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# Bending Deflection

## Statically Indeterminate Beams

AE1108-II: Aerospace Mechanics of Materials

## Dr. Calvin Rans

Dr. Sofia Teixeira De Freitas

Aerospace Structures
& Materials
Faculty of Aerospace Engineering
Recap
Procedure for Statically Indeterminate Problems

## I. Free Body Diagram

II. Equilibrium of Forces (and Moments)
III. Displacement Compatibility
IV. Force-Displacement (Stress-Strain) Relations
Solve when number of equations = number of unknowns
V. Answer the Question! Typically calculate desired internal
stresses, relevant displacements, or failure criteria

## For bending, Force-Displacement relationships come from

Moment-Curvature relationship
(ie: use Method of Integration or Method of Superposition)
Statically Indeterminate Beams
Many more redundancies are possible for beams:
- Draw FBD and count number of redundancies
- Each redundancy gives rise to the need for a
compatibility equation

P P
MA
HA
A B
VA VB
- 4 reactions
43=1 1st degree statically indeterminate
- 3 equilibrium equations
Statically Indeterminate Beams
Many more redundancies are possible for beams:
- Draw FBD and count number of redundancies
- Each redundancy gives rise to the need for a
compatibility equation

P P MB
MA
HA HB
A B
VA VB
- 6 reactions
63=3 3rd degree statically indeterminate
- 3 equilibrium equations
Solving statically indeterminate
beams using method of integration
What is the difference between a
support and a force?

Displacement Compatibility
(support places constraint on deformation)
Method of Integration
P

A B

## What if we remove all redundancies

and replace with reaction forces?

P VB
If we treat VB
as known, we
can solve!
A B
Formulate expression for d 2v Can integrate
M(z)
M EI 2
dz to find v
Method of Integration (cont)
P VB
At A, v = 0, = 0
A B
2 A
d v
EI 2
M z , VB
dz

EIv M z , VB dz C1
Determine constants of integration
from Boundary Conditions
EIv M ( z , VB ) dz C2

## v( z ,VB ) How to determine VB?

Method of Integration (cont)
P VB P
=
A B A B

## v( z , VB ) How to determine VB?

VB2
P VB changes displacement!
VB1 Must be compatible!

## Compatibility BC: At B, v = 0 Solve for VB

Compatibility equations for beams are simply
the boundary conditions at redundant supports
Example 1 q
Problem Statement
Determine deflection equation for
the beam using method of
A B
integration:

Solution
2) Equilibrium: 1) FBD: q
MA
F H A 0 HA

A B
F
VA VB qL
2 2
VA VB
qL qL
M A M A LVB 2

2
LVA

## Treat reaction forces as knowns!

Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 11
Example 1

q
z MA
M ccw
z M M A VA z qz
2
M
q 2 A
M A VA z z V
2 VA

## Can also use step function approach

always on

always off

M M A z 0 VA z 0 VB z L
0 q 2
z 0
2

Example 1

## 5) Integrate Moment equation to get z q

v and v

q 2
EIv M A VA z z = M(z) A B
2

VA 2 q 3
EIv M A z z z C1 = -EI(z)
2 6
M A 2 VA 3 q 4
EIv z z z C1 z C2 = -EIv(z)
2 6 24
We now have expressions for v and v, but need to determine
constants of integration and unknown reactions

Example 1

## 5a) Solve for Constants of Integration z q

using BCs:
0
VA 2 q 3
EIv M A z z z C1 = -EI(z) A B
2 6
Fixed support
0 = 0, v = 0
M A 2 VA 3 q 4
EIv z z z C1 z C2 = -EIv(z)
2 6 24

Boundary Conditions:
q 3 VA
EI 0 0 0 M A 0 C1
2
At z = 0, = 0
6 2
C1 0

Example 1

## 5a) Solve for Constants of Integration z q

using BCs:
0
VA 2 q 3
EIv M A z z z C1 = -EI(z) A B
2 6
Fixed support
0 0 = 0, v = 0
M A 2 VA 3 q 4
EIv z z z C1 z C2 = -EIv(z)
2 6 24

Boundary Conditions:
q VA MA
EI 0 0 0 0 C2
4 3 2
At z = 0, v = 0
24 6 2
C2 0
Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 15
Example 1

## 5b) Solve for Reaction Forces using z q

BCs (imposed by redundant support):

VA 2 q 3
EIv M A z z z = -EI(z) A B
2 6
roller support
M A 2 VA 3 q 4 v=0
EIv z z z = -EIv(z)
2 6 24
Boundary Conditions:
q VA MA
EI 0 L L L
4 3 2
At z = L, v = 0
24 6 2
Recall from equilibrium:
qL 3M A qL2
VA MA LVA VB qL VA
4 L 2
Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 16
z q
Example 1

## 5b) Solve for Reaction Forces using A B

BCs (imposed by redundant support):
qL 3M A qL2
VA , MA LVA , VB qL VA
4 L 2

5
VA qL
8 MA
qL2
MA A B
8
3 VA VB
VB qL
8

z q
Example 1

## We were asked to determine deflection A B

equation:

M A 2 VA 3 q 4 0
EIv z z z
2 6 24
qz 2

0.2
v 3 L2
5 Lz 2 z 2

48 EI
0.4
Max Displacement: =0 0 0.5 1L

v
q
48 EI
6 L2 z 15Lz 2 8 z 3 0 z 0.5785 L

qL2
v(0.5785 L) 0.005416
EI
Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 18
Example 1

