You are on page 1of 12

PRELIM

1 LECTURES
Friday, August 26, 2016 11:22 AM

8/26 Lecture 2

Is race important?

8/29 lecture 3
Development Perspectives
Playing the Political Correctness Game
- White confederates = more likely to use racial descriptors.
- Black confederates = less likely to use racial descriptors including "Black"
or "African Americans"
Theme in reflections: reluctance to mention race
Robert Herrick
- Plea to the people he likes, he likes them because they look fresh and
inviting, but it is temporary.
Developmental Model 1
- Over time things get bigger, more complex, taller, from nothing to
something
- Identity --> may adopt a perspective over time, racial identity starts off as
nothing but become more complex over time.
Developmental Model 2
- Become more specific, more refined as time passes
- Identity --> more broad initially, many concerns/interests, but becomes
more refined/more specific as time goes on.
Developmental Model 3
- Process of increasing growth and then all of a sudden begin to refine.
- Nothing > something complex > refined and specific.
Ex: draw what the developmental model looks like.
Development is:
- Change over time.
- What is changing? Identity > changing a label? Or becoming more complex?
More refined? Relabeling or rewording?
- Types of change > between person change (comparative change). Within
person change (change within yourself).
- Unit of time of Analysis
What is appropriate amount of time to detect change?
5-day Changes in Racial Identity surrounding Election
More refined? Relabeling or rewording?
- Types of change > between person change (comparative change). Within
person change (change within yourself).
- Unit of time of Analysis
What is appropriate amount of time to detect change?
5-day Changes in Racial Identity surrounding Election

Audio 1

Audio recording started: 11:48 AM Monday, August 29, 2016


- Centrality, Private Regard, Public Regard
5 days after election > all three area increased.
5 months > there was little change in centrality and private regard.
Unit of analysis matters, if we had stopped at 5 days or only measure
5 months afterward, we would not have the total big picture.

Central Issues in Development


- Developmental Contextualism (Embeddedness)
Change is occurring within context

- Plasticity
We change over time in ways that allow us to get along well within
environment
Ability to bend but not break.
Ex: Naomi Way
Amount discrimination (peer discrimination due to race or
background) reported vs. self esteem
Average student, the more discrimination experienced the
lower the self esteem.
Puerto Rican > majority member may mean less correlated.

- Continuity/discontinuity
Linear, or all over the place
Continuity > change is uniform and gradual > tree growing
Discontinuity > change rapid and qualitatively different stages
evident across the life span. > butterfly metamorphosis.
- Individual differences/diversity
Examples of what's possible in human development, not what's
wrong or broken or subpar > Lerner
- History and Temporality
Temporality> when in the life course is identity development
happening for you; what pace
- Individual differences/diversity
Examples of what's possible in human development, not what's
wrong or broken or subpar > Lerner
- History and Temporality
Temporality> when in the life course is identity development
happening for you; what pace
Identity Maps
- Ex: discontinuity> American side crying.

8/31Lecture 4

Identity as Adaptation
Developmental Study Designs
- Cross-sectional Studies
Different age groups; susceptible to cohort effects.
- Longitudinal studies
Repeated measures of same individuals; time and resources
You can do with-in person studies.
- Accelerated longitudinal studies
Repeated measures of multiple groups until complete trajectory
Statistical analyses

Lecture 4.1

Audio recording started: 11:31 AM Wednesday, August 31, 2016

Adaptation
Freedom of Choice
- Greater abiilty to determine personal values
- Increased opportunities ; more options available us now then ever before
Apprenticeships vs. College
- Identity is a good thing to have, because how else would we be able to
make choices?
Helpful for adapting to opportunity.
Helps you navigate your choices.
- Label > who are you? What is your major? What will your future look life?
Choice in Racial/Ethnic Identity
- Does anyone know who the first black or African American golfer to win
the Master's?
Tiger Woods. He should be recognized for his score, not his race.
He identifies himself as all of his heritage, not just African
- Label > who are you? What is your major? What will your future look life?
Choice in Racial/Ethnic Identity
- Does anyone know who the first black or African American golfer to win
the Master's?
Tiger Woods. He should be recognized for his score, not his race.
He identifies himself as all of his heritage, not just African
American or Asian.
People put an ethnic shroud around his accomplishment.
Mixed Evidence of Freedom of Choice
- Not everyone has equal opportunity in the choices they can make.
Changing Interpersonal Patterns
- We think of the roles we play
Monsters are common and clear, made explicit
Difficulty Achieving Uniqueness
- Pressures to be unique
Parenting = individualized attention
Obstacles to achieving it
Urbanization, only superficial interactions
Mass Media displays and promotes uniformity
Conclusion
- Identities cannot be separated from social contexts
"the self constructs for itself a definition that allows it to get along
reasonably well within its social environment"

What distinguishes between developed and default identity?

