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A Novel Simulation Approach for Measuring of

DC Voltage Offset Influence on Magnetizing

Current Even Harmonics in the Power
Transformer by Using Dither
Velibor Pjevalica, Nebojsa Pjevalica, Member, IEEE, Nenad Petrovic, Nikola Teslic, Member, IEEE

Abstract This paper presents stochastic method for measurement of such small offset is challenging task. For
measurement of DC voltage offset in 0.4kV distribution network measuring purpose, our 0.4kV signal could be treated as a
influence on magnetizing current even harmonics presence in the noise, and finally it exposes poor signal-to-noise ratio
power transformer. Variety of phenomenon, like geomagnetic 0.001/4002,5ppm. It is almost impossible to measure such
field, asymmetry of different loads, photovoltaic converters in
small signal in so large noise without some state of the art
smart grid, etc. can produce small DC voltage offset in power
transformer. Order of magnitude of this offset is around 1mV in oversampling measurement method. Significant step forward
0.4kV distribution network. Such extremely low DC signal level in DC offset voltage measurement is given in [1], where in
detection (in presence of high AC amplitude) presents analysis of even harmonics (II, IV, VI and VIII) of
challenging measurement task. By using stochastic method, even magnetizing current DC offset could be evaluated directly. In
the direct measurement of such small offset is possible. It is also this paper, stochastic adding A/D conversion (in further text
possible to measure even harmonics of magnetizing current in
SAADK) is utilized for direct and parallel measurement:
power transformer in order to measure input voltage DC offset
component indirectly, since even harmonics in magnetizing 1 Input voltage DC offset
current are consequence of DC component in input voltage. 2 True RMS of input voltage
3 Amplitude and phase of even harmonics of magnetizing
Index Terms Power Transformer, Measurement, Peak-to- current
Peak, Even Harmonics. In order to obtain valid simulation model, first task was to
achieve full correlativity between input voltage and
magnetizing current. For that purpose, input sine voltage
together with DC offset is introduced throughout hysteresis
Presence of small DC voltage offset in distribution power transfer function. After numerical mapping of voltage
network (several mV order of magnitude in 0.4kV network), samples, we obtain adequate current samples. Further signal
can be important indicator that there are some anomalies processing is continued over both samples by using stochastic
present in distribution network [1]. DC offset could be a method. Paper is organized as follows: in section II simulation
consequence of photovoltaic solar panels connected to the model is presented. Section III explains stochastic method. In
grid. Value range of this offset is covered by norm [2]. section IV simulation results are evaluated. Section V is
Together with power inverters in photovoltaic sources [3], discussion. In section VI conclusion is given. Section VII
geomagnetic disturbances [4] can cause DC offset appearance. gives references.
If it appears, DC offset can have unfavorable influence on
efficiency and reliability of the power transformer. As the
consequence of DC offset presence, there is higher reactive II. SIMULATION MODEL
power consumption as well as iron losses. Since DC voltage
offset is about 1mV, and distribution power network is 0.4kV, In order to have simulation model as realistic as possible
and closer to real transformer, it is essential to make adequate
Velibor Pjevalica is with the JP Srbijagas, (e-mail: correlation between input voltage and induced magnetizing current. Correlation is established over hysteresis loop. In
Nebojsa Pjevalica is with the Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of order to make model simpler, but not losing in generality,
Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovia 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia (e-mail: hysteresis loop is defined as symbolical. Left hand side and
Nenad Petrovic is with the School of Electrical Engineering Stari grad, (e- right hand side of hysteresis loop are given, respectively:
mail: nploewenstein@
ut A1 arctanit
Nikola Teslic is with the Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of
Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovia 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia (e-mail: (1)
ut A1 arctanit (2)
In here, parameter A1 is scaling factor between voltage and III. STOCHASTIC METHOD
current and is phase shift. Input signal is the sum of sine
signal and DC offset. Such input signal is introduced Stochastic adding A/D conversion with two noise
throughout hysteresis loop defined by (1) and (2). In fig. 1. it generators [5, 6] (abbreviated SAADK) is oversampling
is symbolically shown model with hysteresis defined by (1) measurement method. With this method, we digitally measure
and (2). average value of the integral of two analog y1(t) and y2(t)
signals product. Block scheme of the SAADK converter is
given in fig. 2.

y1 (t)=f1 (t)

A h1 (t)
y2 (t)=f2 (t)

B h2 (t)

