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With the Compliments of



Dictionary of Music




2, Massachusetts

First printing, November 1944

Second printing, December 1944

Third printing, 1945

Fourth printing, 1946

Fifth printing, 1947

Sixth printing, 1950


NOWHERE in literature is a preface more clearly out of place than in a book
which, like the present one, is predestined to be read without leisure and
to be consulted (somewhat like a dentist) in the case of an emergency only.
Moreover it seems incongruous to write a wordy preface for a book which
by its very nature aims at the utmost conciseness. In the way of general

description it will suffice to say that this designed book is to provide

accurate afid pertinent information on all musical topics and that it is
addressed to the musical amateur as well as to the student and the scholar.
To reconcile the different, if not conflicting, interests of these three groups
of readers has been one of the chief concerns of the author. In the majority
of the articles this has been no problem, since an article on "Major and
Minor" or "Eroica," for instance, falls just as clearly within the province
of the first group as does one on "Lai" or "Oktoechos" within that of the
last. In the case of articles which are of interest to the amateur as well

as to the musicologist the difficulty has been solved successfully, it is

hoped by clearly dividing the material into two paragraphs, one of

which treats the subject from the present-day point of view, the other,
from that of the historian. The articles on "Sonata" and "Fugue" may be
cited as examples. A special feature of this book, not to be found in any
other music dictionary in the English language, is the bibliography,
which covers book publications as well as the periodical literature die
latter more completely than any other music dictionary in any language.
The most distinctive trait of the present work is the restriction to mu-

sical topics, entailed the omission of biographical articles. The

which has
reason for this restriction is that the biographical field is adequately cov-
ered in a considerable number of recent reference books, several of which
are devoted exclusively to biography, while exactly the opposite is true of
the information on the various aspects of music itself. In this respect even
the best dictionaries fail even to approximate the standard which has long
been established in the biographical field. This situation indicates the
point of departure and the raison d'etre for the present publication.
The restriction of subject matter means the exclusion not only of indi-
vidual composers, feut .ajsp of individual organizations, orchestras, pub-
lishers. There however, general articles on "Societies," "Orchestras,"
"Publishers," which supply information about the most important mem-
bers of such groups. For the purpose of orientation the list of general
articles ("Synoptic Guide") given on p. 2 may be consulted.
There remains the pleasant duty of acknowledging gratefully the as-
sistance which the author has received from many sides. A complete list
of those scholars who have contributed original articles is found on p. x.
Less obvious, but hardly less important, is the collaboration of others who
have given valuable advice or other assistance, as follows:

Mrs. Willi Apel, Boston: Final check of the periodical literature.

Mr. Artur Bogen, Cambridge: Preparatory work for the articles on indi-
vidual operas.
Dr, Manfred F. Bukofzer, University of California: Reading of articles on
Medieval and Oriental music.
Mr. Leonard Burkat, Boston Public Library: Reading of the articles on
Periodicals and Publishers.
Dr. Yuen Ren Chao, Harvard University: Reading of the articles on
Chinese and Japanese music.
Dr. Alfred Einstein, Smith College: Reading of various articles on i6th-
and 17th-century music.
Mr. Klaus Goetze, Cambridge: Material for the article on Pianoforte
Dr. Lloyd Hibberd, Graham-Eckes School, Palm Beach: Reading of the
entire manuscript.
Prof. Edward B. Hill, Cambridge: Reading of articles on modern instru-
Dom Anselm Hughes, O.S.B.: Reading of articles on liturgical music.
Dr. Otto Kinkeldey, Cornell University: See below.
Mrs. Edward B. Lawton, Berkeley, California: Material for the article on
the Mass.
Dr. Curt Sachs, New York University: Reading of articles on ancient in-
Mr. Nicolas Slonimsky, Boston: Proofreading of the entire manuscript,
with particular regard to "Music Since 1900."
Dr. Harold Spivacke, Library of Congress: Reading of articles on Orches-
tras, Periodicals, Publishers, and others.
Mr. David Stone, Howard University: Material for the article on Piano
playing; final check of the periodical literature.

I am particularly indebted to Professor Kinkeldey, who not only has

read the entire sections A and B of the Dictionary, but also numerous
articles (e.g., Auffiihrungspraxis; Binary and ternary form; Character
piece; Choral, chorale; Cl^sicism; Expression; Figural, figurate, figured;

Folk song; Modern music; Plainsong notation; Song form) which the
author would have been hesitant to publish in their present form Without
the backing of the authority which Professor Kinkeldey, the dean of
American musicology, so justly enjoys.
I wish to express my gratitude to the members of the staff of the
Music Department of the Boston Public Library whose kind cooperation
has greatly facilitated the completion of the book.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to Mr. W. W. Norton, New York,
for permission to reproduce a number of illustrations of instruments, taken
from C. Sachs, The History of Musical Instruments (1940); and to the
Macmillan Company, London, to reproduce from Grove's Dictionary the
illustrations for the article "Bow" and the drawing of the colascione for
the article "Lute."
In conclusion the author wishes to say that he will appreciate suggestions
for corrections to be used in a second edition which may be forthcoming
sooner or later.

W. A.
Boston, Massachusetts
May 1944

Addenda and corrigenda will be found on page 825 and following pages.

I. Periodicals

Reference usually made by annual volume numbers (i, ii, iii, . .), if a list of con-
is .

tents given with the volume. Otherwise, copy numbers are added (e.g., ii, no. 4).

Special methods of reference (e.g., when the volume numbering is inconsistently used)
are indicated below. In the case of articles the title of which is essentially identical
with that of the subject under consideration, this title is usually omitted.

AM Acta Musicologica (quarterly, 1928-).

AMF Archiv fur Musityorschung (quarterly, 1936-).
AMW Archiv fur MusH(wissenschajt (quarterly, 191828).
BAMS Bulletin of the American Musicological Society (annual, 1936-).

BJ Bach Jahrbuch (annual, 1904-).

BS1M Abbreviation for a monthly publication which appeared from 1905 to 1914
under five different titles, as follows: i-iii: Le Mercure musical', iv-v:
Bulletin franfais de la Societe Internationale de Musique; vi-vii: S.I.M.
Revue musicale mensurelle; viii-ix: Revue musicale S. I. M.\ x: La Revue
musicale S.I.M. See also RMC.
BUM Bulletin de la societt "Union musicologique" (semiannual, 1921-26).
DM Die Musi^ (1901-15 in 24 copies per year, numbered i.i-i.24, . .

xiv.i-xiv.24; 1922 to date in 12 copies per year, numbered xv.i-xv.i2, etc.).

JMP Jahrbuch der Musi1(bibliotheJ^ Peters (annual, 1894-).
JM W Jahrbucher fur musikalische Wissenschaft (two volumes, 1863 and 1867).
KIM Kongress der Internationalen Musi^gesellschajt (Leipzig, 1904; Basel,
1906; Vienna, 1909; London, 1911). Also included under this sign are:
Bericht fiber den Musifyuissenschaftlichen Kongress, Basel, 1924; Bericht
iiber den i. musiJ(tvissenschajtlichen Kongress der Deutschen Musil^-
gesellschajt,Leipzig, 1925; Kongressbericht (Compte rendu, Report),
Internationale Gesellschaft fur Musi1(wissenschajt, Liege, 1930. Cf. R. S.

Angell, in Music Library Association Notes, 1944, no. 2.

KJ KirchenmusiJ(alisches Jahrbuch (1885-1932); preceded by Cacilien-Kalcn-

der (1876-84).
LRM La Rassegna Musicale (monthly, 1928-).
MA Musical Antiquary, The (quarterly, 1909-13).
MfM Monatshefte fur Musif(geschichte (monthly, 1869-1905).
ML Music and Letters (quarterly, 1920-).
MM Modern Music (quarterly, 1924-).
MQ Musical Quarterly (quarterly, 1915-).
MR Music Review (quarterly, 1940-).
PAMS Papers Read by Members of the American Musicological Society (annual,
PMA Proceedings of the Musical Association (annual, 1874-).
RdM Revue de musicologie (quarterly, 1922-), preceded by Bulletin de la so-
franfaise de musicologie (quarterly, 1917-21). Reference by year

[ viii ]
and continuous numbering of copies, e.g., 1922, no. i; 1937, no. 64, etc.
RM Revue musicale, La (ed. by Prunieres, monthly, 1920-).
RMC Revue musicale, La (ed. by Combarieu, monthly, 1901-10). Merged in
1911 withfiS/M.
RMI Rivista musicale italiana (quarterly, 1870-).
SIM Sammelbdnde der Internationalen Musi^gesellschajt (quarterly,
StM Studien zur Musityvissenschajt (Beihefte der Denkmaler dcr Tonkunst in
Oesterreich; annual, 1913-34).
TG Tribune de St. Gervais (monthly, 1895-?).
VMW Vierteljahrsschrift fur Musityvissenschajt (quarterly, 1884-94).
ZIM Zeitschrijt der Internationalen Musi\gesellschajt (monthly, 1900-14).
ZMW Zeitschrijt fur Musi\wissenschajt (quarterly, 1918-35).

II. Boo\s
AdHM G. Adler, Handbuch der Musil^geschichte, 2 vols., 1930.
ApMZ W. Apel, Musif^ aus jruher Zeit, 2 vols.
ApNPM W. Apel, Notation of Polyphonic Music, 1942 (2d ed., 1944).
AR Antiphonale Sacrosanctae Romanae Ecclesiae, 1924 (No. 820, edition in
neumatic signs).
BeMMR H. Besseler, Musi\ des Mittelalters und der Renaissance, 1931.
BuHM E. Biicken, Handbuch der Musi\tvissenschajt, 7 vols., 1928-32.
CS H. Coussemaker, Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series, 4 vols.,

DdT Denkmaler deutscher Tonkunst, 65 vols., 1892-1931.
DTB Denkmaler der Tonkunst in Bayern, 36 vols., 1900-31.
DTOe Dentynaler der Tonkunst in Oesterreich, 83 vols., 1894-1938.
EiBM A. Einstein, Beispielsammlung zur Musi^geschichte, 1930 (incorporated
in his A Short History of Music, 2d edition, 1938).
GD Grove, Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5 vols., 1938; supplementary
vol., 1940.
GSHM Th. Gerold, Histoire de la musique des origines a la fin du xive siecle, 1936.
GR Graduale Sacrosanctae Romanae Ecclesiae, 1924 (No. 696, edition in neu-
matic signs).
GS M. Gerbert, Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum, 3 vols.,

1784; facsimile edition, 1931.

HAM Historical Anthology of Music, ed. by A. T. Davison and W. Apel, Har-
vard University Press.
LaMWC P. Lang, Music in Western Civilization, 1941.
LavE Lavignac, Encyclopedic de la musique, 19^; Histoire: $.1-5; Technique:

LU Liber Usualis Missae et Officii, 1937 (No. 780, edition in neumatic signs).
MoML H. J. Moser, Musi^-Lexi^on, 1935.
OH Oxford History of Music (mainly vol. i of the first ed., 1901).
ReMMA G. Reese, Music in the Middle Ages, 1940.
KHM H. Riemann, Handbuch der Musi^geschichte, 5 vols., 1904-13.
in Beispielen, 1925.
RiML H. Riemann, Musfy Lexicon, 2 vols., 1929.
SaHMl C. Sachs, History of Musical Instruments, 1940.
SaRM C. Sachs, Rcallexityn dcr Musifynstrumtnte, 1913.
SchGMB A. Schcring, Gcschichtc dcr Musi% in Beispiclen, 1931.
TaAM G. Tagliapictra, Antologia di musica per pianoforte, 18
. . . vols., 1931/2.
WoGM J. Wolf, Gcschichte dcr Mensurdnotation, 3 vols., 1904.
WoHN J. Wolf, Handbuch dcr Notationstyndc, 2 vols.,

III. Contributors of Articles

A.E. Alfred Einstein, Smith College (Madrigal comedy).

A. T. D. Archibald T. Davison, Harvard University (Anglican chant; Conducting;
Glee; Just note and accent; Music education; Psalter).
A. T. M. A. Tillman Mcrritt, Harvard University (Counterpoint; Harmonic analy-
sis; Harmony I).
D. D. Dorothea Doig, Longy School of Music, Cambridge (Tests).
D. J. G. Donald J. Grout, University of Texas (Opera; Comic opera; Ballet in opera;
and related articles).
E. B.H. Everett B. Helm (Composition; Degrees; Profession; Scholarships; Soci-
eties I).

E. C. Eunice Crocker, Radcliffc College (Canzona).

E. P. Ernest La Prade, National Broadcasting Company (Electronic musical in-
struments; Radio broadcasting of music).
G.C. Gilbert Chase, Library of Congress (Latin American countries).
G. D.H, G. Donald Harrison, Aeolian-Skinner Company (Organ I-IX).
H. A. Hans Abraham, Cambridge (Copyright).
H. G. M. Henry G. Mishkin, Amhcrst College ( Accadcmia; Bologna School).
H. J. S. Helen Joy Sleeper, Wellcsley College (Fancy).
H.L. Hugo Leichtentritt, Cambridge (Music criticism).
H.N. Hugo Norden, Boston (Bowing).
J. F. O. John F. Ohl, Fisk University (Recorder).
J. T. H. John Tasker Howard, Glen Ridge, New Jersey (American music; Ameri-
can Indian music).
L. H. Lloyd Hibberd, Graham-Eckes School, Palm Beach (Dictionaries; Jazz).
L. S. Leo Schrade, Yale University (Maniera).
N. S. Nicolas Slonimsky, Boston (Russian music II).
P. A. Putnam Aldrich, University of Texas (Ornamentation and related articles).
P. L. M. Philip Licson Miller, New York Public Library (Phonograph and recorded
R. S. Richard S. Angell, Columbia University (Libraries).
R. Y. R. Rulon Y. Robison, Boston University (Register; Voice).
W. D. D. William D. Denny, Vassar College (Orchestra; various instruments).
W. P. Walter Piston, Harvard University (Harmonic rhythm).
V. Z. Victor Zuckerkandl, Princeton, N. J. (Urlinie) .

IV. Signs
* indicates reference to other articles.

indicates publications consisting mainly or exclusively of music.
If you want to understand the invisible, look

carefully at the visible. [See*AestheticsIII (b).]

List of articles of a general character and of master articles
containing reference to others
Acoustics Folk music Periodicals
Aesthetics Form Phonograph and recorded
Analysis Gregorian chant music
Appreciation Harmonic analysis Poetic meter

Arrangement Harmony Primitive music

Chamber music History of music Printing of music
Church music Improvisation Profession of music
Color and music Instrumental music Publishers

Composition Instruments Radio broadcasting

Concert Libraries Rhythm
Conducting Mechanical instruments Scholarships
Copyright Melody Singing
Counterpoint Modern music Societies
Dance music Music criticism Sources prior to 1450

Degrees Music education Style

Dictionaries Musicology Testsand measurements
Editions, Historical Notation Text and music
Electronic musical instru- Opera houses Texture
ments Orchestras and concert Theory
Exotic music halls Tonality
Expression* Oriental music Vocal music
Festivals Ornamentation Wind instruments

Articles on Nations and Races: American Indian; American; Arabian; Argentina;

Armenian; Australian; Babylonian; Belgian; Brazilian; Bulgarian; Byzantine; Cana-
dian; Central America; Chile; Chinese; Colombia; Cuba; Czech; Danish; Egyptian;
English; Eskimo; Ethiopian; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Hindu; Hungarian;
Icelandic; Irish; Italian; Japanese; Javanese; Jewish; Mexico; Negro; Netherlands;
Norwegian; Oriental; Peru; Polish; Portuguese; Roman; Rumanian; Russian; Scot-
tish; Spanish; Swedish; Swiss; Syrian; Tibetan; Turkish; Venezuela; Yugoslavian.

A. Sec *Pitch names; *Letter notation; abbreviations used in musical notation

*Hexachord; *Pitch. On the title page are indicated in the accompanying table.
of *part-books of the i6th century A
stands for altus. In liturgical books it
A - b - c - dieren [G.] . The use of
pitch-letters, a, b, c . . .
, rather than of
stands for antiphon.
*solmization syllables, in singing and ele-
Ab [G.]. Off, chiefly with reference to mentary instruction. This system pre-
the discontinuation of an organ stop. vails in Germany.
Abandonne With abandon; un- Abdampfen [G.]. To *mute.
Abduction from the Seraglio. See
A battuta [It.]. See *Battuta. *Entfiihrung aus dem Serail.

Abbandono, Con ; abbandonasi Abegg Variations. R. Schumann's op.

With abandon, unrestrained. i, dedicated to his friend Meta Abegg.
The first five notes of the theme a-bb-
Abbellimenti [It.] .
Embellishments, e'-g'-g' read, in German pitch names,
^ornaments. A-B-E-G-G.
Abbreviations. The most important Abendlied [G.]. Evening song.
Abendmusik [G.]. Evening musical
performances, usually of a religious or
contemplative character. The term ap-
plies particularly to the famous concerts
started in 1673 by Dietrich Buxtehude
in the Marienkirche of Liibeck in North
7 (vioUn)
Germany. These took place annually on
the five Sundays before Christmas, fol-
lowing the afternoon service, and con-
sisted of concerted pieces of sacred music
for orchestra and chorus and of organ
music [see DdT 14], They continued
throughout the i8th and ipth centuries.
In 1705 J. S. Bach walked 200 miles from
Arnstadt to Liibeck to hear the Abend-

Lit.: W. Maxton, in ZMW x; C. Stiehl,

Die Organisten an der St. Marienkirche
und die Abendmusifyn zu

A bene placito [It., at pleasure]. An

indication permitting a certain freedom
in performance, equivalent to ad libi-

Abbreviations tum.

Abgesang [G.]. Sec *Barform. degree of musical experience or aptitude,
but it can by no means be considered a
Abgestossen [G., detached].
measuring stick of musical talent. In
tachc [see *Bowing (b)].
fact, it is just as frequent (perhaps more
Abnehmend [G.]. Diminuendo. so) among mediocre orchestral players
as among great composers and outstand-
Abschieds-symphonie [G.]. Fare-
ing artists. While Mozart had an ex-
well Symphony. tremely acute sense of absolute pitch,
Abschnitt [G.]. Section. Wagner and Schumann are reputed to
have lacked it.
Absetzen [G.]. (i) To separate, either Absolute pitch is in various respects a
notes [*Dtache] or phrases. (2) In valuable asset to a musician, particularly
16th-century parlance, absetzen in die
to a conductor, but it may prove a real
Tabulator means to transcribe (vocal inconvenience when music for one rea-
music) into *tablaturc. son or another must be transposed in per-
Absolute music formance to another key, as is frequently
[L. absolutus, sepa-
the case in vocal music, in order to ac-
rated]. Music which is dissociated from
extramusical implications. The term is commodate the range of the singer [see
used most frequently in contradistinction remark under *chiavctte]. It is ques-
to *program music, i.e., music in which tionable, indeed, whether it is an advan-
pictorial or poetic ideas are portrayed. tage or a disadvantage to hear a composi-
It also excludes vocal music, especially
tion "all wrong" simply because it is a

that type of vocal music in which the half tone higher or lower. Needless to

text clearly influences the musical lan- say, all the discussions about the "true
pitch" of Beethoven's C minor Sym-
guage and structure (e.g., a song by
Schubert). In German usage the term is phony, for example, are entirely pointless
in a stricter sense, excluding unless the standard pitch of Beethoven's
not only program and vocal music but day is taken into account. Since this
pitch has considerably changed
also music of a definite emotional char- (still

acter Bach so that more so in the case of Bach), it can be

(*Romantic musig),
and, to some extent, MBzart become the definitely said that, from the standpoint
of absolute all
main representatives of absolute music.
pitch, present-day per-
formances of music written prior to the
Absolute pitch. Properly, "the posi- general acceptance of the modern concert
tion of a tone in reference to the whole pitch [see *Pitch (2)] are "wrong."
range of pitch . , conceived as inde-
. .
Generally speaking, they are higher than
pendently determined by its rate of vibra- the composer wanted them to be. mu- A
tion" (Webster). The German term for sician with absolute pitch who lived one
this is absolute Tonhohe. Usually, how- hundred years ago if brought back to life
ever, the term is used to denote what today would be horrified to hear Bee-
should be termed more accurately "abso- thoven's Fifth Symphony played in what
lute judgment of (absolute) pitch," i.e., would be to him C-sharp minor.
the capacity of 'a person to identify a Lit.: C. H. Wedell, The Nature of the
musical sound immediately by name, Absolute Judgment of Pitch (1934); L.
without reference to a previously sounded A. Petrau, An Experimental Study of
note of different pitch [see ^Relative Pitch Recognition (1932); A. Wellek,
pitch]. This faculty, called in German Das absolute Gehor und seine Typen
absolutes Gehor, is a tonal memory (1938, bibl.); C. E. Seashore, The Meas-
which is inborn with certain individuals urement of Musical Memory (1917);
but can also be acquired by practice, as O. Abraham, in SIM iii, viii; F. Auer-
recent experiments have shown. The bach, in SIM viii; H. Riemann, in Z1M
faculty, whether inborn or acquired, is xiii; J. Kobelt, in AMW ii
(bibl.); G.
found chiefly in persons possessing some Rvcsz, "t)bcr die beiden Arten des abso-

luten Gehors" (ZIM xiv); N. Slonimsky, and Academy of Ancient Music; Munich,
in American Mercury xxi. Akademie der Tonkunst; New York,
Abstossen Academy of Music (today the Metro-
[G.]. (i) In violin playing,
politan Opera); Brooklyn, Academy of
same as*abgestossen. (2) In organ Music (founded 1861), etc. [see *Con-
playing, to take off a stop [see *Ab]. cert halls; *Opera houses], (c) Institu-
Abstract music. Same as *absolute tions of musical education: London,
music. Royal Academy of Music; Berlin, Staat-
liche Akademie fur Kirchen- und Schul-
Abstrich [G.]. Down-bow. musik; Munich, Konigliche Akademie
der Tonkunst (founded 1846); Phila-
Abzug [G.]. *Scordatura.
delphia, Academy of Music (1870); New
Academic Festival Overture (A\a- York, Academy of Allied Arts (School
demische Festouverture). The title of of Music, 1928). See also *Societies.
Brahms's op. 80, an orchestral composi-
tion written for the University of Breslau
A cappella [It. cappella, chapel].
as a recompense for the degree of Doctor
Music written "for the choir of a chapel,"
i.e., choral music without instrumental
of Philosophy conferred upon him
a presentation of various
ft 1S accompaniment. The music of Palestrina
German student songs, much in the man- [see ^Palestrina style] is usually consid-
ered the model of a cappella music. An
ner of a *potpourri.
a cappella choir is one formed for the cul-

Academic [F.]. In the

*Academy. tivation of unaccompanied singing. His-
early part of the i9th century the term torians of the 1
9th century held the idea
was used for concerts or recitals. Bee- that all "early music" i.e., music be-

thoven in one of his letters says: "Heute fore 1600 was a cappella. Such a state-
keine Akademie," i.e., "No concert to- ment is correct, however, only with re-

night." spect to strictly liturgical music, such as

masses and motets. Secular music,
Academy [Gr., derived from the olive
whether for a soloist or a choral group,
grove of Academe, the meeting place of
was frequently accompanied or dupli-
Plato and his disciples near Athens]. A
cated by instruments, particularly in the
term applied to scholarly or artistic so-
cieties and to musical organizations of period 1300-1450 [see *Ars nova; *Bur-
various types. The movement started in gundian School],
Lit.: J. Handschin, Die Grundlagen
Italy around 1600 [see *Accademia].
des a-cappella-Stils (1929); Th. Kroyer,
The societies outside of Italy include:
in Kretzschmar Festschrift (1918),
(a) Learned associations, part of whose
activity is the promoting of musical
AMW ii; AM vi, no. 4.

studies. They usually have a member- Acathistus [Gr., not seated]. hymn A
ship limited to those of demonstrable of praise of the Byzantine Church, sung
ability, maintain periodic discussions and in honor of the Virgin upon the Satur-

proceedings which are often gathered day of the fifth week in Lent by the
into publications, and generally offer whole congregation standing. Both text
honors, medals, or prizes for achieve- and music were written by the patriarch
ment in composition or research. Many Sergios in A.D. 626, on the occasion of the
of these are state-supported: Paris, Insti- deliverance of Constantinople from the
tut de France, division Academic des Persians. The poem consists of 24 stanza?
Beaux Arts; Berlin, Akademie der the initial letters of which represent the
Kiinste; Brussels, Academic Royale; alphabet (acrostic). It belongs to the
others in Stockholm and Moscow, (b) general species of Byzantine poetry
Organizations for the giving of operas known as fyntalyon [see *Byzantine
and concerts: Paris, Academic de Mu- chant II].
sique; London, Royal Academy of Music Lit.: H. J. W. Tillyard, Byzantine
Music and Hymnography (1923), p. 16; Accelerando [It.]. Becoming faster.
AdHM i, 131.
Accent, (i) The stress of one tone over
others. According to the position of the
Accademia [It.]. Italian learned asso-
stressed note within the measure, one
ciation, named after Plato's Academy
* may distinguish between regular (nat-
[see Academy]. An A. di Platonc was
founded in 1470 at the court of Lo- ural) accent, which falls on the first and,
in compound meters, also on other beats
renzo dc* Medici in Florence. With the
(secondary accent); and irregular (un-
beginning of the I7th century, the move-
ment spread enormously in Italy; every natural) accent, which falls on a nor-
mally weak beat. According to the
place of some repute had its accademia,
and larger cities had numbers of them. means of achieving stress, the following
distinctions are usually made: dynamic
They were of two types: (a) Learned
societies founded for the promotion of accent, which results from reinforcement;

and arts, part of whose *tonic accent, which results from higher
science, literature,
activity was the encouragement and cul-
tivation of music. The most famous of
these was the A. dci A read i of Rome
(founded 1692), which included among
its members the musicians Marcello,
Corelli, Alessandro Scarlatti, Gluck.
Handel attended many meetings, but as
a foreigner was not eligible for member-
ship. Other institutions of the same type pitch; and *agogic accent, which results
existed, in Florence: A. della Crusca from longer duration of the stressed note.
(1588), A. dei Filarmonici\ in Bologna: Of these, the dynamic accent is by far the
A. dei Gelati (1588), A. dei Concord7 most important, the other two being
(1615), A. dei Filomusi (1622), A. dei largely subsidiary or incidental. Irregular
Filar monici (1675); in Venice: A. Pelle- dynamic accent is
usually indicated by
grina (1550), A. degli Olimpici; and signs such as sf, >, . Ex. i (Mozart,
elsewhere, (b) Organizations of profes- Symphony in G minor)
shows an irregu-
sional and amateur musicians which had lar dynamic accent which, at the same
the cultivation of music as their sole pur- time, is tonic and agogic also. Frequently,
pose. The activities of these groups were the emphasis on the weak beat is en-
varied; they gave public and private con- hanced by means of striking dissonances,
certs, conducted research investigations as in Ex. 2. The *tonic accent has played
in the history ofmusic and in the sci- on Gregorian
a role in the discussions
ence of sound, founded music schools, chant and on other types of medieval
and even launched operatic enterprises. monophonic music.
The most important of these is the A. (2) [F.]. In French music of the i7th
FHarmonica of Bologna, founded in 1666 and 1 8th centuries, an ornamentation be-

by Count Vincenzo Carrati, which in- longing to the class of *Nachschlage.

cluded among its members such distin- (3) Signs used in ancient Greek liter-
guished figures as Bassani (1657-1716), ature (probably also in Hebrew poetry,
Corelli (1653-1713), Torelli (d. 1708), e.g., Psalms, Book of Job) to indicate a
Domenico Gabrielli (1640-90), Padre change of pitch of the voice in recitation:
Martini (1706-84), Mozart (1756-91), accentus acutus ^, for a raising; a. gravis
Rossini (1792-1868), and Busoni (1866- \ for a lowering; a. circumftexus A ,
1924). Cf. N. Morini, La Realc Ac- for an inflection (raising followed by low-
cademia filarmonica di Bologna (1930); ering) of the voice. These signs are
A. Einstein, in BAMS vii. H. G. M. considered today as the origin of the
neumes (accent neumes; see *Neumes
Accarezzevole [It.]. Caressing. II)and of certain other related systems

of notation, called *ekphonetic notation. nection with chords; either written out
Cf. WoHN i, 61.
as an ordinary note, but to be played as
(4) The notational signs used in Jew- described above [Ex. i, Domenico Scar-
ish chant [see * Jewish music II]. latti,Sonata; Ex. 2, Scherzo in Bach's
Partita no. 3] ; or indicated by a diagonal
Accentuation. The proper placement
dash, in which case arpeggio execution
of accents, especially in music set to a
is usually intended, particularly in slow
text. See ^Declamation; *Text and music.
tempo. The direction of the dash indi-
cates the direction of the arpeggio [Ex.
Accentus, concentus. The terms are
used in liturgical music in two different 3 ] . The French name for this ornamen-
tation was arpegement figure. For an
though related meanings: (a) liturgi-
erroneous usage, frequent in modern
cally, as referring to the chanting of the
term acciaccatura,
of the see
priest (accentus) and to that of the writings,
under *Appoggiatura III.
schold) i.e., the choir, the soloists, or both
(concentus)\ (b) stylistically, as referring Accidentals. I. General. The signs of
to two opposite types of plainsong, the chromatic alteration momentarily intro-
syllabic recitation, largely on a monotone duced for single notes or measures, as
with slight inflections, as in the psalm to those given in the ^signature.
tones (accentus)) and the melismatic The signs of chromatic alteration to-
type found in the alleluias, graduals, etc. gether with their names in English,
(concentus). The chant of the priest is French, German, and Italian are given
usually of the simpler type; that of the in the following table:
schola of the more elaborate. See P. X
* b
Wagner, Einjuhrung in die Gregoria- E: sharp flat double-sharp
nischen Melodien, iii
(1921), p. 4. F: diese bemol double diese
G: Kreuz Be Doppelkreuz
Acciaccato [It.]. "Crushed," i.e., It: diesis bemolle doppio diesis
brusquely, forcibly. bb
E: double-flat natural
Acciaccatura [It. acciaccare, to crush],
F: double bemol becarre
Italian name for an ornament of harpsi- G: Doppcl-Bc Auflosungszeichcn
chord music (c. 1675-1725) which calls It: doppio bemolle bequadro
The sharp raises the pitch one semitone,
the flat lowers it one semitone; the
double-sharp and double-flat raise and
lower two semitones respectively; the
natural cancels any of the other signs.
The use of the compound signs W, tlb,
W to cancel partly or entirely a previous
X or bb is quite frequent but unneces-
sary. The simple signs #, b,
$ answer

the purpose [Ex. i]. In modern practice

a sign affects the note immediately fol-
lowing and is valid for all the notes of
the same pitch (but not in different oc-
taves) within thesame measure. Recent
composers frequently add bracketed ac-

ir T
for the lower second of the normal note cidentals to thosedemanded by this rule,
to be simultaneously struck and immedi- in order to clarify complicated passages

ately released. It usually occurs in con- or chords.

