class of 2 x 2 squares that utilizes zero and a negative number to form Zero Sum squares. Zero Sum squares generate series of positive and negative numbers that sum to zero. The following is a Zero Sum 2 x 2 square comprised of the first three primes and zero wherein each row, column or diagonal sums to positive and negative prime numbers that together sum to zero.

3

0

2

-5

53

**The previous Zero Sum 2 x 2 prime square generates the following patterns:
**

Horizontals : Verticals: Diagonals: +3 -3 +5 -5 +2 -2

Another Zero Sum Prime Number square:

5

0

2

-7

**This Zero Sum square generates:
**

Horizontals: Verticals: Diagonals: +5 -5 +7 -7 +2 -2

54

Zero Sum Prime Number Square

17

0

2

-19

**This square generates:
**

Horizontals: Verticals: Diagonals: +17 -17 +19 -19 +2 -2

55

Zero Sum Prime Number Square:

29

0

2

-31

This generates:

Horizontals: +29 -29 Verticals: Diagonals: +31 -31 +2 -2

56

Zero Sum 2 x 2 non-prime Square

27

0

2

-29

This generates:

Horizontals: +27 -27 Verticals: Diagonals: +29 +2 -29 -2

57

Another Zero Sum Square:

79

0

2

-81

This generates:

Horizontals: +79 -79 Verticals: Diagonals: +81 -81 +2 -2

58

MAGIC SQUARES

At this point a magic square will be examined using increment analysis. A magic square is one wherein the positive integers of the verticals, horizontals and diagonals all sum to the same number, the magic constant. There are no 2 x 2 magic squares. The formula for generating such a square is: n2 M2(n) = 1/n Σ =1/2n (n2 +1) k=1 If every number in a magic square is subtracted from n2 +1, another magic square is obtained called the complementary magic square.3 The following third order magic square has integers that all sum to the number 15. Third Order Magic Square

8

1

6

3

5

7

4

9

2

3 http://mathworld.wolfram.com/MagicSquare.html

59

This generates:

Horizontals: 816 =

-7 +5 +4

Verticals:

834 = 357 = 672 =

-5 +1 +2 +2 +1 -5

159 = +4 492 =

+5 -7

Diagonals: 852 =

-3 -3 +1

456 = +1

When added together, the sum of all increments in this magic square is negative four. The horizontals and verticals sum to zero, but the diagonals, always homogenous, tilt the square toward a remainder. Fourth Order Magic Square

4

14

15

1

9

7

6

12

5

11

10

8

16

2

3

13

60

The above Fourth Order Magic square generates: Horizontals +10 +1 -2 +6 -14 -1 -1 +1 -14 +6 -2 +10 Verticals +5 -4 -7 +4 -9 +4 +11 -4 +11 -9 -7 +5 Diagonals +3 +5 +3 +5 +3 +5

As in the third order magic square, this one has horizontals and verticals that sum to zero, and homogenous diagonals. The resulting +8 +8 +8 = +24, the remainder.

LATIN SQUARES A Latin square is an array of symbols wherein every symbol occurs exactly once in each row and column of the array. Leonhard Euler, the great mathematician, introduced them in 1783 as a “nouveau espece de carres magiques”, a new kind of magic square.4

The following is a Second Order Latin square

1

2

2 This Second Order Latin square generates: Horizontals +1 -1 Verticals +1 -1 Diagonals 0 0

1

**This second order Latin Square is a zero sum square.
**

4 http://www.cut-the-knot.org/arithmetic/latin.shtml

61

The following is a Fourth Order Latin Square

1

2

3

4

2

3

4

1

3

4

1

2

4

1

2

3

This Fourth Order Latin Square Horizontals +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -3 +1 -3 -3 +1 +1 +1 Verticals +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -3 -3 +1 Diagonals +2 -2 +2 0 0 0

-3 +1 +1

This Latin square exhibits the same type of pattern seen in the magic squares – the horizontals and vertical increments sum to zero, and homogeneous diagonals result in a remainder of +2.

62

CHAPTER TWELVE

**“MAGIC” NUMBERS (of proton and neutron stability)
**

2 8 20 28 50 82 126; the sum of these numbers = 316 Adding zeros to this number yields:

03160 = +3 -2 +5 -6 = +8 -8 There is, therefore, and “eightness” connected with these numbers. When 316 is divided by eight, the result is the repeating sequence 0.0253164556962 0253164556962 0253164… = +15 -15

63

Other interesting features:

√316 = 17.776388834631177700182883350817 The reciprocal of 316 = 0.003164556962025 3164556962025 3164556….seems to say its own name.

Extracting any sequence from this number string sums to zero when zeroes are added before and after the sequence. An interesting thing happens when you flip these numbers and line them up next to each other sideways creating the following number string:

2820285082126 without adding zeroes, the first generation yields: +6 -6 -2 +2 +6 -3 -5 +8 -6 -1 +1 +4 -8 +8 -8

second generation: +6 -8 +8 -8 +8 -6 -1 +1 +4

64

Now, when adding zeros to the original number sequence we get the following result. 2820285082126 = 028202850821260 = +2 +6 -6 -2 +2 +6 -3 -5 +8 -6 -1 +1 +4 -6 = +29 -29

65

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

**NOTIONS ABOUT NOTHING AND EVERYTHING : A LOOK AT ZERO AND INFINITY
**

Based on the evidence in this paper that all number sequence increments sum to zero, zero becomes quite important and deserves closer scrutiny. The number zero is enigmatic. Not always a member of the pantheon of numbers, the concept of zero was introduced by the Babylonians around 300 BC. They used two slanted wedges to represent an empty space. Indian mathematicians later transformed zero from placeholder to a number, and later, when the Arabs adopted Hindu-Arabic numerals, they also adopted zero. 5 The Mayans also had a zero in their counting system. Christianity opposed it, and, in fact, zero and infinity (nothing and everything) destroyed the Aristotelian philosophy. The void and infinity, two sides of a coin, threatened the existence of God. For these reasons, it took some time before zero was accepted by the West. Today, we take zero for granted, even though it poses paradoxes. It is far more than a placeholder, and I think the jury is still out regarding its true nature. Rules regarding zero today are: Zero divided by any number is zero Any number divided by zero is undefined Any number multiplied by zero is zero Add zero to any number and it remains unchanged One divided by zero equals infinity (non-traditional) Dividing a number by infinity yields zero (non-traditional) Dividing a number by zero yields infinity (non-traditional)

5 Zero, The Biography of a Dangerous Idea. Seife, Charles. Penguin Books. NY. 2000.

66

At this point I will take a departure from traditional mathematics theory and let zero speak for itself to get a clearer understanding of its true nature. For one, zero seems to exhibit three different modes: Positive, Negative and Neutral. Positive zero would be the concept of “everything”, Negative zero would be the concept of nothing (no-thing), and Neutral zero would be the concept of “balance” or ‘‘fullness.” Zero is not just an “emptiness,” but a “fullness” that tends to displace itself in greater and greater increments in the expansion of numbers. In this sense, it brings to mind Cantor’s Continuum Hypothesis with its

0, 1 2… n.

A question can be asked about what happens when the positive

and negative increments between numbers are squared, cubed, quadrupled, etc. Would we witness an expansion of the complex plane? Are we witnessing larger and larger zeros, and hence, larger and larger infinities?

**ZERO DOMAIN DYNAMICS (ZDD)
**

Tradition tells us that we can’t divide by zero because we consider the result “undefined.” When zero speaks for itself, however, an interesting picture emerges. For instance, If it were feasible to perform the following operations, the results would be :

(2x0) = 2 0

(3x0) = 3 0

(4 x 0) = 4 0 or

1/0 x 0 = 1;

5/0 x 0 = 5;

6/0 x 0 = 6

The foregoing is considered illogical based on current mathematical philosophy. It is not possible, the thinking goes, for zero to equal all numbers. This is precisely what zero is saying, however, and since this is the case, zero is

67

demonstrating equality with infinity. Indeed, on a Riemann Sphere, zero and infinity are at opposite poles. If we could imagine a stacking of Riemann Spheres, zero and infinity would be indistinguishable.

When adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing numbers in the zero realm, unexpected and “illogical” results prevail. In the zero domain, almost anything goes. This is true when considering the “phantom values” of numbers, i.e., the balanced binaries that result when zeroes are added in front of, and behind, numbers. For example:

31 x 45 = 1395; 0310 x 0450 = 013950 (Phantom Values) (+3 -3) ( +5 -5) = +9 -9

In the zero domain, therefore,

( ∀3 )( ∀5) = ∀9

Technically, though, the result of the above operation is 0, since we are multiplying 0 x 0.

Another example: 1849673 /14 = 132119.5; 018496730 / 0140 = 013211950; +14 -14 / +4 - 4 = +11 -11, therefore, ±14 divided by ±4 = ±11, but again, we are dividing zero by zero to get zero.

68

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

ADDITIVE ASSESSMENT The additive assessment of a number sequence or series is the process of sampling bits of information in bigger and bigger pieces and assessing the samples. For example, take a number sequence and analyze the first two numbers of the sequence, and then the first three, the first four, etc. until the entire sequence has been assessed. In increment analysis, additive assessment is used to assess the increments of larger and larger blocks of a number sequence (or series). Zeroes are added before and after the segment. When this is done, the segment always sums to zero, with a graduated pattern of positive and negative numbers. Following, the additive assessment technique is demonstrated for the number e (the basis of natural logarithms) up to the 25th integer, pi, primes (up to the 13th prime) the first 10 Fibonacci numbers, the reciprocal of the number seven, the reciprocal of number thirteen and phi.

e = 2.718281828449045235360287…

020 = 0270 = 02710 = 027180 = 0271820 = 02718280 = 027182810 = 0271828180 = 02718281820 = 027182818280 = 0271828182840 = 02718281828450 = 027182818284590 = 0271828182845900 = 02718281828459040 = 027182818284590450 = 0271828182845904520 = 02718281828459045230 = 027182818284590452350 = 69 + 2 -2 + 7 -7 + 7 -7 +14 -14 +14 -14 +20 -20 +20 -20 +27 -27 +27 -27 +33 -33 +34 -34 +38 -38 +38 -38 +38 -38 +42 -42 +43 -43 +43 -43 +44 -44 +46 -46

0271828182845904523530 = 02718281828459045235360 = 027182818284590452353600 = 0271828182845904523536020 = 02718281828459045235360280 = 027182818284590452353602870 =

+46 +49 +49 +51 +57 +57

-46 -49 -49 -51 -57 -57

Π (Pi)

(to 31 digits) 3.141592653589793238462643327950… 030 = 0310 = 03140 = 031410 = 0314150 = 03141590 = 031415920 = 0314159260 = 03141592650 = 031415926530 = 0314159265350 = 03131592653580 = 031415926535890 = 0314159265358970 = 03141592653589790 = 031415926535897930 = 0314159265358979320 = 03141592653589793230 = 031415926535897932380 = 0314159265358979323840 = 03141592653589793238460 = 031415926535897932384620 = 0314159265358979323846260 = 03141592653589793238462640 = 031415926535897932384626430 = 0314159265358979323846264330 = 03141592653589793238462643320 = 031415926535897932384626433270 = 0314159265358979323846264332790 = 03141592653589793238462643327950 = 031415926535897932384626433279500 = + 3 + 3 + 6 + 6 +10 +14 +14 +18 +18 +18 +20 +23 +24 +24 +26 +26 +26 +27 +32 +32 +34 +34 +38 +38 +38 +38 +38 +43 +45 +45 +45 - 3 - 3 - 6 - 6 -10 -14 -14 -18 -18 -18 -20 -23 -24 -24 -26 -26 -26 -27 -32 -32 -34 -34 -38 -38 -38 -38 -38 -43 -45 -45 -45

70

PRIMES

(The first thirteen) 2 3 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 41 020 = 0230 = 02350 = 023570 = 02357 110 = 02357 11 130 = 02357 11 13 170 = 02357 11 13 17 190 = 02357 11 13 17 19 230 = 02357 11 13 17 19 23 290 = 02357 11 13 17 19 23 29 310 = 02357 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 370 = 02357 11 13 17 19 23 29 31 37 410 = +2 +3 +5 +7 +11 +13 +17 +19 +23 +29 +31 +37 +41 - 2 - 3 - 5 - 7 -11 -13 -17 -19 - 23 -29 -31 -37 -41

FIBONACCI NUMBERS (The first ten) 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 010 = +1 0110 = +1 01120 = +2 011230 = +3 0112350 = +5 01123580 = +8 0112358 13 0 = +13 0112358 13 21 0 = +21 01123358 13 21 34 0 = +34 0112358 13 21 34 55 0 = +55 -1 -1 -2 -3 -5 -8 -13 -21 -34 -55

71

THE RECIPROCAL OF THE NUMBER SEVEN –0.142857142…. 010 0140 01420 014280 0142850 01428570 014285710 0142857140 01428571420 014285714280 0142857142850 01428571428570 014285714285710 0142857142857140 01428571428571420 014285714285714280 0142857142857142850 01428571428571428570 014285714285714285710 +1 +4 +4 +10 +10 +12 +12 +15 +15 +21 +21 +23 +23 +26 +26 +32 +34 +34 +34 -1 -4 -4 -10 -10 -12 -12 -15 -15 -21 -21 -23 -23 -26 -26 -32 -34 -34 -34

THE RECIPROCAL OF NUMBER THIRTEEN…0.076923076…. O70 0760 07690 076920 0769230 07692300 076923070 0769230760 07692307690 076923076920 0769230769230 07692307692300 076923076923070 +7 +7 +10 +10 +11 +11 +18 +18 +21 +21 +22 +22 +29 -7 -7 -10 -10 -11 -11 -18 -18 -21 -21 -22 -22 -29

72

Φ (PHI) (THE GOLDEN MEAN) – 1.6180339… 010 0160 01610 016180 0161800 01618030 016180330 0161803390 +1 +6 +6 +13 +13 +16 +16 +22 -1 -6 -6 -13 -13 -16 -16 -22

The prime and Fibonacci numbers “say their own names.” In other words, the last prime or Fibonacci of each segment gives the name of the segment, which follows the natural order of each sequence with no repetition characteristic of the other numbers assessed thus far. This might be true for every uniformly monotonic increasing number sequence. ADDITIVE SIGNATURES As demonstrated in the previous examples, every number sequence has an additive signature that is characteristic of its assessment. The signatures of the numbers thus far assessed are shown below. e

± 2,7,7,14,14,20,20,27,27,33,34,38,38,38,42,43,43,44,46,46,49,49,51,57,57 2,3,5,7,11,13,17,19,23,29,31,37,41 ± 3,3,6,6,10,14,14,18,18,18,20,23,24,24,26,26,26,27,32,32,34,34,38,38,38,38,38,43,45,45,45

Primes ± π

Fibona ± cci # 1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55 1/7

± 1,4,4,10,10,12,12,15,15,21,21,23,23,26,26,32,34,34,34 ± 7,7,10,10,11,11,18,18,21,21,22,22,29 ± 1,6,6,13,13,16,16,22

1/13

Phi

73

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

MULTIPLICATIVE ASSESSMENT

THE CIRCULARITY OF “ONENESS” In previous chapters we added zeroes to numbers to produce balanced binaries. In actuality, any sequence that begins and ends with the same number creates a perfectly balanced binary. This is most likely due to The Law of Conservation as identified by the great mathematician Emmy Noether. In the foregoing, we have started and ended with zeroes to produce perfectly balanced binaries. This is the only number that can be added to a sequence to create balanced binaries without changing the “value” of the sequence. In this chapter, we will explore the binaries created using repunits (repeating ones) and repdigits (repeating digits) multiplied by each other. It will be noted that series of ones, when multiplied by series of ones, always result in the number line from one through 9 and back again. Sometimes, there are even cycles within the cycles.