Fig. 2. Block scheme of stochastic adding A/D converter

As it can be seen in fig. 2, it is necessary to implement

Fig. 1. Graph of the simulation model: input voltage, hysteresis transfer sum operation in analog manner (make analog addition) of
function and magnetizing current noise signals h1(t) and h2(t) to measured signals y1(t) and y2(t)
respectively. Conditions for normal operation are that noise
signals are mutually non-correlated with uniform distribution
Whole procedure is highly non-linear, due to non-linearity of of the amplitudes in range i , where i i=1,2, are steps of
hysteresis loop. For that reason it is important to do numerical 2
testing in order to draw reliable statistical conclusion. A/D converters 1 and 2 in fig. 2, respectively. If given
Algorithm is as follows: conditions are satisfied, content of numerical accumulator
1 Calculate sample of the input voltage as the sum of sine T
component and low DC offset. y1 t y2 t dt (5)
2 If calculated sample is inside of first half-period, use right T 0
hand side branch of the hysteresis to calculate corresponding and upper limit for absolute measurement error is:
current sample.
3 Calculation of current sample is done by inverse function T T
1 21 2 1 22 2 2122

T 4 0 T 4 0
from (2), i.e. s2 y2 t dt y1 t dt (6)
u t
it tan (3)
1 In paper [7] it is shown that optimal criteria according to
4 If calculated sample is inside second half-period, use left hardware complexity/metrology performance in SAADK
hand side branch of the hysteresis to calculate corresponding application is to have exactly 2 bits more in stored samples
current sample. then the input A/D converter resolution. In that case
5 Calculation of current sample is done by inverse function measurement uncertainty in direct DC offset measurement is
from (1), i.e. [7]:

u t
it tan (4) s2
1 21 2
R (7)
A1 N 8
6 Obtained magnetizing current signal is analyzed in
frequency domain. In formula (7), R is input range of the A/D converter.
7 Simulations are repeated according to given procedure for Concerning that voltage DC offset order of magnitude is 1mV
different DC offset values in order to see regularity how DC on 0.4kV distributive network, scaling i.e. voltage sensing
offset at the input is transferred on magnetizing current even must be done with the precise voltage divider with scale
harmonics. 2.5:400 i.e. 1:160. With this scale, input DC voltage offset
will be reduced to 1mV/160=6.25V. Upper absolute
measurement value boundary must be at least one order of
magnitude less than calculated 6.25V so it is at least 0.5V.
If there is A/D converter at the input with resolution of 14
bits, sampling frequency of 1MHz and input voltage range in DC offset = -10mV DC offset = -10mV
Amplitude Phase to phase of mains
A/D converter is R=2.5V and if measurement lasts 100s,
30 deg
upper absolute measurement error for measuring DC offset is:
35A 25 deg

20 deg
2,5 25A
1 2 1 2,5 2
15 deg
s (8)
100 2 10 4 8 15A 10 deg
5 deg
s 0.19V (9) 5A

0 0
2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8
Overall number of the measuring samples is 100,000,000 and Fig. 2. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to
it takes 100 seconds to obtain them with 1MHz sampling mains phase with DC offset voltage of -10mV
frequency. Direct DC offset measurement on distribution
network is demanding task due to very low signal-to-noise DC offset = -5mV DC offset = -5mV
Amplitude Phase to phase of mains
ratio. With stochastic method, however, it can be obtained in 25A

100 seconds.
25 deg



By simulation absolute measurement errors of DC voltage 15 deg

offset in distributive network are obtained. Voltage signal is
with sine waveform and effective value of 220V. Simulation 10 deg

were obtained with 14 bits A/D converter, sampling frequency 5A

5 deg
of 1MHz and measurement duration of 100 seconds. Results
are given in table 1. 0 0
2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8
Table 1. Simulation results Fig. 3. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to
mains phase with DC offset voltage of -5mV
UEFF -10mV 10mV
DC offset = -1mV DC offset = -1mV
0.15V 0.10V Amplitude Phase to phase of mains
UEFF -5 mV 5 mV 4A
30 deg
0.11V 0.13V 3.5A

3A 25 deg
UEFF -1mV 1mV
2.5A 20 deg
0.10V 0.12V
15 deg
Together with DC offset measurement, magnetizing current 10 deg
spectral measurement is done as well. In figures from 2 to 7
amplitudes and phases of even harmonics (0, II, IV, VI and 0.5A 5 deg

