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AE1108-II: Aerospace Mechanics of Materials

Dr. Sofia Teixeira De Freitas

Aerospace Structures

& Materials

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering

Recap

Procedure for Statically Indeterminate Problems

II. Equilibrium of Forces (and Moments)

III. Displacement Compatibility

IV. Force-Displacement (Stress-Strain) Relations

Solve when number of equations = number of unknowns

V. Answer the Question! Typically calculate desired internal

stresses, relevant displacements, or failure criteria

Moment-Curvature relationship

(ie: use Method of Integration or Method of Superposition)

Statically Indeterminate Beams

Many more redundancies are possible for beams:

- Draw FBD and count number of redundancies

- Each redundancy gives rise to the need for a

compatibility equation

P P

MA

HA

A B

VA VB

- 4 reactions

43=1 1st degree statically indeterminate

- 3 equilibrium equations

Statically Indeterminate Beams

Many more redundancies are possible for beams:

- Draw FBD and count number of redundancies

- Each redundancy gives rise to the need for a

compatibility equation

P P MB

MA

HA HB

A B

VA VB

- 6 reactions

63=3 3rd degree statically indeterminate

- 3 equilibrium equations

Solving statically indeterminate

beams using method of integration

What is the difference between a

support and a force?

Displacement Compatibility

(support places constraint on deformation)

Method of Integration

P

A B

and replace with reaction forces?

P VB

If we treat VB

as known, we

can solve!

A B

Formulate expression for d 2v Can integrate

M(z)

M EI 2

dz to find v

Method of Integration (cont)

P VB

At A, v = 0, = 0

A B

2 A

d v

EI 2

M z , VB

dz

EIv M z , VB dz C1

Determine constants of integration

from Boundary Conditions

EIv M ( z , VB ) dz C2

Method of Integration (cont)

P VB P

=

A B A B

VB2

P VB changes displacement!

VB1 Must be compatible!

Compatibility equations for beams are simply

the boundary conditions at redundant supports

Example 1 q

Problem Statement

Determine deflection equation for

the beam using method of

A B

integration:

Solution

2) Equilibrium: 1) FBD: q

MA

F H A 0 HA

A B

F

VA VB qL

2 2

VA VB

qL qL

M A M A LVB 2

2

LVA

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 11

Example 1

q

z MA

M ccw

z M M A VA z qz

2

M

q 2 A

M A VA z z V

2 VA

always on

always off

M M A z 0 VA z 0 VB z L

0 q 2

z 0

2

Example 1

v and v

q 2

EIv M A VA z z = M(z) A B

2

VA 2 q 3

EIv M A z z z C1 = -EI(z)

2 6

M A 2 VA 3 q 4

EIv z z z C1 z C2 = -EIv(z)

2 6 24

We now have expressions for v and v, but need to determine

constants of integration and unknown reactions

Example 1

using BCs:

0

VA 2 q 3

EIv M A z z z C1 = -EI(z) A B

2 6

Fixed support

0 = 0, v = 0

M A 2 VA 3 q 4

EIv z z z C1 z C2 = -EIv(z)

2 6 24

Boundary Conditions:

q 3 VA

EI 0 0 0 M A 0 C1

2

At z = 0, = 0

6 2

C1 0

Example 1

using BCs:

0

VA 2 q 3

EIv M A z z z C1 = -EI(z) A B

2 6

Fixed support

0 0 = 0, v = 0

M A 2 VA 3 q 4

EIv z z z C1 z C2 = -EIv(z)

2 6 24

Boundary Conditions:

q VA MA

EI 0 0 0 0 C2

4 3 2

At z = 0, v = 0

24 6 2

C2 0

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 15

Example 1

BCs (imposed by redundant support):

VA 2 q 3

EIv M A z z z = -EI(z) A B

2 6

roller support

M A 2 VA 3 q 4 v=0

EIv z z z = -EIv(z)

2 6 24

Boundary Conditions:

q VA MA

EI 0 L L L

4 3 2

At z = L, v = 0

24 6 2

Recall from equilibrium:

qL 3M A qL2

VA MA LVA VB qL VA

4 L 2

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 16

z q

Example 1

BCs (imposed by redundant support):

qL 3M A qL2

VA , MA LVA , VB qL VA

4 L 2

5

VA qL

8 MA

qL2

MA A B

8

3 VA VB

VB qL

8

z q

Example 1

equation:

M A 2 VA 3 q 4 0

EIv z z z

2 6 24

qz 2

0.2

v 3 L2

5 Lz 2 z 2

48 EI

0.4

Max Displacement: =0 0 0.5 1L

v

q

48 EI

6 L2 z 15Lz 2 8 z 3 0 z 0.5785 L

qL2

v(0.5785 L) 0.005416

EI

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 18

Example 1

q 2 A B

M ( z ) EIv M A VA z z L

2

4

qL2 5qLz qz 2 M

qL2

8 8 2

d 8

dz

5qL 5

V ( z ) EIv qz 8

qL

8 V

5 3

L qL

8 8

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 19

Solving statically indeterminate

beams using superposition

Method of Superposition

Determine reaction forces:

P

2L L 1) FBD: P

MA

HA

A B

VA VB

2) Equilibrium:

- 4 reactions

F H A 0 - 3 equilibrium equations

F

VA VB P 1st degree statically indeterminate

M A 3LVB 2 LP M A

Method of Superposition (cont)

How do we get compatibility equation?