1. 1 x 1 = 1 2. 11 x 11 = 121 3. 111 x 111 = 12321 4. 1111 x 1111 =1234321 5. 11111 x 11111 = 123454321 6. 111111 x 111111 = 12345654321 7. 1111111 x 1111111 = 1234567654321 8. 11111111 x 11111111 = 123456787654321 9. 111111111 x 111111111 = 12345678987654321 10. 1111111111 x 1111111111 = 1234567900987654321 11. 11111111111 x 11111111111 = 123456790120987654321 12. 111111111111 x 111111111111 = 12345679012320987654321 13. 1111111111111 x 1111111111111 = 1234567901234320987654321 14. 11111111111111 x 11111111111111 = 123456790123454320987654321 15. 111111111111111 x 111111111111111 = 12345679012345654320987654321 16. 1111111111111111 x 1111111111111111 = 12345679012345677654320987654321 17. 11111111111111111 x 11111111111111111 = 1.2345679012345678765432098765432e+32 18. 111111111111111111 x 111111111111111111 = 1.2345679012345678987654320987654e+34 19. 1111111111111111111 x 1111111111111111111 = 1.2345679012345679009876543209877e+36 20. 11111111111111111111 x 11111111111111111111 = 1.2345679012345679012098765432099e+38 21. 111111111111111111111 x 111111111111111111111 = 1.2345679012345679012320987654321e+40 22. 1111111111111111111111 x 111111111111111111111=1.2345679012345679012343209876543e+42

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Natural patterns within the lines numbered 1 – 22, when multiplying ones by each other, resulted in balanced binaries. Starting with # 10, there developed segments within the segments, creating binaries within binaries. Line Patterns 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

Change point, beginning of segments in segments, starting with 00; from this point on, only the segments within segments underlined will be assessed. Zeroes did not need to be added – they were already there).

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

0120 012320 01234320 0123454320 012345654320 012345677654320 0123456787654320 012345678987654320

+2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9

-2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

19. Change point, two segments within the line segment: 0123456790 0987654320 +9 -9 +9 -9 20. 0123456790120 21. 012345679012320 22. 01234567901234320 +11 -11 +12 -12 +13 -13

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In the foregoing sections, even groupings of ones are multiplied by the same number of ones. In the following examples, uneven groupings of ones are multiplied. The results are still the same, however, balanced binaries.

1111 x 11111 = 12344321 1111111 x 11111 = 12345554321 111 x 111111111 = 12333333321 11 x 11111 = 122221 THE CIRCULARITY OF “TWONESS”

When groupings of twos are multiplied by other groupings of twos, the result always begins and ends with the number four, creating balanced binaries in the process.

2 x2=4 22 x 22 = 484 222 x 222 = 49284 2222 x 2222 = 4937284 22222 x 22222 = 493817284 222222 x 222222 = 49382617284 2222222 x 2222222 = 4938270617284 22222222 x 22222222 = 493827150617284 222222222 x 222222222 = 49382715950617284 2222222222 x 2222222222 = 4938271603950617284 22222222222 x 22222222222 = 493827160483950617284 4 -4 -11 -15 -22 -26 -33 -37 -41 -47 -52

+4 +11 +15 +22 +26 +33 +37 +41 +47 +52

THREENESS

Groupings of three multiplied by each other, unlike ones and twos, do not produce balanced binaries. They always result in +8, and when zeroes are added, +11 -11.

333 x 33333 = 11099889

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“FOURNESS” THROUGH “EIGHTNESS:” These numbers form predictable patterns when multiplied by themselves, but are not naturally circular and do not form balanced binaries unless zeroes are added.

**THE NUMBER NINE:
**

The number nine is the only number that generates a negative number, which is always –8. (It is the converse of #3 which always generates +8). When zeroes are added, it always generates +11 -11, just as # 3 does.

77

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

FACTORIALS

A factorial is the product of a given series of whole numbers. The numbers 1! – 10! yield the following patterns:

Assessment (Phantom) Values 1! = 1 2! = 2 3! = 6 4! = 24 5! = 120 6! = 720 7! = 5040 8! = 40320 9! = 362880 10! = 3628800 010 = +1 -1 020 = +2 -2 060 = +6 -6 0240 = +4 -4 0120 = +2 -2 0720 = +7 -7 05040 = +9 -9 040320 = +7 -7 0362880 = +12 -12 03628800 = +12 -12

Note that the factorial values are always even numbers with the exception of #1, yet the phantom (assessment) values alternate.

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CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The End of Randomness

Kurt Gödel (1906 – 1978) turned the world of mathematics upside-down with his famous proof that showed that if a system is consistent, then you can show that it is incomplete. Mathematician Gregory J. Chaitin of the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, author of The Limits of Mathematics suggests that the structure of arithmetic is random. He states, “Although almost all numbers are random, there is no formal axiomatic system that will allow us to prove this fact.”

Increment Analysis and The Law of Digit Balance point to an underlying order in mathematics that defies randomness, and 50 + element mirror image increments lends credence to this notion. Moreover, zero seems to be the background “noise” of all numbers. Increment analysis opens up a whole new set of options for analyzing number sequences. New unsuspected relationships and hidden patterns become apparent that are beautifully symmetrical. As a result of the evidence presented, the following implications become apparent: • There is a Law of Digit Balance wherein the increments between integers of any number sequence sum to zero. This includes sequences comprised of positive and negative numbers. ♦ The increments between digits of circular numbers manifest mirror image patterns that sum to zero in all cases. ♦ The first 218 digits of pi have increments that converge to zero when a quaternary skip sequence is utilized to isolate digits.

79

♦ The number seven is prominent in many numbers that produce mirror image groupings that cancel to zero ♦ The prime numbers are organized around the digits of the reciprocal of seven ♦ Transcendental numbers have increments that sum to zero when extracting a sequence of any size, hence, transcendental numbers sum to zero. ♦ Zero does not merely represent the absence of something, it also represents a fullness and a balance. ♦ Fibonacci and Lucas numbers have increments that are perfect mirrors with anomalies that add to nine, and demonstrate 24 – step repetition cycles. ♦ All numbers begin and end in zero.

Practical Applications? When considering the practical applications of The Law of Digit Balance I am reminded of a popular television commercial for an insurance company. In it, a whimsical cartoon character is handed a black dot. The character, puzzling, doesn’t know what to do with it until, suddenly, something falling from the sky appears which threatens to squash him. He drops the dot, which becomes a hole in the ground offering a means of escape. The point is that he had a tool that was useless until more information was forthcoming. Further research may open broader vistas in the world of numbers and yield surprising practical applications. Chief among these might be information that can lead to a better understanding of “trinary logic” and its application to trinary computers. Actually, the idea of trinary computers is not a remote dream. One was developed (SETUN) in 1958 by Nikolai Brusentsov and his team at the Moscow State University and was based on ternary (trinary) logic (-1, 0, 1), which distinguishes it completely from the usually binary operating computers of the

80

present and the past. While the binary logic just allows two states yes (1) | no (0), the ternary logic has three different logical states: yes (1) | no (-1) | both or maybe (0). In this book, Increment Analysis always reveals balanced positive and negative numbers resulting in zero underlying all number sequences. The sheer beauty of pattern revealed by The Law of Digit Balance, however, provides esthetic satisfaction in itself.