II. History. All the signs used for doubled lines, either in a straight or in
chromatic alteration developed from the a diagonal position. The present sign is

same sign, namely, the letter b which a simplification of the latter.

indicates the whole tone above a. The In music prior to 1700 an accidental
fact that in the diatonic scale c-d-e is not valid for the entire measure, but
... no perfect fourth above f is avail- only for the next note and immediate
able necessitated, as early as the loth repetitions of the same note. See Ex. 3.
century, the introduction of another b,
a semitone lower than the diatonic b
[see *Hexachord]. These two b's were
distinguished by their shape, the higher
For the problem of accidentals in
one being written in a square form and
music of the i3th to the i6th centuries,
called b durum
(durus, hard, angular),
see *Musica ficta. Cf. F. Niecks, "The
the lower in a round form and called
Flat, Sharp, and Natural" (PMA xvi).
fb B durum
. b B molle Acclamation. A type of Byzantine
* SharP poetry and music which served as a
sh'apes -S
$& Double sharp salutation for the emperor in the cere-

L *fc Double sharp monial of the Byzantine court of the

9th and loth centuries. The acclama-
b molle (mollis, soft, round). It is from
tions are practically the only type of non-
these designations that the German
liturgical Byzantine music known to
names Dur and Moll for major and
Acclamations are still used today in Rus-
minor mode are derived. When in the
sia and the Balkans for welcoming high
ensuing period the introduction of other
dignitaries of the church. Those begin-
chromatic tones became necessary, the
durum and later modifications
ning with the traditional phrase "Many
sign b its
be the years*' were called polychronion
\ $ were used to indicate the higher of
[cf. the examples in ReMMA, 77 and
two semitones; the sign b molle or b, the
in MQ xxiii, 207].
Lit.: AdHM i, 128; E. Wellesz, Byzan-
Musi\ (1927); H. Tillyard,
tinische in

T c o Cf C
The Annual of the British School
Athens, xviii.

lower one. Thus, in early music, ^ f is

not F-natural (canceled), but F-sharp; Accolade [F.]. *Brace.

likewise, b f is not F-flat, but F (in dis- See

tinction from a previous F-sharp); [see
Accompagnato. Accompanied.
*Recitative II (c).
Ex. 2, from Frescobaldi's Canzone
(1628)]. Bach continued to use the Accompaniment. I. The musical
signfor the cancellation of a previous f#.
background provided by a less important
In Germany, during the i6th century, for a more important part. For instance,
the sign b durum was erroneously inter- in piano music, the chords or other sub-

preted as the letter h, to which it bears sidiary material of the left hand, as
some visual resemblance. Hence, in Ger- against the melody of the right hand.
man terminology h denotes the B-natural, The term also refers to the support given
and b the B-flat. to a soloist (singer, violinist) by a pianist
In the printed books of the i6th cen- or an orchestra. The auxiliary role of
tury the sharp sign usually occurs in a the accompaniment frequently leads to
diagonal position. The double-sharp (in- an underestimation of its musical and
troduced in the early i8th century; cf. artistic importance, on the part of the
Bach's Well-tempered Clavier, 1722, and soloist as well as the audience. Vocalists,
G. Walther's Musi\ Lexicon, 1732) demand an un-
J. especially, are inclined to
originally appeared as a sharp with due subordination of .their accompanists,
condemning them to complete slavery in centuries (ballades, virelais by G. de
questions of interpretation, of tempo, of Machaut and his successors, sec *Ars
dynamics, etc. This situation is the more Nova; chansons of Dufay and his con-
dangerous, since the possession of an temporaries, see *Burgundian School).
outstanding voice and vocal technique is It disappears again with the rise of
no guarantee of musical taste and artistic Flemish sacred music and of Flemish
discrimination. counterpoint (Ockeghem, Obrecht),
The modern church organist as well which is
opposed to any dis-
as the leader of a choir is frequently con- tinction between principal and auxiliary
fronted with the problem of providing parts. The instrumental doubling of
suitable accompaniment for the singing vocal parts, such as was occasionally
of the congregation or the chorus, either practiced in this period, can scarcely be
improvised or written out. Following considered an accompaniment. In the
are a number of books on this subject: 1 6th
century the renewed shift to secular
J. F. Bridge, Organ Accompaniment things immediately led to a revival of
(1886); D. Buck, Illustrations in Choir accompanied melody, e.g., in the lute-
Accompaniment (1877); C. Forsyth, songs of the German Schlick (1512), of
Choral Orchestration (1920); W. Hickin, the Spanish Valderrabano (1547), and of
Pianoforte Accompaniment', A. H. the English Dowland (1597).
Lindo, The Art of Accompanying III. A new era of accompaniment
(1916); Ch. W. Pearce, The Organist's began with the period of thorough-bass
Directory to the Accompaniment of the (Baroque period, 1600-1750), which
Church Service (1908); A. M. Richard- calls for a harmonic accompaniment to

son, Modern Organ Accompaniment be improvised upon the notes of the bass.
(1907). See also *Vamp. Moreover, the growing interest in florid
II. References to instrumental accom- and singable melody brought about a
paniment of songs are not infrequently gradually increasing separation of the
found in the Bible (harp-accompani- musical substance into a predominant
ment is suggested by the remark "on melody with subordinate accompaniment
eight strings," given with Psalms 6 and (e.g., in the aria). Whereas, throughout
12) and in the writings of the ancient the Baroque period, the written-out ac-
Greeks. Pictorial reproductions and lit- companiment (and, consequently, the
erary documents of the Middle Ages improvised one, too) shows many traits
show the use of harps, fiddles, bells, of contrapuntal and harmonic interest,
small drums, trumpets, etc., in connec- itdegenerated, in the second half of the
tion with the monophonic songs of the 18th century, into a stereotyped pattern
troubadours and Minnesinger, and in of plain chords, arpeggios, *Alberti-bass
conjunction with dance music. Neither figures, etc. As a curiosity it may be
in ancient nor in medieval music was mentioned that, about 1760, sonatas were
this improvised type of accompaniment frequently written for the "pianoforte
ever of a harmonic nature; it was merely with the accompaniment of a violin or
a unison- (or octave-) doubling of the flute" (Mondonville, 1734, see ^Editions
voice part, with occasional *heterophonic XXIV, 9; Schobert, see DdT 34), that is,

elements. The same type of accompani- with the violin or flute merely duplicat-
ment is to be found with the Oriental ing the upper part of the pianoforte. In
nations, in *China, *India, this connection it is interesting to note
* Arabia. While the polyphonic music that Samuel Wesley speaks of }. S. Bach's
of the 9th to the i3th centuries (organa, "Six sonatas for harpsichord with an ob-

motets) does not admit the separation of bligato violin accompaniment."

the polyphonic fabric into parts of IV. About 1780 Haydn and Mozart
greater or lesser importance, such a sepa- evolved a new type of accompaniment
ration takes place in the French secular known as accompanimento obbligato,
characterized by a greater individuality
compositions of th^ i4th and early i5th
of the lower parts, by the occasional in- ments such as the lute for which various
troduction of fugal elements, by the oc- systems of tuning were in use during the
casional shift of the melody from the i;th century [cf. WoHN ii, 91; ApNPM,
higher part into a lower part, etc. This
7if]. See *Scordatura.
style is
particularly evident in the
Accordare [It.], accorder [F.]. To
quartets written in this period. Because
of -these efforts Beethoven was able to tune.

say of himself: "Ich bin mit einem obli- Accordatura [It.]. See *Accord (2).
gaten Accompaniment auf die Welt
gekommen." What Haydn and Mozart Accordion. A portable musical instru-
did in the instrumental music,
field of ment consisting of a rather large rec-
Schubejrt achieved in the field of song, tangular bellows with reeds in the two
headboards. It has pushed-out and
by freeing the pianoforte accompaniment
from the slavery of mere chord-filling drawn-in reeds, the former sounding by
and making it an independent, some- expiration, the latter by inspiration. The
times the most interesting, part of the modern accordion has a piano keyboard
composition. Composers such as Schu- at the right side for the playing of mel-
mann, Brahms, and H. Wolf adopted ody notes, while buttons on the left side
his method, whereas others (e.g., Tchai- operate bass notes and full chords. The
earliest instruments of this type were
kovsky) rarely went beyond a chordal
accompaniment in lush harmonies of a made by Buschmann (1822), Buffet
rather ephemeral interest. More recent (1827), and Damian (1829).
composers (Mahler, Strauss) have re- A similar instrument, preferred to the

peatedly used the whole orchestra as an

accordion in England, is the concertina
instrumental background for a solo invented by Wheatstone in 1829. This
is of hexagonal shape and is provided at
V. The
extraordinary growth of ac- each side with a number of studs. It
companied melody .as it occurs in the possesses a full chromatic scale and pro-
songs of the ipth century has had a de- duces the same note whether the bellows
plorable effect upon the minds of musi- are pressed or drawn. Artistically, this
cal scholars and editors in the instrument is
superior to the accordion.
study and publication of early mono- A good deal of solo music has been writ-

phonic music, such as Greek music, ex- ten for it by virtuosos such as G. Regondi,
otic melodies,Gregorian chant, the songs W. B. Molique, G. A. Macfarren, and
of the trouveres, Minnesinger, etc. Nu- E. Solas, and has occasionally been used

merous volumes have been published in in the orchestra (Tchaikovsky, Orches-

which the melodies of the pre-Christian tral Suite op. 53). The bandoneon is an
era or of the Middle Ages are coupled Argentine variety of the accordion with
with cheap accompaniments in the styles buttons on each side, each of them for a
of Schumann, Brahms, or Debussy. Even single tone.
well-known scholars have not withstood Accordo Chord.
this temptation [cf., e.g., O. Fleischer,
Rcste der altgricchischen Tontytnst
Accuse [F.] . With emphasis.
(1899)]. More recent attempts to give
Achromatic. *Diatonic.
these accompaniments an "antique" air
[see reference under *Quartal harmony] Achtel, Achtelnote, Achtelpause
are only more dangerous and misleading. [G. achtel, one-eighth]. See *Notes and
For literature on the 17th-century ac- rests.

companiment see *Thorough-bass. See

* Additional
Achtfuss [G.]. Eight-foot (stop) [see
also accompaniment. *Foot (2)].

Accord [F.]. (i) Chord. (2) Man- Acoustic bass (also called resultant

ner of tuning, especially that of instru- bass). On organs, a 32-foot stop which

is obtained as a differential tone of a 16- represent, one iu*v imagine me itrvycsi
foot stop and a io%-foot made lumi-
stop. Accord- point of the tongue, A, to be
ing to the acoustic phenomenon of the nous and then photographed. If for this
differential tones [see Combination purpose a single exposure of film is used,
tones] the simultaneous sounding of C a horizontal dash ( ) will appear. If,
(produced by the i6-foot) and of G (pro-
duced by the io%-foot) produces the
tone Ci (32-foot). The acoustic bass is
frequently used where the great expense
of the large 32-foot pipes is prohibitive.

Acoustics. The science which treats

of sounds. From the standpoint of the
musician the most important problems
of acoustics are: (i) the nature of the
musical sound; (2) ^intervals; (3) Con-
sonance and dissonance; (4) ^resonance;
(5) *architectural acoustics. Only the
first problem will be treated here; for the
others, see the respective entries..
I. Vibration. The generation of sound
is invariably bound up with the vibra-
tion of an elastic body, i.e., of a body
which, when its equilibrium is disturbed,
develops inner forces which try to restore
the equilibrium. Such a process does not
end at once, since the body upon return-
ing to its initial position still has a certain
amount of kinetic energy which causes
it to
go beyond this position so that a
new contrary disturbance results. This
leads to a repetition of the whole move-
ment in the reverse direction and, in fact,
to a succession of movements back and
forth which would continue indefinitely
were it not for friction, which causes
them to diminish and finally to stop. A
tongue of steel fastened at one end may
serve as an example [Ex. i].
Ex. i: Vibration of Elastic Body; O, fixed end;
The movement A-B-A (or A-C-A A, position of equilibrium; B, position of initial
or B - A - C) is called "single vibration" disturbance; C, reverse position. Ex. 2: Vibration
(half-vibration); the movement A-B-
of 3 Cycles; a amplitude; v= (double) vibration;
A-C-A (or B-A-C-A-B) is
s single vibration. Ex. j: Path of Vibrating
Tongue. Ex. 4: Vibration of 6 Cycles. Ex. 5: Fad-
called "double vibration" or simply "vi-
ing Sound. Ex. 6: Vibrating String; A, B, fastened
bration" or "cycle" (in modern writings ends of the string; C, point of plucking.
usually the double vibration is used as
the unit of measurement). The distance however, a quickly moving film is used,
B-C called "amplitude." The num-
is this dash will appear drawn out into an
ber of vibrations made in one second is oscillating curve [Ex. 3] ).
called "frequency." Example 2 repre- If the same tongue is plucked with
sents a vibration of 3 cycles. different degrees of force, the ear will
(In order to understand the relation of notice different intensities of sound, and
this graph to the vibration it is meant to the vibration curve will show different
amplitudes, corresponding to the differ- vibration comparable to that made
by the
ent magnitudes of the initial disturbance. lowest point of the steel tongue previ-
This leads to the law of acoustics:
ously described. All these vibrations have
The intensity of a sound defends upon the same frequency, but differ in ampli-
the amplitude of the vibration [see *Bel] . tude. For the purpose of our explana-
Therefore a fading sound will show a tions, the vibration of the string can be
vibration curve of gradually diminishing considered as being represented by that
elongations [see below]. of point of highest vibration ampli-
Still more important is another ele- tude, of the point at which the string
ment of variety, namely, that which en- is
plucked. If this is the middle point of
ters sounds of different pitch are
if the string, the resulting phenomenon can
studied. If the photographic experiment be roughly illustrated by Example 6.
described above is repeated with a shorter III.
Frequency, Vibrating Length, and
tongue, a higher tone will be heard and Pitch. The pitch produced by a vibrat-
the resulting curve will show vibrations
ing string depends upon its material
of narrower width (provided that the its its ten-
(steel, copper, etc.), diameter,
speed of the moving film remains un- sion, and its length. For the present pur-
altered) [Ex. 4], This means that the pose it is sufficient to consider only the
single vibration of the higher-pitched latter factor, the others
being regarded as
tongue takes a shorter time than that of constant. These conditions are realized
the lower-pitched one. In other words, in the case of a single string whose vibrat-
the higher sound makes more vibrations ing length can be changed by stopping
per second, i.e., has a greater frequency, (violin) or by means of a movable fret
than the lower sound. This is the basis
(*monochord). The following funda-
of the second law of acoustics: The pitch mental law results: The frequency is
of a sound depends only upon the fre- in inverse proportion to the vibrating
quency of the vibration. A
sound is audi- length. This means that if the whole
ble approximately be- string (e.g., one yard) gives a sound of
if its is
tween 6 and 20,000 cycles; the tones of
1 the frequency 600, the string of the half
the piano vary from about 30 to 4,000,
length (one-half yard) gives a sound of
those of the violin from about 300 to the double frequency, 1200, while a
3,000. The frequency of a middle (a'), A string of two-thirds of a yard produces
i.e., of concert pitch, is 440 (or 880, if the frequency 600 = 900, etc.
X %
single vibrations are counted). More important from the musical point
In the above law, the word only is of of view is the relation between a given
particular importance. It expresses the vibration and the pitch of the sound it

fact, known to every musician, that the produces. This problem was investigated
pitch of a vibrating string is not altered and solved by Pythagoras, who estab-
by the greater or lesser force with which lished the law relating the pitch of a note
the string is plucked, or, in other words, to the length of the string by which it
that the pitch does not depend The
upon the is obtained. results have a more
amplitude. The piano player obtains a general application, however, if they are
tone of the same pitch regardless of expressed in frequencies rather than in
whether he uses a pianissimo or a fortis- vibrating lengths. Thus expressed, they
simo touch. The same principle is borne remain unchanged regardless of whether
out by the fact that a sound does not alter the sound is produced by a pipe or by a
pitch when it gradually decreases in string, and they do not depend upon ad-
intensity. This means that a curve rep- ditional factors such as the tension, thick-
resenting a fading sound [Ex. 5] will ness, or material of the string. The
always have the form a, not the form b. fundamental principle is as follows: //
II. Vibrating Strings. If a violin is the frequency of a tone is n, that of the
plucked or bowed, each single point of octave is 2n, that of the fifth, %n, and
the string will make an up-and-down that of the major third,
%n. From these
the others of the diatonic scale
tones, all however, that these terms (if properly
can be derived [see intervals, Calcula- used) include the fundamental, while the
tion of, II]. The result is as follows: term overtone (if properly used) ex-

= i):
cludes it. Thus, the first overtone is the
Frequency (
= 24):
i % %% 156 2
% second harmonic, etc. Although the
Frequency ( 24 27 30 32 36 40 45 48 terms harmonics and partials arc fre-
Vibrating length: x ft ft ft ft ft 9b K quently used as interchangeable, the lat-
The [Ex. 7] shows a num-
illustration ter has, in scientific studies, a wider
ber of frequencies calculated for the tone includes also non-
significance, since it
= 360 (the correct frequency for f is harmonic overtones, such as occur in
It must be noted that these fre- With
the exception
352). noises, also in bells.
quencies give the tones of *just intona- of the octaves (2,4,8) none of the har-
tion, not of equal temperament [see monics arc tones of equal temperament.
*Temperament] .
Those which result from the factors 3
IV. Harmonics. The acoustic effect and 5 (3,5,6,9,10,12, etc.) are tones of
produced by a single vibration of the *just intonation (see the above table of
type described above is called a pure frequencies) whereas the harmonics 7,
sound; but practically no vibrating body ii and 13 (indicated by black notes) can
produces a pure sound. All the musical only approximately be identified with
instruments produce composite sounds, tones available in our system of tuning
and notation. As can easily be seen, the
7th harmonic, which is 7
= 6 %, is lower
than the B-flat of just intonation which
is *% X 4
= 6
%; this, in turn, is

slightly lower than the B-flat of equal

8. ^ temperament (in *cents, the three tones
are: 972, 996, 1000, respectively). Simi-
5" 6 7 6 9 iO II (2. >3 Iff 16 larly, the nth harmonic, which is n =
4 lower than the F-sharp of just
%, is

intonation = %) and, in
(*%X% 4

fact, nearer to the F

than to the F-sharp
of equal temperament. Finally, the i3th
harmonic is 13 = 3 %, whereas the of A
just intonation is %X 8 = 4
Thephysical cause of the harmonics
Frequency; Harmonics
is found in the fact that a vibrating
to be
consisting of the main sound, or funda- body, such as a string, vibrates simul-
mental, plus a number of additional pure taneously as a whole and in sections of
sounds, the so-called overtones, which, one-half, one-third, one-fourth, etc., of
however, are not heard distinctly be- the entire length. The secondary vibra-
cause their intensity (amplitude) is
tions, however, have a much smaller am-
much less than that of the main sound. plitude, approximately between one-fifth
The frequencies of the overtones are and one-fiftieth of that of the fundamen-
exact multiples of the frequency of the tal [Ex. 9].
fundamental. In other words, an instru- The existence of these additional tones
ment which produces the tone of the fre- in what the ear believes to be a single
quency n actually produces vibrations sound was shown first by Helmholtz
(pure sounds) of the frequencies n, 2/1, ( 1 821-94), by means f *resonators of

3, 4/2, .
(up to 200 and more). The
. . various sizes which reinforce one fre-
illustration [Ex. 8] shows the first 15 quency and eliminate all the others. The
overtones of the tone C.^ A^morc com- harmonics can easily be demonstrated by
mon designation for these tones is par- the following simple experiment on the
tials or harmonics. It should be noted, pianoforte: Depress the key of C with-
out producing a sound, i.e., merely raise ing drawing appears that an open

the damper of the key of C; then strike pipe generates a sound the wave length
forcefully the key of Ci and release it of which is double the length of the pipe
at once; the higher C, corresponding to (N'N" = 2 AB), while a stopped pipe
the tone of the depressed key, will generates a sound the wave length of
clearly be heard. The experiment can which is four times the length of the pipe
be repeated by depressing the keys of G, (N'N" = 4 AB) and which, therefore,
c, e, g, etc., and striking each time the isan octave lower than that produced by
key of Ci. In every case, the tone cor- an open pipe of the same length. An
responding to the depressed key will be open pipe sounding C measures approxi-
heard. The explanation of the phenome- mately eight feet [see *Foot (2)].
non is found in the fact that the har- Like a vibrating string, an air column
monics C, G, c, produced by the
. . . vibrates not only as a whole but also in
fundamental tone Ci generate, by way parts (y2> Y^ %, %, etc., of its length),
of resonance, sympathetic vibrations in thus producing harmonics. While an
the shorter strings corresponding to these open pipe produces all the harmonics
tones. The harmonics are the cause of (as does a string), a stopped pipe seg-
three important musical phenomena, ments so as to give out only the odd-

namely, *timbre, the *natural tones of numbered harmonics, 1,3,5, etc - ne rea " T
wind instruments, and the *harmonics son is that an even harmonic (e.g., 2)
of the violin. would call for a loop (or a node) at both
V. Pipes. In pipes (organ pipes, and ends of the pipe, while in a stopped pipe
all wind instruments) an enclosed air there is always a loop at the open end, a
column caused to vibrate in what is
is node at the closed end [see *Wind instru-

technically termed "stationary waves." ments III; *Organ IX],

These are characterized by a regular VI. Interference. This is the technical
alternation of places of highest density term (not a very fortunate one) for the
(nodes) and highest rarefaction (anti- numerous phenomena resulting from the
nodes or loops) between which the den-
sity of the air decreases from the maxi-
mum minimum. At the place of
to the
maximum density the amplitude of the
vibrating particles of air is at a mini-
mum, and vice versa. The whole phe-
nomenon can conveniently be described
by graphs similar to that used for a vi-
brating string, if the point of highest

Ex. A: Vibrations of the Same Frequency. Ex. B:
Vibrations of Different Frequencies: I, of 12 cycles;
II, of 14 cycles; III, resulting vibration showing

2( = i4-i2) maximum vibrations per second


Open and Closed Pipes superposition of two or more air vibra-

amplitude interpreted as the loop, the

is tions.The general principles of the very
stationary point as the node. In an open complex phenomenon can be grasped
pipe, a loop develops at each end, with a from the drawing [Ex. A], showing two
node in the middle; in a *stopped pipe, original vibrations (I, II) of the same
a node develops at the closed end, a loop frequency as well as the result of their
at the open end. From the accompany- superposition (III = I -f II). More im-

portant is the interference of vibration? (2) In modern French usage the word
of different frequencies, e.g., of 2 and 3 action sometimes used for an opera,

cycles per second, or of 12 and 14 cycles e.g., in Vincent d'Indy's Fervaal (1897).
per second [Ex. B]. The example illus-
trates the manner in which *beats are pro-
Act tune. See *Entr'acte.

duced, in the present case 2 (14-12) per Adagietto [It.], (i) A tempo some-
second. For a more complicated phenom- what faster than adagio. (2) A short
enon of interference, see *Combination adagio.
Related articles: Architectural acous- Adagio [It., comfortable, easy], (i)
Combination Slow tempo, slower than andante and
tics; Beats; Bel; Cents;
tones; Comma; Consonance and Disso- faster than largo. (2) A movement
written in slow tempo, especially the sec-
nance; Intervals, Calculation of; Just in-
Reso- ond (slow) movement of sonatas, sym-
tonation; Pitch; Pythagorean scale;
nance; Savart; Temperament; Timbre. phonies, etc. See *Tempo marks.
Lit.: W. T. Bartholomew, Acoustics
Adagissimo. Extremely slow.
of Music (1942; Buck,
bibl.); P. C.
Acoustics for Musicians (1918); J. Broad- Adaptation. Arrangement.
house, Musical Acoustics (1926); E. G. Added The sixth added to a
Richardson, The Acoustics of Orchestral or the entire chord thus obtained
Instruments and of the Organ (1929);
e.g., c-e-g-a. In classical harmony,
}. Jeans, Science and Music (1937); the chord of the added sixth occurs pref-
D. C. Miller, Science of Musical Sounds
erably on the fourth degree, i.e., with a
(1916); J. Redfield, Music: a Science and subdominant function (f-a-c' d' in
an Art (1928); Stevens and Davis, Hear-
C major; also f-ab -c' d'). It is usu-
ing (1938); A. H. Davis, Modern Acous-
ally explained as the first inversion of
tics(1934); N. W. McLachlan, The New the seventh-chord on the second degree
Acoustics (1936); Olson and Massa, Ap-
(d- f-a-c'). Although according to
plied Acoustics (1934). See also under strict rules the chord must be resolved
* Architectural mu-
acoustics; *Electronic into the dominant or the tonic, it is used
sical instruments. Additional bibliog- in more recent works [impressionism]
raphy in D. H. Daugherty, A Bibliog- as a color-modification of the triad which
raphy of Periodical Literature in Musi- does not call for resolution. Jazz writers
cology . . .
(1940), pp. nyff. have abundantly availed themselves of
this over-sweet effect, especially for the
Action, (i) Any kind of mechanism final chord of a piece.
used in instruments as a means of trans-
mitting the action of the fingers to the Additional accompaniment. Desig-
sound-producing parts; in other words, nation for 19th-century revisions or en-
a sort of artificial prolongation of the largements of earlier orchestral scores,
fingers (or feet). On keyboard instru- especially those of the i8th century (Han-
ments, the action forms an essential, even del, With the ever-increasing
the characteristic, part of the instrument size 19th-century orchestra and
of the
[see *Pianoforte I; *Organ II]. The concert hall, men felt the need of ex-
term is also applied to the key-mechanism
panding the instrumentation; but with
of wood-wind instruments which en- the ever-diminishing understanding of
ables the player to control holes which true Baroque style, many stylistic incon-
are out of reach of the hand (e.g., the gruities were allowed to enter. Thus, not
*Boehm-action of the flute). The action only were admissible and sometimes
of the harp is the mechanism controlled necessary changes made (replacement of
by the player's feet upon the pedals by obsolete instruments by newer ones,
which a transposition of a semitone or a doubling of certain parts, etc.), but also
whole tone can be effected [see *Harp], the voice leading was changed, the writ-

ing was "improved," new parts were iy for two hands. A due vod (con,
added, and in many instances the original stromentiy etc.), for two voices (choirs,
intention of the composer was thor- instruments, etc.).
oughly misunderstood or disregarded.
The composers whose works were most Aengstlich [G.]. Anxiously.
frequently subjected to arrangement
were Handel and Bach. The Messiah of Aeolian, aeolian mode. See *Church
Handel has been particularly unfortu- modes; *Modality.
nate in this regard. Mozart was among
the first to make a more modern arrange-
Aeolian harp [Gr. Aeolos, the God of
the Winds]. An instrument comprising
ment of it; subsequently various other
a long narrow box, with six or more gut
musicians made further arrangements of
Mozart's strings stretched inside over two bridges.
arrangement. Many other The
works of Handel have fared similarly, strings are tuned in unison, but
vary in thickness and, therefore, tension.
e.g., under the hands of Mendelssohn,
If the box is placed in a free current of
who later
expressed regret for having air (preferably in an open window), the
published his arrangements. Bach's can-
tatas suffered mistreatment from Robert according to their different ten-

Franz. Wagner made arrangements of sion, differently and thus pro-

duce a great variety of harmonics over
Beethoven's Ninth, of Gluck's Ifhigenie
the same fundamental(cf. the "singing"
en Aulide, etc. Recent times have wit-
nessed a growing understanding of the
of thetelephone wires). The sound
varies considerably with the changing
Baroque style and a consequent demand
force of the wind and produces a highly
for authentic, unarranged, performances.
romantic, mysterious effect. The instru-
See *Auffiihrungspraxis. Cf. N. Kil-
ment was known in ancient China and
burn, "Additional Arrangements to
India, and in Europe during the Middle
Handel's Adi (SIM iii).

Ages. It enjoyed special popularity in

Addolcendo dolce.
the Romantic period around 1800. The
[It.]. Becoming
intimate charm of this instrument is most
Addolorato [It.]. Sadly. beautifully set forth in Eduard Moerike's
poem Die Aeolsharfe and in its musical
A deux [F.]. See*A due. settings by Brahms and (especially)
Hugo Wolf.
Adirato [It.]. Angered, infuriated. Various attempts have been made to
harness this elusive sound to a keyboard,
Ad libitum [L., at will]. An indica- with an artificial jet of wind provided
tion which gives the performer the lib- Antmochord
by footbellows (Schnell's
erty: (i) to vary from strict tempo (con- or 1789; H. Herz's
trast a *battuta)\ (2) to include or omit Piano tolien, 1851). Cf. SaRM, 16.
the part of some voice or instrument
(contrast *obbligato); (3) to include a Aeoline. Old name for *mouth-har-
*cadenza according to his own inven- monica. Also an early type of Harmo-
tion. nium (aeolodicon) .

A due Direction in orchestral

[It.]. Aeolopantalon. An instrument in-
parts that two instruments
indicating vented in 1825 by Dlugosz, Warsaw; it
notated on one staff (e.g., Flute i and 2) was a combination of a harmonium-like
are to sound in unison [see *AH'uni- instrument (Aeolomelodityn, with brass
sono]. However, the term is also used tubes affixed to the reeds) and a piano-
in the almost opposite meaning, synony- forte, so that both instruments could be
mous with *divisi. The same ambiguity used in alternation. Its only claim to re-
exists with the French term a deux. membrance lies in the fact that the young
A due cordey see *Due corde. A due Chopin played on it in various recitals.

Aequalstimmen [G.]. (i) The eight- Science argues with mathematics and
foot pipes of the organ. (2) *Equal logic; poetry possesses the decisive,
voices. golden word; other arts have chosen
nature as their arbiter, borrowing their
Aerophones. Sec *Instruments III.
forms from her. Music, however, is a
Aerophor (aerophon). A device in- poor orphan whose father and mother
vented by B. Samuels in 1912 by which nobody can name. But, perhaps, it is pre-
the player of a wind instrument is pro- cisely this mystery of her origin which
vided with additional air from small accounts for the charm of her beauty."
bellows operated with the foot. The air II. For more than 2000
years philoso-
pressed, through a tube with mouth- phers have tried to solve the mystery of
music. Among them we find Pythagoras
piece, into the mouth of the player when-
ever his breath does not suffice, e.g., for (550 B.C.), who explains music as the ex-
long-held tones or long melodies in full pression of that universal harmony which
is also realized in arithmetic and in as-
legato. R. Strauss has written passages
requiring the use of the aerophon (Al- tronomy; Plato (400 B.C.), for whom
music is the most appropriate means of
pine Symphony and Festal Prelude).
social and political education [also Con-
Aesthetics of music. I. Aesthetics is fucius; see *Chinese music I]; Plotinus
generally defined as the philosophy or (d. 270), who interprets music as a mys-
tic and occult power; Boethius
study of the beautiful. Musical aesthetics, (d. 524),
therefore, should be the study of the who divides music into three fields,
beautiful in music, the ultimate goal of musica mundana (the Pythagorean har-
such a study being the establishment of mony of the universe), musica humana
criteria which would allow us to say (the harmony of the human soul and
whether or why one particular composi- body), and musica instrumental^ (music
tion is beautiful while another is not. as actual sound), a classification which
The main objection to such a point of prevailed in musical theory for more
view is that beauty is by no means the than 1000 years; }. Kepler (Harmonices
only (and probably not even the fore- mundi libri v, 1619), who in a great

most) criterion of what may be roughly structure of thought correlates the musi-
described as "quality" or "artistic value." cal tones and intervals with the move-
At least the possibility must be admitted ments of the planets and their astrological
that music, like other works of art, may functions; W. Leibniz (1646-1716), who
be "valuable" without necessarily being paves the way for the psychological
"beautiful" unless the term beauty is method of musical aesthetics by interpret-
interpreted so broadly as to include fea- ing music as the "unconscious exercise in
tures which may well be much closer to arithmetic"; A. Schopenhauer (Die Welt
als Wille und
opposite. Therefore, a definition such Vorstellung, 1819), who
as the following provides a much better considers music the purest incarnation
basis for the study in question: Musical of the "absolute will" and as the expres-
aestheticsis the study of the relationship sion of human feelings (love, joy, hor-
of music to the human senses and intel- ror) in their abstract interpretation as
lect. This definition corresponds exactly metaphysical ideas; then G. T. Fechner
to the original meaning of the Greek (180187), who insists that music is the
word aisthesis, i.e., feeling, sensation. expression of "general mood" rather than
The following words by R. Schumann specific "feelings"; and finally C. Stumpf
(Gesammelte Schrtften uber Musi^ und (Tonpsychologie, 1883-90), who inaugu-
Mustier, i, 44) adequately describe die rated the scientific study of musical psy-
peculiar problem of musical aesthetics chology on the basis of experiments and
[translation by the writer]: statistics, especially with regard to the
"In no other field ii the proof of the problem of *consonance and dissonance.
fundamentals as difficult as it is in music. Stumpf s procedure has been the point
of departure for many investigations mantic period the interpretation of musi-
along similar lines, especially in Amer- cal compositions was largely based upon
ica, e.g., C. E. Seashore, The Psychology programmatic and allegorical concepts.
of Music (1938); M. Schoen, The Effects Music was understood as a sort of psy-
of Music (1927), and others [see *Tests] .
chological drama and explained in terms
For a criticism of these methods, cf. such as "desperate struggle," "the knock-
C. C. Pratt, The Meaning of Music ing of Fate," "threatening fortissimo,"
"gloomy minor," etc. An early exponent
It will be seen that not until the ad- of this school of thought is A. B. Marx,
vent of the ipth century did these theo- in his L. van Beethoven (1875). more A
ries of music begin to accord with the approach was at-
intelligent use of this
present-day interpretation of musical tempted by H. Kretzschmar, the inventor
aesthetics as defined above, a statement of musitylische Hermeneuti^ [see *Her-
which should not be construed as a de- meneutics]. He considers music not as
preciation of the much broader and, in a substitute for the pictorial arts or for ob-
a sense, "greater" views cosmic, po- jects of nature, but rather for poetry, i.e.,
litical, or theological held by the phi- as a SprachJ{unst of lesser clarity, but of

losophers of antiquity and of the Middle finer shades and deeper effects, than the