VIII) of magnetizing current with different values of DC 0 0

offset is given. Given harmonics are measured for DC voltage 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8
offset of -10mV, -5mV, -1mV, +1 mV, +5mV and +10mV Fig. 4. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to
respectively. mains phase with DC offset voltage of -1mV
DC offset = +1mV DC offset = +1mV per each DC offset magnitude level, as expected. If there is no
Amplitude Phase to phase of mains
DC offset in distributive power network at given moment,
4.5A 2 4 6 8 there is no even harmonics in magnetizing current as well. As
-145 deg
4A soon as DC offset voltage appears, even harmonics in
3.5A -150 deg magnetizing current appears as well. With appropriate
3A calibration of given transformer it is possible to indirectly
-155 deg measure voltage DC offset via measurement of even
2A harmonics in magnetizing current.
-160 deg
1A -165 deg
-170 deg
2 4 6 8
First result of this paper is application of stochastic adding
Fig. 5. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to
mains phase with DC offset voltage of +1mV A/D conversion in measurement of very small DC voltage
offset in voltage signal in the transformer primary on 0.4kV
DC offset = +5mV DC offset = +5mV distributive power network. By utilizing 14 bit A/D converter
Amplitude Phase to phase of mains and with sampling frequency of 1MHz, it is possible to
25A 2 4 6 8 measure small DC offset voltage values with accuracy of 3%.
-145 deg
For obtaining the results, it takes 100 seconds. Such small DC
20A -150 deg offsets are seldom present, and their presence definitely
indicates on irregularity in distributive power network.
15A -155 deg Second result is the proof that it is possible to indirectly
-160 deg
measure voltage DC offset throughout the analysis of
magnetizing current even harmonics (II, IV, VI and VIII).
-165 deg Even harmonics are present only if symmetry of voltage
signal on primary of the transformer is disrupted i.e. when
-170 deg
primary voltage gets small DC offset. Presence of even
2 4 6 8 -175 deg harmonics in magnetizing current is clear signal that DC
Fig. 6. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to offset appeared in the input voltage. When we compare even
mains phase with DC offset voltage of +5mV
to odd harmonic ratio in magnetizing current, it is from one to
DC offset =+10mV DC offset = +10mV several orders of magnitude times better then signal-to-noise
Amplitude Phase to phase of mains ratio when we measure voltage DC offset directly.
2 4 6 8
35A -150 deg This work was partially supported by the Ministry of
30A Education, Science and Technological Development of the
-155 deg
Republic of Serbia, under grant number: "TR32014".
20A -160 deg
10A -165 deg

5A [1] Slobodan N. Vukosavi, Ljiljana S. Peri, High Precision Sensing of

-170 deg DC Bias in AC Grids IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 2015,
2 4 6 8 Volume: 30, Issue: 3, pp 1179 1186.
-175 deg [2] IEEE standard for interconnecting distributed resources with electric
Fig. 7. Amplitudes and phases of the corresponding harmonic related to power systems, IEEE standard 1547-2003
mains phase with DC offset voltage of +10mV [3] M. Armstrong, D. J. Atkinson, and C. M. Johnson, "Auto-calibrating dc
link current sensing technique for transformerless, grid connected, H-
bridge inverter systems", IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, vol. 21, no. 5,
pp. 1385- 1393, Sept. 2006.
V. DISCUSSION [4] P. R. Price, "Geomagnetically induced current effects on ransformers", IEEE
Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1002-1008, Oct. 2002.
[5] V. V. Vujicic, ''Generalized Low-Frequency Stochastic True RMS
Second harmonic phase (when referenced to main harmonic Instrument'', IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement,
phase) of magnetizing current is directly correlated with the Vol. 50., No. 5, October 2001.
DC offset voltage polarity in distributive network. Positive [6] V. Pjevalica, V. Vujicic, Further Generalization of the Low-Frequency
True RMS Instrument, IMTC 2005, Ottawa, Canada, 17-19 May 2005.
phase difference for second harmonic corresponds to negative [7] V. Pjevalica, V. Vujicic, "Further Generalization of the Low-Frequency
polarity of DC offset in the primary voltage and vice versa. True-RMS Instrument", IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Validity of presented simple hysteresis transfer function Measurement, vol. 59, No. 3, March 2010, pp 736
model is exposed in fact that even harmonic phase difference
between positive and negative offsets is exactly 180 degree