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# 4-2.

Second Moment and Section Modulus

In the preceding section, we defined the first moment as

S = ∫ y ⋅ dA (4.1.1)

where y is the distance between an infinitesimal section dA and the neutral axis (Fig. 4-2-1). In this

section, we shall define the second moment (or the moment of inertia) by replacing y with y2 in Eq.

4.1.1:

I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA (4.2.1)

b
dy dA
dA dA dy dy dA ymax
dy
y y y y
h

(a) Rectangle (b) H (vertical) (c) H (horizontal) (d) General shape

Fig. 4-2-1 Various sections and infinitesimal segments

In Section 2-5, we learned that the bending moment is the integral of the axial force of the

infinitesimal section, σ.dA, multiplied by the distance from the neutral axis, y:

M = − ∫ y ⋅ σ ⋅ dA (2.5.3)

This equation applies to all kinds of sections. In Section 2-6, we learned that the stress is proportional

to the curvature, φ, and the distance from the neutral axis, y, as expressed in Eq. 2.6.3.

σ = −Eφy (2.6.3)

Substituting this into Eq. 2.5.3,

M = Eφ ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA = EIφ (4.2.2)

259

2.3) −h / 2 12 as we learned in Section 2-6. the moment of inertia plays an important role relating the bending moment to the curvature (curvature is a measure of how or at what rate the beam bends).dy and h/2 bh3 I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA = ∫ y 2 ⋅ b ⋅ dy = (4. If we are interested in obtaining an approximate value. As was stated earlier. 4-2-1a. dA = b. each square measures 10 x 10 mm.2.5 × 103 mm 4 where y is the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of these squares. Fig. we can state the contribution of these three squares to the moment of inertia as ∆I ≈ y 2 ⋅ dA = 152 × (30 × 10) = 67. the contribution of the uppermost row is 20 ∆I = ∫ y 2 × 30 × dy = 70 × 103 mm 4 10 as listed in the column of numbers that appear in Fig. The total moment of inertia is shown at the bottom of the column (I = 70 + 10 + 10 + 70 = 160 x 103 mm4). For example. Figure 4-2-2 shows the initial window of GOYA-I. 4-2-2 Window of GOYA-I 260 . The digits in the right-hand column show the contribution of each row to the moment of inertia.2.4. For the rectangular section in Fig.Thus.

but for the section in Fig. I. the maximum stress in the section σmax is y max σ max = M (4. All the sections have the same area. ranging from 90 to 1907 x 103 mm4. 4-2-3). 4-2-3a the average distance to the extreme rows is as small as y = 15 mm . 4-2-3 Moment of inertia (unit: 103 mm4) Substituting φ = M / EI into σ = −Eφy . 4-2-4.2. The large differences are caused primarily by the different contributions of the extreme rows ( ∆I ≈ y 2 ⋅ dA in Fig. y.2. 4-2-3d will have a smaller curvature and. For the section in Fig. but very different moments of inertia. 4-2-4. A = 2000 mm2. 4-2-3 and obtain the stress distributions shown in Fig. smaller deflection for a given load over a given span than the other sections. draw the four sections shown in Fig. The expression φ = M / EI indicates that the beam with the section in Fig. Note that the stresses vary linearly with the distance from the neutral axis. y σ =− M (4. 4-2-3d the average distance is as large as y = 35 mm .Press Ctrl + N three times to create four windows. Fig. the average distance to the extreme rows (or squares) is large but the area dA is small. If we define the distance between the edge of the section and the neutral axis ymax as shown in Fig. it will fail at a bending moment of 261 .5) I If the beam is made of brittle material with a strength σf.4) I Press the ‘bending stress’ button in the windows showing the sections in Fig. 4-2-3c. therefore. 4-2-3. For the section of Fig. In these windows.

4-2-4 Stress distribution ------------------Technical terms: flanges and web------------------- Figure 5 shows the typical section of a steel I-beam.2. 4-2-4c.2. Z is indicated at the bottom of the window. Structural engineers call the strips in the top and 262 .2. 4-2-4d is much larger than that of the section in Fig. 4.7) y max the ‘section modulus.2.9) In other words. The section modulus of a rectangle is I bh 3 h bh 2 Z= = = (4. Because the section modulus of the section in Fig.2. the strength of a beam is proportional to the section modulus. Now. Fig. I-shaped section should be in the vertical direction if it is used as a beam.8) ymax 12 2 6 as we learned in Section 2-5.6) ymax We call the coefficient I Z= (4.6 as M f = Zσ f (4.’ In GOYA-I. we can rewrite Eq. I Mf = σf (4.