Ages. While in those periods music ordinary language. He goes back to the
found proper place and justification
its "affects" of the i8th century which, ac-
in the universe, in the state, or in God, cording to him, must be based upon the
for us it has lost these transcendental study of the musical detail (themes, in-
affiliations, but has instead gained a se- rhythm, etc.). He also relates the
cure place in everyday life. music to the life of the composer (Bee-
III. With the foregoing survey of the thoven's "period of happiness," etc.).
theories and views held by philosophers The point was emphasized by H.
and psychologists as a general back- Riemann, who maintains that the writ-
ground, we may now turn to a study of ten composition as well as the actual per-
the contributions to our problem made formance is nothing but a means of trans-
by the musicians themselves. As might ferring a psychological situation (Erleb-
be expected, these contributions aim at a nis) from the fancy of the composer to
more detailed penetration into the ques- that of the listener. Kretzschmar's
tions of musical aesthetics and are usu- method has been elaborated by Schering
ally concerned with the study of indi- [see under *Hermeneutics] A recent

vidual composers or works rather than American publication, E. Sorantin, The

with music in the abstract. The various Problem of Musical Expression (1932),
theoriescan be conveniently divided into may be mentioned as an example of
two groups, according to whether they 20th-century Affefyenlehre (expression of
consider music (a) as a heteronomous joy, grief, longing, etc.).
art, i.e., as the expression of extramusical (b) In strong contrast to all these con-
elements, or (b) as an autonomous art, tributions is the more recent school of
i.e., as the realization of intrinsic prin- thought, which rejects the allegorical,
ciples and ideas (F. Gatz). emotional, programmatic, poetical foun-
(a) In the former class we find the dation of musical aesthetics, and explains
*AffeI(tenlehre of the i8th century and music as a purely musical phenomenon,
its 16th-century predecessors, the *Musica as an autochthonous and autonomous
reservata and the *Maniera. In the lyth creation which can be understood only

century, music was frequently inter- in its own terms. The founder of this

preted as an oratorical art, by relating its school was E. Hanslick who, in his Vom
structural and stylistic elements (such as musil(alisch Schonen (1854), formulated
figura, rcpetitio^ fuga, climax) to cor- the sentence: "Musik ist toncnd bewegte
responding principles of speech [cf. A. Form" music is form moving in
Schering, in KJ, 1908], In the late Ro- sounds (the term *form, naturally, must

be taken in widest sense, including all
its A ff anno so [It.]. Sadly.
structural and stylistic elements of
music). He admits the use of designa- Affektenlehre [G.; doctrine of affec-
tions such as "powerful," "graceful," tions] The aesthetic theory of the *emp-

"tender," "passionate," but only in order findsamer Stil (sensitive style) of the
to illustrate the musical character of the later i8th century, formulated by J.

passage, not to suggest a definite feeling Quantz and Ph. Em. Bach, according
on the part of composer or listener. Still to which the chief aim of music is to
farther in this direction went August portray certain typical emotions, such as
Halm (Von zwei Kulturen der Musi^ the tender, the languid, the passionate,
etc. This theory, which is realized in the
1913), who must be considered the most
outstanding representative of musical works of Ph. Em. Bach, marks an im-
aesthetics of the present day. The follow- portant advance over the superficiality
of the Italian "stile galante" (*gallant
ing quotation from the Talmud, given
at the beginning of his book, is an ade- style) and, in spite of its rationalistic
quate expression of the central thought nature and schematic methods, paves the
of musical autonomy: "If you want to way for the free expressiveness of the
understand the invisible, look carefully Beethoven style. See * Aesthetics III (a);
at the visible." Halm, as well as his suc- *Musica reservata.
cessors, E. Kurth, H. Hermann, F. Joede, Lit.: W. Serauky, Die musi\alische
and others, advocated the separation of Nachahmungsaesthetif^ im Zeitraum
the musical work from the emotional 1700-1850 (1929); M. Kramer, Beitra'ge
world of both the composer and the zu einer Aesthetil^ der Affectenlehre in
listener, and the emancipation of the der Musi^ von 15501700 (Diss. Halle
musical thought from "sensuous intoxi- 1924); H. Goldschmidt, Die Musityies-
cation and hallucination." theti^ des 18. Jahrhunderts (1915); G.
See also *AfIektenlehre; *Hermeneu- Frotscher, Bach's Themen-bildung unter
tics;*Musica reservata; *Maniera. dem Einfluss der Affektenlehre (1926);
Lit.: F. M. Gatz, Musi^Aestheti^ in R. Schaefke, "Quantz als Aesthetiker"
ihren Hauptrichtungen (1929); H. H. (AMW vi); H. Abert, in v; H. AMW
Briton, Philosophy of Music
(1911); Kretzschmar, in JMP xviii, xix; F. Stege,
H. Riemann, Catechism of Musical Aes- in ZMW
x; A. Schering, in JMP xlv.
thetics (1895); R. Schaefke, Geschichte
der Musi^-aesthetif^ (1934); H. Besseler, Affetti [It.]. The term appears as a
der Musik-aesthetik" titleof various publications around 1600
[Dolci Affetti (1595); S. Bonini, Affetti
(JMP xxxiii). For a bibliography of re-
cent psychological studies, cf. D. H. spirituals in istile di Firenze or recitative

Daugherty, A Bibliography of Periodical

. .
(1615); B. Marini, Affetti musicali,

Literature in Musicology (1940),

. . . op. (1617)], probably in order to em-

MoML phasize the emotional character of the

pp. io8ff. Cf. also y 538^
music. It is also used in early violin
Aevia. An word, consisting of
artificial sonatas to designate a certain type of
the vowels of "alleluia(u = v). It is ornamentation, either tremolo or arpeg-
occasionally used as an abbreviation in gio [cf. SchGMB y no. 183; RiHM ii. 2,

manuscripts of Gregorian chant. Sec 120].

Affettuoso [It]. Affectionate, with
Affabile [It.]. In a pleasing manner. warmth.

Affaiblissant [F.]. Weakening, di- Affrettando [It.]. Hurrying.

minuendo. A - . o *r .

African music. See "Primitive music;

Affanato [It]. "Panting," i.e., as in *Arabian music; "Ethiopian Church
distress. music; "Coptic Church music.

Afternoon of a Faun, The. Sec tury, which were finally adopted into all
Symphonic poem IV. European music and were generally indi-
cated by stenographic signs or as notes
Agende [L. agenda, that which has to
in small type. The agrements are char-
be done]. The Protestant counterpart of
acterized by a definitely stereotyped me-
the Catholic liturgy or of the Anglican
lodic contour, a close relationship with a
rites, i.e., the entire ritual of the service
of the German Protestant Church. Cf. single note of the melody to be orna-

H. Kretzschmar, Die mented, and a small melodic range. See

musifylische P. A.
Ornamentation H.
Agende (1894); R. v. Liliencron, Musi-

folisch-liturgische Geschichte des evange- Aida. Grand opera by Giuseppe Verdi

lischen Gottesdienstes 1525-7700 (1892).
(1813-1901), libretto by A. Ghislanzoni;
Agevole [It.]. Lightly and easily.
commissioned by the Khedive of Egypt
for the new Opera House at Cairo and
Aggradevole [It.]. Agreeably.
produced there in 1871, The plot has an
ancient Egyptian background and centers
Agilmente; conagilita [It.]. Lively,
around the love of the Egyptian warrior
Radames (Tenor) for the captive Ethi-
Agitato [It.]. Agitated, excited.
opian princess Aida (Soprano), and the
Agnus Dei. The item (except for
last jealousy of Amneris (Mezzo-soprano),
the *Itc missa est) of the Ordinary of the daughter of the king of Egypt Amonasro
Mass [see *Mass A and B III]; there- (Bass). Amneris, repudiated by Rada-
fore, the final movement in Mass com- mes, discovers a treacherous plot of the
positions. It consists of three invocations: two lovers designed to aid Ethiopia, and
"Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: both die.
miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, mise- . . .
Although reputedly making use of a
rere nobis. Agnus Dei, dona nobis . . . few Egyptian musical themes, the gen-
pacem." The musical structure of the eral style of the
opera is that of the Italian
chant is usually AAA
(sometimes with grand opera. Striking features are the
a different beginning for the middle A), brief atmospheric prelude (in place of
or A B A. See *Gregorian chant IV. a conventional operatic overture) and the
use of a few *leitmotifs (e.g., Amneris'
Agogic. An is said to be agogic
if it is not by dynamic stress or
by higher pitch, but by longer duration Aigu [F.]. High, shrill.
of the note [see * Accent]. In German
Air [F.]. (i) French iSth-century term
writings the term Agogi^ is used to de-
note all the subtleties of
for song in general [see under *Chan-
achieved by modification of tempo, as son]. (2) In French opera and ballet
of the I7th-i8th centuries, an instrumen-
distinct from Dynami^ i.e., gradations
talor vocal piece designed to accompany
which involve variety of intensity. Thus,
the use of rallentando and accelerando, dancing, but not cast in one of the stand-
ard dance patterns such as the minuet,
of tempo rubato, the dwelling on certain
gavotte, etc. Sometimes (e.g., Rameau)
notes, also rests, breathing signs, fer-
under Agogi^. The
etc., all fall
it is
qualified as air tcndre, air gracieux,
term was introduced by H. Riemann
etc. (3) In the *suites around and
after 1700, a movement, found in the
(Musitylische Dynami\ und Agogi^
optional group, of a melodic rather than
1884) particularly in order to describe in a way, a "song
dance-like character
from strict tempo and
those deviation's
without words" [cf. Bach's Partitas nos.
rhythm which are necessary for an in-
IV and VI], As yet, no clear connection
telligible rendering of the musical phrase.
between these airs and those described
Agr6ments. The
ornaments intro- under (2) has been discerned, probable
duced in French music of the i7th cen- as it is that such a connection existed.

(4) See *Ayre. For air de charactere, guardian friend who warns him of some
see *Aria.
etc., approaching danger [cf. GeHM, 301;
Air de cour court song]. Short
ReMMA, 215], The German Minne-
singer counterpart of the alba is the
strophic songs, sometimes with a refrain, or
Tagelied (day-song) Wdchterlicd
for one or more voices with lute accom-
(guardian-song) which Wagner revived
paniment, which were cultivated in in the second act of his Tristan (Bran-
France in the late i6th and in the iyth
gane's warning call). Many examples of
century. They are in simple syllabic
and in binary form. The texts are Tagelied, however, are of a more devo-
tional nature, serving as a sort of morn-
chiefly love-poems in affected precieux
ing prayer [cf. F. Runge, fD/> Sanges-
language, some of them in *vers me sure. weisen der Colmarer Liederhandschrtft,
The repetition of each of the two sections
was frequently ornamented at will by the p. 173]. See also *Alborada; *Aubade.

singer. Principal composers are Pierre Albert! bass. Stereotyped figures of

Guedron 1565-1625); Antoine Boe's-
(c. accompaniment for the left hand of the
set {c. 1585-1646); Jean de Cambefort
piano player, consisting of broken chords
(d. 1661); Michel Lambert (1610-96). [see also *Murky bass] . They are named
Cf. Th. Gerold, L'Art du chant en France after Domenico Alberti (1710-40?) who
au XV
He siecle (1921); L. de la Lau- used them extensively in his harpsichord
rencie, ^Chansons au luth et airs de cour
au XV
le siecle (1931); A. Arnheim, in
SIMx. D.J.G.
Ais, aisis [G.]. See *Pitch names.
sonatas. An early example occurs in the
Akademie [G.]. *Academy. See also fourth variation of the G minor aria in
under * Academic. Pachelbel's Hexachordum Apollinis of

Akkord 1698 [cf. DTB 2.i; TaAM ix, 64]. They

[G.]. Chord. are still frequent in the works of Haydn,
Akoluthia [Gr.]. The order of the Mozart, and the early Beethoven.
service of the Byzantine Church, particu-
Albisiphone. See *Flute I (d).
larly that of the office, thus usually not
including the Mass, which was called Alborada [Sp., dawn song]. A type
leiturgeia (liturgy). Cf. E. Wellesz, By- of Spanish (particularly, Galician) music,
zantinische Musi\ (1927), p. 23. played on the dulzaina (rustic oboe) and
Akzent [G.]. Accent.
tamboril (small drum), originally a
A\zentneumen y

accent neumes [see *Neumes II], morning serenade [cf. G. Chase, The
Music of Spain (1941), p. 237]. Ravel's
Alala. A type of Galician folk song Alborada del Gracioso (1912) derives cer-
expressing passion and longing. Older tain features from the Spanish alborada.
examples use syllables such as la-la or See also *Alba; *Aubade.
ai-le-lo-la and are interesting because of
the of ele-
Albumblatt [G.], album leaf. A
preservation plainsong-like
ments. Cf. F. Pedrell, "\Cancionero mu- fancy name for short pieces of 19th-cen-
sical tury salon music such as might have
popular espanol (1918-22), ii, 2171!.
served as a contribution to an autograph
A la mi re, alamire. See *Hexachord album.
Alcuna licenza, Con [It.].With a
Alba, albe, aube [F., dawn]. In the little license, specifically regarding the
repertoire of the Provencal *troubadours,
a poem dealing with the departure of the
lover in the early morning. It usually is Al fine [It.]. To the end (for repeti-
a dialogue between the lover and a tion of a piece from the beginning).
Aliquot Brings, aliquot scaling. leluia denotes the third item of the
*Sympathfcitic strings by someadded Proper of the *Mass. It was introduced
pianoforte* makers (Bliithner) above the by Pope Damasus (368-384), first for
strings of the upper register in order to Easter only. Pope Gregory (590-604)
produce a 'fuller sound by resonance. extended its use over the entire year ex-
cept for Lent, for which season the orig-
Alia breve [It.]. A tempo mark (<f) inal *tract was preserved. The alleluia
indicating quick duple time, i.e., with of the Mass consists of the word Alleluia

the half-note rather than the quarter-note followed by a brief sentence referring to
as the beat; in other words,, 2/2 instead the occasion, the so-called vers (versus
of 4/4. Both the name and the sign are abbr. y), e.g.: Alleluia.
a- vestige of *mensural notation and of y. Surrexit Dominus de sepulcro [cf.
the *proportions (tempus imperjectum GR, 228; LU, 790; also HAM, no. 13;
diminutum). Originally and properly EiBM, no. 4; ReMMAy 180]. The music
alia breve means that the unit of musical for the word alleluia closes with a long
time (^tactus) is represented by the vocalization to the final vowel: (Al~
*brevis (corresponding to our double the so-called *neuma or
lelui)a ,

whole note), not as normally by the *jubilus. See also *Gregorian chant III;
semibrevis (corresponding to our whole *Psalmody II; *Sequence.
note). Today it means that the half-note
should be, regarded as the unit of time, Allemande [F., German, sc. a dance].
not as normally the quarter-note. See also A dance in moderate duple time which
*Time signatures. first appeared around 1550. Early ex-
amples occur in T. Susato's Musyc\
Allargando [It.]. Slowing down, usu-
BoexJ(en (1551); in P. Attaingnant's
ally accompanied by a crescendo; used Troisieme livre de danseries (1556); in
chiefly towards the end of a piece.
B. Schmid, Zwey Bucher einer neuen
Allegramente [It.]. Brightly, gaily. \unstlichen Tabulator (1577) [cf. W.
Merian, Der Tanz in den deutschen Ta-
Allegretto [It.], (i) A tempo between bulaturbuchern (1927), p. in]; in the
allegro and andante; see *Tempo marks. Fitz William Virginal Boo^ (c. 1620),
(2) A small allegro movement. where the name Alman, Almayne is

used. Arbeau, in his *Orchesographie

Allegro [It., cheerful]. Originally a
(1588), considers the dance already out-
designation for the joyful character of a
moded. The music of the 16th-century
piece; today employed to indicate quick
allemande in no way differs from that of
tempo, regardless of the character and
the *passamezzo; the dance steps were
expression [see *Tempo marks]. Also
simple, as appears from the following
used as a title for pieces in quick tempo,
and movements description by Th. Morley [A Plaine and
especially the first last
Easie Introduction . . (1597)) p. 181]:
of a sonata.
"The Alman a more heavie daunce

Alleluia [Latinization of Hebrew then this [i.e., the galliarde] (fitlie rep-
* An
halleluiah) praise ye the Lord]. ex- resenting the nature of the people, whose
pression of joy and praise of God which name it carieth) so that no extraordinarie
occurs frequently in Gregorian chant. motions are used in dauncing of it."
During Eastertide, the word alleluia is Like the pavane and passamezzo, the al-
added to all
antiphons, and to various lemande was frequently followed by a
other chants. It also occurs at the end of jumping dance in triple meter, called
chants for Christmas, Corpus Christi, *tripla, *proportz, or, in the i7th cen-
and other Alleluiatic antiphons
festivals. tury, by the courante. In the i7th cen-
are antiphons which consist of the word tury the allemande ceased to be actually
alleluia repeated three times [see, e.g., danced and became a stylized dance type
LU, 19]. More specifically, the term al- which was regularly used as the first
movement of the *suitc. These allc- words with the same initial letter. This
mandes are in very moderate 4/4-time, principle was adopted by R. Wagner in
with a short upbeat, and frequently make his Ring des Nibelungs, e.g., "Nach Wei-
ten- Wonne mein Wunsch t/erlangte aus
#>ebcndem Zfengen."

Allmahlich [G.]. Gradually.

Allonger [F.]. To slacken in speed

*TT n-T rr i
i All'ottava [It.]. See *Ottava.

AH'unisono [It.]. In orchestral scores

thisterm indicates that two instruments
for which the same staff is employed
(e.g., two flutes) play in unison, i.e., the
same notes. See *A due.

Alman, almayne. Sixteenth-century

English corruption of *allemande.

Alpensinfonie, Eine (An Alpine

Symphony). See *Symphonic poem III.
Alphabet (in music). See *Pitch
names; *Letter notation; *Tablature.

Alphorn, alpine horn. A primitive

wind instrument, still used by the herds-
men in the Alps for signaling over great
distance and for simple melodies. It is
made of wooden staves bound with strips
of birch bark, is 5 to 10 feet long, and
appears in various shapes, straight or
use of short running figures which arc bent. The tones produced are the har-

passed through the various voices of a monics [see *Acoustics IV], somewhat
pseudo-contrapuntal fabric. Our three modified by the material and by the ir-
examples (i. Ammerbach, 1571; 2. Pur- regular width of the inner tube. In par-
cell, c. 1660; 3. J. K. F. Fischer, c. 1690) ticular, the fourth (nth harmonic) is

illustrate the stylistic development of the halfway between F and

F-sharp (Alp-
dance. horn-fa) [see *Ranz de vaches]. Similar
In the late i8th century the name al- instruments are to be found in Scandi-
lemande was used in South Germany as navia, Poland, and Rumania, and among
an equivalent for Deutscher Tanz, a the South American Indians. Cf. SaRM,
quick waltz-like dance in 3/4- or 3/8- 7; Szandrowsky, in Jahrbuch des Schwei-
time. Cf. Beethoven's "A Tallcmande" zer Alpenclubs iv; K. Nef, in DC Mu-
in his Bagatellen, op. 119, and his 12 zie^ v.
Deutsche Tdnze fur Ore/tester (1795).
Al solito [It.]. As usual.
See *Dance music III.
Lit.: E. Mohr, Die Allemandc in der Alt. (i) In English usage the term is
deutschen Klaviersuitc (1932). sometimes applied to the tones of the
octave above the treble staff (g" to f"),
Allentando [It.]. Slowing. which arc said to be "in alt." The tones
Alliteration. A characteristic feature of the next higher octave are called "in
of ancient Germanic poetry (e.g., Beo- altissimo." (2) In German, the lower
wulf, Edda), consisting of the use of of the two female voices, i.e., the con-

tralto [see *Ako]. In connection with Lit.: G. E. Stubbs, The Adult
instruments (Alttyarinctte, Altsaxo- Alto or Countertenor (1908); A. H. D.
phon), the term denotes the second high- Prendergast, "The Man's Alto in Eng-
est member of the family (alto clarinet, lish Music" (ZIM i); J. Hough, "The
alto saxophone). See the various instru- Historical Significance of the Counter-
ments. Altgeige is the viola alta [see tenor" (PMA Ixiv).
Violin family (d)], rarely the ordinary
Alto clef. See *Clefs.

Altra volta [It.]. Encore.

Alteration, (i) See *Mensural nota-
tion. (2) The
raising or lowering of Altschlussel [G.]. Alto-clef.
a note by means of a sharp or flat; also
called chromatic alteration. See *Acci- Altus [L.]. See*Alto (3).
dentals; *Chromaticism; *Altered chord. Alzati indication to
[It.]. "Raised,"
Altered chord. See *Harmonic take off the mutes.
sis V. Amabile Lovable.

Alternative [It.], alternativement Amarevole With

[It.] . bitterness, sadly.
[F.]. In the suites of the Bach period,
an indication found with a pair of dances Ambitus [L., compass, range]. The
(e.g., Bourree I, alternativement Bour- range of the melodies of Gregorian chant.
ree II), calling for repetition of the It varies from a fourth (in the psalm
firstdance after the second, thus leading tones) to an octave or ninth in the more
to the ternary arrangement A B A [cf. melismatic chants (graduals, alleluias)
Bach's English Suite no. 2]. This struc- [see also *Gregorian chant V (b)]. In
ture persists in the Minuet (Scherzo) the theory of the church modes, the am-
with Trio of the classical sonata [see bitus is the chief mark of distinction
*Trio]. between an authentic and a plagal mode.
See *Church modes. Cf. Krasucki,
Altgeige [G.]. See under *Alt (2).
"Ueber den Ambitus der gregorianischen
Althorn. See *Brass instruments III (f). Messgesange" Veroffentlichungen der

Gregorianischen Academic zu Freiburg,

Altistin [G.]. A contralto singer.
Schweiz, i. Heft).
Alto [It., high], (i) A female voice of
Ambo. In early Christian churches a
low range, also called contralto. See
* specialplatform on the steps of which
Range of.
Voices, (2) Originally the the gradual was sung.
altowas a high male voice (hence the
name) which by use of the *falsetto Amboss [G.]. *Anvil.
nearly reached the height of the female
voice (contralto). This type of voice, Ambrosian chant. The liturgical
also known as *counter-tenor, was espe- chant, established by St. Ambrose, bishop
cially cultivated in England, where the
of Milan (333-397), and still in use today
church music of the i6th and i7th cen- in the cathedral of that city; therefore
turies definitely implies its use. For the also called Milanese chant. It is one of
explanation of the term, see Contra- the four "dialects" of Christian chant
tenor. (3) The second-highest part of [see *Chant], and probably is closer to
the normal four-part chorus; L. altus. its
original form than *Gregorian (Ro-
(4) In French and Italian, the second- man) chant. The Ambrosian melodies
highest instrument of the violin family, are usually more ornamented than the
i.e., the viola. (5) In connection with corresponding Gregorian melodies [cf.
clarinet, flute, saxophone, etc., the term the comparative examples in HAM, no.
refers to the third- or fourth-highest 10; SchGMB, no. 2; BeMMR, 58; LavE
member of the family. i.i, 561; O. Ursprung, Katholische Kir-

chenmusi^ 20; H. Gastoue, Cours du Regarding the early history, see *Hymn
chant gregorien y 67, 128, 149]. Vocaliza- I, II.

tions including up to 200 notes are not II. Music. About a dozen melodies of

rare. On the other hand, the Ambrosian Ambrosian hymns are preserved in
psalm tones are simpler and lack the sources none of which is earlier than the
methodical arrangement to be found with 1 2th century (an exception is the melody
the Gregorian psalm tones [cf. v, GD for the Aeterne Christi munera, given in

267]. The Ambrosian rite occasionally *Daseian notation in the *Musica en-
differs from the Gregorian, for instance, GS i, 154 and
chiriadis, c. 850; cf. RiHM
in the names given to the chants: in- i.2, 17). Under
these circumstances the
gressa for introitus, psalmellus for grad- question as to whether these melodies are
ual, transitorium for communion, etc. compositions of Ambrose or as has
The use of the term "Ambrosian modes" been surmised "early Christian folk
for the four authentic church modes (in songs," or products of a later period, re-
distinction from the "Gregorian," i.e., mains entirely open, the more so since in
plagal, modes) is without any historical a number of cases different melodies are
For more details see
justification. given for the same hymn. The melodies
*Church modes II. The earliest sources are syllabic, with occasional groups of two
of Ambrosian chant (nth century) con- or three notes; the latter are usually
tain chants in the plagal as well as in the omitted in modern transcriptions which
authentic modes. try to give the melodies in what is believed
Lit.: P. Wagner, Einfuhrung in die to be their "original form." No less prob-

Gregorianischen Melodien
(1911-21), lematic is the question as to the true
i and iii;
vols. G. Bas, Manuale di canto rhythm of these hymns, i.e., whether they
Ambrosiano (Torino, 1929; bibl.); ^An- are to be interpreted in duple or in triple

tiphonale Ambrosianum [see *Editions, time.The answer probably depends upon

XXIII, A, 5/6]; K. Ott, "Le Ingresse (II whether they are considered as melodies
Psalmellus) della liturgia ambrosiana" Ambrosian era or of the late Middle
of the
(Rassegna Gregoriana viii). Ages (nth, i2th centuries). According
to St. Augustine, the iambic feet of the
Ambrosian hymns were "tria temporum"
Ambrosian hymns. The hymns of
the Roman and Ambrosian rites writ- (in three beats). The accompanying ex-

ten and possibly composed by St. Am- ample shows a hymn (a) in its 9th-cen-
brose. tury form and (b) in its hypothetical
Text. original state [cf. also HAM, no. 9],
Formerly all the hymns (c.
120) of the Antiphonarium were ascribed
to Ambrose, under the generic name of

hymni Ambrosiani. Actually the number

of true Ambrosian hymns is much small-
er, about 20 [see Lit., Dreves]. With
four of them Ambrose's authorship is A-tr-neQiastl muncra et mar-ty-
nun vie-to- K-

placed beyond doubt by the testimony of

St. Augustine (De Musica)\ these are: The term "Ambrosian hymn" [G.
Aeterne rerum conditor\ Deus creator Ambrosianischer Lobgesang] is errone-
omnium; Jam surgit hora tertia\ Veni ously used for the *Te Deum.
redemptor gentium. All the Ambrosian Lit.: Biraghi, Inni sinceri di S. Am-

hymns are written in the simple scheme brogio (1862); G. M. Dreves, "Aurelius
of eight stanzas; each consisting of four Ambrosius . ." (Stimmen aus Maria

lines in iambic tetrameters, e.g.: Laachy Ergdnzungsheft 58, 1893); G. Bas,

Venf redemptor gentium in Musica Divina xvii; J. Jeannin, in TG
Ostendc partum virginis xxvi, 115.
Miretur 6mne sc*culum
Talis dece*t partiis deum. Ame [F., soul]. Sound post.
Amen. A Hebrew word, meaning "so Plymouth and Massachusetts
his visit to
be it," which is widely used in the Chris- Bay (London, 1634), he wrote of the In-
tian rites. It is usually spoken by the con- dians' singing: "To hear one of these

gregation (or recited by the choir) as a Indian's unseene, a good care might easily
confirming answer to the lection or the mistake their untaught voyce for the war-
prayer of the priest 35*]. Espe-
[cf. AR, bling of a well tuned instrument. Such
ciallyimportant is its occurrence at the command have they of their voices."
end of the minor *doxology, in the con- Travelers and explorers occasionally re-
nection ". . . seculorum. Amen" [see ported that the Indians were musical,
*Evovae] and, in the Mass, at the end of among them the Frenchman F. G. Sagard
the Gloria (". gloria dei patris.
. , in in his Le grand Voyage du Pays dcs Hu-

Amen") as well as of the Credo (". . . et rons (1632).

vitam venturi saeculi. Amen"). In the In the 1 8th century F. W. Marpurg,
polyphonic Masses of the i7th and i8th the German music historian, published
centuries the confirming character of the Remarks on Three Songs of the Iroquois
Amen led to the writing of extensive (Berlin, 1760), and William Beresford
finales in fugal style, called Amen-fugue printed an Indian melody in his A Voy-
or Amen-chorus, in which the word is re- age around the world; but more particu-
peated over and over again. This prac- larly to the northwest coast of America
ticeoccurred first with Antonio Bertali (London, 1789). One of the early at-

(1605-69; cf. AdHM

i, 516), and contin- tempts at adaptation of an actual Indian
ued throughout the periods of Handel melody was first published in London in
(famous Amen-chorus), Bach, Mozart, 1784, and was called Al)(nomoo\ (Al^-
Beethoven, etc. In Cherubim's minor D moono!(), "The death song of the Chero-
Mass at the end of the Credo, the soprano kee Indians, an Original Air, brought
alone repeats the word 107 times. For from America by a gentleman long con-
Amen-cadence see *Plagal cadence. versant with the Indian tribes, and par-
ticularly with the Nation of the Chero-
Amener [F.]. A 17th-century dance in kees. The Words adapted to the Air by
moderate triple time with phrases of six a Lady." The identity of the "Gentle-
measures (three plus three or four plus man" is unknown, but the "Lady" was
two) as a characteristic feature. It occurs identified by Frank Kidson as Anne Hone
in the suites of Heinrich Biber, J. K. F. who was Haydn's
hostess during
Fischer, Alessandro Poglietti, in the in- his London In America, James
strumental suites edited by ficorchcville Hewitt included All(moono^ in the score
( 1906), etc. The derivation of the amener he arranged and composed for the ballad-
from the *basse dance, given in most ref-
opera Tammany (1794), and in 1800 Gil-
erence books, is
very questionable. More fert in New York and von Hagen in
one of the numerous species of
likely, it is Boston published sheet-music editions of
the *branlc, a branle & mener, i.e., a branle the song. Both American and English
in which one pair was leading while the editions presented the melody in thor-
others followed. See also *Minuet.
oughly conventional form.
The first serious study of Indian music
American Guild of Organists. See
by a musician was undertaken by Theo-
*Societies, Musical I, i.
dore Baker, a German-American who in
American Indian music. Although 1880 was a student at the University of
the collection and scientific study of tribal Leipzig. As a subject for his doctor's thesis
songs of the American Indians did not he chose the music of the North Ameri-
commence until the latter i9th century, can Indians, and visited the Seneca Reser-
there arc numerous references to the music vation in New York State and the Indian
of the Indians from the early I7th cen- school at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. In 1882
tury, shortly after the coming of English the thesis was published at Leipzig: Vber
colonists. In William Wood's account of die Musil( dcr Nordameri1(anischen Wil-
den. It analyzed some sixty melodies ac- parent nations of the white settlers and
cording to their poetry, vocalization, their descendants. When Indian melodies
scales, melodic progressions, rhythm, no- are reduced to the diatonic scale, and har-
tations, and instruments for performance. monized according to Western practice,
Baker's studies were soon followed by the character of most of them is lost in the
those of Alice C. Fletcher, who visited the process. It is also inaccurate to refer to
Omaha tribe, where she was assisted by American Indian music as a unified body
John C. Fillmore of Harvard, who pro- of folk-material. Originally there were
vided piano accompaniments for the mel- more than fifty basic linguistic stocks,
odies Miss Fletcher transcribed. Her find- each of them divided into separate tribes.
ings were published at intervals from The government Office of Indian Affairs,
1883 to 1911 by the Peabody Museum of evenat the present time when the Indians
American Archaeology and Ethnology seem to be approaching tribal extinction,
and by the Bureau of American Ethnol- deals with three hundred and forty-two
ogy in Washington. tribes, a number which does not include
B. J. Oilman and J. W.
Fewkes were the sub-tribal divisions. Each of these
pioneers in applying scientific methods to tribes had its own
customs, religion, and
analysis of Indian melodies. Gilman ac- characteristic music.