9/7 Lecture 5

Lecture 5.1

Audio recording started: 11:18 AM Wednesday, September 7, 2016


Trawalter and Richeson (2008)
- What happens when people talk about race?
- Manipulate two things: (1) who you're talking to, same-race/interracial; (2)
what you're talking about, race-neutral, race-based (affirmative action).
- Camera on each person to determine body language > measuring anxiety,
higher the number the more anxious.
- All participants are either white or black participants.
Emergent Questions:
- What happens when racial minorities interact with one another, and race is
brought up?
- Do minorities have an expertise in negotiating interracial situations?
higher the number the more anxious.
- All participants are either white or black participants.
Emergent Questions:
- What happens when racial minorities interact with one another, and race is
brought up?
- Do minorities have an expertise in negotiating interracial situations?
- How would you maximize comfort in interracial conversations for
everyone?
What would we change?
- Overarching question: Why do we see a divergence of experience when we
talk about race? What accounts for that?
Leadership
- What if we said, the reason for showing different stress responses are
because of disparity in experiences.
- Has the group you belong to been in positions of leadership.
Ex: presidents > there has been only one non-white POTUS
Teaching positions
2009 Household Net Worth
- White > $113,000
- Asian > $78,000
- Latino > $6,325
- Black > $5,600
40% of black households are at $0 net worth or negative (debt)
Longevity
- White females live up to 81, Asian American females live to about 83, Black
males lives up to around 70.
Maybe it's not about difference in experience, but a proximity problem.
- We dont live near each other.
Narrative
- How does media portray members of each race?
- Giselle and Lebron, what are their roles in society as potrayed by media?
- Latinos and illegal immigration > that is the narrative. Do we hear about
their contributions to society.
Would people actually know/tell you how uncomfortable they are?

9/12 Lecture 8
Where do the boundaries of a race begin and end?

Lecture 8.1

Audio recording started: 11:25 AM Monday, September 12, 2016


Lecture 8.1

Audio recording started: 11:25 AM Monday, September 12, 2016

Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism.


Defining Terms:
- Prejudice > an unjustifiable attitude; toward a group and its members
Belief or attitude that is unjustifiable because it happens before we've
had experience or interaction.
It isn't inherently wrong or bad or morally corrupt. Most of us have
prejudice or prejudgment when it comes to a lot of things we
encounter.
- Discrimination > negative avoidant behavior toward a group and/or its
members
If prejudice is an attitude or belief, discrimination is the
behavior/action associated.
- Racism > discrimination based on race; justified by beliefs of racial
superiority.
Explicit vs. Implicit
Colored waiting room > explicit
"we want white tenants in our white community" sign > explicit
"we serve white's only; no Spanish or Mexicans" sign > explicit
Remnants of Jim Crow laws.
Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Reverse Discrimination?
People who are equally qualified, but giving the person
who has been historically discriminated against is chosen.
Some people argue that it is a form of discrimination
because they are using race to treat people differently.
Black Lives Matter, is that racist?
Implicit racism > subconscious, unintentional, unacknowledged
Aversive racism > underlying /subconscious racial prejudice
among those who believe the they are non-prejudiced.
The racial attitudes of those who explicitly endorse egalitarian
views, who regard themselves as non-prejudiced, but who
systematically discriminate in subtle, rationalizable ways.
They aren't lying, they truly believe racism is wrong but their
actions sometimes say otherwise.
Discrimination in Helping
Gaertner, S.L
Sought to find data on Who can I count on in this room?
Manipulated race of a person who needs help > pre-cellphones study
- You get a call from someone, I'm looking for so and so? Could you help me?
Wrong number I just spent my last dime.. Could you call so and so and
actions sometimes say otherwise.
Discrimination in Helping
Gaertner, S.L
Sought to find data on Who can I count on in this room?
Manipulated race of a person who needs help > pre-cellphones study
- You get a call from someone, I'm looking for so and so? Could you help me?
Wrong number I just spent my last dime.. Could you call so and so and
send them out to me?
- It's just a voice, you can't see the face.
- Can people discern race through the phone? African American > "Southern
Negro dialect"; White > "New York Central accent"
- 99% of Black callers identified as Black and 97% of White callers identified
as White > 1970s
- Conservative > 92% to 65% on saying yes to White Caller, and Black
Callers > significantly different
- Liberal > 85% and 76% on saying yes to White Caller, and Black Callers. >
not statistically different trends.
Premature hang-ups > people hang up before the caller can request help,
person know it was a wrong number.
- Conservative > 4.7% got hung up on, 8.3% black callers got hung up on >
no statistical difference
- Liberal > 3.2% whites got hung up on, 18.6% black callers got hung up on
statistically different.
- Found evidence of racism in people when they have a reason to justify their
discrimination against another group in a way that doesnt show explicit
racism.
Discrimination in Selection Decisions
- Have access to data sets, cross-sectional/ longitudinal.
- Is racism on the decline?
- Explicit racism is on the decline, explicit racism in 1989 was higher in
hiring black candidates vs. white candidates than the study done in 1999.
- For whites, ambiguous candidates get benefit of the doubt, ambiguity was
like being highly qualified.
- For blacks, ambiguous candidates do not, significantly less likely to get the
job, ambiguity was like being unqualified.

