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Understanding8AreasofWaste:

IntroductiontoLeanPrinciples WAITING:
Systemdowntimeorresponsetime
History: Approvalsfromothers

ProcessFlow: Informationfromcustomers
HenryFordcreditedwithstartingoriginal Lookatprocessthrough Meetingsstartinglate
DownstreamFlow
movement thecustomers Latereports,paychecks,orprojects
KiichiroToyodaandTaiichiOhno:1930s Task TaskB TaskC perspectiveandidentify INVENTORY:Toomuchofanythingandanyformofbatch
developedtheToyotaProductionSystem. wasteintheprocess. processing
PopularizedbyJimWomack,authorofLean Excessiveofficesupplies
Upstream Fullinboxes(electronicorpaper)
Thinking,TheMachinethatChangedtheWorld
Computerfilesneverused
andLeanSolutions
UNDERUTILIZATIONOFPEOPLE

Limitingemployeeauthorityandresponsibilityfortasks
WhyUseLean? Inadequatebusinesstoolsavailable
Delayingimplementationofcomputersystemcomponents
Leanprincipleshelptoexaminebusinessprocesses Restrictingornotofferingtrainingontechnicalresources

andfocusonminimizingunnecessarycosts,reducing
wasteandimprovinginefficientprocedures. CORRECTION/REWORK:Correctionofanyerror
Orderentryerrors
Benefits: Grammarandpunctuation

Identifiesproblemareasandbottlenecks Inaccuratereportsordata
Lackofstandardizedwork
Increasesbusinessefficienciesmakesurestaff
Incompletecommunications
timeisspentonvalueaddedactivities.
OVERPRODUCTION:Producingmoresoonerorfasterthanis
Savemoneyreduceoverheadinpaperwork requiredforthenextprocess
Simplifyprocesses
Printinghardcopiesofforms
Purchasingitemsjustincasetheyareneeded
Conformtorules&regulationsandcodesof Processingpaperworkbeforethenextpersonintheprocessis
conductstandardizingprocessesusingLean ready
Preparingreportsthatarenotusedorread
WhatisLean? MOTION:Unnecessaryphysicalmovement

Copymachinetoofarawayfromusers
Leanconsistsofproventoolsandtechniquesthat Diggingthroughstacksofpaper

focusonminimizingwastefulactivityandadding Reachingforcommonlyusedtools

valuetotheendproducttomeetcustomerneeds. Misplacingequipment/items
LeanTerminology/Metrics: Usingtoomanylayersforelectronicfolders
The8areasofwastecanbeusedtounderstandthe
inefficiencies: Nonvalueadded:Activitiesoractionstakenthataddnoreal KaizenPhilosophy:Japaneseforimprovementorchange MATERIALMOVEMENT/TRANSPORTATION(transporting,sorting,

Waiting Inventory Under


Correction/ valuetotheproductorservice,makingtheactivityoractiona forthebetter.Frequentsmallimprovements,thecycleis: orarrangingitemsunnecessarily)
Rework Filingpapersthatwillneverbeusedagain
formofwaste.
Standardizeanoperation Stockpilingsuppliesfarfromtheirpointofuse
Material Valueadded:Activitiesoractionstakenthataddrealvalueto Measurethestandardizedoperation
Buryingextrasuppliesindrawersorstorerooms
Extra
Overproduction Motion Movement/ Gaugemeasurementsagainstrequirements
Processing theproductorservice. Requiringmultipleapprovals
Transportation Innovatetomeetrequirementsandincreaseproductivity
Standardizethenew,improvedoperations
HandDelivery
IncidentalWork:Activitiesneededtostayinbusinesslegally. Latereports, paychecks,orprojects
AmappingmethodcalledValueStreammappingis LeanMetrics:
InternalCustomer:Receiveroftheproductorserviceinside EXTRAPROCESSING:Extramentalorphysicalnonvalueadded
typicallyusedtocapturethecurrentstateprocess, 1. ProcessTime(P/T)actualtouchtimeofoneworkitem;exclude
theorganization,oftentheindividualdownstreamprocess. interruptions steps
includingboththevalueaddedandnonvalueadded
2. DelayTime(D/T)timeworkitemisdelayedornottouched Producingrepetitivedocumentsfromscratch
steps.Valuestreammappingprovidesanoverall ExternalCustomer:Receiveroftheproductorserviceoutside
3. LeadTime(L/T)starttimetofinishtime;L/T=P/T+D/T Poorfilingsystem
viewofbusinessprocessesastheyarenow,mapping theorganization. 4. %CompleteandAccurate(%C/A)%ofworkenteringaprocessthatis Lackofvisualcontrols
completeandaccurate.
thematerialandinformationflowsandcanbeused Toomanyapprovalsrequiredforaction
tocreatethefuturestateprocessafterthe Unclearreports/memospublished
DesignedbyAlexisNaiknimbalkar,CSUQualityInitiatives,
leaninghastakenplace. permissionrequiredforduplicationoutsideoftheCSUsystem(anaik@calstate.edu)
Reviewingadocumentmultipletimestodetermineaction
Meetingswithoutagendasforaction


WASTEWALK 5SORGANIZATIONSYSTEM

Auditquestionstodeterminepainpointsin TooltoorganizespacesandintroduceLeanconcepts