companied the Hemenway Southwestern There are, however, a number of traits

Expedition the Zufii, Pueblo, and
among which arc common to the music of vari-
Hopi Indians, and measured the interval ous tribes. Music is rarely performed by
structure of their melodies by a mechani- the Indians for its own sake; generally
cal device.Fewkes was one of the first to songs belong to some tribal custom, and
use the phonograph to record Indian sing- are sung only for the performance of that
ing (1890), and in 1891 Gilman published custom. A
visitor to one of the tribes
a study based on these records of Zufii could not persuade the Indians to sing a
songs. Further studies of Zuni, Pueblo, hunting song for him because they were
and Hopi songs were made by Natalie C. not actually hunting at the time. There
Burlin, while music of the Ojibways in are songs for treating the sick, war songs
Minnesota and Wisconsin was taken down designed to bring success in battle, re-
and annotated by Frederick R. Burton. ligious ceremonial songs, game songs,
The United States Government first many of them for gambling, dream and
undertook the perpetuation of Indian vision songs, children's songs, and love
tribal melodies in 1911, by appointing songs for courtship. Among most of the
trained investigators to collect the melo- tribes, three classes of songs exist. First,
dies with the aid of the phonograph and the old, traditional songs, which have
place them on record, with annotations, been handed down from generation to
in the Smithsonian Institution. Reports generation. Second, the old ceremonial
on the research have been issued by the and medicine songs which are rarely per-
Bureau of American Ethnology. The formed because they belonged to men now
most prominent worker under these aus- dead, but which can still be sung by those
pices has been Frances Densmore, who who remember their owners' singing of
has studied the music and customs of the them. Third, there are the comparatively
Chippewas, Teton Sioux, Northern Ute, modern songs, which show the influence
Mandan, Hidatsa, and others. of civilization. The property idea regard-
The question as to whether the music ing songs is common to many tribes, and
of the Indians is to be considered Ameri- the individual owner of a song was often
can folk music is open to debate. Cer- known to sell it to another member of the

tainly, if Western culture is considered tribe. It could then be sung only by the
predominant among the inhabitants of purchaser.
the nation, American Indian music is ex- Many of the Indian songs, like those of
otic and far different in conception from primitive races generally, are character-
that which has been influenced by the ized by a descending melodic line. The
descent may be interrupted, but it con- composers, Dvordk, with his symphony
tinues to the end. According to a tabu- "From the New World," and Busoni,
lation of 820 songs by Frances Densmore, with his Indianisches Tagebuch, may be
67 per cent begin with a downward pro- mentioned.
gression, andin 87 per cent the last tone Lit.: F. R. Burton, American Primitive
is the lowest of the entire melody. Al- Music (1909); Natalie Curtis, The Indi-
though many of the melodies cannot be an's BooJ^ (1907); Frances Densmore,
accurately represented in diatonic nota- Chippewa Music, Nos. i and 2 (1910 and
tion, many of them approximate the pen- 1913), Man dan and Hidatsa Music
tatonic major or minor modes. Densmore (1923), Northern Ute Music (1922),
found also that 67 per cent of
340 Chip- Teton Sioux Music ( 1918) A. C. Fletcher,

pewa songs end on tones which provide Indian Story and Song from North Amer-
the' ear with satisfactory keynotes. Rhyth- ica (1900); F. Densmore, "The Study of

mically, Indian music is complex and ir- Indian Music" (MQ i); id., in xvii, MQ
regular. The Indian
capable of per-
is xx; F. W. Galpin, "Aztec Influence on
forming involved polyrhythms, although American Indian Instruments" (SIM iv);
Burton believed that the performers are M. Barbeau, "Asiatic Survivals in Indian
unaware that their songs and the accom- Songs" (MQ xx) ; J. Tiersot, "La musique
panying drum beats are cast in conflicting chez les peuples indigenes de I'Amerique
rhythms. See the examples under *Primi- du nord. . . ." (SIM xi; bibl.). An ex-
tive music. tensive bibliography is found in G. Her-
The musical instruments of the various
zog, Research in Primitive and FolJ^
tribes are flutes, whistles, rattles, and Music in the United States (1936).
drums. Although flutes are commonly J.T.H.
pictured as aiding in courtship, they are
as frequently used for warning against the American music. This term is gener-
approach of an enemy. Whistles are part ally accepted as applying to music which
of the medicine man's equipment for is composed or has its origin in the United
treating the sick. Rattles are often re- States, Similarly, an American composer
garded as sacred articles, for use in wor- is one who is either a native of the United

ship. Some of them are merely notched States or has adopted the nation prior to
sticks, rubbed over a second stick, while his or her mature production. For other
others are receptacles holding loose ob- musical cultures of the American hemi-
* American Indian
jects. The
drums are essential to Indian sphere see music;
music, some tribes cannot sing without *Latin American music; *Negro music;
them. They are made in various sizes, ^Canadian music.
from hand drums to immense kegs partly I. ijth and i8th Centuries. The his-
filledwith water. tory of American music begins in the
Theeffect of Indian music on the art early i7th century, with the arrival of the
music of the United States has been ex- firstwhite settlers and colonists: James-
tensive, but limited. Edward MacDowell town, Virginia, in 1607, and Plymouth,
used Indian melodies in his Second Or- Massachusetts, in 1620. Little is known
chestral ("Indian") Suite of 1890; C. S. about the musical habits of the Virginia
Skilton in his Indian Dances and Suite settlers, but a number of records exist to
Primeval; C. W. Cadman in Thunderbird show the part music played in the lives
Suite and
other works; Frederick Jacobi of the New England colonists: the Pil-
in his Indian Dances; C. T. Griffes in grims at Plymouth and the English Puri-
Two Sketches for String Quartet; Victor tans who came to Massachusetts Bay
Herbert in the opera, Natoma; while (Boston), starting in 1630. Until the close
H. W. Loomis, Arthur Farwell, Thurlow of the century, musical activity was con-
Lieurance, Carlos Troycr, Henry F. Gil- fined almost exclusively to psalm-singing.
bert, and others have made many settings The only printed music used was con-
of tribal material. Among non-American tained in the psalters the Puritans brought

with them (Sternhold & Hopkins, Ains- in Three Parts (1755); James Lyon's
worth, Raven scroft, etc.), for the *Bay Urania (1761, containing six original
Psalm Boo\ (Cambridge, 1640) contained works by Lyon); and Josiah Flagg's
no music until a few tunes were added to A Collection of the Best Psalm Tunes
a later edition at the end of the century. (1764). In 1770 appeared the first of six
Two factors were chiefly responsible for books by William Billings (1746-1800),
the small amount of music before 1700: entitled The New England Psalm Singer.
one of them was the lack of opportunity Billings is important in American music
in pioneer surroundings, and the other, history because he was something of a
the Puritan attitude towards music. The radical. A number of his anthems, which
latter phase of early New England life has he called "fuguing pieces" [see *Fugue-
been the subject of considerable contro- tune], were attempts at imitative coun-
versy in recent years. Percy Scholes, in terpoint, and while he was largely un-
his book The Puritans and Music (1934), tutored musically, his work had a rugged
claims that the Puritans in England, and which reflected vividly the back-
those who came to America, were not hos- ground of pioneer surroundings.
tile to music and that the tradition that The controversies over music that
they did not tolerate musical activity in troubled the Puritan denominations did
the American colonies is fallacious. How- not disturb the Anglican churches. Or-
ever, the available evidence shows that gans were used in the Episcopal services
while musical activity did become more from an early date (the first was installed
general at the beginning of the i8th cen- in King's Chapel, Boston, shortly after

tury, it was almost negligible in the iyth; 1713), and such men as William Selby,
and that while there are references in con- who came to Boston from London about
temporary records to a few musical instru- 1771 and became organist of King's
ments, the Puritan colonists viewed with Chapel, and William Tuckey, who came
suspicion and distrust secular amusements to New York from Bristol Cathedral in
and pleasures, which they considered un- 1753 to become organist and choirmaster
godly and sinful. at Trinity Church, not only devoted their
At the beginning of the i8th century, skill and energies to their church duties

psalm-singing in the churches had become but were also active as composers and pro-
a haphazard practice. The lack of printed moters and conductors of choral concerts.
tunes had forced the worshipers to sing Tuckey directed the first American per-
from memory, led by a deacon or elder. formance of excerpts from Handel's Mes-
There was so little standardization of the siah in 1770.
few tunes in use that when several con- Some of the settlements to the south of
gregations met together the musical re- New England were from their beginnings
sults were bedlam. This condition led to more musically inclined. In 1694 a group
reforms as well as to controversy. Several of German pietists founded a colony be-
instruction books for singing appeared: side the Wissahickon River, near Phila-
John Tufts's A very plain and easy intro- delphia. These people had musical in-
duction to the whole Art of Singing Psalm struments, and acquired a reputation for
Tunes, in 1720, and Thomas Walter's their singing. The Swedish Gloria Dei
Grounds and Rules of Music Explained, church, also near Philadelphia, had an
in 1721, which at first met strong opposi- organ as early as 1703, possibly earlier,
tion. Gradually the opposition was over- and its
pastor, Julius Falckner, was the
come, and singing schools were estab- author of several hymns.
lished to teach the rudiments of singing The first known composer on American
from note. Toward the latter part of the soil,according to present knowledge, was
century there was considerable publication Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), a German
of tune and instruction books. Among mystic and founder of the "Seventh Day
the early ones were an American edition Dunkers." He was successively a baker,
of William Tans'ur's A Complete Melody a violinist, and a theologian, and in 1720

he was banished for holding pietistic kinson's songs, and his musical activities,
views. He
emigrated to America and were characteristic of the taste and the
settled first in Germantown, Pennsyl- customs of the period. He was one of a
vania, where he founded the Dunker sect, group of musical amateurs who met regu-
and in 1735 established the "Order of the larly in each other's homes to play to-
Solitary" and a communistic settlement at gether, and who joined with the profes-
Ephrata, Pennsylvania, which became sional musicians who were beginning to
known as the Ephrata Cloister. Here the emigrate from abroad in giving public
worshipers sang hymns and chorals in 4, concerts.
and 7 parts, and it is said that Beissel
5, 6, The War of the Revolution interrupted
composed over 1000 of them. Benjamin musical activities for a number of years,
Franklin published an Ephrata Hymn but at its conclusion they began again,
Collection in 1730. and more intensively. In the last fifteen
At Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, a Mo- years of the century the nation experi-
ravian colony was established in 1741. enced a wholesale immigration from
These people were intense music lovers. Europe, bringing musicians from Eng-
They brought instruments with them, and French Revolution,
land, and, after the
chamber music groups,
their orchestra, from France. These men were generally
and choruses performed the best music well trained, and they accordingly took
from Europe works by Haydn, Mozart, over the musical life of the new nation
etc. A number of composers among the and became its principal concert-artists
Moravians wrote for various chamber and teachers. The names of the few
music combinations. When George native composers who had been active up
Washington visited Bethlehem in 1782 to this time (Hopkinson, James Lyon,
he was serenaded by the trombone Billings, etc.) disappeared almost com-
pletely from the concert programs which
Conceit life in the American colonial were printed in the newspapers, and were
cities commenced in the i8th century. replaced by those of the newcomers
According to newspaper announcements, Benjamin Carr, Alexander Reinagle,
the first concert of record was held in Bos- James Hewitt, Raynor Taylor, Gottlieb
ton in 1731; the second in Charleston,
Graupner, and dozens of others. Ameri-
South Carolina, in 1732; the third in New can music doubtless benefited from the
York, 1736; and the fourth in Philadel- infiltration of better-trained musicians,
phia, 1757. From these dates on, each of but its growth as a native expression was
these cities enjoyed an
increasing number arrested.
of concerts, at which the
programs were II. igth Century. By the early years of
similar in content to those abroad, the
par- 1
9th century these foreigners had be-
ticularly in London, from which the city come Americans, and gradually native-
latest published music was sent regularly born composers began once more to come
to America [see into prominence. The most
*Concert]. widely known
Philadelphia has the credit for produc- of them was Lowell Mason
ing the first native-born American com- a composer of hymn-tunes and a pioneer
poser of music, according to known rec- in music education. Mason succeeded in
ords, in the person of Francis Hopkinson
persuading the Boston school board to
OyST-iTP 1 )* a signer of the Declaration make the study of music a regular part of
of Independence,
Judge of the Admiralty the curriculum (1836) and he established
from Pennsylvania, and a talented ama- "musical conventions" in various parts of
teur musician. Hopkinson composed a the country where teachers could have
number of songs in the current English
training. Another native composer was
style of Arnold, Shield, Storace, and Oliver Shaw (1779-1848), who,
others. The manuscript of the first of blind from early manhood, was active as
them, Have Been So Won- a teacher and organist in Providence,
drous Free," bears the date 1759. Hop- Rhode Island. He was a composer of
anthems, songs, and a number of instru- of Germans, many of them musicians, to
mental pieces which were widely used. seek a new home in the United States.
By the middle of the century another As in the closing years of the i8th
type of foreigner had gained a foothold these newcomers were better trained than
visiting virtuoso who
in America, the the native musicians, for they had enjoyed
dazzled large audiences with his reputa- wider advantages in Continental Europe.
tion as well as his skill, and was rewarded They settled notonly in the seaboard
with huge monetary returns. Ole Bull cities, but went inland to settle also in
paid his first visit to America in 1843, and Milwaukee, St. Louis, Cincinnati, and
followed this visit with many others. other interior towns, and hundreds of
Jenny Lind came in 1850, and under the them became the principal orchestral mu-
management of P. T. Barnum enjoyed sicians, teachers, and composers of the
triumphs in every American city. One of nation. Thus, for a full half-century, if
the virtuosi, the pianist-composer Louis not longer, the roster of the principal
Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869), was ac- American organizations, orchestras, cham-
tually a native of New Orleans, but his ber music groups, and often choral socie-
Parisian training and reputation lent him ties,contained a high percentage of names
a foreign atmosphere which helped mate- of German origin. Carl Bergmann, Otto
rially towards his success. He made his Dresel, Carl Zerrahn, the Mollenhauer
American debut in New York in 1853, brothers, and others of like origin were
and from that year until he left the United the leaders of American musical life.
States for the last time in 1865 (he died Even Theodore Thomas, who became the
in Rio de Janeiro), his recitals in large leading musical missionary of the nation
cities and on tours all the way to Cali-
by taking his orchestra all over the coun-
fornia drew large and admiring crowds. try, was born in Germany.
As a composer he had a flair for a lightly This influx of Germans saturated the
sentimental type of piece which became entire American viewpoint with German
enormously popular. His works were ideas and idioms, so that the German com-
marked by a French elegance and a cer- posers became the principal models upon
tain American flavor which resulted from which music was composed in the United
his use of Creole melodies. His "Banjo" States. Native students studied at home
is based on a Negro-like tune which is with teachers of German origin, and to
closely akin to the spiritual, "Roll, Jordan, complete their studies, journeyed to
Roll." The glamor of such virtuosi led Europe to work with German masters.
to the idol-worship which has been char- The result was the stultifying of native
acteristic of American musical life from character and spirit, and the postpone-
the i9th century to the present day, and ment of anything approaching an Ameri-
which has often made it difficult for resi- can expression. The prevalence of the
dent musicians who have not had the German influence did, however, result in
benefit of European reputations to secure the awakening of a national consciousness
the place to which the abilities of some on the partof a few Americans who felt
entitled them. keenly that they and their works were
Even before 1800 musical societies were neglected.
founded, and after 1800 several were es- One of the first of these was a Bohemian
tablished which have continued to the by birth, Anthony (Anton) Philip Hein-
present: the Handel & Haydn Society of rich (1781-1861), who first came to
Boston (1815); the Musical Fund Society America shortly before 1820, and after a
of Philadelphia (1820); and the Philhar- few months in Philadelphia migrated to
monic Society of New York (1842). In Kentucky, where he lived for a while in
the mid-century another foreign immigra- the comparative wilderness of Bardstown.
It was there that he composed his collec-
tion began which had a profound effect
on musical life in America. The Central tion of instrumental pieces and works,

Europe revolutions of 1848 sent thousands "The Dawning of Music in Kentucky,"

to which he appended a statement that he were the songs of Stephen
ucts of this field
would be proud indeed to be called an Foster (1826-64),whose "Old Folks at
"American musician." He died leaving Home," "Oh! Susanna," and dozens of
a whole trunkf ul of manuscripts gran- others have become literally American
diose orchestral works dealing pro- folk songs. In Foster's time, however,

grammatically with American subjects, these songs were regarded as nothing

including the American Indian and such more than popular songs of the day, even
scenic marvels as Niagara Falls. A num- though they embodied a far more typically
ber of his smaller pieces were published, American expression than the ambitious
but he and his admirers felt that he was efforts of other composers to write sym-
never accorded the place to which he was phonies in the manner of the German
entitled. Romanticists.
Another to protest violently against al- In the latter ipth century an increasing
leged discrimination in favor of foreigners number of native-born composers of art
was William Henry Fry (1813-64), a music appeared, and their works began
music and composer who lived first
critic to be included on the programs of major
in Philadelphia and later in New York. concert organizations. The come
first to

Fry composed the first American grand into lasting prominence was John
opera to be produced, Leonora (Phila- Knowles Paine (1839-1906) whose first
delphia, 1845, and New York, 1858), and symphony was performed by the Theo-
a second opera, Notre Dame de Paris dore Thomas Orchestra in 1876, and who
(1864), as well as a Santa Glaus sym- by 1899 had seen eighteen performances
phony and numerous other works. He of his compositions by the Boston Sym-
was militant in his struggle for recogni- phony Orchestra alone. Paine studied at
tion of American talent and declared that home, and in Germany with Haupt, and
"until the American public shall learn to his works bear the German stamp and a
support American artists, Art will not be- solid, academic workmanship which may
come indigenous to this country" (1852). have lacked individuality, but which ren-
One of Fry's companions in arms was dered them technically far in advance of
George F. Bristow (1825-98), also the anything that had been composed in
composer of an opera (Rip van Winkle, America earlier. His major published
1855 an d revived in 1870), and a number works included two symphonies, two
of orchestral works. He was also a vio- symphonic poems, and an opera. Of equal
linist and a member of the New York importance to his work as a composer,
Philharmonic, who resigned temporarily was Paine's influence as a teacher. In
from that organization in protest against 1862 he was appointed instructor of music
neglect of American works. at Harvard and in 1873 was made a full
Concurrent with this early and some- professor, a chairhe held for thirty years.
what premature awakening of a national His pupils included men who took their
consciousness in the realm of art music place among America's leading compos-
was another movement which was largely ers: Arthur Foote (1853-1937), Freder-
overlooked by serious musicians. This ick S. Converse (1871-1940), John Alden
was the development of a lighter type of Carpenter (b. 1876), Daniel Gregory
entertainment which was typically Ameri- Mason (b. 1873), and many others. In
can: the minstrel show which caricatured addition tolaunching his own pupils
the humor and sentiment of the American on successful careers, Paine was the artis-
Negro. The songs which the minstrel tic parent of a coterie of composers which
shows produced were not Negro songs became known as the "Boston," or "New
nor were they connected primarily with England Group," so called because its
the Negro's own folk music, but they did members either derived from New Eng-
embody a carefree attitude, and a nostalgic land by birth or residence, or because they
sentiment which had their basis in the had the same ideals in common. They
Negro character. The most lasting prod- were academic in the German tradition.

but 3!! of them had solid training and actual melodies, into severalworks of his
something definite to say musically. Be- own, notably the "New World" Sym-
sides Foote, the group included George phony and the American Quartet. It is
W. Chadwick
(1854-1931), Horatio true that Dvorak did not achieve an
Parker (1863-1919), Arthur Whiting American expression in these works, he
(1861-1936), Mrs. H. H. A. Beach was too much of a Bohemian for that,
(1867-1944), Edgar Stillman Kelley but he did succeed in firing the imagina-
(1857-1944), and others. Chadwick and tion of American composers, and
by his
Parker were perhaps the most distin- example persuaded many of them to look
guished of the set. Chadwick's work was to their own soil for a national expres-
marked by expert craftsmanship and had sion.
also a Yankee humor which gave it some- III. 20th
Century. The 20th century
thing of an American flavor. Musically, has witnessed a marked change in Ameri-
Parker's opera Mona, produced at the can music. Where there were dozens of
Metropolitan in New York in 1912, was composers in the latter i9th century, there
the most effective of any American opera are hundreds now. American composers
to date,and his oratorio, Hora Novissima> have also had increasing opportunity for
became standard in the repertoire of performance and publication of their
choral societies in America and in Eng- major works, owing to considerable prop-
land. aganda urging program-makers to pro-
Contemporary with the Boston group, mote native music and the public to de-
but set apart from them because of his mand it. It is, of course, not only the

striking individuality, was Edward Mac- propaganda that has led to this change;
Dowell (1861-1908), who, with the pos- it is also the tremendously increasing
sible exception of Gottschalk, was the first quantity and vastly improved quality of
American composer to achieve a foreign American compositions. Not only are
reputation. In spite of his Germanic there thousands of available compositions

training under Raff, MacDowell had a where a half, or even a quarter, of a cen-
style that was distinctly his own, a Celtic tury ago there were merely hundreds; the
boldness which derived, perhaps, from music itself is composed with craftsman-
his Scotch ancestry. Like Grieg, he had ship and polished technique, and in count-
his individual melodic and harmonic has something to say which
less cases it

idiom, which imposed its own limitations has not already been said by older com-
when it became a mannerism. Although posers from abroad.
he is heard today chiefly through his piano It is difficult to classify American com-
pieces, his larger works are still
per- posers into groups, for many of them
formed, particularly the second Piano have attempted work in a number of
Concerto and the Second, "Indian," Suite fields, and their styles and idioms have
for orchestra. MacDowell is still
regarded changed as they themselves have devel-
by many as the outstanding American oped and progressed. There are compos-
ers who have remained conservative, and
composer, because of his marked individ-
uality and because of the vogue his music some who are looked upon by the radicals
has enjoyed. The national consciousness, as conservative but who have nevertheless
which had its origin in the middle of the shown contemporary tendencies and
received an added impetus
last century, seem modernistic to the layman who is
from the extended visit of the Bohemian accustomed only to traditional music.
Antonin Dvorak, who taught at the Na- Among those who have never departed
tional Conservatory in New York from appreciably from 19th-century idioms are
1892 to 1895. Dvorak was deeply im- the late Henry Hadley (1871-1937), who

pressed by the native folk-material he composed prolifically and successfully in

heard in America, and urged his pupils all forms and whose works were marked

to make use of it. He incorporated the by a facility that was felicitous and stimu-
spirit of Negro and Indian songs, if not lating; Deems Taylor (b. 1885), prob-

ably the best known of all American com- Luening (b. 1900); and Ernst Bacon
posers to the layman, whose operas, The (b. 1898).
Kings Henchman and Peter Ibbetson, en- America has also its share of experi-
joyed a large number of performances for mentalists. Among them are Charles Ives
several seasons at the Metropolitan in (b. 1876), for many years unrecognized
New York; Charles Wakefield Cadman by all but a few, and recently come into
(b. 1881) who has written ballad-songs prominence through the performance of
which have ranked with Broadway hits his Concord Sonata for piano. Ives de-
in popularity, and has also been active lights in polytonal combinations and in
in the larger forms: several operas (in- complex rhythms, and has also experi-
cluding Shane wis), and a considerable mented in quarter-tones. Henry Cowcll
list of orchestral works; the late Rubin (b. 1897) has sought a scientific basis in
Goldmark (1872-1936), a teacher of com- overtones for "tone-clusters."
posers as well as a composer himself; and Weiss and Wallingford Ricggcr
(b. 1891)
Walter Damrosch (b. 1862), who is more (b. 1885) are avowed atonalists. Less
important as a conductor and musical radical, perhaps,than the others is Carl
missionary. Ruggles (b. 1876), but the quality in his
A number of composers have adopted music that Lawrence Gilman character-
contemporary methods in part, but have ized as "torrential and disturbing" places
not departed far enough from accepted him in the experimental group.
idioms to encounter resistance from the Recent additions to the list of American
public. Among them are Carpenter, D. G. composers include younger men of con-
Mason, and Converse (already men- siderable talent and individuality, notably
tioned as pupils of J. K. Paine), Edward Samuel Barber (b. 1910),Leonard Bern-
Burlingame Hill (b. 1872), Howard Han- stein (b. 1918), Paul Bowles (b. 1911),
son (b. 1896), director of the Eastman Paul Creston (b. 1906), David Diamond
School of Music at Rochester, David (b. 1915),Bernard Herrmann (b. 1911),
Stanley Smith (b. 1877), Douglas Moore Gail T. Kubik (b. 1914), Gian-Carlo
(b. 1893), an d Randall Thompson (b. Menotti (b. 1911), Paul Nordoff (b.
1899). 1909), Gardner Read (b. 1913), and Wil-
Slightly further to the left, in that they liam Schumann (b. 1910).
have written in styles which have been a IV. National Elements. The move-
littlemore advanced than the average ment toward using folk music which
audience was ready to accept, are the late DvoMk instigated at the turn of the cen-
Charles Martin LoefHer (1861-1935), an tury had its inevitable reaction. Compos-
Alsatian-born violinist-composer whose ers, and the public, found that a conscious
"Pagan Poem" is one of the most striking and wholesale adoption of folk material
works composed in this country; Charles did not in bring a national expres-
T. Griffes (1884-1920); Roy Harris (b. sion, when the composers
1898), an Oklahoman by birth whose themselves were not of the same race as
works represent an altogether national those who produced the folk songs orig-
expression in seeming to derive from the inally. There have, however, been many
vast spaces of the Southwest; Aaron Cop- excellent works based on native material,
land (b. 1900), more sophisticated and and a number of composers have been
practical than Harris but inherently a closely identifiedwith its use. Charles
valid American product; Roger Sessions Sanford Skilton (1868-1941) composed
(b. 1896) and Walter Piston (b. 1894), some strikingly effective Indian dances
both champions of the "international" based on tribal melodies; John Powell's
school of thought [see *Nationalism]; (b. 1882) Rhapsodic Ngre not only uses
Quincy Porter (b. 1897); the Holland- actual Negro melodies but reflects certain
born Bernard Wagenaar (b. 1894) and phases of the Negro's temperament. Pow-
the German-born Werner Josten (b. ellhas also used Anglo-Saxon material
1888); Arthur Shepherd (b. 1880); Otto from the Appalachians. Percy Grainger

(Australia, b. 1882) has not only made tive of excellent results. Carpenter, Cop-
exquisite settings of British folk songs, land, Louis Gruenberg (b. 1884), an(^
but has turned to American material since dozens of others have found it a reward-
making his home in this country. Lamar ing field, even though they have come to
Stringfield (b. 1897), a native of North turn away from it because of its rather
Carolina, has made distinctive use of rigid limitations. In Europe, too, a num-
Southern material, from the Negroes and ber of composers have tried their hand at
from the white mountaineers. American jazz: Stravinsky, Kfenek, Mil-
There are also many Negro composers haud, Hindemith, Honegger, and many
who have been eloquent interpreters of others [see *Jazz VI],
their race. Among the older ones are The other result of jazz has been that a
Harry T. Burleigh (b. 1866) who was one numbei of composers who started their
of the first to make effective concert-set- careers as composers of dance music and
tings of Negro spirituals, R. Nathaniel musical comedy scores have extended
Dett (1882-1943), and Clarence C. White their efforts to the concert and grand-
(b. 1880). Somewhat younger than these opera field. The outstanding member of
men are William Levi Dawson (b. 1895), this group is
George Gershwin
the late
and William Grant Still (b. 1895). See (1898-1937), who first became a most
*Negro music. successful composer for Broadway shows
Americans are now coming to realize and then drew the attention of critics and
that their less pretentious music, the so- the music public with his Rhapsody in
called popular songs and dance music, has Blue, for piano and orchestra. This was
distinctive qualities which have given it followed by a Piano Concerto and a tone-
a vogue throughout the world; in its best poem, An American in Paris, and finally
phases this music represents a typically by the opera, Porgy and Bess. A number
national expression. From an earlier cen- of our serious composers have derived

tury the songs of Stephen Foster typified from the popular field by acting as orches-
several features of American life its trators of musical comedy and motion pic-
humor, its sentiment, and the flavor of its ture scores Robert Russell Bennett (b.
Southern plantations. The marches of 1894), William Grant Still, and Otto
John Philip Sousa (1854-1932) had a Cesana (b. 1899). Morton Gould (b.
verve and sparkle which set them apart 1913) has been associated with Broadway
from the common run of such pieces, and the radio as a conductor, and has pro-
while the quasi- Viennese melodies of the duced a long list of major works, which,
Victor Herbert (1859-1924) operettas Chorale and Fugue in Jazz, apply
like his

possessed at least a cosmopolitanism musical training to popular materials.

which was characteristic of American The result of this union of music-hall
urban life. and dance music with art music has been
More important than these is the body extremely healthy. It has done much to
of popular music which has for its basis rid the concert field of its self-conscious
the peculiar type of syncopation that has complacency and intolerance, and it has
been borrowed from the Negro the without doubt raised the standards of
early ragtime of the 1890*8 and the later popular music, even though it has made
"jazz" and the still more recent impro- some of it over-sophisticated and a bit
vised "swing" music. These have not only self-conscious. It has, moreover, done
developed highly ingenious and complex much to make American music a native

rhythmic patterns, but have also evolved product, independent of Europe, and it
instrumentations which are often used by provides American composers with a
concert orchestras as well as by dance vehicle which represents a number of the
bands. The effect of this jazz vogue has highly intricate and varied phases of the
been twofold. First, it has offered serious American temperament. It is not, of
composers of art music a field for experi- course, the only type of music which is
mentation which has often been produc- inherently American, nor does it cover all

of the manifold facets of American life. rent methods is the one-sided application
Nevertheless, the adoption of popular ele- of only one point of view, for instance,
ments which are in some ways a folk- that of form (D. F. Tovey, Beethoven's
spirit which characterizes Americans Pianoforte Sonatas) or of phrasing (H.
everywhere, rather than a single race or Riemann, Analyse von Beethoven's Kla-
group, is a highly significant step in the viersonaten). In present-day education
evolution of a distinctively American special emphasis is
placed on analysis of
music. harmony *Harmonic analysis] and
Lit.: J. T. Howard, Our American of form [see *Form]; melodic analysis,
Music (1931); id., Our Contemporary however, perhaps the most important and
Composers (1941); Henry Cowell, Amer- most informative of all, is usually neg-
ican Composers on American Music lected *
0933); Clare Reis, Composers in Amer- Lit.: A. J. Goodrich, Complete Musical
ica (1938); W. T. Upton, Art-Song in Analysis (1887); K. Westphal, in DM
America (1930-1938); W. Saunders, xxiv, 5.
"The American Opera" (ML xiii, no. 2);
Anapaest. See *Poetic meter I.
O. G. Sonneck, "Early American Operas'*
(SIM vi); C. Lindstrom, "Wm. Billings Anche [F.], Ancia [It.]. *Reed.
and His Time" (MQ
xxv); O. G. Son- Anche battante, reed; anche
neck, "Francis Hopkinson" (SIM v). See double, double reed; anche libre, free reed.
also under *Jazz, *Negro music.

J.T.H. Ancora [It.]. Once more (repeat).

Ancora piu forte, still more forte.
American Musicological Society.
See *Societies, I, 2. Ancus. See *Neumes I.

American organ. See *Harmonium. Andamento [It., from andare, to go]

means, in 18th-century writings: (i)
Amorevole, amoroso [It.]. Loving. A
*Sequence. (2) special type of fugal
Amorschall. See *Horn II. subject [see *Soggetto]. (3) In more
recent writings the term is used preferably
Amphibrach [Gr.]. See *Poetic me- to denote fugal episodes.
ter I.

See * Acoustics Andante [It., from andare, to go].