81

82

**NATURAL NUMBERS 1 – 100
**

Number Sum of increments

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

010 = +1 -1 = 0 020 = +2 –2 = 0 030 = +3 –3 = 0 040 = +4 –4 + 0 050 = +5 –5 = 0 060 = +6 –6 = 0 070 = +7 –7 = 0 080 = +8 – 8 = 0 090 = +9 –9 = 0 010 = +1 -1 = 0 0110 = +1 0 –1 = 0

83

12

0120 = +1 +1 – 2 = +2 -2 = 0

13

0130 = +1 +2 –3 = +3 –3 = 0

14

0140 = +1 +3 –4 = +4 -4 = 0

15

0150 = +1+4 -5 = +5 -5 = 0

16

0160 = +1 +5 –6 = +6 –6 = 0

17

0170 = +1+6 –7 = +7 –7 = 0

84

18

0180 = +1 +7 –8 = +8 - 8 = 0

19

0190 = +1 +8 –9 = +9 – 9 = 0

20 21

020 = +2 – 2 = 0 0210 = +2 –1 –1 = +2 -2 = 0

22 23

0220 = +2 0 -2 = 0 0230 = +2 +1 –3 +3 -3 = 0

24

0240 = +2 +2 –4 = +4 –4 = 0

85

25

0250 = +2 +3 –5 = +5 -5 = 0

26

0260 = +2 +4 –6 = +6 –6 = 0

27

0270 = +2 +5 –7 = +7 -7 = 0

28

0280 = +2 +6 –8= +8 –8 = 0

29

0290 = +2 +7 –9 = +9 -9 = 0

30

030 = +3 -3 = 0

86

31

0310 = +3 –2 –1 = +3 -3 = 0

32

0320 = +3 –1 –2 = +3 -3 = 0

33 34

0330 = +3 0 -3 = 0 0340 = +3 +1 –4 = +4 -4 = 0

35

0350 = +3 +2 –5 = +5 -5 = 0

36

0360 = +3 +3 -6 = +6 -6 = 0

87

37

0370 = +3 +4 –7 = +7 -7 = 0

38

0380 = +3 +5 –8 = +8 –8 = 0

39

0390 = +3 +6 –9 = +9 -9 = 0

40 41

040 = +4 –4 = 0 0410 = +4 –3 –1 = +4 -4 = 0

42

0420 = +4 –2 –2 = +4 -4 = 0

43

0430 = +4 –1 –3 = +4 -4 = 0

88

44

0440 = +4 0 -4 = 0

45

0450 = +4+1 –5 = +5 –5 = 0

46

0460 = +4+2 –6 = +6 -6 = 0

47

0470 = +4+3 – 7 = +7 -7 = 0

48

0480 = +4+4 –8 = +8 –8 = 0

49

0490 = +4+5 –9 = +9 -9 = 0

89

50

050 = +5 –5 = 0

51

0510 = +5 –4 –1 = +5 -5 = 0

52

0520 = +5 –3 –2 = +5 -5 = 0

53

0530 = +5 –2 –3 = +5 -5 = 0

54

0540 = +5 –1 –4 = +5 -5 = 0

55

0550 = +5 0 -5 = 0

90

56

0560 = +5 +1 -6 = +6 -6 = 0

57

0570 = +5 +2 –7 = +7 -7 = 0

58

0580 = +5+3 -8 = +8 -8 = 0

59

0590 = +5+4 -9 = +9 -9 = 0

60 61

060 = +6 –6 = 0 0610 = +6 -5 –1 = +6 -6 = 0

91

62

0620 = +6 -4 –2 = +6 -6 = 0

63

0630 = +6 -3 –3 = +6 -6 = 0

64

0640 = +6 -2 –4 = +6 -6 = 0

65

0650 = +6 -1 –5 = +6 -6 = 0

66

0660 = +6 0 -6 = 0

67

0670 = +6 +1 –7 = +7 -7 = 0

92

68

0680 = +6+2 – 8 = +8 -8 = 0

69

0690 = +6+3 –9 = +9 -9 = 0

70 71

070 = +7 –7 = 0 0710 = +7 –6 –1 = +7 -7

72

0720 = +7 –5-2 = +7 -7 = 0

73

0730 = +7 –4 –3 = +7 -7 = 0

74

0740 = +7 –3 –4 = +7 -7 = 0

93

75

0750 = +7 -2 –5 = +7 -7 = 0

76

0760 = +7 -1 -6 = +7 -7 = 0

77 78

0770 = =7 0 -7 = 0 0780 = +7 +1 –8 = +8 -8 = 0

79

0790 = +7 +2 –9 = +9 -9 = 0

80

080 = +8 -8 = 0

81

0810 = +8 –7 –1 = +8 -8 = 0

94

82

0820 = +8 –6 –2 = +8 -8 = 0

83

0830 = +8 -5 –3 = +8 -8 = 0

84

0840 = +8 -4 –4 = +8 -8 = 0

85

0850 = +8 -3 –5 = +8 -8 = 0

86

0860 = +8 -2 -6 = +8 -8 = 0

95

87

0870 = +8 -1 -7 = +8 -8 = 0

88 89

0880 = +8 0 -8 = 0 0890 = +8 +1 -9 = +9 -9 = 0

90 91

090 = +9 -9 = 0 0910 = +9 -8 -1 = +9 -9 = 0

92

0920 = +9 -7 –2 = +9 -9 = 0

93

0930 = +9 -6 –3 = +9 -9 = 0

96

94

0940 = +9 –5 –4 = +9 -9 = 0

95

0950 = +9 -4 -5 = +9 -9 = 0

96

0960 = +9 -3 –6 = +9 -9 = 0

97

0970 = +9 -2 -7 = +9 -9 = 0

98

0980 = +9 -1 -8 = +9 -9 = 0

99 100

0990 = +9 0 -9 = 0 0100 = +1 -1 0 = 0

97

RECIPROCALS of #1 – 100

(If zeros are added before and after the number, it always sums to zero). NUMBER 1/1 = 1.0 +5 -5 ½ = 0.50 1/3 = 0.333333333 ¼ = 0.250 ( +3) 0000000000 +2 +3 –5 second order: (+5 -5) +2 -2 (+1 +5) 00000000 +3 -2 +6 -3 +2 -6 0 Oscillating 5s Oscillating 5s PATTERN +1 -1 MODE Oscillating 1s

1/5 = 0.20 1/6 = 0.166666666666… 1/7 = 142857142857…

Oscillating 2s 0

**Six-element mirror
**

Mixed (Ps = +5) 0 Oscillating 1s Oscillating 9s

1/8 = 0.125

+1 +1 +3 second order: +5 (+1) 000000000 +1 -1 +9 -9 +9 -9…

1/9 =0.1111111111… 1/10 = 0.10 1/11 = 0.0909090909090…

98

1/12 = 0.0833333333333… 1/13 = 0.0769230769230…

(+8 -5) 00000000000

0

+7 -1 +3 -7 +1 -3

Six-element mirror

1/14 = 0.07142857142857…

(+7) –6 +3 -2 +6 -3 +2 …

Six-element mirror

1/15 = 0.06666666666…. (+6) 000000000000…

0

1/16 = 0.0625

+6 -4 +3

Mixed (Ps = +5)

1/17 = 0.05882352941176470 1/18 = 0.0555555555… 1/19 = 0.052631578947368421 0… 1/20 = 0.05 1/21 = 0.047619047619… 1/22 = 0.04545454545…

+5 +3 0 -6 +1 +2 -3 +7 -5 -3 0 +6 -1 -2 +3 -7 (+5) 00000000000… +5 +1 -5 -1 -3 +4 -3 -2 +4 +2 +1 +3 -4 +3 +2 -4 -2 -1

16-element mirror

0

18-element mirror

+5 -5 +4 +3 -1 -5 +8

Oscillating 5s Mixed (Ps = 9)

+1 -1 +1 -1…

Oscillating 1s

99

1/23 = 0.043478260869565217 39130…

+4 -1 +1 +3 +1 -6 +4 – 6 +8 22-element mirror -2 +3 -4 +1 -1 -3 -1 +6 -4 +6 -8 +2 -3

1/24 = 0.041666666666666…

(+4 -3 +5) 0000000000000

0

1/25 = 0.04

+4 -4

Oscillating 4s

1/26 = 0.038461538461538461 53846… 1/27 = 0.037037037037…

( +3 ) +5 -4 +2 -2 +3 –4 +2

-5 +4

6-element mirror

+3 +4 -7 +3 +4 -7 Second order: +7 -7 (+3 +2) +2 -6 +3 -2 +6 -3 +3 +1 0 +4 -6 +5 -2 +3 -2 -4 -2 +6 +2 +1 -3 -1 0 -4 +6 -5 +2 3 +2 +4 +2 -6 -2 -1 (+3) 00000000000000000