X X 3a Solution: First. we can shorten the calculation process by partitioning the section as shown in Fig. 4-2-5 Steel I-beam ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- a Example 4-2-1: Calculate the section modulus of the section shown 3a in Fig. Fig. ’ which may look like the skin (web) that joins the toes of swans. 4-2-6 4a 3a −3 a = ∫ y 2 ⋅ 5a ⋅ dy + ∫ y 2 ⋅ a ⋅ dy + ∫ y 2 ⋅ 5a ⋅ dy 3a −3 a −4 a 185 4 54 4 185 4 424 4 = a + a + a = a 3 3 3 3 Noting ymax = 4a. middle and bottom): 2a a 2a I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA Fig. 4-2-6. we evaluate the moment of inertia as the total of three a parts (top.bottom ‘flanges’ and the vertical plate a ‘web. we have 424 4 a I 3 106a 3 Z= = = y max 4a 3 Because the section considered is symmetrical about its neutral axis. 4-2-7: a rectangular section of 8a x 5a minus two 263 . Flanges are typically thicker than web as shown in the figure to resist bending moment effectively.

5 a 2.5 a I=∫ y 2 ⋅ 3a ⋅ dy + ∫ y 2 ⋅ a ⋅ dy = 3.25a 4 = 8. This technique is valid only for the moment of inertia of a section symmetrical about the bending axis.25a 4 + 5.5 a − 0. we should not use this technique for calculating the section modulus. 4-2-7 Partitioning of the section (not for section modulus) Nor can we use this short-cut for calculating the moment of inertia of a section not symmetrical about the horizontal axis (Fig. we obtain the same result. I= (3a ) × (4a )3 − 2 × (a ) × (3a )3 = 16a 4 − 4. you will get an incorrect answer. Recalling I = bh 3 / 12 for rectangular section. Z= (5a )× (8a )2 − 2 × (2a )× (6a )2 = 160 3 72 3 88 3 106 3 a − a = a < a : NG! 6 6 3 3 3 3 Fig. 4-2-8 is −0. because ymax of the outer rectangle (4a) is different from that of the inner ones (3a). I= (5a ) × (8a )3 − 2 × (2a ) × (6a )3 = 640 4 216 4 424 4 a − a = a : OK 12 12 3 3 3 However.5a 4 −1.5a 4 > 8.5a 4 = 11. The correct moment of inertia of the section in Fig.5a 4 : NG! 12 12 264 .5 a If you use the short-cut.sections of 6a x 2a. 4-2-8) because the neutral axes of the partitioned sections are different from each other.

Fig. we have 2h / 3 2 y bh 3 I = ∫ y 2 ⋅ dA = ∫ y 2 ⋅  −  ⋅ b ⋅ dy = (4.10) −h / 3 3 h 36 Noting ymax = 2h/3. 4-2-9).2. Fig. we obtain bh 3 I bh 2 Z= = 36 = (4. 4-2-9 Triangular section Solution: Consider an infinitesimal slice of thickness of dy and width of f(y) as shown in Fig.11) y max 2h / 3 24 Both the moment of inertia and the section modulus for the triangular section are smaller than those 265 . 4-2-8 Never do this because neutral axes are different Example 4-2-2: Calculate the moment of inertia and the section modulus of a triangular section (Fig.2. The dimension f(y) can be expressed as 2  2 y  h − y  : f ( y ) = h : b or f ( y ) =  −  × b 3  3 h Because the area of the slice is f(y) dy. 4-2-9.