Amplitude. I.
Tempo mark indicating very moderate
Anabole [Gr., beginning], humanis- speed, between allegretto and adagio [see
(i6th-century) name for *prelude. *Tempo marks]. To the present day
there no agreement among musicians
Anacrusis. Upbeat.
as to whether andante belongs to the
Analysis. With reference to music, the quick or to the slow tempo. While this
study of a composition with regard to question as such would seem to be rather
form, structure, thematic material, har- irrelevant, it becomes important in the
mony, melody, phrasing, orchestration, case of terms such as piu andante, meno
style, technique, etc. Analysis of composi- andante, molto andante, andantino. Ac-
tion plays a predominant part in musical cording to the former interpretation,
instruction (as a practical application of which is
supported by the literal meaning
technical studies in harmony, counter- of the word, piu andante and molto an-
point, orchestration) and in writings on dante indicate a tempo quicker than the
music. Analysis is value if it is
of little normal andante, while meno andante in-
mere enumeration of statistics; such meth- dicates a slower speed. Brahms was un-
ods, frequently encountered in modern doubtedly aware of this meaning of the
writings, overlook the synthetic element term when, at the end of his andante from
and the functional significance of the the pianoforte sonata op. 5, he wrote "an-
musical detail Another drawback of cur- dante molto"; the tempo of this closing

section is, of course, quicker, not slower, French ballets of the late iyth century,
than that of the preceding andante espres- whence it was introduced into the op-
sivo. Other composers however (perhaps tional group of the suite [cf. J. K. F.
the majority) use molto andante to mean Fischer, Musifalischer Parnassus (c.
a tempo still slower than andante. See 1690); J. S. Bach, French Suite no. 3].
*Andantino. It is in quick duple time, without
The name was also used for other dances
Andantino. Diminutive of andante, of English origin or character,
e.g., for the
used mainly to characterize a short piece
(syncopated) *hornpipe and, around
of andante tempo or character. If used
1800, for the *country dance and the
it means a
as a tempo mark, slight modi- *ecossaise. See *Dance music III.
fication ofandante the direction of which
is, unfortunately, a matter of divergent
* Anglican chant. The method em-
opinion [see Andante], Beethoven was ployed in the Anglican Church for the
puzzled by the question whether andan- singing of the psalms, canticles, and other
tino was to be understood as meaning unmetrical texts. It is based on the recita-
faster or slower than andante, as appears
tion principle of the *psalm tones of the
from a letter he wrote to George Thomson Roman Catholic Church but differs from
[cf. A. W. Thayer, The Life of Bee- these aside from the English text in
thoven, ed. by Krehbiel, 1921, 246].
ii, the use of four-part harmony and of a
Most modern musicians apparently use more strictly metrical rhythm.
the term as indicating quicker tempo than The practice of using harmonized ver-
andante. sions of the psalm tones, known as */a/jo-

Andauernd bordone, was quite common in the i6th

[G.]. "Lasting," continu-
century (Josquin des Pres, Vittoria, and
many others). The first English com-
Anemochord. See under *Aeolian posers to harmonize the psalm tones were
harp; *Sostenente pianoforte. Tallis, Byrd, Morley, and Gibbons, who
were followed by many others. Naturally,
Anenaiki. The term refers to an abu-
within the course of its 400 years of living
sive treatment of Russian (*Znamenny)
existence, the chant has undergone many
chant, practiced chiefly in the i6th and
changes which, generally speaking, have
7th centuries, in which long coloraturas not improved its The earliest set-
in bad taste were sung to meaningless quality.

such as a-ne-na. This method tings, although sacrificing the primal sim-
plicity of the monophonic chant, did not
was known as chomonie. A similar
method used in the Byzantine chant of impair its validity as a rhythmically free
agent for the conveyance of the text be-
the same period is known as teretism, ow-
cause they did not alter the free oratoric
ing to the use of such syllables as te-re-rem
for the same purpose. The Russian syl- rhythm of the plainsong.
It was in the late iyth century that
lables are probably related to the early
enechamata rhythm, in the categorical sense, began to
Byzantine [see *Echos].
condition the free and expressive delivery
They appear in a manuscript as early as of the words in chanting. Bar-lines em-
the 1 2th century [cf. the reference in
phasized the metrical quality of the rendi-
ReMMA, 99] See also *Noeane.

tion and the generally mechanical nature

Vom An- of the practice was not helped in later
Anfang [G.]. Beginning;
times by the adoption of specially com-
fang, da capo.
posed chants often accompanied by har-
Angelica. See *Lute III. monizations of mediocre quality. It is
these metrical chants which are called
Angklung. See "Javanese music I.
Anglican and which supply the needs of
Anglaise [Fr., English dance]. One of many modern Protestant congregations.
the numerous dance types
used in the Ideally treated, Anglican chanting may
be impressive to a certain degree, but it Plainchant (2) drawn from The New
contains four defects which render it defi- Hyinnal appear below.
nitely inferior to its plainsong analogue.
First, it is written with bar-lines enclosing
measures of theoretically equal length;
thus one measure may suffice for the sing-
ing of four or five words and the next
may have to accommodate twelve or fif-
teen, so that the inevitable tendency is to
rush the verbally crowded measures to
make their length conform to the others.
^ e-
*C- cord- In Jo tlW word*.
However much this tendency may be re- tior.

sisted, the tyranny of the bar-line cannot

be wholly ignored. Secondly it has been
customary to employ a system of "point-
ing" in the text whereby certain syllables
or words over which appeared the sign
served as a of stress Lord, now UHe*- tVu Hoy sava^ deport*
poo, ac-
( ) momentary point
or rest. While this device may have ful-
filled the practical purpose of producing
occasional unity amid verbal confusion, it joid : For mine Vxxve sow
y0 toy
tended to make the congregation hurry
over the preceding words to dwell to an Lit.: W. Douglas, Church Music in
unnatural degree on the pointed word or History and Practice (1937); P. Scholes,
syllable. Later hymnals
have abandoned The Oxford Companion to Music (1938),
pointing in an effort to restore as nearly article "Anglican Chant"; A. Rams-
as possible the flexibility of the Plainsong botham, in ML
i, no. 3; R. Bridges, in

Chant. Third, many Anglican chants MA ii, iii; W. Barclay-Squire, in SIM viii;
contain equal notes of smaller value, and Ch. W. "The
Pearce, Futility of Anglican
these, sung in strict time, further distort Chant" (Mvi). A.T.D.
the flow of the text. And fourth, the in-
variable ending of the chant on a strong Anglican church music. See Angli-
beat often leads to downright misaccentu- can chant; Anthem; Cathedral music;
ation. Hymn IV; Litany; Psalter; Response;
Service. Cf. The Church Service Boo^
Anglican chant represents a relatively
unsuccessful effort to carry over into a ed. by G. Edward Stubbs (1906).
workable congregational method the ideal con angore
Angosciamente ; [It.].
conditions belonging to plainsong; and With anxiety.
in spite of devoted and skillful efforts at

improvement, the two systems remain Anhalten [G.]. To hold on.

fundamentally irreconcilable because the
Anhang [G.]. *Coda.
Anglican represents a practice in which
the accents of the prose are dictated by Anhemitonic [Gr., without semi-
an arbitrary metrical scheme, while in
tones]. An anhemitonic scale (also called
the rhythmic sweep of the
plainsong tonal scale) is one which possesses no
music governed by the normal speech
semitones, e.g., the *pentatonic scale c-d-
delivery of the text. At its best, Anglican f-g-a-c', or the *whole-tone scale.
chanting is a compromise; at its worst, it
suggests the recitative secco of i8th-cen-
Animato [It.],anime [F.]. Animated.
tury opera which provided for the dis-
Anmutig [G.]. Gracefully.
posal of large quantities of words in as
short a space of time as possible. Con- Anonymous [Gr., without name]. Of
trasting examples of Anglican (i) and unknown authorship. The Latin word
Anonymus (abbreviated Anon.) ap- is bcit] . The terms are also used as synony-
plied to unknown writers of medieval mous with subject and answer in fugues
treatises in the collections of Gerbert and *
[see Answer],
Coussemaker [see *Scriptores], in which
they are referred to as Anon. I, Anon. II, Anthem [from Gr. *antiphona; Ro-
etc. It should be noticed, however, that manic antefena; Old English antefn, an-
the same numbering occurs in several tempne]. An English choral composition
volumes of Coussemaker and Gerbert. written to English words from the Scrip-
Therefore, the famous treatise known as tures or to another sacred text and per-
Coussemaker's Anon. IV should more ac- formed in the worship of the Anglican
curately be referred to as Anon. IV of Church, where it holds a position similar
Coussemaker i
(CS i).
to that of the *motet in the Roman rites.
An anthem usually is with accompani-
Anreissen [G.]. Forceful pizzicato.
ment, preferably by the organ. If it in-

Ansatz [G.]. (i) In singing, the proper cludes parts for solo singers it is called
verse anthem; otherwise, full anthem.
adjustment of the vocal apparatus. (2)
In the playing of wind instruments, the The history of the anthem begins with
*Em- the Reformation and the consequent es-
proper adjustment of the lips [see
tablishment of English as the liturgical
bouchure (2)]. (3) *Crook or shank
of brass instruments. (4) In violin play- language. Although the anthem devel-
ing, *attack. oped from the Latin motet, the first an-
thems, written by Tye and Tallis (c.
Anschlag [G.]. (i) In piano playing, 1560), show a marked difference in style
touch. (2) Of a pianoforte, action from the previous and contemporary
(heavy or light). (3) An ornament ex- motets. They are rhythmically square,
plained by K. P. E. Bach [see *Appoggia- more harmonically conceived, more syl-
tura, Double III]. labic and in shorter phrases, features all
of which result from the greater consider-
Anschwellend [G.]. Crescendo.
ation given to matters of text and pronun-
Anstrich [G.]. Up-bow. ciation. Towards the end of the i6th

century a new form, the verse anthem^

Answer. In fugal writing the answer is
was introduced by Byrd (regarding an
the second (and fourth) statement of the
isolated earlier example, by Richard Far-
subject, so called because of its relation- G. E. P. Arkwright, in MA
rant, cf. i,
ship to the first (and third) statement. and developed by Orlando
p. 65 note)
Therefore, the succession of statements Gibbons [cf. HAM, nos. 151, 169, 171],
is answer - subject - answer. See

* This form, in which sections for full

*Fugue; *Tonal and real; Antecedent chorus alternate with sections for one or
and consequent.
more solo voices, was preferred through-
Antecedent and consequent. The out the i yth century, with the full anthem
terms are usually applied to melodic coming into prominence again in the sub-
phrases which stand in the relationship sequent period. While in the Elizabethan
of question and answer or statement and anthem the vocal part (or parts) of the
confirmation, as in the accompanying ex- verse-sections are contrapuntally conceived

ample (Beethoven, String Quartet op. 18, (i.e., as parts

of a contrapuntal fabric the
other voices of which are played on the
organ), a new declamatory arioso-style of
Italian origin [see *Monody] was intro-
duced for the verse-sections around 1630,
no. 2). Here, as in other examples, the in the anthems of Monteverdi's pupil

dialogue character of the melody is em- Walter Porter (c. 1595-1659; cf. Ark-
phasized by its distribution between two wright, in MA iv, 247) and, particularly,
instruments *Durchbrochcnc Ar- of William Child (1606-97; cf. the list of

his anthems in GD i, 623; example in OH tiphonal psalmody [see below, History].
206). The Restoration anthem is rep-
iiiy (1) Short texts from the Scriptures or
resented by Henry Aldrich (1647-1710), elsewhere, set to music in a simple, syllabic
Pelham Humphrey (1647-74), Michael style, and sung
before and after a psalm or
Wise (1648-87), John Blow (1649-1708; canticle. On greater feasts the antiphon
cf. GD
i, 396), Henry Purcell (1659-95), is sung entire both before and after the
and Jeremiah Clarke (1659-1707). Blow psalm; at other times the first word or two
and Purcell introduced instruments into only (*Incipit) are sung before, and the
the anthem, an innovation by which the whole after. For more details, see under
multi-sectional anthem came to resemble *Psalm tones. The present repertory of
a cantata. Another characteristic feature Gregorian chant includes more than 1000
of the Restoration anthem, adopted in such antiphons. The melodies are not all
numerous later works, is a concluding different, and can be classified in about 40
hallelujah chorus in fugal style. The use groups of closely allied chants [cf. F. A.
of two choruses, called Dec(ani) and Gevaert, La Melopee antique dans le chant
Can(toris) prevails in the anthem as well de I'eglise latine (1895) ] Aside from the

as in the Service music [sec *Polychoral], antiphons for the psalms, there are similar
The Baroque anthem reached its high- enframing melodies for the *canticles, par-
point in the grandiose anthems of Handel, ticularly the *Magnificat and the Bene-
nearly all of which were written for special dictus Deus Dominus. These are some-
festive occasions where an unusual dis- what more elaborate textually as well as
play otmeans was possible and proper musically [cf., e.g., AR, 54iff].
(Chandos Anthems, 1716-18; Coronation (2) The name antiphon is also used for
Anthems, 1727; Dettingen Anthem, two other types of chants which are not
1743). Other composers of this period strictly antiphons, since they do not, as a
are William Croft (16781727), John rule, embrace a psalm or canticle but are
Weldon (1676-1736), and Maurice independent songs of considerable length
Greene (1695-1755). Their anthems, as and elaboration. The first of these types
well as those of William Boyce (1710-79; includes the antiphons which at certain
cf. GD i, 441), are modeled after the feasts (e.g., Palm Sunday) are sung pre-
somewhat simpler style of PurcelL The paratory to the Mass (Mass antiphon)*
outstanding figure of the I9th century They are usually of a narrative character,
was S. S. Wesley (1810-76) whose two containing reports from the New Testa-
volumes of anthems, published in 1853, ment referring to the occasion, e.g.: "Cum
contain such standard works as "Blessed appropinquaret Dominus Jerosolymam..."
be the God and Father" and "The Wil- for Palm Sunday [cf. GR, 159^]. The
derness." the more recent com-
Among second class of pseudo-antiphons is the
posers Ch. V. Stanford (18521924), B. four antiphons B.M.V. (Beatae Mariae
Harwood (b. 1859), and Martin Shaw Virginis) or B.V.M. (Blessed Virgin
(b. 1875) must be mentioned. Mary), namely: Alma redemptoris mater\
Lit.: W. Davies, \The Church Anthem Ave regina coelorum\ Regina coeli lac-
Boo{ (1933); M. B. Foster, Anthem and tarc; * Salve regina [cf AR, 65-69] These
. .

Anthem Composers (1901); H. W. Shaw, are more in the style of early hymns in
"John Blow's Anthems" (ML xix. no. 4). free meter. They are sung during four
different seasons of the year, at the offices
Anticipation. See *Nonharmonic tones of Lauds and Compline, by alternating
I; also *Nachschlag. choirs [see *Salve regina]. In the i5th
* and 1 6th centuries they were frequently
Antiennc [F.]. (i) Antiphon. (2)
*Anthem. composed polyphonically, for voices or
for organ [cf. HAM,nos. 65, 100, 139].
Antiphon. A term denoting various cat- (3) While the chants mentioned above
egories of Gregorian chant, all of which are the only ones called antiphons in the
are remnants of the early method of an- liturgical books of the present day, the

name is also
applied in historical studies *Notre Dame (c. 1200). See *Magnus
to certain chants of the Mass liber organi.
itself, namely,
the *Introit (introit
antiphon, antiphona
ad introitum), the
*Offertory (antiphona
Antiphonia. In Greek theory, the oc-
ad offerendum), and the *Communion tave. See *Antiphon,
(communion antiphon, antiphona ad com- Antwort [G.]. Answer, in fugues.
munioncm). The justification for this
terminology in the fact that these
lies Anvil. Small steel bars, struck with a
chants originally
sprang from the same hard wooden or metal beater, which have
method of antiphonal psalmody which sometimes been used as a percussion in-
also survives, in a different strument in operas, usually as a stage
form, in the
antiphons embracing a psalm or a canticle property (Auber, Le Ma$on, 1825; Verdi,
[see *Psalmody]. //Trovatore\ Wagner, Rheingold).
History. In Greek theory, antiphonia
Anwachsend [G.]. Crescendo.
(literally counter-sound) means the oc-
tave, in contradistinction to *symphonia,
Apiacere [It.]. Sameas*abeneplacito.
the unison, and *paraphonia, the fifth. In
the early Christian rites,
antiphonia came Apollo Club. A
name given to Ameri-
to denote the can male singing organizations, generally
singing of the successive
verses of apsalm by alternating choruses. amateur, corresponding to the French
This meaning of the term probably origi- *Orpheon and the German *Mannerge-
nated in the fact that the second chorus sangverein. Remarkable for their higher
originally consisted of women or boys who ambitions are the Apollo Clubs of Boston
repeated the melody at the higher octave. (founded in 1871), of Brooklyn (1878),
Very early antiphonal psalm-singing was ofChicago (1872), of Cincinnati (1882),
enriched by the addition of a short sen- and of St. Louis ( 1 893) Some of the clubs

tence sung by the whole choir and re- were expanded into a mixed chorus.
peated after each verse or pair of verses as
a refrain. It was this additional text and Apollonicon. See *Mechanical instru-
ments III.
melody which finally came to adopt and
retain the name antiphon. For a survey of See *Neumes I.
the various formswhich sprang from the
antiphonal psalmody, see *PsaImody III; Apotome. See *Pythagorean scale.
also *Gregorian chant IV(c).
Appassionata, or Sonata appassio-
Antiphonal singing. Singing (or play- nata [It., impassioned]. The name cus-
ing) in alternating choruses. The term, tomarily given to Beethoven's Piano So-
which nata op. 57, in F minor. The title was not
originally belongs to the parlance
of plainsong [see * Antiphon, history], is his,but was added by some publisher.
also used with reference to polyphonic The is "Grande Senate
original tide pour
music composed in two choruses. See Piano" (1806).
*polychoral style. Regarding the use of
antiphonal singing in Gregorian chant
Appena [It.]. Hardly, scarcely.
see *Responsorial.
Applicatur. Eighteenth-century Ger-
man term for fingering.
Antiphonal, antiphoner, antipho-
nary [L. Antiphonale, Antiphonarium}. Appoggiando [It.]. "Leaning," i.e.,
See *Liturgical books. The name Anti-
emphasized, also full legato.
phonarium Mediceum is erroneously ap-
plied to the MS
Florence, Bibl. Laur. plut. Appoggiatura [from It. appoggiarc, to
29, / which actually is not a book of plain- lean on J .
( i) In modern parlance, an im-
song, but the most extensive collection of portant type of nonharmonic tones [see
the polyphonic repertory of the School of *Nonharmonic tones II].

(2) Originally, appoggiatura [F. port music by J. S. Bach, Handel, Purcell, D.
de voix\ E. forefall, backfall, half-fall; G. Scarlatti, etc. Ex. 2 illustrates the appli-
Vorschlag] is an ornamental note, usually cation of these principles to the music of
a second, that is melodically connected J. S. Bach (a: Kleine zweistimmige Fuge
with the main note that follows it (i.e., the c-moll; b: Goldberg Variations, aria; c: St.
appoggiatura is sung in the same breath Matthew Passion, Bass aria no. 66; d: Sin-
or played with the same stroke of the bow fonia no. 3). See also *Appuy; *Port de
or articulation of the tongue or, in the case voix.
of keyboard instruments, slurred to that After 1750 the performance of the

following note). It is indicated by means appoggiatura was systematized by the Ger-

of a small note or special sign, but was also man teachers and writers, K. P. E. Bach,
frequently introduced extemporaneously Leopold Mozart, Marpurg, and Turk. The
in performance. The
interpretation of the ornament is now divided into two types:
appoggiatura has varied considerably since the long, or variable appoggiatura (ver-
the iyth century, when it first became a andcrlicher Vorschlag)^ and the short ap-
conventionalized ornament. poggiatura (l(urtzer Vorschlag), both of
I. In the Baroque period the appoggia- which are to be performed upon the beat.
tura was exceedingly flexible as regards The duration of the long appoggiatura is
both notation and rhythmic execution. In proportionate to that of the main note with
Ex, i, A
shows the various ways of indi- which it is connected, according to the fol-

lowing rules: (a) If the main note can be

divided into two equal parts the appoggia-
tura takes half its value; (b) an appoggia-
tura to a dotted note takes two thirds of its
value; (c) in %
or %-metcr an appoggia-
tura to a dotted note that is tied to another
note takes the whole value of the dotted

eating the appoggiatura, and B the meth-

ods of performance that were prevalent
around 1700. The choice between these
interpretations was left to the discretion
of the performer a "discretion," how-
ever, which was not haphazard but was
governed by rules (based upon the conduct
of the melody and other parts, the tempo
and phrasing of the passage in question,
and the expression of the accompanying
text) that were formulated in textbooks
(e.g., Bacilly: Remarques curieuses sur
fan de bicn and taught to
chanter, 1668) note; (d) if the main note is followed by
every student of performance. With the a rest, the appoggiatura takes the whole
exception of (a) and (b), which are exclu- value of the main note, the latter is played
sively French, these interpretations were in the time of the rest, and the rest ceases
taken over by musicians of all nationalities. to exist. In Ex. 3 these four rules are illus-

They are valid for the performance of trated by from the works of
t 42]
Mozart and Beethoven (a: Mozart, Piano of the beat. The latter possibility had al-
Sonata K.V. 311; Beethoven, Piano So- ready been admitted by some of the late
nata op. no.
Menuetto; b: Mozart,
2, i, 18th-century authorities (who referred to
Piano Sonata K.V. 332; c: Mozart, Piano itas a durchgehender Vorschlag, distinct
Sonata K.V. 332; d: Beethoven, Ade- from both the langer and the \urtzer Vor-
laide). schlag) for certain exceptional circum-
short appoggiatura should be per- stances. After 1800 this execution becomes
formed as a short note, regardless of the decidedly more popular; it seems to be
duration of the main note. It is to be used indicated for most of the grace notes in

only in the following circumstances: (a) the works of Chopin, Schumann, Brahms,
when the main note is itself an appoggia- etc. (Schumann often prescribes it, by
tura (i.e., a non-harmonic note occurring placing the grace note before the bar-line),
on the beat); (b) when the main note ac- but lack of material evidence leaves the
companies a suspension or syncopation; matter open to controversy in many cases.
(c) when the appoggiatura fills up the in-
In modern music it is customary to snap
tervals in a series of the grace note sharply onto the following
descending thirds; (d)
when main note is a short note that is
the note, so that it slightly anticipates the beat
followed by more notes of the same value; and imparts a decided accent to the main
note. See *Ornamentation; *Ornaments.
(c) when the main note is one of a series
of reiterated notes [see Ex. 4 (a: C. P. E. P. A.

Bach; Beethoven, Piano Sonata op. 2, no.

Appoggiatura, Double. The term
3; b: C. P. E. Bach; c: Mozart, Piano So- double appoggiatura has been applied to
nata K.V. 279; d: Beethoven, Piano Sonata each of the three distinct ways in which
op. 22, Menuetto; e: Mozart, Piano Sonata two appoggiaturas can be used: I. two ap-
K.V. 627)].
poggiaturas performed simultaneously, at
notation of the appoggiatura, in the interval of a third or sixth; II. two con-
this period, has no definite relationship to
performance. A few composers wrote
the long appoggiatura as a small note of
the exact value in which it should be per-
formed, and distinguished the short ap-
poggiatura from it by means of a single
stroke across the stem (for a i6th-note) or
a double stroke (for a 32nd-note), but this 3 ,

practice was by no means consistently car-

ried out. In music by C. P. E. Bach, Gluck,
the rules giv- oUvtd
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven,
en above constitute a far surer guide to
performance than does the physical ap-
pearance of the ornament, even in the most
reliable editions. For an 18th-century r r "T ^E
practice of improvised appoggiatura,
III. The

I9th century brings still fur-

ther changes in the treatment of the appog-
giatura.The long appoggiatura becomes
^ 3E

absorbed in the ordinary notation. The junct appoggiaturas approaching the main
short appoggiatura is now invariably in- note from the interval of a third above or
dicated by a small note with a single stroke below it; III. two disjunct appoggiaturas,
across its stem, called a grace note or (er- one being placed below the main note, the
roneously) an *acciaccatura.
The question other above it.
now arises whether this grace note should I. Little need be said of the simultane-

be performed on the beat or in anticipation ous double appoggiatura save that each of

t 43]
itscomponents is performed as though the popular with the Rococo composers, be-
other were not present, as in Ex. i (Bach, tween 1750 and 1780. Its performance is
French Suite in Eb, Sarabande). shown in Ex. 5 (by C. P. E. Bach). An-
The conjunct double appoggiatura,
II. other special form of slide, peculiar to
or was a common *agrement in the
slide, keyboard music, is that in which the first
note is held throughout. Introduced by
lyth and i8th centuries. The 17th-century
the French clavecinistes, who called it
English lutenists and viol players referred
to the ascending slide as an elevation or coule sur une tierce, this agrement is indi-
whole fall and called the descending slide cated and performed as shown in Ex. 6. It
a double bacltfalL The signs and execu- was adopted by Purcell and other English
tion of these ornaments are illustrated in composers, who used the same notation
but called it a slur. In Romantic and mod-
Examples 2 and 3. Their German equiva-
lent is the Schleifer, which is indicated, in ern music this execution of the slide is in-
dicated with a tie, as in Ex. 7 (Schubert,
Moments musicaux op. 94, no. 3). The
performance of the slide, in general, has
changed very little since the i8th century;
it is still begun on the beat, as in Ex. 8

(Beethoven, Bagatellen op. 119, no. 5).

III. The disjunct double appoggiatura

was written in ordinary notes until the last

half of the i8th century, when C. P. E.
Bach gave it the name Anschlag and in-
troduced the two tiny grace notes which
have since been used to represent it [Ex.
9] The first of the two notes which make

up the Anschlag may be at any distance

from the main note, but the second is only
one degree removed from it. The orna-
ment should always begin on the beat, as
in Ex. 10 (Chopin, Rondo op. 16) and Ex.
ii (Chopin, Polonaise op. 44). P. A.

Appreciation of music. This term

has come to be accepted as a name for a
type of musical training designed to de-
velop in the seriously interested amateur
an ability to listen intelligently to the mu-
sic which he is likely to encounter in con-
cert performances and in broadcast repro-
ductions and thus to enhance the pleasure
and satisfaction he may derive from listen-
ing to music. This type of musical educa-
tion, which is very common in the United
States and in Britain (but practically un-
known in Germany), has frequently been
criticized as leading to superficiality and
presumption, without providing that thor-
the music of the Baroque period, either by ough training which the professional con-
a custos (^direct) or two grace notes [Ex. siders indispensable. Such criticism is not

4] It should always be played on the beat.

. however, except in special cases
The punctierter Schleifer, or dotted of incapacityand abuse which, one must
slide, is a complicated
ornament very admit, have not been rare. As a principle,

the idea of providing a special type of sic, the 'ud (a short lute), and the *tanbur
training for the average music lover is (a long lute; see below). Prior to Al-
sound and more deserving of constructive Farabi's time, the strings of the tanbur
cooperation than of adverse criticism on were divided into forty equal parts the
the part of professional musicians. first five of which were indicated
by frets
Lit.: M. Bernstein, An Introduction to and used in playing. The result of this
Music (1937); M. D. Calvocoressi, Musi- procedure a small series of (unequal)

cal Taste and How to Form It (1925); A. quarter-tones. Al-Farabi, influenced by

Copland, What to Listen for in Music ancient Greek theory, introduced a new
( 1938) E. Dickinson, The Spirit of Music
; scale based on the interval of the fourth.

(1925); D. S. Moore, Listening to Music The 'ud as well as the tanbur were tuned
(1932); D. Welch, The Appreciation of in fourths (e.g., a-d'-g'-c") and were pro-
Music (1927); A. H. Fox-Strangways, in vided with frets which gave a number of
ML viii, 395. middle tones between the open string and
its upper fourth's. Al-Farabi himself in-
Appuy [F.]. French iSth-century term
terpolated three such tones, namely, two
for a note having the quality of an *appog-
successive (Pythagorean) whole-tones
giatura. Usually refers to the appoggiatura
which constitutes the first note of the ( % = 204 *cents)
above the fundamental

tremblement or cadence [see *Trill]. (open string) and one whole-tone below
the fourth. Thus the tetrachord c-f in-
P. A.
cluded five tones which are almost identi-
Appuye [F.]. See *Appoggiando. cal with the tones c-d-eb-e-f of the modern
scale (0-204-294-408498, instead of
Apres-midi d'un faune, L' (The
0-200-300-400-500 cents). Later on, the
Afternoon of a Faun). See ^Symphonic second whole-tone below the fourth was
poem IV.
added, a tone which is very near to the
Apsidenchore [G., from L. apsis, apse] .
modern db (294-204 = 90 cents; see *Lim-
Same as *cori spezzati. ma). The addition of a similar tetrachord
f-bb and of an extra tone b above it re-
Apt, Codex. See ^Sources, no. 19. sulted in a scale of twelve tones which dif-
fers very little from the modern well-
Arabesque [F., properly an ornamenta-
tion in Arabic architecture]. A fanciful tempered scale, except for the slightly low
used by R. Schumann and others for
db and gb. In the i3th century this scale

*characteristic pieces of a more or less

was extended by the addition of five tones,
each a quarter-tone (24 cents) below each
casual type. The term is also used in the
diatonic whole-tone, i.e., below d,e,g,a,c',
sense of figuration, ornamentation of a
so that a i7-tone scale resulted. This scale
Arabian music. The music of the Is-
lamic nations and tribes in Arabia, North
90 90 2*9090 a* 90 90 90 o/i- 90 90 14 90 90 WZ*-
Africa, and Persia.
Arabian i7-tone Scale
I. History. As is the case with all the

Oriental nations, our knowledge of the has been wrongly interpreted by Villoteau
history of Arabian music is restricted (c. 1820) and by Kiesewetter [Die MusiJ^

largely to the theoretical field. consid- A der Araber (1842)] as a scale of equal
erable number of early treatises exist, e.g., third-tones. Besides this division of the
Al-Kindi (9th century); Al-Farabi (c. tetrachord, many others were in use, e.g.,

900-950); Avicenna (nth century); Safi- one named after the Bagdad lutenist Zal-
ud Din 3th century) ; Abd-el Kadr zal (8th century) which used the tones
( 1 ( I5th
century). The most important informa- 0-168-355-408-498 cents.
tion to be gained from these manuscripts A special
point of Arabic theory which
concerns the scale, as given by the frets of has attracted much attention is that of
the two main instruments of Arabian mu- consonance and dissonance. It has been

claimed that, as early as the loth century % of a whole-tone [cf. Zalzal's tuning]

(Al-Farabi), the Arabs considered the as against %, i %, and of a whole-tone %

third a consonance while in Western Eu- in our system.

rope it was not recognized as such until An

important concept of Arabian mu-
about 1300. The fact is that Arabian the- sic is maqam. These were formerly

ory does not make any distinction between (Kiesewettcr) considered the Oriental
consonance and dissonance, but knows counterpart of the Western *church
only decreasing degrees of consonance, modes. Actually, a maqam is character-
namely those which are expressed by the ized not only by features such as center
following scries of fractions: %,%,%,%, tone and range, but especially by the pref-
%>%>% Here the major and minor third erence of characteristic progressions, me-
(%,%) range after the octave, the fifth, lodic formulae, rhythmic patterns, orna-
and the fourth, but are followed in turn mentations, etc. A
maqam, therefore, is
by the intervals, %
(fifth below the sev- a *melody-type, and a composition in a
enth harmonic) and 8/7 (inversion of the given maqam is written not only "in a
seventh harmonic), neither of which exists given key," but also "in a given style or
in Western theory, so that they must cer- tradition." Some of these maqam go back

tainly be regarded as strong dissonances to local traditions and may be compared

[see *Messel], to what we would call, for example, a

Muchattention has also been given to I'hongroise. Others were originally melo-
the question of the influence of Arabian dies of famous composers which were
music, as practiced on the Spanish penin- imitated by other composers. For the
sula,on Western music (troubadours). Arabian musician such a maqam estab-
The sweeping claims which have been lishes a tradition similar to what we ex-
made by various scholars (particularly by press by the term
H. G. Farmer) have been greatly reduced Even today each piece of Arabian music
by more recent investigations [see Lit., is written in one of the maqam [see the

Ursprung], It would appear that Euro- ragas of *Hindu music]. However, the
pean music is indebted to the Arabs in the relationship of a composition to its maqam
field ofinstruments (lute, drum), of the- is difficult for the non-Oriental listener to

oretical acoustics(measuring of consonant discover. In many cases it

appears to exist
lengths of a string a study which, how- chiefly in the instrumental prelude which
ever, in turn goes back to the ancient usually opens an Arabian composition.
Greeks), and of certain poetic forms [see Evidently, by referring to the maqam in
*Zajal], but not for such phenomena as the prelude, the musician pays tribute to
troubadour music, modal rhythm, or- tradition and subsequently feels free to

ganum, etc. play as he pleases".

goes without
Present-Day Status. It The more elaborate examples of Ara-

saying that the above-described scales with bian music (chiefly instrumental) consist
twelve or more tones represent what the of a prelude in free rhapsodic style which
chromatic scale represents in, say, the serves to establish the maqam in the mind
classical period of our music, the the-

i.e., Voice
oretical tonal material from which selec-
tionswere made for the purpose of prac-
performance. In musical practice, Drum.-
j J J J J>

Arabian music uses a seven-tone scale

which includes four fixed tones, c,f,g,c',
and two more or less variable tones within bawm A
- .
Arabian Music
each fourth. Especially frequent is the
tctrachord c-db-e-f; however, the interval of the listener and which is followed by a
db-e of this progression is smaller than it series of pieces in strict
rhythm but of
is in our scale, the intervals of the tetra- freer invention in the same maqam. Thus
chord being approximately %, i%, and the form is strongly reminiscent of that of

a suite, with all the dances being In the Archet [F.], archetto [It.]. *Bow(of
same key. the violin).
The rhythm of Arabic melodies is sim-
Architectural acoustics. The study
ilar to that of Hindu
music. Typical is an
of the acoustic properties of a room (par-
% meter with the rhythm of the measure
ticularly, of concert halls, radio-studios)
alternating between the "European" ar-
as to ^resonance, reflection, echo, etc. Re-
rangement 2+2+2+2 and the "Orien- cent investigations have raised this field of
tal" arrangement 2+3+3. The drums
study from the former stage of experi-
frequently provide a rhythmical counter- mentation to an important branch of
point [see Ex. on p. 46] . science.
The main instruments of Arabian mu-
Lit.: H. Bagenal, Planning for Good
sic are the short-necked lute with four or
Acoustics (1931); A. H. Davis, The Acou-
five strings, tuned in fourths and called
stics of Buildings (1927); P. R. Heyl,
'ud, from which the European lute de-
Architectural Acoustics (1930); V. O.
rived both its form and its name (al 'ud,
Knudsen, Architectural Acoustics ( 1932) ;
lud, lute), and the long-necked lute called P. E. Sabine, Acoustics and Architecture,
tan bur (originally pan-fur, Sumerian
(1932); F. R. Watson, Acoustics of Build-
"bow-small," Greek *pandura), usually PMA
ings (1930); H. H. Statham, in
with two strings, tuned in minor seconds
[see *Lute The family of the bowed
xxxviii; A. Elson, in vii.MQ
instruments represented by the *rebab
is Archives des Maitres de POrgue.
and the femantche, consisting of a long See *Editions, Historical, I.

stick extending through a coconut [see

* Violin A Archlute, arciliuto [It.]. A lute with
II]. frequently used wind in-
two pegboxes, one for the fingered strings,
strument is the arghool, a double shawm
the other for the bass courses (theorboe,
with two pipes, one for the melody, the
other for bourdon accompaniment. For chitarrone). See *Lute III.
an example cf. HAM,
no. 3. Arcicembalo, arciorgano. A quar-
Lit.: F. S. Daniel, The Music and the ter-tone harpsichord of the i6th century,
Musical Instruments of the Arabs (1915; described by N. Vicentino in his L'antica
bibl.); H. G. Farmer, A History of Ara- musica (1555) and Descrizione dell'arci-
bian Music to the xiiith Century (1929; organo (1561). Each octave had 31 keys
bibl.); Ph. Thornton, The Voice of Atlas which were arranged in 6 manuals and
(1936); D. Salvador, The Music of the which gave all the tones of the diatonic,
Arabs (1915); R. von Erlanger, La Mu- chromatic, and enharmonic genera of an-
sique arabe (1930); LavE i-5, 2676; A. cient Greek theory. A simplified instru-
Berner, Studien zur Arabischen Musi\ . . . ment of greater practical importance was
(1937); E. A. Beichert, Die Wissenschaft built by the Belgian Charles Luython
der Musil^ bei Al Farabi (Diss. Berlin (1556-1620); it had 18 keys in each oc-
1936); Hefny, Ibn Sina's Musi\lehre namely
tave, in addition to the diatonic

(Diss. Berlin 1931); English translation tones c# and db, d# and eb, ftf and gb,
of Al Farabi (Farmer); D. Stoll, "Music g# and ab, bb, e#, and bJ. This instru-
in Mediaeval Bagdad" (MR i); A. Z. Idel- ment, called Universal-clavicymbel (M.
sohn, "Die Maqamen der arabischen Mu- Praetorius, in his Syntagma musicum,
sik" (SIM xv); R. Lachmann, in Wolf 1624, praises it as "instrumentum perfec-
Festschrift (1929) and inAMW v; H. G. tum si non pcrfectissimum"), permitted
Farmer, in PMA O. Urspning, in
lii; enharmonic change and modulation in all
ZMW xvi; B. Bartok, in ZMW
ii; J. Roua- the keys, without the compromise of equal
net, in RM v, viii; R. P. Thibault, in temperament. Compositions such as John
BSIMvii (1911). Bull's Fantasia on the Hexachord (Fitz-
william Virginal Boo^ 1, 183) [sec Hexa-
Arcata [It.]. See *Bowing (a); arcato, chord IV] are evidently written for this
bowed. instrument.