Oscillating 7s

1/28 = 0.0357142857142857… 1/29 = 0.034482758620689655 17241379310… 1/30 = 0.033333333333333333 … 1/31 = 0.0322580645161290…

6-element mirror

28-element mirror

0

100

1/32 = 0.03125

+3 -2 +1 +3

Mixed (Ps = +5)

1/33 = 0.030303030303…

+3 -3 +3 -3 +3 -3…

Oscillating 3s

1/34 = 0.02941176470588235…

(+2 +7) -5 -3 0 +6 -1 -2 +3 -7 +5 +3 0 -6 +1 +2 -3 +7 -5 -3 0 (+2) +6 -3 + 2 -6 +3 -2 +6 -3…

16-element mirror; Oscillating –5 -3 0, +5 +3 0

1/35 = 0.02857142857142857…

6-element mirror

1/36 = 0.027777777777…

(+2 +5) 000000000000

0 (Ps = +7)

1/37 = 0.027027027027…

1/38 = 0.026315789473684210 5263…

+2 +5 -7 +2 +5 -7 +2 Oscillating 7s +5 -7… Second order: +7 -7 +7 -7 +7 -7… (+2) +4 -3 -2 +4 +2 +1 +1 18-element mirror -5 +3 -4 +3 +2 -4 -2 -1 -1 +5 -3 (+4 -3) +2 +3 +1 -2 -3 -1… 6-element mirror Ps = 0

1/39 = 0.025641025641…

101

Mixed 1/40 = 0.025 +2 +3 (Ps = +5)

1/41 = 0.02439 02439…

+2 +2 -1 +6…

Mixed (Ps = +9)

1/42 = 0.0238095 238095…

(+2) +1 +5 -8 +9 -4 -3…

Mixed (Ps = 0)

1/43 = 0.023255813953488372 0930 232558139535

+2 +1 -1 +3 0 +3 -7 +2 +6 -4 -2 +1 +4 0 -5 +4 -5 -2 +9 -6 -3…

Mixed; (Ps = 0)

1/44 = 0.02272727272727…

1/45 = 0.02222222222222…

(+2) 000000000000

0

1/46 = 0.021739130434782608 695652…

-1 +6 -4 +6 -8 +2 -3 +4 -1 +1 +3 +1 -6 +4 -6 +8 -2 +3 -4 +1 -1 -3

22-element mirror Ps = 0

102

1/47 = 0.021276595744680851 0638297872340425…

+2 -1 +1 +5 -1 -1 +4 -4 +2 46-element mirror –3 0 +2 +2 -8 +8 -3 4 -1 +6 -3 +5 -6 +7 Ps = 0 -2 +1 -1 -5 +1 +1 -4 +4 -2 +3 0 -2 -2 +8 8 +3 +4 +1 -6 +3 –5 +6 -7***

1/48 = 0.020833333333333333 33… 1/49 = 0.020408163265306122 4489795918367346…

(+2 -2 +8 -5 ) 000000000000000000 +2 -2 +4 -4 +8 -7+5 3 -1 +4 –1 -2 -3 +6 -5 +1 0 +2 0 +4 +1 -2 +2 -4 +4 -8 +7 -5 +3 +1 –4 +1 +2 +3 -6 +5 -1 0 2 0 -4 -1 *** +2 (-2)

0

42-element mirror Ps = 0

1/50 = 0.02

+2 ( -2)

1/51 = 0.01960784313725490…

+1 +8 -3 -6 +7 +1 -4 -1 0 +4 -5 +3 -1 +5 9 ( +1 +8) -7 +1 -3 +7 -1 +3…

Mixed (Ps = 0)

1/52 = 0.019230769230769230 …

6-element mirror

103

1/53 = 0.01886792452830 1886792452830 1886792…

+1 +7 0 -2 +1 +2 -7 +2 +1 -3 +6 -5 -3

Mixed (Ps = 0)

1/54 = 0.0185185185185185…

(+1) +7 -3 -4 +7 -3 4… Second order: (+1) +7 -7 +7 -7

Oscillating sevens (Ps = 0)***

1/55 = 0.018181818181818…

(+1) +7 -7 +7 -7 +7 7…

Oscillating sevens

1/56 = 0.017857 142857 142857… 1/57 = 0.017543859649122807 0 175438596491228…

(+1 +6 +1) -3 +2 -6 +3 -2 +6… +1 +4 -2 +7 +6 -2 -1 -1 +5 -3 -3 +5 -8 +1 0 +6 -8 -7…

Six-element mirror

Mixed (Ps = 0)

1/58 = 0.017241379310344827 58620689655 17241…

(+1) +6 -5 +2 -3 +2 +4 +2 28-element mirror -6 -2 -1 +3 +1 0 +4 -6 +5 -2 +3 -2 -4 -2 +6 +2 +1 -3 -1 0 4…

104

1/59 = 0.016949152542372881 3559322033898305…

(+1) +5 +3 -5 +5 -8 +4 -3 +3 -1 -2 +1 +4 -5 +6 0 -7 +2 +2 0 +4 -6 -1 0 -2 +3 0 +5 +1 -1 -5 -3 +5 -5 +8 -4 +3 3 +1 +2 -1 -4 +5 -6 0 +7 2 -2 0 -4 +6 +1 0 +2 -3 0 -5 -1 +1

58-element mirror

1/60 = 0.016666666666666666 …

(+1 +5) 0000000000000000000

0

1/61 = 0.016393442622950819 6721311475409836…

+1 +5 -3 +6 -6 +1 0 2 +4 -4 0 +7 -4 -5 +8 -7 +8 -3 +1 -5 -1 +2 2 0 +3 +3 -2 -1 -4 +9 -1 -5 +3……

60-element mirror?

1/62 = 0.0161290322580645 161290322580645 161…

Mixed (+1) +5 -5 +1 +7 -9 +3 -1 0 +3 +3 -8 +6 -2 +1 - (Ps = 0 ) 4 +5 -5…

105

1/63 = 0.015873 015873 015873 015873 015873 0158…

+1 +4 +3

-1 - 4 -3

Six-element mirror

1/64 = 0.015625 +1 +4 +1 -4 +3 Mixed (Ps = 5) 1/65 = 0.0153846 153846 153846153846 153846 153… (+1) +4 -2 +5 -4 +2 -5

Six-element mirror

1/66 = 0.0151515151515….

(+1) +4 -4 +4 -4 +4 -4 +4 -4…

Oscillating 4s (Ps = 0)

1/67 = 0.014925373134328358 208955223880597…

(+1) +3 +5 -7 +3 -2 +4 -4 -2 +2 +1 -1 -1 +6 5 +2 +3 -6 -2 +8 +1 4 0 -3 0 +1 +5 0 -8 +5 +4 -2 … (+1 +3)

62-element mirror???

1/68 = 0.014705882352941176 4705882352941176…

14-element mirror +3 -7 +5 +3 0 -6 +1 (+2) -3 +7 -5 -3 0 +6 -1

106

1/69 = 0.014492753623188405 79710 14492753623…

+1 +3 0 +5 -7 +5 -2 - Mixed 2 +3 -4 +1 -2 +7 0 -4 -4 +5 +2 +2 -2 -6 (Ps = 0 ) 1….

1/70 = 0.0142857 142857142857…

(+1) +3 -2 +6 -3 +2 6

6-element mirror

1/71 = 0.014084507042253521 1267605633802817…

+3-4+8-4+1-5+7-7+4-2 0+3-2+2-3-10+1+4+1-16+5+1-3 0+5-8+2+6-7+6

Mixed

1/72 = 0.013888888888888888 8…

(+1) +2 +5 000000000000

0

1/73 = 0.013698630 13698630 13698630 136986301…

+1 +2 +3 +3 -1 -2 -3 -3

8-element mirror

1/74 = 0.013513513513513513 5…

(+1) Oscillating 4s +2 +2 -4 +2 +2 -4 Second order: +4 -4 +4 -4…..