9/14 Lecture 9
Targets of Discrimination

lecture 9.1

Audio recording started: 11:17 AM Wednesday, September 14, 2016


lecture 9.1

Audio recording started: 11:17 AM Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Norton & Sommers (2015)


- Both black and white adults agree that anti-black bias is decreasing.
- Blacks think there was pretty much no anti-white bias in the past 6
decades.
- For whites, Anti-white racism and anti-black racism is a zero-sum game, as
one goes the up the other goes there.
- Whites think that Anti-White bias is a greater problem than Anti-Black bias.
- Politics : "Make America Great Again"
Is there a biological basis for race?
- Believing that race is a biological construct promotes greater acceptance of
racial disparities.
- Biological conceptions of race significantly reduces diversity in:
Past and current close friends
Past dating partners
Acquaintances at work
Close and meaningful friendships
Study partners
Individuals confided in.
- If race is biological > things are fine the way they are.
- If race is a social construct > discrimination is real and need to be
combatted.
On Liberty, John Stuart Mill
- We need to hear the arguments from those for whom the consequences
matter.
- We would do better hearing from people who have actually experienced
those things.
Defining Terms
- Expecting Prejudice > stigma consciousness
Individual difference variable
How aware are you that you belong to a group that other people do
not like?
How much do you think other people will derogate you and your
group?
- Compensatory Strategies > interaction tactics to reduce negative
judgment
Things you do to avoid or evade negative perceptions,
You try to present a different angle or set yourself apart from the
group.
- Authenticity > Feeling comprehensively genuine
- Compensatory Strategies > interaction tactics to reduce negative
judgment
Things you do to avoid or evade negative perceptions,
You try to present a different angle or set yourself apart from the
group.
- Authenticity > Feeling comprehensively genuine
Do you feel genuinely you?
Shelton, Richeson, Salvatore (2005)
Study Predictions -- Study 1:
- Greater expectations about being the target of prejudice will lead to:
Half of ethnic minority group was assigned to white roomies
Other half assigned to a minority group roomies.
- If you score high in stigma consciousness
Greater negative Affect > (tense, anxious)
Greater Self-Disclosure > (sharing self-information)
Compensatory strategy; telling people a lot about themselves to
seek intimacy and present the counterpart with a sense of their
individuality
Less liking > (closeness to roommate)
Less authenticity > (not having to change)
Results: Greater expectations for prejudice =
- Greater Negative Affect * (white roommate + high stigma consciousness
= > avg negative affect) ; (minority roomie + high stigma consciousness =
< avg negative affect)
Why is average negative affect lower for those with ethnic minority
roomie?
Something relatable, expectation of common experiences as
both from minority groups.
- Greater Self-Disclosure *
- Less Liking
- Less Authenticity *
- Program Housing: should students be able to self-segregate themselves
based on race?
- Self-reported results, measuring correlation.
Study 2:
- White students all read stories about elderly discrimination
- After reading, strike up a conversation.
Ethnic minority,
- racial discrimination > like partner less
- Racial discrimination > greater negative affect
- Racial discrimination > less authentic but more engaged in conversation.
Whites
- If partner read about racial prejudice expectation:
Whites like partners more
- Lower negative affect
- Racial discrimination > greater negative affect
- Racial discrimination > less authentic but more engaged in conversation.
Whites
- If partner read about racial prejudice expectation:
Whites like partners more
- Lower negative affect
- Enjoy interaction more
Why? > minorities may engage in compensatory strategies.
Like going to a job interview, we try to put our best foot forward.
Even if you didnt know it, race may affect your life more than you think it does
because of your perceptions and the perceptions of others (your's /their
actions).
If both actor's experiences are contingent on the others, what is needed to ensure
a positive experience all around?
- What would you do to maximize that?
- Do you want both sides to disclose more? > may be at the expense of
comfort.