P

A B

VB

P

B2

A B B1 A B

Be careful!

3) Compatibility: B1 = B2 vB1 vB 2 0 +ve v

Method of Superposition (cont)

How do we get Force-Displacement relations?

P

d 2v Can integrate A B

M EI 2 to find v

dz

L

+ +

PL2 PL3

B vB

2 EI 3EI

Method of Superposition (cont)

From the standard case: P PL2

B

2 EI

A B PL3

4) Force-Displacement: vB

L 3EI

2L P L

P 2L

2

2 PL2

P

B1 2 EI EI

A B

vB1 vP P L

straight

P 2 L 2 PL2

3

L

3EI EI

14 PL3

3EI

Method of Superposition (cont)

From the standard case: P PL2

B

2 EI

A B PL3

4) Force-Displacement: vB

L 3EI

VB

B2 VB 3L

3

9VB L3

vB 2

A B 3EI EI

Compatibility:

14 PL3 9VB L3 14

vB1 vB 2 0 VB P

3EI EI 27

Additional remarks about

bending deflections

Remarks about Beam Deflections

Recall Shear deformation

V

+

V

+

Moment deformation

V(x)

M M

M(x) +

Remarks about Beam Deflections

P P MB

HB

MB

A B A

P B

VB HB

VB

B

C P

Axial deformation

P of AB due to HB

B C

A

P

Axial deformation

of BC due to VB

C

Axial deformation << bending deformation!

Remark about Beam Deflections

negligible

Deformation = Axial Deformation + Shear Deformation + Moment Deformation

BUT! P MB

If moment deformation is not HB

present, deformation is not negligible

A B

VB

q

Example 2

B C

Calculate reaction forces at A and D:

L, EI

First, can we see any simplifications? A D

Symmetry!

Symmetry implies: q

- Reactions at A = reactions at D HF

- Slope at symmetry plane = 0 MF

B

- Shear force at symmetry plane = 0

and standard cases A

q

HF

Example 2 B

MF

F

Calculate reaction forces:

1) FBD

2) Equilibrium A

HA

VA

F H A H F

MA

qL

F

VA

2

qL2

M ccw

A MA

8

HF L M F

Example 2

Calculate reaction forces:

3) Compatibility

MF - qL2/8

q

HF qL/2 HF MF - qL2/8 q

MF B

B HF MF

F HF

+ B F

=

qL/2

A A

F 0, v B 0

(axial deformation negligible)

MF - qL2/8

Example 2 qL/2 HF

B

4a) Force-Displacement for Beam AB

MF - qL2/8

HF qL/2

B B

B

A

+ +

A A A

H F L3 M F L2 qL4

vB vB 0 vB

3EI 2 EI 16 EI

H F L2 M F L qL3

cw

B B 0 cw

B

2 EI EI 8 EI

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 33

Example 2

4a) Force-Displacement for Beam AB

MF - qL2/8

qL/2 HF

H F L3 M F L2 qL4

vB 0

B 3EI 2 EI 16 EI

H F L2 M F L qL3

Bcw

2 EI EI 8 EI

A

Recall compatibility:

Still need F F 0, v B 0

MF + qL2/8 q

Example 2 HF HF MF

qL/2 L/2

q

HF MF

+ +

B F B F B F

q L 2

3 MFL

cw

F 0 Fcw

F

6 EI EI

qL3 MFL

cw

F Wait! Not entirely correct!

48 EI EI

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 35

Example 2

q

HF MF

B F

qL3 M L

cw

F F B

48 EI EI

7 qL3 2 M F L H F L2

cw

F 0

48 EI EI 2 EI

Recall equilibrium:

Example 2

F H A H F

qL

Solve: F

VA

2

Recall compatibility: qL2

F 0, v B 0

M ccw

A MA

8

HF L M F

7 qL3 2 M F L H F L2

cw

F 0 qL

48 EI EI 2 EI HF HA

qL

8 8

qL2 2qL2

H F L3 M F L2 qL4 MF MA

vB 0 24 3

3EI 2 EI 16 EI

Example 2

qL

q HF

HF 8

MF qL2

B C B MF

F 24

L, EI HA

qL

8

A D A qL

HA VA

VA 2

2qL2

MA MA

3

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