Lit.: A. Koczirz, in SIM ix; Shohe* positions. The works dating from this
Tanaka, in VMW
vi; W. Dupont, G<?- period were published by his family at
schlchte der musi{alischen Temperatur Paris in two volumes (1869, '83), com-
prising chamber music, piano pieces, and
Arco [It.]. Bow (of violins, etc.). See Esnaola, a native of Buenos Aires, stud-
Coll' arco. ied at the conservatories of Paris and Ma-
drid and became an accomplished pianist.
Arditamente [It.]. Boldly.
Upon returning to Buenos Aires in 1822
A re, Are. See *Hexachord III.
he founded there the Academia de Musica.
He composed orchestral works, church

Argentina. The beginnings of musical music, songs, and piano pieces, mostly
life in Argentina, as in other parts of unpublished. Alberti, born in Tucuman,
Latin America, are associated with the had a distinguished career as a man of
efforts of the early missionaries to teach lettersand composed music simply as a
the arts and crafts of Europe to the native pastime. Most of his compositions have
population. In the La Plata region, espe- been lost, but some were published in a
cially, important missions were estab- periodical called La Moda, founded by
lished, with music playing a prominent Alberdi himself (1837-38). His works
role in their organization. The most are mostly for piano, and in 1 832 he pub-
gifted and zealous of these missionaries lished a piano method for amateurs.
as regards the teaching of music was the The dean of contemporary Argentine
JesuitFather Luis Berger (1588-1641), composers is Alberto Williams (b. Buenos
under whose guidance the Indians be- Aires, 1862), grandson of Amancio Al-
came adept at playing many kinds of corta, of English descent on his father's
European musical instruments. His ac- Buenos Aires
side. After initial studies in
tivities extended throughout the prov- he attended the Paris Conservatory, study-
inces, and even into Chile. ing piano and composition. In 1893 he
It is not until the period of Independ- founded the Conservatory of Buenos
ence that we find other names which need Aires, which now has many branches
claim our attention. First of all may be throughout the country, and of which he
mentioned the composer of the Argentine was still director in 1940. A prolific com-
National Hymn (1813), Bias Parera, a poser, he has written nine symphonies and
rather obscure teacher of piano and violin, several symphonic poems, concert over-
of whose life little is known. In 1817 he tures and
suites for orchestra, many piano
was in Spain, where he died. His Hymn, pieces,songs (to his own texts), choral
officially adopted by government decree, works, chamber music, and technical trea-
has firmly entrenched itself in the affec- tises. Although his technique is entirely

tion of the Argentine people. The out- European and academic, he has essayed
standing composers of the ipth century a national style in his Argentine Suites for
were amateurs who cultivated music in strings, his Aires de la Pampa for piano,
the midst of various kinds of public activ- etc.

ity. They were Amancio Alcorta (1805- The contemporary Argentine school is

62), Juan Pedro Esnaola (180878), and vigorous and varied. Juan Jose Castro (b.
Juan Bautista Alberdi (1810-84). All 1895), pupil of d'Indy at the Schola Can-
three were of Basque descent. Their mu- torum in Paris, is active as conductor and
sic shows scarcely any local influence, be- as composer (Sinfonia Argentina, Sin jo-
ing largely dominated by Italian tenden- nia Biblica, etc.). In 1941 he appeared as
cies. All the works composed by Alcorta guest conductor of the NBC Orchestra in
from 1822 to 1830 his most prolific New York. His brother, Jose* Maria Cas-
period have been lost. From 1832 he tro (b. 1892), is a member of the "Grupo
lived in Buenos Aires and continued to Renovacion," which includes also Hono-
compose while holding various official rio Siccardi (b. 1897), Luis Gianneo (b.

1897), and Jacobo Ficher (b. Odessa, Arghool, arghul. See *Arabian
1896). The radicalJuan Carlos Paz (b. music II.

1897) is an exponent of the twelve-tone

system. Among the younger composers Aria. L An elaborate solo song (occa-
are Carlos SufTern, Isabel Aretz-Thiele, two
sionally for solo voices; see *Duet)
Roberto Garcia Morillo, Julio Perceval, with instrumental accompaniment. The
and Alberto Ginastera (who is
exception- aria figures prominently in the cantatas
ally talented). and oratorios of the I7th and i8th cen-
In Latin American countries native turies and in opera of all periods except
opera is rather rare, but the Argentine the Wagnerian type. It is distinguished
composers have been very active in this from the air, song, or Lied by (a) gener-
field. Their activity has no doubt been form
ally greater length; (b) non-strophic
stimulated by the presence of the famous (*through-com posed); and (c) an accent
Teatro Colon in Buenos Aires, where both on purely musical design and expression,
native and foreign operas are produced often at the expense of the text. In fact
under excellent conditions. Prominent as the small regard which many aria com-
opera composers are Pascual de Rogatis posers have shown for the text has evoked
(La Novia del Hereje), Raul Espoile (La serious criticism of theform and, in some
Ciudad Roja), Enrique Casella (La Ta- instances, has led writers of operas to

pera), and especially Felipe Boero, who banish the aria from the stage; Gluck, for
scored a marked success with his folk instance, replaced it by the simpler Lied,
opera El Matrero, dealing with life on the and Wagner substituted his dramatic
Argentine pampas. On the whole, Italian recitative. By and
large such criticism
influence predominates in Argentine op- cannot be justified. Although at certain
era. periods (especially c. 1750 with Piccinni
Other contemporary composers are and c. 1850 with Meyerbeer) the aria style
Juan A. Garcia Estrada (b. 1895), Gilardo has been characterized by conventional-
Gilardi (b. 1889), Athos Palma (b. 1891), ism and exaggeration, the great majority
Arturo Luzzati (b. Turin, 1875), and of arias represent a treasure of great musi-
Carlos Lopez Buchardo. Musicians who cal value. Moreover, in opera the aria has
have devoted themselves primarily to col- a definite and important function, in rep-
lecting, arranging, and performing folk resenting lyric episodes which temporar-
music are Andres Beltrame, Andres Cha- ily relieve the dramatic tension of the
zarreta, Vicente Forte, and Carlos Vega. action.
The composer and pedagogue Josue T. II. The term aria occurs first as a title
Wilkes has also done interesting work in of wordless canzones ("Arie di canzon
this field, notably with his arrangement francese") in the second book of madri-
of Doce Canciones Coloniales. gals by Ingegneri (1579). Its first use to
folk songs and dances of Argen- indicate a monodic song occurs in Cac-
tina are largely of Spanish (or at least cini's Nuove Musiche (1602). Here, how-
European) origin, with only a slight In- ever, contrary to its later meaning, it is
dian influence in certain songs such as the used to denote shorter, strophic songs
vidala (or vidalita) and the *tri$te, which, [cf. HAM, no. 183; SchGMB, no. 191],
as its name implies, is a rather sad love while the longer, through-composed
song. See also *Milonga; *Tango. pieces which are more allied to the later
Alvarez, Origenes de la mtisica
Lit.: J. aria are still called madrigals. The Cac-

argentina (1908); A. Schianca, Historia cini sense of the word aria was adopted
de la musica argentina (1933); C. Vega, by German composers such as Johann
Danzas y canciones argentinas (1933); Staden (1581-1634; cf. DTB j.i and 8.i);
A. Williams, -\Antologia de compositores Heinrich Albert (1604-51; cf. DdT
argentinos. Cuaderno I: Los precursores 12/13; HAM, no. 205; SchGMB, no.
(1941); C. Vega, La mtisica popular ar- 193), Adam Krieger (1634-66; cf. DdT
gentina (1941)- G. C. 19; HAM, no. 228; SchGMB, no. 209),

and Job.
Philipp Kricger (1649-1725; to the ternary scheme ABA.
Early ex-
cf. DdT 53/54). Those of Adam Krieger amples of this form occur in Monteverdi's
[sec *Ritornell (2)] especially are impor- Orfeo and Poppea [cf. RiHM ii.2, 197,
tant forerunners of the German strophic 205, 238]. The form is more fully devel-
Lied of the i8th and ipth centuries [cf. oped with Luigi Rossi (1598-1653; cf.

RiHM ii.2, 33 iff]. RiHM ii.2, 374), Giacomo Carissimi

III. The early development of the aria (1605-74), Francesco Gavalli (1602-76),
proper took place in Italy during the iyth Marcantonio Cesti (1623-69), and others
century. The first stage of this develop- [cf. the operas of Cavalli and Cesti; also

Scheme of the Da-capo Aria
T = tonic; D = dominant; R = relative key

ment (c. 1600-50) characterized by the

is Lit., Landshoff, Riemann]. It attained
emergence of various formal schemes, in- great artistic perfection in the hands of
cluding (a) an amorphous, continuous such men as A. Scarlatti, J. S. Bach, and
type of *monodic melody, midway be- Handel. A
special feature, introduced by
tween recitative and song, sometimes Scarlatti and largely adopted by Bach,
called *arioso; (b) a canzona-like type, was the opening announcement of the
consisting of contrasting sections, alternat- initial theme twice, first by the instru-

ing in tempo, meter, etc.; (c) the basso- ments (a'), then by the voice (a"), before
ostinato aria in which the melody is the main statement in the voice (a). Ger-
formed above a repeated ground. Arias man writers call this announcement De-
of these types occur in: J. Peri, Varic vise (device), hence the name *Devisen-
musichc (1609); Alessandro Grandi, arie (Riemann). Each of the three sec-
Cantade et arie a voce sola (1620; cf. tions employs a three-part modulating
RiHM ii.2, 38); Steffano Landi, Arie a scheme, B usually in the relative key (R).
una voce (1620; cf. RiHM ii.2, 50); Bene- The B is generally different
material of
detto Ferrari, Musiche vane (1633-41; from that of A, but not of a highly con-
cf. RiHM ii.2, 55). While in the ostinato- trasting character.
aria of Peri, Grande, and Landi the re- V. During the i8th century the da-capo
peated bass is a well-rounded musical aria became the vehicle of great virtuoso
sentence of considerable length, so that display and of a conventionalism which
the resulting form might well be consid- led to a codification and classification in
ered a strophic aria with a varied melody various types prescribed by typical oper-
[see *Strophic bass], Ferrari was one of atic situations, such as aria cantabile, di
the first to use short, characteristic mo- bravura, parlante, di carattere (air de cha-
tivesof the ostinato-type proper. This ractere), di mezzo caraltere> etc. [cf. GD
form, actually a "vocal passacaglia" [see i, 1 10 ] . The desire on the part of the great
*Chaconne and passacaglia], was fre- singers to show their ability in various

quently used by Italian, English, and musical styles led, about 1750, to a form
French composers of the second half of consisting of two separate arias of con-
the 1
7th century (Carissimi, Purcell, trasting character, usually the first dra-
Couperin; cf. the Crucifixus of Bach's matic, the second lyrical. Most of the op-
B minor Mass). eratic arias by Mozart are of this type,
IV. The second stage (c. 1650-1750) e.g., the famous "Register"-aria of Lepo-
is characterized
by the establishment of rello in Don Giovanni (ist Act). In the
the da-capo aria as the typical form. In operas of the later Neapolitan School
this form the first section (A) is repeated (Leo, Porpora, Vinci, Jommelli) the use
in toto after the second (B), thus leading of the aria was so extended that the whole


opera consisted of nothing but arias. This (Arloao)

abuse was the main point of attack of
Gluck's reform.
The aria remained in the favor of oper- &e reu. e dei ne. $d)uU mit Seiners
dap G)ri ill
aticcomposers throughout the first half
of the i pth century (Beethoven, Auber,
Rossini). While Wagner discarded it
more or less completely in his first operas
(Rienzi, 1840; Der fliegende Hollander,
1841), Verdi continued to use it except in
his last two operas (Otello, 1886; Falstaff,

Lit.: B. Flogel, Die Anentechni\ in den

Opern Handels (Diss. Halle 1929); H. ^ mtb dlr

sty ^st ver-bin- ^ - -

Riemann, ^Kantatenjriihling, 4 vols.; L.

Landshoff, 'fAlte Meister des Belcanto, 5 I
vols.; J. Godefroy, "Some Aspects of the
Aria" (ML xvii); H. Goldschmidt, in
MfM xxxiii. See also under *Opera;
Arioso from Ein jeste Burg
Arietta [It.], ariette [F.]. (i) A
small aria, usually in binary form and Arithmetic division. In 16th-century
lacking the musical elaboration of the musical theory, the division of a string
*aria; thus rather, a song or a *cavatina. into sections of equal length, e.g., those
(2) In French operas before 1750, an indicated by the fractions %,%,%,%,
aria to Italian words, usually in brilliant %,% as opposed to the harmonic (or
coloratura style. (3) In the ope*ra- geometric) division in which the denomi-
comique of the second half of the i8th nator changes: %, 1/5,%,%, 1/2>i- The
century, a solo song (aria) in French, pre- theoretical interest of these two divisions
ceded and followed by spoken dialogue, (if applied to the string of a monochord)
the work being known as a "comedie lies in the fact that, while the latter leads
melee d'ariettes." to the harmonics and, in particular, to the
Lit.: P. M. Mason, L' Of era de Rameau major triad, the former gives the tones of
(1930); G. Cucuel, Les Createurs de a minor triad:
opera-comique jrangais ( 1914) D. J. G. .

Arioso [It., like an aria], A style which

is midway between that of an aria and a

recitativo. A good example showing the

difference between these three styles is a
cantata by Cesti (c. 1650), reproduced in
AdHMy 439ff. Bach uses the arioso re-
The right end of the string, A, is fixed, the other
peatedly for the concluding section of a isaltered by means of a fret.
recitative when he wishes to bestow upon
ita particular expression of assurance or These two divisions form the basis of
confidence [see*Cavata]. Two examples, Zarlino's "dual theory [see *Dualism]
in the style of the *recitativo accompa- in which minor mode is called divisio
gnato, occur in the cantata Ein feste Burg arithmetical major, divisio harmonica [1s-
illustrated.Beethoven, in the final move- tituzioni harmoniche (1558)].
ment of his Piano Sonata op. no, uses the
term for an accompanied recitative played Arlesienne, L'. Incidental music by
on the pianoforte. Georges Bizet (1838-75) to Alphonse

Daudet's play L'ArUsiennc ("The ence (i5th century). The purest source
Woman of Aries"). It is usually played of Armenian church music is undoubt-
in the form of two orchestral suites [see edly the music in use at Edjmiadzin,
*Suite V], arranged by Bizet in 1872. which is also used at Tiflis and Eriwan.
The by European and
collections issued
Armenian music. Since Armenia was American communities differ widely from
the first country officially to adopt the the traditional forms, chiefly owing to the
Christian faith ( A.D. 303), the history of use of cheap modern harmonizations.
Armenian sacred literature and music has Lit.: P. Bianchini, Les Chants litur-
attracted much attention. The Armenian giques de I'tglise armtnienne (1877);
liturgy, like that of
Byzantium, consists M. Ekmalian, Les Chants de la sainte li-

chiefly of hymns. The most ancient of turgie (1896);A. Abgar, Melodies of the
these hymns were in prose. Later versi- Holy Apostolic Church of Armenia (Cal-
fied hymns became prominent, especially cutta, 1897); Nerses Ter-Mikaelian, Das
through the activity of the great poet armenische Hymnarium (1905); P. Au-
Nerses Schnorhali (nth century). The bry, Le Rhythme tonique ( 1903); A. Gas-
official book of hymns, called sharafon, toue, in LavE i.i, 541; P. Aubry, in TG
contains 1166 songs. The earliest pre- vii, viii, ix; E. Wellesz, in AdHM i, 139
served liturgical manuscripts containing and in fPM xxvii; K. Keworkian, in SIM
musical signs date from the i4th century. i; A. Gastoue, in RdM, no. 31; GD, Suppl.
The notation is a highly developed system Vol., 176.
of neumes (Armenian neumes) which Secular music: K. Keworkian, Musique
certainly was the result of a long evolution populaire armtniennc
(1931); R. P.
[examples in LavE i.i, 552; Thibaut, Komitas, Musique populaire armenlenne
Notation neumatique de I'eglise latinc (1925 and later); F. Macler, La Musique
(1907), plate 4], but the lack of treatises
en Armtnie (1917); F. H. Paelian, The
explaining this notation renders the Ar- Music of Armenia (1939; bibl.); R. Pesce,
menian neumes undecipherable. In the La Musica armena (1935); S. Poladian,
early I9th century a new system of musi-
Armenian Folt( Songs (1942).
cal notation, similar to that of the present-
Armonioso Harmoniously.
day Greek church music, was introduced

and is still in use. Whether

the present-
Armure [F.]. Key-signature.
day melodies are identical with or similar
to those of the early books cannot be ascer-
Arpa [It.]. Harp. See also under *Psal-
tained, but the fact that the modern chants
are grouped according to an *oktoechos
based on melodic formulae suggests an Arpeggio [It., from arpeggiare, to play
ancient origin of the melodies. The con- upon a harp; F. arpegement or harptge-
tinuity of tradition is more doubtful so ment\ E. battery; G. Brechung]. term A
far as the rhythmic interpretation of Ar- applied to the notes of a chord when they
menian chant is concerned. The melo- are played one after another instead of
dies of the present liturgy are based upon simultaneously. In modern music the
strict time, with the temporal unit (^&, arpeggio is indicated by one of the signs
i.e., beat) divided into an elaborate sys- given in Ex. i. Its execution always starts
tem of rhythmic formations of smaller with the lowest note, and as a rule it
values, including 32d and 64th notes. should begin at the moment when the
Whereas scholars such as R. P. Dechev- chord is due (i.e., on the beat) whether
rens and J. C. Jeannin have considered indicated by sign or by tiny notes [Ex. 2,
this rhythm of great antiquity and have Mozart, Sonata E major; Ex. 3, Chopin,
used it as an argument in favor of strictly Nocturne op. 62, no. i ] . There are cases,

rhythmical interpretation of Gregorian however, in which the melody carried by

chant, P. Aubry considers it as a fairly the top note of the arpeggio will not bear
recent innovation due to Turkish influ- the delay caused by this execution, so that

the last note of the arpeggio must then be of arpegements figures, or
arpeggios in
made to coincide with the beat [Ex. 4, which unwritten notes are introduced
Mendelssohn]. The latter performance is [see Ex. 10, n
and 12]. It will be ob-
served that in performance of these arpe-
gements figures all the notes are held ex-
cept those that are foreign to the chord,

which are immediately released [see *ac-

ciaccatura]. An appoggiatura to an ar-
generally to be recommended, in piano- peggio chord is incorporated in the arpeg-
forte music, whenever the arpeggio occurs gio, occasioning a delay of the particular
in the left hand alone, as in Ex. 5 (Chopin, note to which it belongs, as in Ex. 13. A
Mazurka op. 7, no. 3). A distinction combination of arpegements figures and
should be made between an arpeggio an appoggiatura is shown in Ex. 14, from
Bach's Partita in E minor.
played simultaneously with both hands
[Ex. 6] and a long arpeggio in which the In music of the time of Bach and
right hand succeeds the left [Ex. 7], The
Handel the word "arpeggio" is sometimes

latter is (or should be) indicated by a long found written at the beginning of a se-
arpeggio sign, joining the two staves. For quence of chords. The player, in this
the violin arpeggio, see *Bowing (i). case, is at liberty to break the chords up
In the music of the i7th and i8th cen- and down several times, to extend them,
turies the execution of the arpeggio varied and to interpolate foreign notes as he sees
considerably (often at the discretion of
Handel's own notation of the last
fit [cf.

the individual performer) in respect to four bars of the Prelude to his keyboard
direction and number of notes. The Suite in D
minor]. The note-values, and
French clavecinistes used the signs shown even the tempo of such passages, are en-
in Ex. 8 to indicate the arpegement en tirely at the player's discretion. These
montant (ascending arpeggio) and those chords (e.g., those
in Bach*s Chromatic

in Ex. 9 for the arpegement en descendant Fantasia) are written in measured time
(descending arpeggio). Other special only to facilitate reading, the style of per-
signs were used to indicate various kinds
formance being derived from the unmcas-

ured preludes of the lutenists and early by Vivaldi and others for the harpsichord
French clavecinistes (Louis Couperin, and the organ, or of the fugue from his
d' Anglcbcrt, etc.; see 'Prelude II) P. A. . solo-violin sonata in G
minor (no. i) for
the organ (D minor; B.-G. xv, 148);
also called guitar violon-
Arpeggione, Haydn's Die Sieben Worte am Kreuz
cello,guitarre d'amour. A
stringed in- which appeared as an orchestral composi-
strument of the size of a violoncello, but tion, as a string quartet, and as choral
with a guitar-like body, and with six music [cf. A. Sandberger, in JMP x];
strings tuned in E, A, d, g, b, e', invented Liszt's concert arrangements of Schubert's
in 1823 by G. Staufer. It is played with a
songs and of scenes from Wagnerian
bow. Franz Schubert wrote the only ex- Brahms's arrangement for two
isting composition for a sonata for the on
pianofortes of his orchestral variations

arpeggione and piano (1824; see the col- a theme by Haydn (op. 56), etc.
lected edition [B. and H.], Series viii). In the last score of years there has been
an extraordinary activity in transcribing
Arpicordo. Italian 16th-century name Bach's organ works for the piano and the
for a harpsichord which differed in some
orchestra. Although this must be wel-
unknown detail from the clavicembalo
comed as a token of the ever growing in-
[see *Harpsichord II]. Cf. the title of a
terest in the work of the great master, yet
publication from 1551: Intabulatura nova
di vane sorte di balli da sonare per Arpi-
the development has taken on forms
which have recently led to a sharp reaction
chordiy Clavicembali, Spine tte e Mona-
against the "business of arrangement."
chordi; also G. Picchi, Intabolatura di This opposition, however, is justifiable
balli d'arpicordo (1620) [see *Editions
only with regard to certain methods of
III, 2]. Cf. the article in SaRM. Several transcribers (e.g.,
Arrache [F.]. Forceful pizzicato. Respighi), instigated by the display of
modern orchestration or pianoforte-tech-
Arrangement. The adaptation of a nique, have tried and certainly with
composition for instruments other than success to bestow upon Bach's organ
those for which it was originally written piecesan impressionistic lushness or a Ro-
(thus, in a way, the musical counterpart mantic emotionalism which is inconsistent
of a literary translation). One may distin- with the intrinsic clarity of his style.
guish between arrangements which are Lt.: K. Grunsky, Die
made chiefly for study purposes and others Klavierauszugs (1911); E. Friedlander,
which are for public performance. In the Wagner-Liszt und die Kunst der Klavier-
former class we find all the customary bearbeitung (1922); E. Howard- Jones in
piano arrangements of operas, sympho- ML xvi, no. 4.
nies, quartets, etc. Here, strict adherence
Arrescu [Sp.]. See *Aurrescu.
to the original text is rightly considered
the foremost duty of the editor, who is Ars antiqua [L., the ancient art].
permitted only to detract from, not to add I. The term Ars antiqua (Ars veterum)
to, the original. In the second category, was used by writers of the early I4th cen-
which involves the creative participation tury (e.g., Speculum Musicae, c. 1325; cf.
of the arranger, various procedures have CS ii, 429) to distinguish the late 13th-
been followed at different periods, rang- century school (Franco, c. 1260; Petrus
ing from simple transcriptions in which de Cruce, c. 1290) from that of their own
the musical substance remains the same day which was called *Ars nova (or Ars
but is transferred to a new medium, to the modernorum). Today, both terms are
complete reworking of a piece with addi- usuallyemployed in a wider sense, denot-
tions and modifications. Noteworthy ex- ing music of the i3th and I4th centuries
amples of this category are: the *lntabu- respectively. The Ars antiqua, then, in-
lierung of the i5th and i6th centuries; cludes the School of Notre Dame with its
Bach's arrangements of violin-concertos two masters, Leoninus (second half of the

i2th century) and Perotinus (c. 1160- repertory of the School of Notre Dame
1220), and the ensuing period, which, for also includes a large number of *con-
want of other names, may be divided into ductus, i.e., Latin songs in one to four
the school of Franco (middle i3th cen- parts, mostly to devotional texts, but with-
tury) and that of Petrus de Cruce (late out plainsong cantus firmus, such as oc-
1 3th
century). The School of Notre curs with all the
organa, clausulae, and
Dame was preceded by the School of *St. motets.
Martial (c. 1100-50). The 13th-century technique of com-

Leoninus, called "optimus organista" position may be described as "successive

by the English Anon. IV [CS i, 342] counterpoint." The composer starts out
(i.e., greatest composer of *organa, not with one complete voice, the tenor, which
as some modern writers believe "very is either a pre-existent plainsong melody
able organist"), was the creator of the (this is the case with organa, clausulae,
Magnus liber organi de gradali et de an- and practically all motets) or written by
tiphonario (great book of organa for the the composer himself (this is the case
Mass and for the Office), which represents with conductus). To this fundamental
a complete cycle of two-part organa (or- part the others are added successively, first
gana dupla) for the ecclesiastical year, the duplum (called motetus in a motet),
about 90 in all [see *Magnus liber]. then the triplum. Regarding the prin-
Perotinus, "optimus discantor"
(i.e., ciples of consonance and dissonance, see
greatest composer of *discantus), partly *Harmony.
rewrote this repertory in a more "crystal- The most important contribution of the
lized" style which is characterized by the Ars antiqua lies in the field of rhythm.
consistent use of modal meter [see While the organa of the School of St.
Modes, rhythmic] and by the increase of Martial employ for their upper part me-
the number of parts from two to three lismas in free, unmeasured rhythm, the
and, occasionally, four (organum triplum period around 1150 marks the establish-
and organum quadruplum; cf. AdHM i, ment of strict rhythm, based on the rhyth-
226, 228-232). He and his collaborators mic modes [see *Rhythm III (b) (c)].
also added a large number of short com- This new rhythm presents itself clearly in
positions, mostly in two parts, the so- the clausula-sections of Leonin's organa,
called *clausulae, which were designed to while the organal sections are written in
be used as substitutes for corresponding a transitional style the rhythmic interpre-
sections in Leonin's organa. These clausu- tation of which is still a matter of contro-
with the following
lae constitute the link versy [see *Organum], With Perotinus,
period, they were frequently trans-
as modal rhythm (usually corresponding to
formed into *motets. The motet is the our %
-meter) was universally adopted
representative form of the middle and for the entire organa and their derivatives.
second half of the i3th century, during The most important sources of 13th-
which it was cultivated almost to the ex- century music are, aside from those men-
clusion of any other type of music. The tioned under *Magnus liber organi^ the
propensity of the 13th-century musicians codices Montpellier, Bamberg, and Huel-
(practically all anonymous) form
for this gas [see *Sources]. For complete lists cf.
would be difficult to understand were it F. Ludwig, in AMW
v (also ApNPM,
not for the fact that the motet, which orig- 20if, Sections II, III).
inally was a strictly liturgical form (a Related articles: Cantigas; Clausula;
clausula provided with a full text in the Conductus; Discant; Estampie; Hocket;
upper part), soon underwent secular in- Lauda; Minnesinger; Modes, Rhythmic;
fluence, partlyfrom the tradition of the Motet I; Square notation; Sumer is icu-
trouveres,which brought with it fresh im- men in; Theory II; Troubadours; Trou-
pulses and even many heterogeneous ele- vres.
ments (mixture of Latin and French, of Lit.: OH i
(preferably the edition of
liturgical tenors and love lyrics). The 1901; the transcriptions of organa are

based on wrong principles); ReMMA, Ars nova. [L., the new I. Gen-
272-330 (bibl. pp. 445-456); AdHM eral. Generic name music of the
for the
i, 214-265 (bibl. p. 294); BeMMR, 113- 1
4th century, in contradistinction to *Ars
135 (bibl. p. 180); ApNPM, 215-337; antiqua, i.e., music of the i3th century.
-\HAM, nos. 28-42; \SchGMB, nos. 16- Properly, the name should be restricted,
20; H. Gleason, ^Examples of Music be- as it
originally was, to the music of the
fore 1400 (1942), pp. 36-75; R. Picker, first half of the i4th century (represented

^Perotinus, Sederunt prindpes (1930); in France by Philippe de Vitry, in Italy

H. Schmidt, "fDrei Benedicamus Domino by Giovanni da Cascia, Jacopo da Bo-
Organa (1933); R- Picker, "Polyphonic logna). Indeed, compositions of the late
Music of the Gothic Period" (MQ xv). 1
4th century, especially the French, show
See also under *Motet and other related features of intellectual refinement, of
articles. formalism, and even decadence which are
scarcely compatible with the term "New
Arsis and thesis [Gr.]. Arsis means Art." In the early i4th century, however,

"lifting" [G. Hebung], thesis means the Ars nova began as a novel movement

"lowering" Senfang]. In Greek

[G. the chiefchampion of which was Philippe
poetry, these terms were used in a sense de Vitry (c. 1290-1361). About 1325, he
derived from bodily movement, such as introduced the term Ars nova as the title
the lifting and lowering of the foot (as in of a treatise which, unfortunately, deals

dancing) or of the hand (as in conduct- primarily with the notational rather than
ing). Consequently, arsis meant weak ac- the musical innovations of the period
cent or lack of accent or weak beat, while [CS iii, 13; transl. by P. Bohn, in MfM
thesis meant strong accent, strong beat: xx ]. More illuminating from a general
a t a t a t point of view are the discussions in the
i i .. i Speculum musicae, whose author (Jaco-
bus of Liege; see *Theory II) gives ex-
Unfortunately, Roman and medieval
writers reversed the meaning of the terms, tremely interesting information regarding
the stylistic contrast between the Ars an-
by interpreting them as referring to the and the Ars nova, although he
raising and lowering not of the foot, but from a decidedly anti-modern
of the voice. Since with a pair of tones speaks
the higher one is usually accented more point of view [book vii, chapters 43-46:
"Collatio veteris artis ad novam"; cf. CS
than the lower one, the term arsis (high)
ii, 384; 427433]. On the other hand,
was identified with accent, and thesis
Johannes de Muris, who was formerly
(low), with lack of accent:
thought to have written the Speculum
a a a
musicae, actually was another leader of
t t t


the new movement, as was the contempo-

in this sense that the terms are usually
It is
rary Italian writer Marchettus de Padua
applied in French writings on meter and who, in his Pomerium de musica men-
metrical music. The usage also persists in surata (c. 1320), contrasts the Italian and
German terminology, in which Hebung the French notation of the I4th century,
(arsis) means strong beat, Sen\ung (the- and decides in favor of the latter. In the
sis), weak beat [see
*Vierhebigkeit]. field ofmusical composition the I4th cen-
Recent English writers have returned to tury saw continued activity in France and
the original and proper meaning of arsis the rise of a new school of polyphonic
and thesis [see Webster, Collegiate Dic- music in Italy. There also are a limited
tionary]. This usage is observed in the number of English compositions of the
present book. See *Poetic meter. 14th century; their main interest lies in
fugue "per arsin et thesin" is one in their early use of sixth-chord style [cf.
which the answer of the subject is made ReMMA, 399; see *Fauxbourdon ] .