Auditquestionsfor5Sarea.
anareatobeLeaned Descriptionofconducting5S
Ratings:Noproblems0,1problem1,2problems2,
improvement:
3problems3,and4ormoreproblems4.
WAITING OVERPRODUCTION Sort,SetinOrder,Shine,Standardize,Sustain Goalistohavealowtotalnumber.Correctproblemsimmediately.
1. Aremakingextracopies,morethanneeded?
1. Arethereexcessivesignaturesorapprovalsrequired?
2. Areweprinting,faxing,emailingmorethanwhatis Excess/unneededequipment,tools,furnitureinarea
2. Istheretoomuchdependencyonotherstocompletea
needed?
SORTWhenindoubt,sortitout!
task? Askquestionsaboutuse ___Unneeded/outdateditemsonwalls
3. Areweenteringrepetitiveinformationonmultiplework
3. Aretheredelaysinreceivinginformation? SetCriteriaforsorting
documentsorforms? ___Itemsarepresentinaisleways,corners,etc.
4. Aretherecomputerprogramversionproblemscausing Placeitemsinholdinguntilallhavehadachance
4. Areweorderingmoretestsorservicesthanwhatis
delays? toreviewitemsbeingdiscarded ___Excess/unneededinventory,supplies,materialinarea
requiredbythecustomer?
5. Systemdowntimeorresponsetimecausingdelays?
5. Arewepurchasingitemsjustincasetheyareneeded?
6. Aretherecrossdepartmentalresourcecommitment
6. Arewepreparingreportsthatarenotusedorread?
issues?
7. Arewehavingmeetingswithoutthenecessary
informationforaction? SETINORDERAplaceforeverythingand ___Correctplacesforitemsarenotclearlymarkedorlabeled
INVENTORY
everythinginitsplace! ___Itemsarenotmarkedorlabeledwithreturnaddresses
1. Arefiles(orwork)awaitingexcessivesignaturesor MOTION Identifylocationforitems ___Aisleways,workplace,equipmentlocationsarenotmarked
approvals? Relocateditems
1. Areyousearchingforcomputerfilesonyourdesktopor
2. Arefilesawaitingtaskcompletionbyother? ___Itemsarenotputawayimmediatelyafteruse
usingtoomanylayersforelectronicfolders? Usevisualcontrolslabels
3. Aretheredelaysinreceivinginformation? 2. Areyousearchingforworkdocuments(files)incabinets Logicaldesignflow ___Heightandquantitylimitsarenotclearlymarked

4. Arewepurchasingexcessivesuppliesofanykind? and/ordrawers?

5. Dowehaveanyobsoletefiles(electronicorhardcopy)in 3. Areyouconstantlyreviewingthesamemanualsfor
information?
thearea?
6. Dowehaveobsoleteequipmentinthearea? 4. Areyouhandcarryingpaperworktoanotherprocessor SHINEInspectionthroughcleaning! ___Floors,walls,stairs,andsurfacesaredirty
departmentregularly?
7. Istherebatchprocessingoftransactionsorreports? Clean ___Equipmentisdirty
5. Areyoumisplacingequipment/items?
Organizeloosecords ___Appropriatecleaningmaterialsarenotavailableinarea
6. Areyoureachingforcommonlyusedtools?
Replacedamageditems
UNDERUTILIZATIONOFPEOPLE ___Lines,labels,signs,etc.aredirtyandhardtosee
Placesmallitemsontraysforeasycleaning
MATERIALMOVEMENT/TRANSPORTATION ___Othercleaningproblemsarepresent
1. Areweinpositionsweweretrainedtodo?
2. Canweassistotherareaswhenworkisslowinanarea? 1. Areyoudeliveringdocumentsthatarenotrequired?
3. Canwebetrainedtodomorewithintheorganization? 2. Areyoudoingexcessivefilingofworkdocumentsorfiling
STANDARDIZEEverythinginastateof ___Standardstomaintainsortandsetinorderdonotexist
4. Arethebusinesstoolsadequateforthejob? documentsthatwillneverbeusedagain?
readiness! ___Checklistforallcleaningandmaintenancejobsdonotexist
5. Areyourestrictingornotofferingtrainingontechnical 3. Areyourequiringmultipleapprovals?
resources? Rulestomaintainandcontrolsystem(checklist,audits, ___Standardsarenotvisibleintheareaandknowtoareastakeholders
4. Areyouhanddeliveringitemsthatcanbesentin andvisualcontrols)
6. Areyoudelayingimplementationofcomputer ___Quantitiesandlimitscannoteasilybeseen
componentsorsoftware?
interofficemail? Minimumandmaximumlimits
Quickreferencechecklist ___Itemsneededtodojobfunctioncannotbelocatedin30seconds
EXTRAPROCESSING
CORRECTION/REWORK
1. Areweproducingrepetitivedocumentsfromscratch?
1. Dowehaveanydataentryerrors?
2. Dowehaveapoorfilingsystem? SUSTAINTraining,reinforcementand ___Workersinareahavenotbeentrainedin5S
2. Dowehavepricing,quoting,billing,orcodingerrors?
3. Istherealackofvisualcontrols? measurement! ___Daily5Swasnotdonethisweek
3. Doweforwardpartialdocumentation?
4. Arewetoomanyapprovalsrequiredforaction? Communicateimportance ___Personalbelongingscannotbeeasilystored
4. Doweeverlosefilesorrecords?
5. Areweenteringrepetitiveinformation? Trainonrules
5. Doweeverencounterincorrectinformationona ___5Schecklist/standardsarenotavailableoruptodate
document? 6. Arewedoingmoreworkthanisrequiredforthat Sharesuccessinmeetings
___Scheduled5Sauditshavenotbeencompletedthisweek
6. Istherealackofstandardizedwork? process? Effectivevisualcontrols

DesignedbyAlexisNaiknimbalkar,CSUQualityInitiatives,
permissionrequiredforduplicationoutsideoftheCSUsystem(anaik@calstate.edu)