## Now that the reactions are known: z q

q 2 A B
M ( z ) EIv M A VA z z L
2
4
qL2 5qLz qz 2 M
qL2
8 8 2
d 8
dz
5qL 5
V ( z ) EIv qz 8
qL
8 V
5 3
L qL
8 8
Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 19
Solving statically indeterminate
beams using superposition
Method of Superposition
Determine reaction forces:
P
2L L 1) FBD: P
MA
HA
A B
VA VB
2) Equilibrium:

- 4 reactions
F H A 0 - 3 equilibrium equations

F
VA VB P 1st degree statically indeterminate
M A 3LVB 2 LP M A
Method of Superposition (cont)
How do we get compatibility equation?
P

A B

## Split into two statically determinate problems

VB
P
B2

A B B1 A B
Be careful!
3) Compatibility: B1 = B2 vB1 vB 2 0 +ve v
Method of Superposition (cont)
How do we get Force-Displacement relations?

## Integrate Moment Curvature Relation Standard Case Solutions

P
d 2v Can integrate A B
M EI 2 to find v
dz
L
+ +
PL2 PL3
B vB
2 EI 3EI
Method of Superposition (cont)
From the standard case: P PL2
B
2 EI
A B PL3
4) Force-Displacement: vB
L 3EI
2L P L
P 2L
2
2 PL2
P
B1 2 EI EI
A B
vB1 vP P L
straight
P 2 L 2 PL2
3

L
3EI EI
14 PL3

3EI
Method of Superposition (cont)
From the standard case: P PL2
B
2 EI
A B PL3
4) Force-Displacement: vB
L 3EI
VB
B2 VB 3L
3
9VB L3
vB 2
A B 3EI EI

Compatibility:
14 PL3 9VB L3 14
vB1 vB 2 0 VB P
3EI EI 27
bending deflections
Recall Shear deformation

V
+
V
+
Moment deformation
V(x)

M M

M(x) +

## Bending Deformation = Shear Deformation + Moment Deformation

P P MB
HB
MB
A B A
P B
VB HB
VB
B
C P
Axial deformation
P of AB due to HB
B C
A
P
Axial deformation
of BC due to VB
C
Axial deformation << bending deformation!

## For bending deformation problems

negligible
Deformation = Axial Deformation + Shear Deformation + Moment Deformation

BUT! P MB
If moment deformation is not HB
present, deformation is not negligible
A B
VB
q
Example 2
B C
Calculate reaction forces at A and D:

L, EI
First, can we see any simplifications? A D
Symmetry!
Symmetry implies: q
- Reactions at A = reactions at D HF
- Slope at symmetry plane = 0 MF
B
- Shear force at symmetry plane = 0

## We will solve using superposition

and standard cases A

## Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 30

q
HF
Example 2 B
MF
F
Calculate reaction forces:
1) FBD
2) Equilibrium A
HA
VA
F H A H F
MA
qL
F
VA
2
qL2
M ccw
A MA
8
HF L M F

## Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 31

Example 2
Calculate reaction forces:

3) Compatibility
MF - qL2/8
q
HF qL/2 HF MF - qL2/8 q
MF B
B HF MF
F HF

+ B F
=
qL/2
A A

F 0, v B 0
(axial deformation negligible)

## Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 32

MF - qL2/8

Example 2 qL/2 HF
B
4a) Force-Displacement for Beam AB
MF - qL2/8
HF qL/2
B B
B
A
+ +

A A A

H F L3 M F L2 qL4
vB vB 0 vB
3EI 2 EI 16 EI

H F L2 M F L qL3
cw
B B 0 cw
B
2 EI EI 8 EI
Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 33
Example 2
4a) Force-Displacement for Beam AB
MF - qL2/8

qL/2 HF
H F L3 M F L2 qL4
vB 0
B 3EI 2 EI 16 EI

H F L2 M F L qL3
Bcw
2 EI EI 8 EI
A

Recall compatibility:
Still need F F 0, v B 0

## Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 34

MF + qL2/8 q
Example 2 HF HF MF

## 4b) Force-Displacement for Beam BF B F

qL/2 L/2

q
HF MF
+ +
B F B F B F

q L 2
3 MFL
cw
F 0 Fcw
F
6 EI EI

qL3 MFL
cw
F Wait! Not entirely correct!
48 EI EI
Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 35
Example 2

## Previous angle relative to fixed support B

q
HF MF

B F

qL3 M L
cw
F F B
48 EI EI
7 qL3 2 M F L H F L2
cw
F 0
48 EI EI 2 EI

## Aerospace Mechanics of Materials (AE1108-II) Example Problem 36

Recall equilibrium:
Example 2
F H A H F
qL
Solve: F
VA
2
Recall compatibility: qL2
F 0, v B 0
M ccw
A MA
8
HF L M F

7 qL3 2 M F L H F L2
cw
F 0 qL
48 EI EI 2 EI HF HA
qL
8 8
qL2 2qL2
H F L3 M F L2 qL4 MF MA
vB 0 24 3
3EI 2 EI 16 EI

Example 2

qL
q HF
HF 8
MF qL2
B C B MF
F 24
L, EI HA
qL
8
A D A qL
HA VA
VA 2
2qL2
MA MA
3

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