1/75 = 0.01333333333333…

(+1) +2 00000000000000

0

107

1/76 = 0.013157894736842105 26 31578947368421…

(+1) +2 18-element mirror -2 -4 +2 +4 +4 +2 +1 +1 -5 +3 -3 -4 -2 -1 -1 +5 -3 -3 -1 -1 -7

1/77 = 0.0129870 129870 129870 129870 129870…

+1 +1 +7

6-element mirror

1/80 = 0.0125

+1 +1 +3

Mixed (Ps = 5)

1/81 = 0.012345679 012345679 012345679…

+1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 + 1 +2

+1

1/82 = 0.012195 12195 12195 1219512195 12195… 1/83 = 0.012048192771084337 3493975903614458

(+1) +1 -1 +8 -4 +1+1-2+4+4-7+8-7+5 0 – 6-1+8-4-1 0 +4-4+1+56+6-2-2+4-9+3+6-5+3 0 +1+3…

Mixed (Ps = +5 ) Mixed

1/84 = 0.01190476 190476 190476 190476 19047619

(+1 0) Mixed +8 -9 +4 +3 -1 (Ps = 6)

108

1/85 = 0.01176470588235294 1176470588235294…

(+1) 0 +6 -1 -2 +3 -7 +5 +3 0 -6 +1 +2 -3 +7 -5 -3

16-element mirror

1/86 = 0.011627906976744186 0465 116279069767…

+1 0 +5 –4+5+2-9+6+32-1+1-3 0 –3+7-2-6+4+21=4 0 +5-4+5+2-9+6+32-1+1

Mixed

1/87 = 0.011494252873563218 39080459770 11494…

+1 = +3 +5-5-2+3-3+6-14+2+1-3-1-1+7-5+6-9+88+4+1+4-2 0 -– +1 0 +3 +5-5

Mixed

1/88 = 0.011363636363636363 6…

(+1) 0 -3 +3 -3 +3 -3 +3….

Oscillating 3s

109

1/89 = 0.011235955056179775 2808988764044944

+1 0 +1 +1 +2 +4-4 0 – 5+5+1-5+6+2-2 0 –2 –3 +6 –8+8 +1-1 0 –1-1-24+4 0 +5 –5 0

44-element mirror

1/90 = 0.011111111111111111 1111111111111111…

(+1) 000000000000000

0

1/91 = 0.010989 010989 010989 010989 010989…

+1 -1 +9

-1 +1 -9

6-element mirror

1/92 = 0.010869565217391304 3478260869565217

(+1-1)+8-2+3-4 +1-1-3-1+6-4+6-8+2-3 +4- 1+1+3+1-6+4-6 +8 -2+3-4+1-1-3-1+6 +1 -1 +7 -2 -3 +4 +2 0 +6 -5 -2 +4 -1 (-3)

22-element mirror

1/93 = 0.010752688172043 010752688172043…

Mixed

1/94 = 0.010638297872340425 5319148936170213

(+1-1)+6-3+5-6+7-2+1-15+1+1-4+4-2+3 0 –22+8-8+3+4+1 -6+3-5+6-7+2-1+2

14-element mirror

110

1/95 = 0.010526315789473684 2105263157894737

(+1-1)+5-3+4-32+4+2+1+1-5+3-4+3+24-2-1-1+5-3+4-32+4+2+1+1 -5+3-4+4… (+1-1)+4-3+5 0 0 0…

+5-3+4-3-2+4+2+1+1 +5-3+4-3-2+4+2 +1-1

1/96 = 0.010416666666666666 666666666666666…

Ps = 6

1/97 = 0.010309278350515463 9175257731958763

(+1-1)+3-3+9-7+5+1-5+25+5-4+4-1+2-3+6-8+6-2 -3+3+2 0 –4-2+8-4+3-11-3 (+1-1)+2-2+4-4+8-7+5-3 -1+4-1-2-3+6-5+1 0 +2 0+4+1-2+2 -4+4-8+7 -5+3+1-4…

Mixed

1/98 = 0.010204081632653061 2244897959183673

46-element mirror

1/99 = 0.010101010101010101 0101010101010101

+1-1+1-1….

Oscillating 1s

1/100 = 0.01

+1-1

0

111

MIRROR SEQUENCES (For reciprocals of numbers between 1 – 100) 1/7 = 142857142857… +3 -2 +6 -3 +2 -6

Six-element mirror Six-element mirror

1/13 = 0.0769230769230…

+7 -1 +3 -7 +1 -3

1/14 = 0.07142857142857… 1/17 = 0.05882352941176470 1/19 = 0.052631578947368421 0… 1/23 = 0.043478260869565217 39130… 1/26 = 0.038461538461538461 53846… 1/28 = 0.0357142857142857… 1/29 = 0.034482758620689655 17241379310…

(+7) –6 +3 -2 +6 -3 +2 … +5 +3 0 -6 +1 +2 -3 +7 -5 -3 0 +6 -1 -2 +3 -7 +5 -3 +4 +1 +1 -5 +3 -4 -1 -1 +4 -1 +1 6 +8 -2 +3 -4 +1 -1 +6 -8 +2 -3 -2 +4 +2 +3 +2 -4 -2 +3 +1 -6 +4 –

Six-element mirror

16-element mirror

18-element mirror

22-element mirror -3 -1 +6 -4 -3 -5 +4 6-element mirror

( +3 ) +5 -4 +2 -2 +3 –4 +2

(+3 +2) +2 -6 +3 -2 +6 -3 +3 +1 0 +4 -6 +5 -2 +3 -2 -4 -2 +6 +2 +1 -3 -1 0 -4 +6 -5 +2 3 +2 +4 +2 -6 -2 -1

6-element mirror

28-element mirror

112

1/34 = 0.02941176470588235…

(+2 +7) -5 -3 0 +6 -1 -2 +3 -7 +5 +3 0 -6 +1 +2 -3 +7 -5 -3 0 (+2) +6 -3 + 2 -6 +3 -2 +6 -3…

16-element mirror; Oscillating –5 -3 0, +5 +3 0

1/35 = 0.02857142857142857… 1/38 = 0.026315789473684210 5263… 1/39 = 0.025641025641… 1/46 = 0.021739130434782608 695652…

6-element mirror

(+2) +4 -3 -2 +4 +2 +1 +1 18-element mirror -5 +3 -4 +3 +2 -4 -2 -1 -1 +5 -3 (+4 -3) +2 +3 +1 -2 -3 -1… 6-element mirror Ps = 0 -1 +6 -4 +6 -8 +2 -3 +4 -1 +1 +3 22-element mirror Ps = 0 +1 -6 +4 -6 +8 -2 +3 -4 +1 -1 -3 +2 -1 +1 +5 -1 -1 +4 -4 +2 46-element mirror –3 0 +2 +2 -8 +8 -3 4 -1 +6 -3 +5 -6 +7 Ps = 0 -2 +1 -1 -5 +1 +1 -4 +4 -2 +3 0 -2 -2 +8 8 +3 +4 +1 -6 +3 –5 +6 -7

1/47 = 0.021276595744680851 0638297872340425…

1/49 = 0.020408163265306122 4489795918367346…

+2 -2 +4 -4 +8 -7+5 3 -1 +4 –1 -2 -3 +6 -5 +1 0 +2 0 +4 +1 -2 +2 -4 +4 -8 +7 -5 +3 +1 –4 +1 +2 +3 -6 +5 -1 0 2 0 -4 -1

42-element mirror Ps = 0

113

1/52 = 0.019230769230769230 … 1/56 = 0.017857 142857 142857… 1/58 = 0.017241379310344827 58620689655 17241…

( +1 +8) -7 +1 -3 +7 -1 +3…

6-element mirror

(+1 +6 +1) -3 +2 -6 +3 -2 +6…

Six-element mirror

(+1) +6 -5 +2 -3 +2 +4 +2 28-element mirror -6 -2 -1 +3 +1 0 +4 -6 +5 -2 +3 -2 -4 -2 +6 +2 +1 -3 -1 0 4…

1/59 = 0.016949152542372881 3559322033898305…

(+1) +5 +3 -5 +5 -8 +4 -3 +3 -1 -2 +1 +4 -5 +6 0 -7 +2 +2 0 +4 -6 -1 0 -2 +3 0 +5 +1 -1 -5 -3 +5 -5 +8 -4 +3 3 +1 +2 -1 -4 +5 -6 0 +7 2 -2 0 -4 +6 +1 0 +2 -3 0 -5 -1 +1

58-element mirror

1/61 = 0.016393442622950819 6721311475409836…

+1 +5 -3 +6 -6 +1 0 2 +4 -4 0 +7 -4 -5 +8 -7 +8 -3 +1 -5 -1 +2 2 0 +3 +3 -2 -1 -4 +9 -1 -5 +3……

60-element mirror?