by contrary motion (e.g., Bach, The Art French Ars Nova. From the point

of Fugue, no. 5). of view of the Ars antiqua, the achieve-

ments of the early French Ars nova lie in ence of "points of magnetic attraction"
the direction of secularization, refinement, at which the parts start and converge
expressiveness, and, one might even say, in perfect consonances, mainly octaves,
Romanticism. In striking contrast to the fourths, and fifths, while in between the
Ars antiqua, the music of
rigidity of the lines move with a remarkable
degree of
G. de Machaut (1300-77) shows free con- individuality and independence from
trapuntal texture, supple rhythm, curved harmonic considerations.
lines, and generally bears the stamp of The rhythmic treatment also is remark-
high refinement, delicacy, individuality, ably advanced and "modern," owing par-
and creative imagination. Whereas in his ticularly to the introduction and bold use
motets Machaut continued the tradition of *syncopation which results in frequent
of the past [see *Isorhythmic], he estab- displacements of the beat or, in other
lished a completely new style in his secu- words, in a free change of measures
lar works, the polyphonic *ballades, *ron- (mixture of %, %, %, %, etc.). In
deaux, and *virelais, by abandoning the late i4th century, especially, the
cantus-firmus treatment as well as "suc- rhythmic structure adopts a complexity
cessive counterpoint" [see *Ars antiqua], which is unparalleled in the entire his-
and by creating the musical style known tory of European music [cf. ApNPM,
as "melody with accompaniment." Ma- 4 3 fl].
chaut is practically the only French com- III. Italian Ars Nova. In the tradition
poser of his time known to us, although a of Italian 14th-century music two schools
few motets of Philippe de Vitry survive can be distinguished, the earlier of which
[cf. H. Besseler in AMW
viii, 245!?] The . is represented chiefly by Jacopo da Bo-

ensuing period of French music, that is, logna and Giovanni da Cascia (c. 1300-
the period between Machaut and Dufay, 50), the later by Francesco Landini
is,at present, the least explored period in (132597), Paolo Tenorista, Ghirardello
the entire history of polyphonic music. da Firenze, and others. Musical as well
This is chiefly due to the great difficulties as notational features indicate that Italian
presented by the notation of composi- polyphonic music branched off from the
tions from the end of the i4th century French tradition of the late I3th century,
[cf. the chapter "Mannered Notation" in particularly from the style of Petrus de
ApNPM, 4031!]. Very few compositions Cruce. However, in the half-century from
of this period have as yet been transcribed. 1275 till 1325 it developed special traits
A general judgment on the merits and which led to a style of a decidedly na-
demerits of composers such as Johannes tional character. The forms of the earlier
Cesaris, Baude Cordier, Cunelier, Gri- school are the *madrigal and the *caccia,
mace, Solage, Suzoy, must be postponed while in the later school the *ballata (the
until further studies are available [see French *virelai) prevails. The style of
Lit., Dannemann]. To some extent the the earlier compositions may best be de-
gap between Machaut and Dufay is filled scribed as an "ornamented conductus
in by the recent publication of the Manu- style." The voices, usually two, move
script d'Apt [see ^Sources, no. 19] and simultaneously from measure to measure,
of some pieces in Ch. van den Borren, but the upper part makes ample use of
Polyphonia sacra [^Sources, no. 24], quick figures (frequently in sequential
The harmonic style of the Ars nova patterns) leading from one main note to
shows some advance over that of the Ars the next. With Landini, a good deal of
antiqua, in so far as thirds are admitted the elaborate polyrhythmic style of the
more frequently. More interesting is the French (Machaut) appears in Italian
extremely bold treatment of dissonances, music. He adds to the French polyphonic
which frequently reminds one of the dis- texture an Italian charm of melody which
sonant counterpoint of modern composers makes him the outstanding master of the
(e.g., Hindemith). The polyphonic tex- Trecento and one who foreshadows the
ture stands, as it were, under the influ- transparent beauty of Dunstable and

Dufay. For lists of 14th-century sources cently the Art of Fugue was considered
see under *Sources. chiefly a magnificent manual of advanced
Related articles: Ballata; Ballade; Cac- counterpoint, but during the last two dec-
cia; Estampie; Isorhythmic; Madrigal ades it has become universally recognized
(i); Rondeau (i); Syncopation; Virelai. as one of the greatest creations of musical
Lit.: ReMMA (bibl.); AdHM i, 265-
294 (bibl.); BeMMR, 136-180 (bibl. p.
1 80); ApNPM, 337-435; M. Schneider,
Die Ars Nova in Franfyeich und Italicn

(1930); E. Dannemann, Die Spdtgotische

Musityradition in Franty-eich und Bur-
gund vor dem Auftrefen Dufays (1936);
W. Korte, Studie zur Geschichte der
in Italien (1933); F. Ellin wood,
Worths of Francesco Landini
(1939); F. Ludwig, "\Guillaume de Ma-
chaut, Musi\alische Werfa 3 vols.
(1926-29); G. de Van, *\Les Monuments
de I'ars nova i (1939); \HAM, nos. 43-
55; 1[SchGMB, nos. 22-28; fWoGM

nos. 1362; F. Ludwig, "Die mehrstim-

mige Musik des 14. Jahrhunderts" (SIM Art of Fugue

iv); H.
Besseler, "Studien zur Musik des
Mittelalters" (AMW
vii, viii); J. Wolf, art. The turning point was the first pub-
"Italian Trecento Music" (PMA
Iviii); licperformance, promoted by W. Graeser
L. Ellinwood, "Origins of the Italian Ars
(1906-28), in Leipzig in 1927. This
Nova" (PAMS, 1937). See also under event was the beginning of a sensational
*Ballade, *Caccia, etc. revival which has since spread over the
entire musical world.
Art ballad. See *Ballade [G.].
The inaccuracy of the first printed edi-
tion has given rise to a controversy of
Arte Musicale in Italia, L'. See
*Editions II. nearly one hundred years concerning the
proper order of the contrapuncti, a con-
Articulation. In singing, the clear and troversy in which historical, paleographic,
distinctrendering of the tones, especially
and arguments as well as meta-

in coloraturas without full text. See also physical speculations and mathematical
abstractions have been advanced without
leading to a final answer [see Lit., Haupt-
Art of Fugue, The. Die Kunst der mann, Rust, David, Tovey,
Fuge, the last work of J. S. Bach, written Apel]. A special
problem is presented by
in 1749 and published
posthumously, in the last (unfinished) fugue, which has
a rather careless manner,
by his sons in frequently been considered extraneous to
1752. It contains some 20 fugues and the work, since none of its three
canons, called "contrapuncti," all based (the last of which is *B-A-C-H) is the
on the same theme [Ex. i], in which the
principal subject of the Art of Fugue [cf.
various devices of imitative A. Schweitzer, Bach, I, 424]. H. Notte-
such as inversion, stretto, augmentation, bohm (1817-82), however, showed that
diminution, canon, double fugue, triple this subject can be contrapuntally com-
fugue, etc., are exploited in the most bined with those of the last fugue [Ex. 2;
elaborate and ingenious manner. The cf. W.
Apel, in DM
xxii.4, 274]. This is
number of pieces varies in the different sufficientreason for assuming that the
editions, some of which combine two re- unfinished "triple fugue" was planned
lated pieces under one number. Until rc- as a gigantic
quadruple fugue, a fitting

climax of the whole work. The chorale Apel, in DM xxii-4; H. Husmann, in BJ
Wcnn wir in hochsten Noten sein which xxxv.
was added by the editors "as a recom-
As, asas [G.]. See*Notes.
pense for the incomplete fugue'* does not
belong to the work; yet, if played after Aspiratamente [It.]. Aspiringly.
the abrupt breaking off of the preceding
Aspiration [F.]. See under *Nach-
fugue, it takes on a symbolic significance
which may outweigh historical scruples. schlag.

According to Mizler (1754), Bach Aspramente [It.]. Harshly.

planned to write .still another quadruple Assai [It.]. Very; e.g., allegro assai,
fugue which could be reversed (crab mo-
very quick.
tion) in all its
parts [cf. CD, Suppl. Vol.,
p. 10].
Assez [F.]. Fairly; e.g., assez vite,
Another problem of the Art of Fugue fairly quick.
is that of medium and
performance Assieme [It.]. Together.
the question as to whether it is keyboard,
Assyrian music. See
orchestral, or chamber music. The lack *Babylonian
of instrumental specifications in music.
either the autograph or the first edition, Atem [G.]. Breath. Atempause (breath-
together with the use of the scholarly ing pause) is a very short rest used in
name "Contrapunctus" as a designation instrumental performance for the sake of
for the various pieces, characterizes the articulation or phrasing. It is sometimes
Art of Fugue as a work which is not de- indicated by an apostrophe: '.

pendent upon specified medium or sound, A tempo [I.]. Indicates return to nor-
a work which is rooted in the contrapuntal
mal tempo after deviations such as rite-
tradition of the Flemish School rather
nuto, piu lento, ad libitum, etc.
than in the ideas of the Baroque period.
Therefore any kind of performance must Atonality, atonal music. Atonality,
be considered justifiable which is in con- literally "absence of tonality," is a term

formity with the austere spirit of the com- which is frequently but loosely and con-
position. On the other hand, the fact fusingly applied to compositions of the
should not be overlooked that all the 20th century [see *New music], and one
pieces, with the exception of the mirror- upon which writers and composers have
fugues (nos. XII and XIII of the Peters voiced the most contradictory opinions.
ed.), are within the reach of the hands of Obviously, it is impossible to clarify the
a keyboard player. Evidently, in compos- meaning of atonality without a previous
ing the work, Bach was thinking con- agreement regarding the term *tonality.
stantly of keyboard performance, if only In fact, the chief trouble seems to lie with
for instructive purposes. F. Busoni, in his the latter term rather than with its op-
Fantasia contrappuntistica (1910), has posite. If, frequently the case, the
as is

offered a congenial modern version, word tonalityinterpreted in its more


fantastically expanded, of Bach's last orthodox sense, as indicating the regular

fugue. vocabulary of 19th-century harmony, then
Lit.: f#.-G. xxv
other by editions any music which deliberately discards the
Czerny, W. Graeser, H. Th. David, D. F. fundamental principles of this system
Tovey (with completion of the unfinished must be considered atonal, more or less
fugue); Roy Harris (for string quartet); (e.g., Busoni, and, still more so, Stravin-
E. Schwebsch (for 2 pianos); M. Haupt- sky, or Hindemith). It is in this sense
mann, Erlautcrungen zu Bach's Kunst that the word atonality is
frequently used,
der Fuge (1841, '61); D. F. Tovey, A especially by amateurs who upon hearing
Companion to the Art of Fugue (1931); a composition of Hindemith or Stravin-
Roy Harris, in MQ
xxi; C. S. Terry, in sky describe it as atonal because the fa-
MQ xix; H. David, in JMP xxxiv; W. miliar features of traditional harmony arc
lacking. However, these
composers as answer to this question still lies in the
well as many others of the same progres- future. Certainly, the ventures in

sive group have repeatedly resented being atonality, Schonberg's Drei Klavier-
referred to as atonal and have emphasized stucfaop. ii (1908) [see Ex.] and Seeks
the existence of tonal centers in their

style. If, in accordance with these views,

the word tonality is understood in its

widest sense, that is, as including any

music in which tonal centers are still rec-

ognizable, then atonality would indicate

as it actually should a still more
radical break with the orthodox system,
that is, the complete rejection of any 1(leine Klavierstucl^e op. 19 (1911), were
tonal relationships. Taking this defini- radical negations rather than constructive
tion as a point of departure, the question contributions. Around 1915, Schonberg
arises as to the very existence of atonal needed a posi-
began to feel that atonality
music. In fact, it has been repeatedly tive principle and a technique of its own.
maintained that atonal music is a contra- Obviously this had to be of a non-har-
diction in terms; in other words, that monic, hence, of a contrapuntal charac-
music, consistingof tones, necessarily ter.His *Twelve-tone technique was the
must show relationship between these answer to this problem. To the present
tones and hence cannot be completely day, it remains the only one that has been
"atonal." Such an argument is, perhaps, given.
too mathematically correct to be artisti- Lit.: D. Milhaud, "Polytonalite et
cally true. Tonal relationships, in the mu- atonalite" (RM iv); A. Machabey, "Dis-
sical sense, are not a matter of demon- sonance, polytonalite, atonalite" (RM
strable facts, but are a matter of inten- See also *Twelve-tone system;
tions on the part of the composer. It is *New Music.
entirely possible to write music with a
Attacca, attacca subito [It.] indi-
complete disregard of tonal relationships,
cates, at the end of a movement, that the
although it is not possible to avoid all next movement should follow without
tonal relationship in writing music. No
doubt, the music of Schonberg and of
some of his followers is written with a Attacco. See under *Soggetto.
conscious rejection of tonal relationships
Attack [F. attaque]. Promptness and
and hence must be considered atonal
decision in beginning a phrase, especially
music. The
protests launched repeatedly
in forte passages. In orchestral parlance,
by "atonal" composers against their being attack means precise entry of the instru-
labeled thus should not be taken too seri-
ments. In French orchestras, the concert-
ously (Schonberg also "hates to be called
master is called chef d' attaque.
a revolutionist" cf his letter in N. Slo-

nimsky, Music Since 1900 (1937), p. 575), Aubade [F., Sp. alborada, from L.
as they seem
to originate largely in the dawn]. Morning music, in contradistinc-
understandable desire to avoid a denomi- tion to ^serenade, evening music. In the
nation which, unfortunately but wholly i7th and i8th centuries aubades were
without justification, has frequently been played in honor of royal or princely per-
identified with "amusical." sonages, at the levee. The term has been
To vindicate atonality from any such used by various composers (e.g., Bizet,
stigma and to accept the term as a proper Rimsky-Korsakov), to denote a sort of
denomination for an important current idyllic overture. The beginning of Bee-
in New Music, does not, of course, imply thoven's Pastoral Symphony and Wag-
any statement regarding the artistic ner's Siegfried-idyll may be considered as
merits and possibilities of this idiom. The idealized aubades. See *Alba.

Audition [F.]. (i) Faculty of hearing. the same, regardless of how it was real-
(2) Rehearsal; performance (particu- ized.
larly by students). In the 1 6th and lyth centuries the prob-
lems are relatively simpler.
Auffiihrungspraxis [G., practice of points are the correct execution of thor-
performance] This term has been widely
. ough-bass, the performance of *orna-
adopted by German and non-German mentations, either improvised or abbrevi-
writers to refer to the manner in which ated, the size of the orchestra, the specifi-

earlymusic was performed and should be cations of tempo and dynamics. Most of
these questions have been rather satisfac-
performed. In particular, it refers to the
many problems connected with the at- torily clarified by musicologists [see, e.g.,

tempts at restoring, in so far as possible,

under *Dotted notes II]. The main ob-
the original sound of compositions from stacle to be overcome is the reluctance of
the early Middle Ages to Bach. The modern interpreters, particularly orches-

problems of Auffiihrungspraxis vary, of

tral conductors, to accept the historical
course, according to the period in ques- facts, many of which, to be sure, are some-

tion. In music prior to 1550, the foremost what contrary to the aesthetic standards
is that of vocal or instrumental and principles of 19th-century music, par-
performance and participation, a question ticularly of Romantic music. According
which arises from the fact that instru- to the principles of Auffiihrungspraxis a

ments are never specified in the sources, work such as Bach's St. Matthew Passion
that the text is often carelessly underlaid, should be performed by an orchestra of
or, that long passages or even entire voices
about 20 players (flutes, oboes, strings,
of an apparently vocal character are organ, harpsichord) and a chorus of
found without text [see * Vocalization]. about the same number of singers; it
Another serious difficulty results from the should be played at a moderate speed,
fact that the instruments of these periods, ranging from allegro to adagio, and with
such as the psaltery, rotta, vielle, rebec of a clear distinction of forte and piano
the rather than with constant crescendos and
4th century, the viols, cornettos,
theorboes of the i5th and i6th centuries, decrescendos. In the period after Bach
are all obsolete. It is only by long and the problems of Auffiihrungspraxis prac-

patient experiments with modern repro- tically disappear, owing to the greater
ductions of these instruments that one care on the part of the composer to indi-
cate clearly his intentions.See also *En-
may hope to gain a clearer idea of the in-
tended sound of ancient music and to semble (3).
solve some of the problems indicated Lit.: R. Haas, Die musi^alische Auf-

above. Generally speaking, it must be fiihrungspraxis (in BiiHM)', A. Schering,

borne in mind that the lack of clear and Auffiihrungspraxis alter Musi^ (1931);
H. Leichtentritt, "Zur Vortragspraxis des
unequivocal indications of instruments,
accidentals, etc., is not mere negligence 17. Jahrhunderts" (KIM, 1909, p. 147);
on the part of the composer or carelessness A. Pirro, "Remarques sur l'exe*cution
on that of the musicale ." 1400; KIM, 1930,
scribe, but is an adequate
. .

expression in fact, the necessary con- p. 55); G. Pietzsch, in AM iv, no. 2;

comitant of the
intrinsically anti-ra- H. Mersmann, "Beitrage zur Auffiih-
tional viewpoint of the Middle Ages and rungspraxis der vorklassischen Kammer-
the Renaissance. The idea of writing musik" (AMW ii); cf. BcMMR, 319
music for a specific instrument was just (bibl.).

as foreign to the ^th-century musician

Aufgeregt [G.]. Excited.
as the idea of using one "correct" spelling
for a word was foreign to a writer of this
Auflosung [G.]. Resolution (of a dis-
period. In both cases, the only thing that sonance); cancellation (of an accidental).
mattered was the idea, which remained Auflosungszeichen, the natural sign, \\.

Aufsatz [G.]. Tube of an organ reed (dotted quarter-notes) [cf. ApNPM,
pipe. 253]. In the I4th century, diminution
is explained in detail by theoretical writ-
Aufschnitt [G.]. The mouth of an
ers (Job. de Muris, Prosdocimus de Bel-
organ pipe.
demandis) and is used almost regularly
Aufstrich [G.]. Up-bow. in the motets of G. de Machaut, the tenor
having the cantus firmus twice, the sec-
Auftakt [G.]. Up-beat. For Aujta\- ond time in halved values [see ^so-
tigfeit see under *Phrasing. With the beginning of the
Auftritt [G.]. Scene of an opera. 1 5th century, augmentation and diminu-
tion become notational devices, since the
Aufzug [G.]. Act of an opera. change of note values is no longer indi-
cated by longer or shorter notes, but by
Augmentation and diminution., The or
proportional signs [see "Proportions]
presentation of a subject in doubled (aug- verbal such as per aug-
by instructions,
mentation) and in halved (diminution)
mentationem, or often by enigmatic in-
values, e.g., with the quarter-note re- A
scriptions [see *Canon II]. last ex-
placed by a half-note or an eighth-note this method appears in Bach's
ample of
respectively. These devices are an impor- ^Musical Offering. of the *ricer-
tant element of variety in fugal writing.
cars of the i6th century use augmentation
They are usually introduced towards the or diminution, e.g., A. Gabrieli's Ricer-
end of the fugue; thus used, diminution
bestows a character of stretto; augmenta-
care del primo tono [repr. in *Editions
II, 7] in which each voice states the sub-
tion, one of grandeur. Examples are:
jectonce in quadruple augmentation
Bach, Wt. Cl. no. 8 (augmentation),
exactly as in the Contrapunctus 7 of
Wt. Cl. ii, no. 9 (diminution), *Art of
Bach's Art of Fugue.
Fugue, nos. 6 and 7 (simultaneous ap-
Augmented intervals. See inter-
pearance of the normal form, diminution,
vals; the augmented fourth the *tritone.
augmentation, and double augmenta- is

tion); Beethoven, Piano Sonata op. no, Augmented sixth chord [see *Sixth
last movement (similar combinations; chord]. Augmented triad [sec *Triad].
see Ex.). Augmentation and diminution See also *Harmonic analysis V.

Aulos. The most important wind in-

strument of the ancient Greek. It is not
a flute (as has frequently been stated)
but rather an oboe, with double reed and
a number of holes varying from four in
the oldest instruments to fifteen in the
later specimens. The numerous pictures
of aulos players show that the aulos al-
ways consisted of two pipes; probably the
larger pipe provided a few tones which
were missing on the other. Many pictures
are also used frequently in the develop- show the player wearing a leather band
ment sections of symphonies, particularly which passes over the mouth and tics at
those by Brahms and Bruckner. the back of his head. This probably
Diminution (or augmentation) occurs served to increase the resistance of the
first in a .number of two-voiced *clausu- cheeks, which acted as bellows, and en-
lae of th Perotinus period [see *Ars an- abled the player to build up a consider-
tiqua] in which a plainsong melody is sound
able air pressure, thus producing a
used twice in succession, first in duplex which occasionally must have been just
longae (dotted half-notes in modern as shrill as that of a modern bagpipe.
transcription), then in plain longae The aulos originally was an Oriental
instrument. According to legend, it was Auto [Sp., act]. Spanish and Portu-
introduced into Greece, about 900 B.C., guese dramatic plays of religious or con-
by Olympos, who was later glorified as templative character, frequently with in-
the "inventor of music." Throughout the cidental music [see *Liturgical drama].
history of Greek music the aulos has re- Such plays were written by Juan del'En-
tained its Asiatic character. It was adopted cina (c. 1500), Gil Vicente (14921557),
for the orgiastic music symbolized by Lope de Vega (1562-1635), Calderon
Dionysos, whereas the *kithara repre- ( 1 600-81), and others. Cf. G. Chase, in
sented the restrained character of au- MQ xxv A. Salazar, in PAMS, 1938.

tochthonous Greek music, symbolized by

Apollo. The aulos music was rapid,
Autoharp. A *zither on which simple
chords such as are used in accompanying
rhythmic, exciting. The slight modifica-
tions of pitch which could be obtained by popular melodies are provided by special
buttons which, upon being depressed,
half-covering the holes of the aulos prob-
damp all the strings except those required
ably led to the enharmonic genus of
for the chord.
Greek music. See also *Chroai.
Lit.: K. Schlesinger, The Gree\ Aulos Automelon and idiomelon. In By-
(1939); SaHMl, i38ff; A. Howard, "The zantine church music a chant is called
Aulos or Tibia," Harvard Studies in automclon (other melody) if it is sung
Classical Philology, iv and x. to a standard melody provided originally
for another chant; idiomelon (own mel-
Aur rescu, arrescu An ancient
ody) if it has a specific melody of its own.
ceremonial dance popular in the
The terms are also used with reference to
Basque countries (northern Spain), exe- other fields, e.g., the antiphons of Grego-
cuted with a great variety of violent steps
rian chant, most of which are automela
and gestures symbolizing wooing cere- men-
[see the classification of Gevaert,
monies or other old usages. Cf V. Alford, .
tioned under *antiphon
(i)] while
in MQ xviii; F. Gascue, in BSIM viii; others are idiomela, e.g., the antiphons
LavE 1.4, of the Mass or the antiphons B.M.V.

Ausdruck [G.]. Expression, feeling. See *Nonharmonic

Auxiliary tone.
Ausdrucksvoll tones I.
[G.]. Expressively.

Ausgelassen [G.]. Exuberant, boister-

Ave Maria. A prayer used in the Ro-
ous. man Catholic Church; see text and plain-
song in AR, 123. The text has been re-
Aushalten [G.]. To sustain a note.
peatedly set to music by 19th-century
composers. The same title also occurs
Auslosung [G.]. The repeating mech- with a rather lachrymose piece by Schu-
anism (escapement) of the pianoforte.
bert, and a very lamentable piece by
Gounod in which Bach's first prelude of
Aussprache [G.]. Diction, pronunci-
ation. the Well-tempered Clavier is misused as
a harmonic background for a highly sen-
Australian music. See *Primitive timental melody.
music. See also Addenda, p. 825.
Ave maris Stella. A hymn of Grego-
Austrian music. See *German music. rian chant to which there exist various
melodies in different modes (cf. AR 9 pp.
Ausweichung Modulation,
[G.]. es-
[ii7]-[i27]). These have been fre-
pecially passing modulation.
quently used as tenors of motets and of
Auszug [G.]. Arrangement. organ-hymns, e.g., by Cabczon.

Authentic modes. See *Church Ave regina coelorum. One of the

modes. four *antiphons B.V.M., sung as a Vesper


hymn from Purification until Easter by H. Lawes, W. Webb, John Blow, Pur-
(text and plainsong in AR,
66). The cell, and others. Cf. A. Dolmetsch, Eng-
melody is
interesting because of its well- lishSongs and Dialogues of the XVI and
defined C major tonality (except for the XVII Centuries (1912); P. Warlock, The
plagal B-flat of the beginning). English Ayre (1926). W. A.
(2) English writers of the i7th century
Ay re. (i) A
Iate-i6th-century type of use the term ayre (aire) in the meaning
English song, similar to the Italian Can- of key or mode, e.g., Th. Morley: "these
zonet or *balletto. The ayre is a strophic aireswhich the antiquity termed Modi"
song in simple homophonic style, the (Plaine and Easy Introduction, p. 147);
melody being supported either by voices or Th. Mace: "every shake is to be made
or by instruments or by both. For the in the Aire" (Mustek's Monument, p.
early publications and their modern re- 104); also Butler,The Principles of Music
prints sec *Editions X, XL
Later publi- (1636), pp. 72, 80, 82; Locke, Melothesia
cations are: Select Ayres and Dialogues (1673), Rule 6; Simpson, Compen- A
(1652) and New Ayres and Dialogues dium to Practical Music^ (5th ed., 1714),

(1678); these include songs with the ac- p. 36. See also under *Fancy. H. J. S.
companiment of lute, theorboe, bass viol,

B. See *Pitch names; *Letter notation; position and became more and more
Hexachord; also *Accidentals (history). hedonistic and voluptuous, particularly
In *part-books of the i6th century, B through the incorporation of elements of
stands for bassus (bass). contemporary Egyptian music. The at-

Baborak. A Bohemian
national dance,
tempt made by C. Sachs vii] to [AMW
interpret certain signs on a Babylonian
including alternating sections in duple clay tablet dating from about 800 B.C. as
and in triple time.
harp notation, and his consequent recon-
struction of a Babylonian hymn, have
Babylonian (Sumerian, Assyrian)
music. Our knowledge of the musical been withdrawn by him in an article
culture of the ancient inhabitants of Mes- [MQ xxvi] in which he also refutes an-
other interpretation given by F. W. Gal-
opotamia is restricted chiefly to informa-
tion about their musical instruments pin.

gained from pictorial and architectural

Lit.: F. W.
Galpin, The Music of the
illustrations. This material, however, is Sumerians , Babylonians and As-
. . .

full enough to permit the reconstruction syrians (1937); LavE i.i, 35ff; C. Sachs,
of a fairly adequate picture of the general Musi\ des Altertums (1924); id., in
trends in the musical evolution which AMW vii and MQ xxvi, xxvii; ReMMA,
took place there from about 3500 to 500 4ff (bibl. p. 426); GD, Suppl. Vol., p. 14
B.C. The chief instrument of the Sume-
rian period (c. 3500-2000) was the harp, Bacchetta [It.]. *Drumstick ( di
usually without fore-pillar [see *Harp wooden; di
legno, spugna, sponge-
III ] . It existed in a great variety of shapes
and sizes. During the Babylonian rule
(200010^0) we find lutes, flutes, oboes, B-A-C-H. The letters which form
and drums, instruments which point to Bach's name have, in German, a musical
a greater refinement of musical culture. significance,namely: bb-a-c-b [see *Pitch
During the Assyrian rule (1000-500) names]. This interesting musical motive
music gradually lost its ancient cosmo- was first used by Bach himself in the last
logical character and strictly liturgical (unfinished) fugue of his *Art of Fugue.

Another fugue on the same subject fre- ungen: 13.!. (For a complete collection
quently ascribed to him [see ed. Peters, of Bach's Chorales cf. C. S.
Terry, Bach's
xxv ] is definitely spurious. Various later Four-Part Chorals.)
composers have used the famous motive IX. Songs. 39.
in fugues or fantasias, e.g., Albrechts- X. Orchestral Worlds (cl. = clavier;
berger [cf. DTOe i6.ii]; Schumann vl. = violin; cont. = continue). Four
(6 Fugen uber Bach, op. 60); Liszt (Fan- Overtures, i Sinfonia: 31.*. Ouverturc
tasia and Fugue on B.A.C.H., for piano- C moll: 45.i. 6 Brandenburg concertos:
forte and for organ); M. Reger (op. 46); 19. Triple concerto for flute, cl. and vl.:
W. Piston (Chromatic Fantasy on Bach). 17. 7 Concertos for one cl.: 17. 3
It also plays an important part in Busoni's Concertos for 2 cl.: 21.11. 2 Concertos
Fantasia contrappuntistica (1910). for 3 cl.: 3i.iii. Concerto for 4 cl.: 43.1.
2 Concertos for vl.: 21.1 (also 45.1).-^
Bach-Gesellschaft. See*SocietiesII,2. Sinfonia for vl.: 21.1. Concerto for 2
Here follows a conspectus of the con- vl.: 21.1.

tents of the edition of the Bach-Gesell- XI. Chamber Music. Sonata for flute,
schaft, arranged according to subject mat- vl. and cont.: 9. Trio, Canon for flute,
ter. vl. and cont. (from the Musical Offer-
I. Sacred Cantatas, i-io: vol. i. ing): 3i.ii. Instrumentalsatz fur vl.,
11-20: vol. 2. 21-30: vol. 5.i. 31-40: Hoboe und Cont.: 29. 7 Sonatas for cl.
vol. 7. 41-50: vol. 10. 51-60: vol. and vl. (one doubtful): 9. Suite for
i2.ii. 61-70: vol. 16. 71-80: vol. 18. cl. and vl.: 9. Sonata, Fugue for vl. and
81-90: vol. 2O.i. 91-100: vol. 22. cont.: 43.1. Sonata for two vl. and
101-110: vol. 23. 111-120: vol. 24. cont.: 9. 4 Inventions for vl. and cl.:
121-130: vol. 26. 131-140: vol. 28. 45.i. Sonata in G
for vl. and cont.:
141-150: vol. 30. 151-160: vol. 32. Neue B.-G. 30, Lf. i.
3 Sonatas, 3 Par-
161-170: vol. 33. 171-180: vol. 35. titas for vl. solo: 27.i. 6 Suites for cello
181-190: vol. 37. 191-193: vol. 41. solo: 27.}. 3 Sonatas for gamba and cl.:
194: vol. 29. 195-197 (Wedding Can- 9. 3 Sonatas for cl. and flute: 9. 3 So-
tatas): vol. 13.1. 198 (Trauer Ode): natas for flute and cont.: 43.5.
vol. 13-iii. Unnumbered (doubtful or XII. Clavier Music. Six English Suites:
unfinished) vol. 41. [For the numbering
i3.ii (new ed. in 45.1). 6 French
of the cantatas 19 iff cf. C. S. Terry, Suites: i3.ii (new ed. in 45.i; fragments
Bach's Cantata Texts (1926), 642.] in 36). 6 Partitas: 3. French Over-
II. Cantatas. 201-205: vol.
Secular ture: 3. Miscellaneous suites (frag-
n.ii. 206-207: vol. 20.ii (also 34). ments): 36, 42, 45.i. Overture: 36.
208-212: vol. 29. 213: vol. 34. Un- Inventions, 2- and 3-part: 3. Well-tem-
numbered: vols. 34, 20.ii. pered Clavier: 14 (Variants: 36; Auto-
III. Oratorios. Weihnachts-Orato- graph: 45.i). 7 Toccatas: 3 and 36.
rium: 5.ii. Oster-Oratorium: 2i.iii. Sonatas: 36, 42, 45.}. Italian Concerto:
Himmelfahrts-Oratorium: 2 (= Can- 3. 1 6 Concertos
(Vivaldi) 42. Gold- :

tata n). berg Variations: 3. Aria variata: 36.