9/16 Lecture 10 Racial Microaggression

Lecture 10.1

Audio recording started: 11:26 AM Friday, September 16, 2016


Sue et. Al Article:
Racial microaggressions: brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral,
or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that
communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults
toward people of color
Subtle pressures, insults
Subtle, stunning, often automatic, and non-verbal exchanges which
are 'putdowns'
3 forms:
Microassault
Explicit racial derogation characterized priamrily by a verbal or
nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim through
name-calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful discriminatory
actions
Ex. colored, oriental, swastika
Old fashioned racism
People are likely to hold notions of minority inferiority
privately and will only display them publicly when they a) lose
control or b) feel relatively safe to engage in a microassault
actions
Ex. colored, oriental, swastika
Old fashioned racism
People are likely to hold notions of minority inferiority
privately and will only display them publicly when they a) lose
control or b) feel relatively safe to engage in a microassault
Microinsult
Characterized by communications that convey rudeness and
insensitivity and demean a person's racial heritage or identity
Subtle snubs: hidden insulting message to the recipient
Can also occur nonverbally
Microinvalidation
Communications that exclude, negate, or nullify the
psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a
person of color
Ex. Asian Americans complimented for speaking English
and negate their US American heritage and to convey that
they are perpetual foreigners
You can change macro-policies but it's hard to change the pressures caused
by microaggressions
Think about living in South Pole bc of environmental pressure --> armor
(heavy gloves, hat, coat)
Starting from scratch: would you not go to school, go out if you had a
scratch? How much of an influence would it be?
Where is your threshold?
What if you had more than one, what if they are consistently there?
Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily, verbal,
behavioral, and environmental indignities, whether intentional or
unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial
slights and insults to the target person or group
Blessing and curse revealing racial microaggressions: open peoples'
eyes or completely picked apart
Are racial microaggressions subjective?
So people deny that they are forms of racism, but some are thankful that he
has given a name to something that has been always been happening
Plane example --> Invisibility and Dynamics of Racial Microaggressions
Examples:
I mean, you got the 1st mainstream AA who is articulate and bright
and clean and nice-looking guy."
Said about Barack Obama by Joe Bien
"How did you get you job?" to person of color
MICRO INSULT -->
People of color are not qualified
As a minority groups member, you must have obtained
the position through affirmative action
Said about Barack Obama by Joe Bien
"How did you get you job?" to person of color
MICRO INSULT -->
People of color are not qualified
As a minority groups member, you must have obtained
the position through affirmative action
Why do you have to be so loud/animate? Just calm down.
Why are you so quiet? We want to know what you think. Be more
verbal.
Where are you from?
Dilemmas created by microaggressions:
Clash of racial realities: There may be many different people having
an experience, but what/how they are taking it in is different from
how other groups take it in ex. minorities giving up seats for whites
Literally do not see the world as they do
What about comedy/humor?
Invisibility of unintended bias
Aversive racism
I didnt mean to do that
Perceived minimal harm
Are these people overly sensitive? Does this happen so much
that we are getting tired of it?
Cycle of misunderstanding
Catch-22 responding
Has microaggression actually occurred? Will it do any good
anyway?
If accused of something that I didn't mean to do what do I do?
How do I work if I'm afraid of doing something I don't meant to
do?
Have you ever experienced a racial microaggression?
Story of experiences perceived by people of color?
Why are whites left out?
Can whites experience racial microaggressions?
I feel as though whites can experience simple aggressions, not
microaggressions.