114

1/63 = 0.015873 015873 015873 015873 015873 0158…

+1 +4 +3

-1 - 4 -3

Six-element mirror

1/65 = 0.0153846 153846 153846153846 153846 153…

(+1) +4 -2 +5 -4 +2 -5

Six-element mirror

1/67 = 0.014925373134328358 208955223880597…

(+1) +3 +5 -7 +3 -2 +4 -4 -2 +2 +1 -1 -1 +6 5 +2 +3 -6 -2 +8 +1 4 0 -3 0 +1 +5 0 -8 +5 +4 -2 … (+1 +3)

? 66-element mirror???

1/68 = 0.014705882352941176 4705882352941176…

14-element mirror +3 -7 +5 +3 0 -6 +1 (+2) -3 +7 -5 -3 0 +6 -1 (+1) +3 -2 +6 -3 +2 6

1/70 = 0.0142857 142857142857…

6-element mirror

1/73 = 0.013698630 13698630 13698630 136986301…

+1 +2 +3 +3 -1 -2 -3 -3

8-element mirror

(+1) +2 1/76 = 0.013157894736842105 26 31578947368421… 18-element mirror -2 +4 +2 +1 +1 -5 +3 -4 -3 +2 -4 -2 +4 -3 -1 -1 +5 -3

115

1/77 = 0.0129870 129870 129870 129870 129870…

6-element mirror +1 +1 +7 -1 -1 -7

1/85 = 0.01176470588235294 1176470588235294…

(+1) 0 +6 -1 -2 +3 -7 +5 +3 0 -6 +1 +2 -3 +7 -5 -3

16-element mirror

1/89 = 0.011235955056179775 2808988764044944…

+1 0 +1 +1 +2 +4 -4 0 44-element mirror -5 +5 +1 -5 +6 +2 -2 0 -2 –3 +6 -8 +8 +1 -1 0 -1 -1 -2 -4 +4 0 +5 -5 -1 +5 -6 -2 +2 0 +2 +3 -6 +8 -8 -1** 6-element mirror +1 -1 +9 -1 +1 -9

1/91 = 0.010989 010989 010989 010989 010989… 1/92 = 0.010869565217391304 3478260869565217

(+1 -1) +8 -2 +3 -4 +1 -1 -3 -1 +6 -4 +6 -8 +2 -3 +4 -1 +1 +3 +1 -6 +4 -6

22-element mirror

1/95 = 0.010526315789473684 2105263157894737

(+1 -1) +5 -3 +4 -3 -2 +4 +2 +1 +1 -5 +3 -4 +3 +2 -4 -2 1 -1

18-element mirror

116

1/98 = 0.010204081632653061 2244897959183673…

(+1 -1) +2 -2 +4 -4 +8 -7 +5 -3 -1 +4 -1 -2 3 +6 -5 +1 0 +2 0 +4 +1 -2 +2 -4 +4 -8 +7 -5 +3 +1 -4…

42-element mirror

117

**OTHER NUMBER SEQUENCES
**

(When zeros are added before and after segment, the mode is always zero)

NUMBER

INCREMENT ANALYSIS PATTERN +5 +3 -5 0 0

MODE

Mass, Gravity, Communications harmonic (Bruce Cathie) 16944 23 = 2.828428 Synergetics conversion constant (R. Buckminster Fuller) 1.06066 Scheherazade Number (first 8 primes factorial) R. B. Fuller 30, 030 x 17 = 510,510! Scheherazade Number (first 7 primes factorial) R. B. Fuller 30, 030 Primes through 29 (R.B. Fuller) 6,469,693,230

repeaters

+6 -6 +6 -6

+6

Oscillating 6s

(2nd order sequence) -1 +6 -6 +6 0 Oscillating 6s

-5 +5 -5

Oscillating 5s

-3

0 +3 -3

Oscillating 3s

-2 +2 +3 -3 +3 -3 +1 -3

-1

Oscillating binary pairs

Seven-illion Scheherazade Number (R.B. Fuller) 24,421,743,243,121,524,300,0 00

+1 -1 +1 (5th order sequence)

Oscillating 1s

118

Matter plus anti-matter Earth Field Harmonic (Bruce Cathie) 4114846801

-3

0 +3 +4 -4 +4 -8 +1

Oscillating 3s and 4s

(2nd order sequence)

e= 2.718281828459045…

+5 -6 +7 -6 +6 -7 +7 -6 +6 -4 +1 +4

4-element mirrors (-6 +7, +6 –7) binary pairs

Planck’s Constant h = 6.626069 x 10-34

0 -4 +4

-6 +6

+3

Binary pairs

Speed of light in a vacuum 2.99792458 x 108 m/s

+7

0 -2 +2 -7 +2 +1 +3

Binary pairs

Atomic mass unit 1.6605655

+5

0 -6 +6 -1

0

Binary pair (-6 +6)

(2nd order sequence) +2 0 -5 -1 +4 +1 0 -2 +5 Pseudo-mirrors

C (Euler-Mascheroni Constant) 0.5772156649

√2= 1.414213…

+3 -3

+3 -3

Oscillating 3s

(2nd order sequence) +1 -1 +1 +9 (2nd order sequence) Oscillating 1s

Schrodinger Constant 1.644934067

119

Electric permittivity constant 8.85418781...x10

-7 +7 -1 +1

-7

(2nd order sequence)

Binary pairs, oscillating 7s

Euler’s constant reciprocal = 1.73245471460063605660684 1…

-3 +3 -6 +6 0 -6 +6 +2 -4 -3 ( 2nd order sequence)

Oscillating 3s, 6s

Reciprocal of #137 (a rough approximation of the fine structure constant) 0.007299270072...

0 +7 -5 +7 0 -7 +5 -7 0 +7

6-element mirrors

Reciprocal of #49 0.020408163265306…

+2 -2 +4 -4 +8 -7 +5 -4 +4 -6 +6 (2nd order sequence)

Binary pairs and 4element mirrors

7/9 + 9/7 = 1.396825396825… up to 13 digits

+2 +6 -3 -2 +6 -3

+2 -6 +3 +2 -6 +3

6-element mirrors

7/9 + 9/7 reciprocal = 0.715909090909… up to 12 digits

-6 +4 +4 -9 +9 -9 +9 -9 +9 -9 +9

Oscillating 9s

137/13 reciprocal = 0.094890510…

+9 -5 +5

-9 +5 -5

6-element mirrors

120

137/13 = 10.538461538461…

-1 +5 -2 +5 -4 +2 -5 +4 -2 +5 -4 +2 -5 +4 +5 -4 -1 +9 +1 -9 -5 -4

6-element mirrors

137/7 reciprocal = 0.051094890510…

4-element mirrors (-1 +9, +1 –9)

137/7 = 19.5714285714…

+8 -4 +2 -6 +3 -3 +2 -6 +3 +8 -3 -3 +3 0

-2 +6

6-element mirrors

Coupling constant = 0.08542455

Oscillating 3s

(2nd order sequence)

13/81 = 6.2307692307

-4 +1 -3 +7 +1 -3 +7

-1 +3 -7

6-element mirrors

13/81 reciprocal = 0.160493827…

+5 -6 +4 +5 -6 +5 -6 +5

Repeaters (+5 –6)