That does not surprise us. 4-2-10(a) is dA = f ( y ) ⋅ dy = 2 R 2 ⋅ cos 2 θ ⋅ dθ Noting that y = R ⋅ sin θ as shown in Fig.of rectangular section of b x h. I. The width of the slice dA varies as f ( y ) = 2 R cos θ Figure 4-2-10b shows the segment defined by dθ.2.12) R4 π /2 R4 π /2 πR 4 = ∫−π / 2 θ ⋅ θ = ∫ π (1 − cos 4θ )⋅ dθ = 2 sin 2 d 2 4 − /2 4 Fig. dy = R ⋅ dθ ⋅ cosθ The area of the slice in Fig. 4-2-10 Circular section 266 . Solution: We define the angle between the neutral axis and the edge of the slice. 4-2-10a. 4-2-10a. Example 4-2-3: Calculate the moment of inertia of a circular section with a radius of R. as shown in Fig. 4-2-10c that shows in detail illustrating how we express dy in terms of R dθ and cosθ as follows. θ. we obtain Fig. the moment of inertia. Noting that dθ is so small that the arc length R dθ approximates the chord length. is π /2 I = ∫ y 2 dA = 2 R 4 ∫ sin 2 θ cos 2 θ ⋅ dθ −π / 2 (4.

Example 4-2-4: Building columns or bridge piers may be subjected to bending moment both in x- and y-directions by earthquake or storm effects. h 2 = πR 2 where h denotes the side dimension of the square. 4-2-11 Tube section 1 This is equivalent to a bending moment of M = 50 2 × 10 6 N.12 πR 4 h4 h4 I= = ≈ 4 4π 12. But if we cut the member and consider the forces at the cut. the bending moment itself is not a vector. 4-2-11b. As we learned in Chapter 2.2.mm and compute the maximum stress in the section1. Assume that the tube section of Fig. This type of column is often used in bridges. 4-2-11a is subjected to bending moments of M x = M y = 50 ×10 6 N.e. Substituting the above equation into Eq. See Fig. 4.Let us compare the result above with that of a square section having the same area. Fig. we can treat the moment acting on the cut as a vector.56 showing that the moment of inertia of a circular section is similar to that of the square section ( I = h 4 / 12 ) having the same area. 4-2-11c showing the vector summation of Mx and My. 267 . You will remember that we did that for axial forces. i.mm about the inclined axis in Fig.

mm is 268 .8 × 108 Zy = = = 14.mm is Mx 50 × 10 6 σx = = = 3. 4-2-12a.11 N/mm 2 Z x 16.Solution: The moment of inertia around the x-axis is obtained by subtracting the moment of inertia of the inner rectangle (400 x 500) from that of the outer one (500 x 600): 500 × 6003 400 × 5003 Ix = − = 48. Fig.1×10 6 mm 3 y max 300 The maximum stress caused by the bending moment of M x = 50 × 10 6 N.3 ×108 mm 4 12 12 The corresponding section modulus is Ix 48.3 × 108 Zx = = = 16.1 × 10 6 The stress distribution is shown in Fig.8 × 108 mm 4 12 12 Iy is smaller than Ix because of the smaller height (h = 600 mm). 4-2-12 Stress distribution The moment of inertia around the y-axis is 600 × 5003 500 × 4003 Iy = − = 35. The corresponding section modulus is Iy 35.3 × 10 6 mm 3 ymax 250 The maximum stress caused by the bending moment of M y = 50 ×10 6 N.

It is difficult to find the best solution directly.61 N/mm 2 and occurs at corners where the moment Mx and My cause stresses of the same sense (tension or compression). 4-2-13 Examples 269 . My 50 ×10 6 σy = = = 3.mm is shown in Fig. 4-2-12b. and should not be discontinuous as shown in Fig. The section should be continuous as shown in Fig. Assume that we can use a material with a compressive strength of 2 N/mm2 and a tensile strength of 1 N/mm2. The maximum stress is σ = σ x + σ y = 3. Note that the positive sign of the bending moment indicates that the bottom fiber will be in tension. Determine the optimum proportions for a section resisting moment: We wish to design a beam section that can resist a bending moment of +50 x 103 N-mm (using GOYA-I) with the limitation that neither its height nor its width should exceed 80 mm. Fig.50 N/mm 2 Zy 14. 4-2-13b.11 + 3. 4-2-13a.3 ×10 6 The stress distribution is shown in Fig.50 = 6. Design the section so that the area (the number of squares) is minimized. The stress caused by the simultaneous bending moments of M x = M y = 50 × 10 6 N. Do it by trial and error. 4-2-12c.