13/49 = 0.265306122…

+4 -6

+6 -4

0

4-element mirrors

(2nd order sequence)

121

√26/81 = 0.566557723

+1 0 +1

-1 0 +2

0 -5

4-element mirrors

+7 -6 +6 -7 +7 -6 9/123 = 0.073170731… (2nd order sequence) -1 +2 -1 +7 +1 -2 +1 -7 28/274 =0.102189781

Binary pairs

8-element mirrors

Connected with electron spin (Harold Aspden) 1.001159652193

-1 0 +1 0 +8 -8 +8 6

Oscillating 8s, 1s

Absolute zero; average period of human gestation: 273: reciprocal = 1/273 = 0.003663003 (Peter Plichta: God’s Secret Code) Sidereal month: 27.32 days

+3 +3 0 -3 0 0 +3

“threeness”

+5 -5 (2nd order sequence) +3 0 +5 -5 +5 -1

Binary pair

Oscillating 5s;

Synodic month reciprocal, 1/29.53 days = 0.033863867

122

Euler’s Constant = 0.577215664901532

Mirrors; repeaters +2 0 -5 -2 +5 0 -2 +5 -9 +5 -2 -1 (2nd order sequence) +5 -5 +7 -8 +3 0 +6 -1 0 -1 +3 +5 -1 +1 -5 Oscillating fives

Golden ratio = 1.618033988749894…

Magnetic permeability constant = 1.2566370614…x1?

+4 -4 +4 -2 -4 0 -1 (3rd order sequence)

Oscillating 4s

Nuclear magneton = 5.050783 x 10 –22 J/T

-5 +5 -5 +7 +1 -5

Oscillating 5s

#0.094890510

6-element mirrors +9 -5 +5 -9 +5 -5

#7787537

+1 -1 -4 +4 (2nd order sequence) -7 +7 +1 -1 -7

Binary pairs

#7078760

Oscillating 7s, binary pairs

123

0.21347189763921347189763 9… (Cyclic divisibility, mathpages.com) #134718976392 (Cyclic divisibility, mathpages.com)

-1 +2 +1 +3 -6 +7 +1 -2 -1 -3 +6 -7…

12-element mirrors

+2 +1 +3 -6 +7 +1 -2 -1 -3 +6 -7

10-element mirrors

#706320182568

-7 +6 -3 -1 -2 +1 +7 -6 +3 +1 +2

10-element mirrors

#865281023607 (cyclic integer)

-2 -1 -3 +6 -7 +2 +1 +3 -6 +7

-1

10-element mirrors

+6 -3 +2 Auric Key reciprocal; 1/2720 = 3.968253968253… (Syndex Synergetics Synopsis, Iona Miller)

-6 +3 -2

6-element mirrors

124

BIBLIOGRAPHY Dunham, William. The Mathematical Universe. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 1994. King, Jerry P. The Art of Mathematics. Fawcett Columbine. New York. 1992. Schwaller de Lubicz. R.A. A Study of Numbers. Inner Traditions International. Rochester, Vermont. 1986. Fuller, R. Buckminster. Applewhite, E.J. Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking. Macmillan Publishing Co. New York. 1975. Balmond, Cecil. Number 9: The Search for the Sigma Code. Prestel. Munich-New York. 1998. Blatner, David. The Joy of Pi. Walker and Company. New York. 1997. Georges, Ifrah. The Universal History of Numbers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 2000. Merrill, Helen A. Mathematical Excursions. Dover Publications, Inc. U.S.A. 1933, 1957. Clapham, Christopher. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. Oxford-New York. 1996. Boyer, Carl B. Merzbach, Uta C. A History of Mathematics 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 1991. Wells, David. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers. Penguin Books. London, England. 1986. Ogilvy, Stanley C. Anderson, John T. Excursions in Number Theory. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 1988.

125

Plichta, Peter. God’s Secret Formula: Deciphering the Riddle of the Universe and the Prime Number Code. Element Books. Rockport, MA. 1997. Bennett, Deborah J. Randomness. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA. 1998. Gilles, William F. The Magic and Oddities of Numbers. Vantage Press, Inc. New York. 1953. Camm, F. J. Mathematical Tables and Formulae. Philosophical Library. New York. 1958. Watkins, Matthew. Useful Mathematical & Physical Formulae. Walker & Company. New York. 2000. Dwight, Herbert Bristol. Mathematical Tables of elementary and some higher mathematical functions. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 1961. Saradar, Ziauddin. Ravetz, Jerry. Van Loon, Borin. Introducing Mathematics. Totem Books. New York. 1999. Salem. Testard. Salem. The Most Beautiful Mathematical Formulas. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1992. Dunham, William. Journey Through Genius (The Great Theorems of Mathematics). Penguin Books, John Wiley & Sons. 1990. Sardar, Ziauddin. Ravetz, Jerry. Van Loon, Borin. Introducing Mathematics. Totem Books. U.S. 1999.

126

INTERNET RESOURCES

**Gamboa, Ana. Alpha – The Fine Structure Constant
**

http://www.physicspost.com/articles.php?articleId=11

**Can Negative Numbers be Prime? Prime Pages FAQ
**

http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/notes/faq/negative_primes.html

**Michael Conrad Tilstra (Tadpol) Basic Infinite Math.
**

http://tadpol.org/theory/infinitemath.html

**Mathworld. Transcendal Number.
**

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/TranscendentalNumber.html

Pascal’s Triangle. http://www.csam.montclair.edu/~kazimir/patterns.html

**Ancient Light and Uncertain Theories.
**

http://www.geocities.com/syzygywjp/AncientLight.html

Sirag, Saul-Paul. The World as Cryptogram. International Space Sciences Organization. November 7, 2000. The First 100 Fibonacci Numbers.

http://math.holycross.edu/~davis/fibonacci/fib0-99.html

127

**Riemann Zeta Function – MathWorld
**

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/RiemannZetaFunction.html

**The Riemann Hypothesis. Prime Pages.
**

http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/notes/rh.html

**When constants are not constant. Physics Web. October, 2001.
**

http://physicsweb.org/article/world/14/10/4

**Rice, Aaron. Infinity, The Truth About. 1997/02/10
**

http://www.galactic-guide.com/articles/8R69.html

**The First 1000 Primes.
**

http://www.utm.edu/research/primes/lists/small/1000.txt

**The First 200 Lucas Numbers and their factors.
**

http://www.mcs.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/R.Knott/Fibonacci/lucas200.html

Devlin, Keith. How Euler discovered the zeta function. http://www.maa.org/devlin/Zeta.PDF

128

The 23 Paris Problems. http://www.math.umn.edu/~wuttnab/problems2.html

Latin Squares. http://lwww.cut-the-knot.org/arithmetic/latin.shtml

**Ivars Peterson’s MathTrek. The Limits of Mathematics.
**

http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_arc98/2_21_98/mathland.htm

**Magic Square – from MathWorld.
**

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/MagicSquare.html

**The Math Forum. Why are Operations of Zero so Strange?
**

http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/55764.html

Re: Infinity. http://www.math.tulane.edu/bulletin/messages/100.html

**Michael Conrad Tilstra (Tadpol) Zero over Zero.
**

http://tadpol.org/theory/zero.html

Complex Infinity. http://www.mupad.com/doc/eng/stdlib/cinfty.shtml

129

**“I have examined Dr. Bowen’s abstract and found it an
**

innovative contribution to mathematics.”

Emmanuel Gugwor, Mathematics Instructor

Prologue H.S. and Truman College, Chicago

“Looking at the patterns of these numbers you might discover the deeper secrets of many lives.”

**Sow Aboubacar Sidy, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor of Mathematics
**

Loyola University of Chicago

Professor of Mathematics, Columbia College, Chicago

ISBN 0-9615454-2-9

130

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The Law of Digit Balance reveals a new law revealing hidden equilibrium balancing to zero in ALL number sequences.

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