IV. Passion Music. Mattheus: 4 (vari- 2 Capriccios: 36. Chromatic Fantasia:
ant of Schluss-choral in 41). Johannes: 36. Preludes (Fantasia) and fugues,
I2.i. Lucas: 45.0*. Preludes, Fantasias, Fugues: 36. 4 Du-
V. Masses and Parts of Masses. ets: 3. Clavier Uebung i,ii,iii: 3. No-
B minor: 6. F, A,G minor, G: 8. tenbuch der Anna Magdalcna Bach
4 Sanctus: n.i. Sanctus, Kyrie, and (1722, '25): 43.11. Clavierbiichlein fur
Christe: 41. W.F.Bach (1720): 45!
VI. Magnificat, n.i. XIII. Organ Music. Seventy Chorale
VII. Motets. Six and two doubtful: 39. preludes (46 Orgelbiichlein; 18 Chorale;
VIII. Chorales. 1-185 (Collection of 6 Schiibler): 25.ii. 21 Chorale preludes
C. P. E. Bach) 39. 3 Chorale
: zu Trau- (from Clavieriibung iii) :
3. 65 Chorale
preludes (24 Kirnberger; 28 others; 13 earlier, Eastern specimens, both chanter
doubtful): 40. [10 Chorale preludes and drones are clarinets (i.e., have single
not included in B.-G. are reprinted in Ed. reeds) while in the modern types cither
Peters, vol. 9] . 6 Sonatas: 15. 4 Con- they are both oboes (i.e., with double
certos (after Vivaldi): 38 (variant in reeds), as in Italy and some parts of
42). [2 other Concertos in Ed. Peters, France, or the drones are clarinets while
1 8 Preludes and the chanter is an oboe, as in Scotland,
9], fugues: 15. 3
Preludes and fugues: 38. 3 Toccatas: Ireland, Brittany. Two categories of bag-
15. Passacaglia: 15. 8 Kleine Prae- pipes may be distinguished, according to
ludien und Fugen: 38. 6 Fantasias, 3 whether the wind in the bag is provided
Preludes, 6 Fugues, Canzona, Allabreve, from the mouth through an additional
Pastorale, 2 Trios: 38. [2 other Trios blowing-pipe, or by a small pair of bellows
in Ed. Peters, 9]. placed under and operated by the arm.
XIV. Art of Fugue. 25. i (original To the former type belong the Old Irish
form: 47). Musical Offering: 3i.ii, bagpipe, the Highland bagpipe (Scot-
Canons: 45.1. land), the biniou (Bretagne), the come-
muse (France), the Dudelsacl^ or Sacl^-
Bach trumpet. See under *Clarin pfeife (Germany), the zampogna and
trumpet. piva (Italy); to the latter: the Northum-
brian bagpipe (England), the modern
Backfall. English lyth-century name Irish bagpipe, the galta (Galicia), the
for the *appoggiatura. See also * musette
(France). A more primitive in-
giatura, Double II.
strument was the bladder pipe, a single
or double clarinet with a bladder used as
Badinage, badinerie [F., playfulness,
dance-like piece of jocose
a bag [illustrated in GD, pi. LX],
The bagpipe was not known to the
character which occurs as a movement in
the optional group of the iSth-century Babylonians, Jews, and Greeks, but was
used in Rome (tibia utricularis) Nero is .

suites, e.g., in Bach's Suite in B minor.

reported to have played on it. In the
A Middle Ages it is frequently mentioned
Bagatelle [F., a trifle]. short piece,
The name under different names (musa, chorus,
usually for the pianoforte.
was used by Francois Couperin ("Les symphonia, chevrette). The famous il-
luminations of the 13th-century Spanish
Bagatelles," see his Pieces de Clavecin,
new ed. Augener, ii, ordre 10) and, in MS Escorial j b 2 [see *Cantiga] show
particular, by Beethoven, whose Bagatel- players of bagpipes [cf. GD
iv, 184;

len (op. 33, op. 119, op. 126) mark the ReMMA, 222]. In the British Isles the
beginning of the extensive literature of bagpipes have played, for many centuries,
a prominent role in folk music and in
19th-century *character pieces.
military music. Their continental history
Bagpipe [F. musette] G. Dudelsac\, is less interesting, except for a late lyth-

Sacftffeife; It.
zampogna}. Generic
piva, century movement in France which, for
name for a number of instruments which a short time, raised the instrument to a
have one or (usually) several reed-pipes standing in society and in art music [see
attached to a windbag from which the air *Musette]. See also *Pibroch.
is blown into the pipes; also, specifically, Lit.: Wm. H. Grattan-Flood, The
the name for the Irish and Scottish varie- Story of the Bagpipe (1907); W. L. Man-
ties of this family. [See the illustration son, The Highland Bagpipe (1901);
on 152 (Clarinets ).] One or two of the
p. G. Askew, A Bibliography of the Bagpipe
pipes, called chanter (chaunter), are pro-
vided wit^ soundholes and are used for
melodies, while the other, larger ones, Baguette [F., stick]. Drumstick (
called drones, produce one tone each and dehois, wooden drumstick; d'iponge,
are used for the accompaniment. In the sponge-headed drumstick). Also the ba-
ton of the conductor and the stick of the of cheap modern song. For art ballad,
violin bow. see*Ballade [G.].
The word ballad is also used as an
Bajazzo, Der [G.]. See *Pagliacci, Gli.
Anglicized form of ballade [F.], ballata
Balalaika. A popular Russian instru- [It.], or Ballade [G.]. Such usage, how-
ment of the guitar family, characterized
ever, is
misleading in view of the fact that
by a triangular body, a long fretted neck, these terms denote entirely different
and (usually) three gut strings tuned in
fourths. It played with a plectrum and
is Lit.: S. Foster Damon, ^Series of Old
is made in six sizes which constitute a American Songs (1936); C. Sandburg,
balalaika band. [Illustration on p. 314.]
^The American Songbag (1927); Cecil J.
The forerunner of the balalaika was the Sharp, English Foll^ Songs from the
*domra [cf. SaRM]. Cf. A. S. Rose, in Southern Appalachians, 2 vols. (1932);
PMA xxvii.i; W. v. Kwetzinsky, in DM John A. Lomax, Our Singing Country
(1941); R. Smith, South Carolina Ballads
Balancement [F.]. Eighteenth-century (1928); A. K. Davis, Traditional Ballads
name for the *tremolo. Sometimes used M. O. Eddy, Ballads
of Virginia (1929);
and Songs from Ohio (1939); M. E.
synonymously with *Bebung.
Henry, A Bibliography for the Study of
Balg [G.]. Bellows of an organ. American Folksongs (1937); J. W. Hen-
Balinese music. See Javanese music. dren, A Study of Ballad Rhythm (1936);
Cf. C. McPhee, in BAMS vi. C. A. Smith, "Ballads Surviving in the
A name U. S." (MQ ii).
Ballabile. given occasionally
to dance-like pieces (ballets) in ipth-cen-
Ballade [F.]. A form of trouvre po-
tury operas.
etry and music. The poem usually has
Ballad [fromL. ballare, to dance]. The three stanzas, each of seven or eight lines,
term derives from medieval words such the last one or two of which are identical
as * chanson ballade, ballade [F.], *bal- in all the stanzas, thus forming a *refrain.

lata, all of which originally denoted danc- The musical form of the stanza is: aba
ing songs but lost their dance connota- bcdEorababcdEF [capital letters
tion as early as the I3th century and be- indicate the refrain], a scheme which, as
came stylized forms of solo song. In Eng- far as the music is concerned, can be sim-
land this process of change went still plified as follows: B (A = ab; B
AA =
farther, and eventually (i6th century) the remaining lines). This form is identi-
"ballad" came to mean a simple tale told cal with that of the Provencal (trouba-
in simple verse. There may have been a dour) *canzo and of the German (Min-
transitional period during which the reci- nesinger) Bar [see *Barform], which,
tation of the poems was still accompanied however, lack the refrain. Sometimes the
by some sort of dancing. Most ballads form is enlarged to A A B B, usually in
are narrative, and many deal with fabu- connection with enlarged stanzas of 12 or
lous, miraculous, or gruesome deeds. more lines.
Ballad singers made
a living by singing The songs of the trouveres include a
their newest productions in the streets considerable number of monophonic bal-
and at country fairs and by selling the lades [see Lit., Gennrich i, nos. 356, 357,

printed sheets to the people. In its more In the i4th century, G. de

362, 366, etc.] .

recent (19th-century) meaning, a ballad Machaut revived the ballade as a poly-

is a
popular song usually combining nar- phonic composition of great refinement
rativeand romantic elements, frequently and subtlety [cf. F. Ludwig's edition of
with an admixture of the gruesome. his works; also AdHM i, 270]. His ex-
These ballads are mostly written in com- ample was followed by the French musi-
mon meter ( Today the term cians of the late i4th century (Soulage,
"ballad" is loosely applied to any kind Trebor, Cuvelier, etc.; sec *Ars nova)

t67 i
with whom
the polyphonic ballade be- [complete ed. by M. Runze] include a
came theprincipal form of music, treated
number of truly great songs ("Archibald
with the highest degree of elaboration Douglas," "Erlkonig," "Der Pilgrim von
and St. Just," etc.). Loewe's form is a free
occasionally with affectation [exam-
ples in WoGM ii, iii, nos. 55, 56, etc.; combination of the strophic and the
ApNPM, 419, 421, 423], The form was through-composed type. Schubert's songs
also cultivated by Dufay and, occasion- include a number of Balladen, e.g., "Erl-

ally, even by Josquin Odhecaton A y

[cf. konig." In the late i9th century Balladen
no. 10], Several scholars use the term were composed for solo or chorus with
ballade also for the Italian 14th-century orchestral accompaniment, e.g., H. Wolf's
*ballata a procedure which is bound "Feuerreiter." Chopin and Brahms used
to lead to errors, since the ballata is an en- the term for piano pieces written in the

tirely different form. E.g., the piece by ternary form BA A

of the 19th-century

Enrique reproduced in RiMB, no. 12, is a Character piece. Here the highly dra-
ballata (or *villancico), not a ballade. matic character of A and the lyrical char-
Examples in HAM, nos. 193, 45, 47; acter ofB seem to portray heroic deeds
SchGMBy nos. 26, 40; ApNPM, 352, 355, and knightly love, thus justifying the tide
etc.; RiMB, nos. 4, 8. Ballade.
F. Gennrich, ^Rondeaux, Virelais
Lit.: Lit.: A. B. Bach, The Art Ballad
und Balladen^ 2 vols. (1921); F. Brosch, (1891); Ph. Spitta, "Ballade" (Musi^
Die Balladen im Kodex von Turin (Diss. geschichtliche Aufsatze, 1894); H. J.
Vienna 1931). Moser, fD/> Ballade (Martens, ^Musifo-
lische Formenin historischen Reihen iii,
Ballade [G.]. In German usage the 1930); R. Batka, Martin Pluddemann
word Ballade denotes poems derived from und seine Balladen (1895); A. Konig,
the English ballads, but of greater artistic Die Ballade in der Musi^ (1904).
elaboration and poetic refinement. They
usually deal with medieval matters, either Ballad opera. A
popular type of i8th-
historical or fancied (e.g., Goethe's "Bal- century stage entertainment, consisting
lade vom vertriebenen und zuriickkeh- of spoken dialogue and musical numbers
renden Grafen"), or with romantic tales not newly composed, but taken from
(e.g., Goethe's "Erlkonig"). Such Bal- folk songs or from famous tunes of con-
laden were frequently set to music, usu- temporary composers. The ballad opera
ally as through-composed songs of great flourished in London from 1725 (A. Ram-

length. Probably the earliest examples of say's The Gentle Shepherd) throughout
true Balladen-style are the interesting set- the end of the century [cf. the list in GD
tings of Gellert's moralizing and dry i, 207, also in Tufts], The Beggars
Pabeln by Valentin Herbing (1759; DdT Opera (1728) by John Gay with music ar-
42), written in a continuous recitative ranged by Joh. Pepusch (1667-1752) was
with a highly dramatic accompaniment. the most successful of all. Two plays by
Later examples are written in the form of Charles Coffey, The Devil to Pay (1728)
cantatas, i.e., in various movements of and The Merry Cobbler (1735), played a
contrasting character [Joh. Andre, 1741- decisive role in the development of the
99; Joh. Zumsteeg, 1760-1802]. A Fan- German *Singspiel. The music of the bal-
tasie op. 109 by Beethoven's pupil Ferdi- lad operas included songs and arias from
nand Ries (1784-1838) for piano alone, Locke, Purcell, Handel, Geminiani, Co-
written to Schiller's poem "Resignation," relli, Scarlatti, and others; Playford's
is an interesting example of what might Dancing Master (numerous editions from
be ohne Worte" [repr. 1650 to 1728) and similar collections were
in The classical master of the chief source for the popular tunes cm-
the vocal Ballade (sometimes referred to ployed in these operas. The style of the
as "art ballad") is Carl Loewe (1796- ballad opera has been imitated in
1869) whose fifteen volumes of Balladen Williams' Hugh the Drover (1924) and
in Kurt Weill's Dreigroschen Ofer lata (or virelai) persists in the songs of
(1928), a highly successful imitation of the *Cancionero musical [see *Villan-
John Gay's Beggar's Of era. cico] and, in a simplified form, in the
Lit.: E. M. Gagey, Ballad Opera *frottole of the early i6th century. Ex-
(1937); F. Kidson, The Beggar's Opera amples in L. Ellinwood, ^Francesco Lan-
(1922); W. E. Schultz, Gays Beggars dini( 1939) ; HAM,
nos. 51, 53; SchGMB,

Opera (1923); W. Barclay-Squire, "An 16 (text incomplete); EiBM n; WoGM

Index of Tunes in the Ballad-Operas" ii, iii, nos. 46, 51-53; ApNPM, 151, 408.
(MA ii); G. Tufts, "Ballad Operas" (MA Ballet (t).
W. Lawrence, "Early Irish Ballad Sixteenth-century English
iv); J.
version of *balletto.
Opera . . ." (MQ ii).
Ballet. I. Ballet is theatrical perform-
Ballata [It.]. One of the chief forms of ance of a dancing group with costumes
Italian 14th-century poetry and music and scenery, to the accompaniment of
[see *Ars nova III]. It is not derived music, but without singing or spoken
from the French *ballade, but from the word. The history of the modern ballet
*virelai, which was also called chanson goes back to the i5th century, when dance
ballade. As a poem the ballata consists of performances were introduced at the
various (usually three) stanzas (S) of six French and Burgundian courts for the
lines, each of which is preceded and fol- celebration of marriages, for the reception
lowed by a refrain (R) of two lines, so of foreign sovereigns, and for similar fes-
that the following *rondeau-like scheme tive occasions. One of the most sumptu-
results: R Si R
S 2 R S 3 R. Music is com- ous of these entertainments was the "Bal-
posed only for the first four lines and re- let Comique de la Royne" (marriage of

peated for the others as follows: Margaret of Lorraine to the Duke of Joy-
R S R euse, Versailles, 1581). It is the earliest
for which the music is preserved, and is
5 especially remarkable on account of its
A A inclusion of two monodic songs (new ed.,
(the figures to 5 represent double-lines,
i see *Editions IV; cf. also AdHM ii, 642r
i.e., 10 single lines), i (and 5) are called and L. Celler, Les Origines de l opera et
ripresa (refrain); 2 and 3, piedi; 4, le ballet de la Royne, 1868). The culmi-
volta. Like the virelai, the ballata origi- nation point of the ballet was reached
nally was a song accompanying round under Louis XIV (1643-1715), who him-
dances, and was performed alternately by self was a great dancer and who liked to
the whole group (ripresa) and a solo appear in ballet performances. With the
singer (piedi and volta). However, none ballet-masterBeauchamp and the musi-
of the surviving examples shows evidence cians Cambefort (160561) and Lully
of dance-like rhythm or style. Mono- (1632-87), the French ballet attained the
phonic examples of the ballata structure highest cultural importance as well as
are to be found in the religious *laude of great musical significance. It became the
the 1 3th century. In the i4th century the origin of a great number of new courtly
form was treated polyphonically, espe- dance types, such as the gavotte, the pas-
ciallyby Francesco Landini of whom 87 sepied, the bourree, the rigaudon, which
two-voiced and 49 three-voiced ballatas were later introduced into the optional
are preserved (mostly with only one group of the *suite. Of particular impor-
stanza; no. 148 of Ellinwood's collection tance among these was the *minuet.
has three stanzas). An example is repro- Lully's activity in the ballet of the French
duced (under the erroneous title "madri- court (ballet de cour) began in 1653
gal" and with incorrect underlaying of ("Ballet de la Nuit") and came to a
the text) in J. Wolf's ^Sing- und Spiel- climax in 1664 when he and Molie're

musi{ aus dlterer Zeit [for the correct ver- joined forces to produce a unification of
sion sec Ellinwood] , The form of the bal- play and ballet, the comedic-ballet. "Lc
Bourgeois Gentilhomme" (1670) is the monde" (1923); Francis Poulenc with
most famous example of this type [see "Les Biches" (1923); Bela Bart6k with
*Entr'acte], Lully also introduced the "The W
oden Pnnce" (1922); Hinde-
ballet into his operas, as did also his suc- mith with "The Demon" (1924); Bax
cessors Campra and Rameau. Rameau's with "The Truth about the Russian
ballets are particularly interesting on ac- Dancers" (1920), and others. In Amer-
count of their exotic background, Mexi- ica, the vogue of the ballet has produced
can, Persian, Chinese, etc. [see also *Bal- such works as John A. Carpenter's
let in opera] . A
special type of ballet was "Krazy-Kat" (1921) and "Skyscrapers"
cultivated hi England, under the name (1926); Copland's "Grogh" (1932) and
of *masque. In the second half of the "Hear ye, hear ye" (1934); Marc Blitz-
7th century Vienna was a center of ballet stein's "Checkmate" (1937); Walter Pis-
presentations (Johann Heinrich Schmel- ton's "The Incredible Flutist" (1938), etc.
zer and others; cf. DTOe 28.ii). Lit.: W. Beaumont, Complete BooJ{ of
II. From 1700 till the end of the i9th Ballets (1937; sup. 1942); G. Goode, The
century the history of the ballet includes Boof( of Ballets (1939); V. Arvey, Cho-
a galaxy of famous dancers, such as Ca- reographic Music (1941); H. Prunieres,
margo (1710-70), Noverre (1727-1810), Le Ballet de cour en France ( 1914) DToe ;

Vestris (17291808), Taglioni (1804- 28.ii ("Wiener Tanzmusik," c. 1650-

84), Fanny Elssler (1810-51), and others. 1700); DTOe 43/44 ("Ausgewahlte Bal-
Unfortunately, little of the music used in lette Stuttgarter Meister," c. 1750-1800);
their presentations has come down to us. H. "Le Ballet sous Louis XIII"
(BS1M x); "Le Ballet au XIX siecle"
Noverre, the great reformer of the ballet,
found musical collaborators in Stuttgart (RM ii, special number); D. L. Murray,
(Florian Deller, 1729-73; Johann J. "The Future of the Ballet" (ML vii, no.
Rudolph, 1730-1812; cf. DdT 43/44) as i); R. Lach, in ZMW iii
well as in Vienna (Ignaz Holzbauer, "Prometheus").
1711-83; Christoph W. Gluck, 1714-87;
Josef Starzer, 1726-87; Gluck's "Don Ballet in opera. Ballets appear in
Juan" in DTOe 30.ii). This list is com- opera usually as interludes unessential to
pleted by Beethoven's "Prometheus," pro- the plot, although connected with it by
duced in 1 80 1 at the Burg Theater of some more or less specious pretext. Their
Vienna. function is thus to offer a diversion from
III. Ballet music took a new start with the purely vocal and dramatic portions,
Delibes' "Coppelia" (1870) and Tchai- and they frequently involve large choral
kovsky's three ballets "The Swan Lake" groups and spectacular stage effects as

(1876), "The Sleeping Beauty" (1889), well as dancing. They are therefore most
and "Casse-Noisette" ("The Nutcrack- appropriate in large-scale, serious, formal
er," 1892). The great period of modern opera, and historically they are found
ballet music, however, did not start until chiefly in operas of the French school or
the early 20th century, when the Russian works written under the influence of
ballet of Diaghileff and Fokine began its French taste. Ballets in comic opera are
triumphal career and attracted the inter- simpler and less formal than those in seri-
est of many prominent composers, e.g., ous works, as for example the dances in
Stravinsky, with "Firebird" (1910), the finale of the first act of Mozart's Don
"Petrouchka" (1912), "Le Sacre du Prin- Giovanni.
temps" (1913), "Les Noces" (completed Although Lully is commonly credited
1923), "Apollo Musagetes" (1927), "Card with having introduced the ballet into
Party" (1936)* and others; Ravel with opera, it was not unknown in operas be-
"Daphnis afkTChloe" (1906, 1912); Man- fore his time. Without reckoning the
uel de Falli With "The Three-Cornered choral dances of Greek tragedy, the gen-
Hat" (1919); Darius Milhaud with "Le eral dances which frequently took place
Train bleu" (1924) and "La Creation du at the end of the medieval *mystery-plays,
or the ballet portions of the 16th-century duced by foreign composers (C. Pallavi-
^intermezzi, we find closing dances in cino's Gerusalemme liberata, Dresden,
Peri's and Caccini's Euridice (both 1600), 1687), and, under French influence, by
a "Ballo" at the end of Gagliano's Dafne native composers as well (Joh. Sigismund
(1608), and a "Moresca" danced by the Kusser's Erindo, Hamburg, 1693). The
shepherds in the finale of Monteverdi's ballets in the original version of Reiser's
Orfeo (1607). There are likewise ballets, Croesus (1711) were omitted in the re-

though on a relatively small scale, in vival of 1730.

operas of the Roman school (e.g., Landi's In early iSth-century Neapolitan opera
San Alessio, 1632; M. Rossi's Erminia sul the ballet was of minor importance, with
Giordano, 1637). The Venetian opera, rare exceptions in festival works such as
along with its fondness for spectacular Fux's Costanza e jortezza (Prague,
stage effects, made some use of the ballet, 1723). Toward the middle of the cen-
especially in works designed for festival tury, however, with the first movements
occasions, like Cesti's Porno d'oro (Vien- toward reform of the Neapolitan model,
na, 1667), which has several ballets in each ballet scenes began to be revived. This is
act and a grand triple ballet in the finale. especially evident in the works of Jomelli,
The importance of the ballet in French written at Stuttgart in 1753-69, where
opera is due to the long previous tradi- the celebrated ballet master Jean-Georges
tion of the Ballet de Cour in France and Noverre was also in residence; and in the
to the fact that Lully, in establishing the operas of Traetta at Parma (1758-65)
national operatic form, practically incor- and St. Petersburg (1768-74), which
porated the entire apparatus of the ballet show the influence of Rameau. Gluck's
in the new type of entertainment. The "reform" operas are filled with ballet
designation of the opera company as scenes, quite on the model of their French
"Academic royale de musique et de prototypes, and the ballet remained a
danse" in itself shows the intimate con- constant and important feature in the
nection which was felt to exist between works of Gluck's disciples, as well as in
opera and ballet, a connection which has the "grand opera" of the I9th century
been maintained throughout the entire (Auber's Muette de Portia, 1829; Ros-
subsequent history of French opera. So sini's Guillaume
Tell, 1829; Meyerbeer's
strong was the French fondness for ballet Robert Diable, 1831; Halevy's La Juive,

that before the end of the i7th century a 1835; Wagner's Rienzi, 1842; Berlioz's
new form, the "opera-ballet," was created Les Troyens, 1856-58; Gounod's Faust,
(Campra, L'Europc galante, 1697), in 1859/69). It will be noted that all the
which the dramatic content was reduced above-named works except Rienzi were
to a minimum in order to make room for firstperformed (or intended to be per-
practically continuous dancing, choral, formed) at Paris, where a ballet was still
and scenic elements (Rameau, Les Indes considered to be an indispensable part of
galantes, 1735). The dances of Lully's any large serious operatic work. Wag-
and Rameau's operas and opera-ballets ner's addition of the "Bacchanal" music
furnish some of the finest examples of for the Paris performance of Tannhauser
French instrumental music of their pe- (1861) is a striking evidence of the power
riod. of this French tradition. Wagner in his

English opera likewise introduced bal- laterworks occasionally had recourse to

let,partly from the native tradition of the the ballet (Die Meistersinger, Parsifal),

*masque and partly under French influ- as did Verdi in Aida (1871). There arc
ence. There are ballets in Blow's Venus also important ballet scenes in Borodin's
and Adonis (c. 1685) and Purcell's Dido Prince Igor (performed 1890), but on the
and Aeneas (c. 1689), as well as in Pur- whole the decline of "grand opera" has
cell's other dramatic music (e.g., the Cha- led to a diminution of the importance of
conne in King Arthur, 1691). ballet in opera since the middle of the
In Germany ballet in opera was intro- 1
9th century, and this has been accom-

panicd by a steady rise of interest in ballet or to the 24 fiddlers of Charles II (The

as a separate form [see *Ballet]. Inci- King's Private Band). See *Brass band;
dental dance scenes, closely connected *Military band.
with the action, are to be found in some
Bandola, bandolon. Same as *Ban-
modern opera scores, e.g., R. Strauss's
Salome (1905), Berg's Wozzc\ (perf.
1926), Hindemith's Neues vom Tage Bandoneon. See * Accordion.
(1929), and others. The ballets in Mil-
Bandora. See *Pandora.
haud's Christophe Colomb (1930) are on
a grand scale, but this work can hardly Bandurria. See *Guitar family.
be regarded as typical of modern practice
D. J. G. Banjo. A stringed instrument with a
in this respect.
long neck and a body in the form of an
Balletto [It.],ballett. (i) Vocal com- open drum, spanned with parchment as
a resonator. It usually has six strings, the
position of c. 1600, dance-like in charac-
written in a simplified madrigal style highest of which, called the thumb-string,
is placed next to the lowest, in the follow-
and frequently provided with a *fa-la-
burden which was probably danced. The ing arrangement: g" g d' g' b' d". The
first publication in this field was Giov.
banjo is the typical instrument of the
American Negroes and has been fre-
Gastoldi's Balletti a cinque voci . . . di
quently used in jazz. It was imported by
cantare, sonare e ballare (1591). It was
the slaves from western Africa (Senegam-
imitated by Th. Morley in his The First
bia), where it existed under the name
Boo% f Ballets to 5 voices (1598), and "bania." In all it is not an
similar publications until c. 1620. probability
Instrumental compositions of a similar aboriginal African instrument, but a
modification of the Arabian or European
type and style. These appear frequently
in the German *suites of the early i7th guitar [see *Guitar family].

century, e.g., Joh. Hermann Schein, Ban- Bar. (i) In English, bar-line or, more
chetto musicale (1617; complete ed. by usually, measure (included between two
A. Priifer, vol. ii), Paul Peurl, Melchior bar-lines). (2) In German, see *Bar-
Franck, Valentin Haussmann, etc. Fres- form.
cobaldi wrote ballettos for keyboard [cf.
Barber of Seville, The. See *Bar-
biere di Siviglia, II.

Ballo, Tempo di [It.]. In dance-like

Barbershop harmony. Colloquial
character. term for a type of highly chromatic, over-
sweet harmony used in popular American
Bamberg, Codex. See *Sources, no. 5.

[F. bande\

group composed principally of wind
Different types are: *brass
An orches-

band (brass only), wind band (winds
band (chiefly brass), jazz
only), military
band (various combinations; see *}azz),
symphonic band (predominantly wood
M #
wind, with the addition of cello or double- Diminished seventh chords,
bass). Other types are the balalaika-band,
augmented sixths, and similar combina-
marimba band, etc. In modern Italian
tions prevail. Cf. S. Spaeth, Barber Shop
orchestra of brass and
the^oup Ballads (1940); also *}azz II.
sion is ca\leQ$l$nda. In earlier periods the
name was applied to orchestral groups of Barbiere di Siviglia, II ("The Bar-

highest distinction, e.g., to the "24 violons ber of Seville'Opera buffa by Gioachino
du roy" under Lully (La grande bande), Rossini (1792-1868), based on Beaumar-

chais' comedy Le Barbier dc Seville bards were fixed by King Howel Dha, in
(1775), first performance in Rome, 1816 940, and revised by Gruffyd ap Conan, in
(New York, 1819). The scene is 17th- 1040. The first persecution (on political
century Seville where Count Almaviva grounds) occurred after the conquest of
(Tenor) and Dr. Bartolo (Bass) are rivals Wales by Edward I, in 1284. The bards
for the love of Rosina (Soprano), with continued to exist, though far below their
the former winning out by die aid of the former standard and reputation, in Ireland
resourceful barber Figaro (Baritone). till
1690 (battle of the Boyne), in Scot-
Mozart's Le Nozzedi Figaro centers land till 1748. The congregations of the
around a later adventure of the amorous Welsh bards, called Eisteddfod, were re-
Count. vived in the early I9th century, after an
The Barbiere is one of the last examples interruption of about 150 years. Their
of the 18th-century type of Italian opera standard, which was extremely low, has
and, in particular, the last to use the recently been considerably raised. See
recitativo secco.Figaro's aria "Largo al *Penillion.
factotum" one of the most outstanding
is The music of the Welsh bards has been
examples of buffo aria in rapid declama- the subject of much discussion and contro-
tion [see *Parlando; *Patter song]. versy. Many exaggerated claims have
been made, chiefly on the basis of certain
Barbitos. An ancient Greek instrument
music manuscripts, one of which, called
of the *lyre type.
Musica neu Beroriaeth (Penllyn MS;
Barcarole [from It.
barca, boat]. A Brit.Mus. Add. 14905; facsimile ed. by
Cardiff University, 1936), bears the in-
boat-song of the Venetian gondolieri, or
an instrumental or vocal composition scription, made by an iSth-century
written in imitation thereof. Well-known owner: "The music of Britain, as settled
examples for the piano are to be found in by the congress of chief musicians, by
Mendelssohn's "Songs without Words" order of Gruffydd ap Cynan, about A.D.

[op. 19, no. 6; op. 30, no. 6; op. 62, no. 5] ; 1040, with some of the most ancient pieces
others were written by Chopin (op. 60) of the Britons, supposed to have been
and Faure. Vocal barcaroles occur in handed down to us from the British Dru-
various operas with Italian settings, e.g., ids." Actually, this manuscript dates from
in Herold's Zampa (1831), in Auber's the yth century and shows nothing to

Fra Diavolo (1830), in Offenbach's Tales substantiate any such claims or similar
ones voiced by modern supporters of the
of Hoffmann (1831); cf. also Schubert's
"Auf dem Wasser zu singen." "Mediaeval Bardic music" movement
Barcaroles are always in moderate 6/8 (e.g., A. Dolmetsch). The notation is but
or 12/8 time and use a monotonous ac- a modification of the German organ
tablature of the late i6th century [see
companiment suggestive of the uniform
movement of the waves and the boat. WoHN ii, 294] The transcriptions given

by Dolmetsch (who succeeded in clarify-

Bard. The
hereditary poet-musicians ing certain peculiarities of this notation)
still further discredit the fantastic
(minstrels) of the Celtic nations, espe- legends
cially the Irish and the Welsh. In the so frequently told. It is probably permis-

early Middle Ages they exercised great sible to interpret the style of these pieces

political power, serving as historians, as the result of "debasement through seep-

heralds, ambassadors, and, in brief, con- age," a process which can frequently be
stituting the highest intellectual class. noticed in instrumental folk practice [see
Their existence documented as far back
is *Folk song II ] Such opinion is, of course,

as the pre-Christian era by Greek writers in the strongest possible opposition to the
such as Diodorus Siculus (ist century statement that "from internal evidence
B.C.), who makes reference to the tradi- such music could not have been made
tional instrument of the bards, i.e., the later than the sixth century, and was
*crwth. The privileges of the Welsh probably much earlier" (A. Dolmetsch,

in The Consort, no. 4, p. 14). The ac- stanzas); "ein Gesatz" . . . consists of
companying example, transcribed from . . . "z ween en (two) Stollen" . . . and
"Abgesang"; also Act III, 2, Hans
. .

Sachs]. The Bar is by far the most fre-

quent form of the Minnesinger and Mcis-
ter singer [Ex. in EiBM, nos. 8, 9; HAM y

nos. 20, 24; SchGMB, nos. 12, 21; RiHM

i.2, pp. 268ff]. However, the Barform
itself is of still earlier origin and of a much
wider occurrence. It is adumbrated in

the ancientGreek ode which consisted of

strophe (a), antistrophe (a), and epode
WoHN 298, shows written-out figura-
ii, (b). The examples 13 and 42 in BeMMR
tions inthe style of the lyth-century illustrate its occurrence in the early medi-
* eval music of the Eastern churches. With
arpegement figure [see Arpeggio],
Only the beginning and the end of the the *canzo of the troubadours and the
piece are given here, but the intermedi- *ballade of the trouveres it established it-
ate measures can easily be found from European music. The German Bar
self in
the formula: iiiiooooioioiiiiooooion, isan imitation of these French forms. Al-
given in the original, which indicates the though in France their further develop-
scheme of alternation for the two chords ment lay in the direction of stylistic per-
used in this piece, each being indicated fection (particularly in the polyphonic

by the figure i or o, a method commonly ballade of the i4th century), the Germans,
used in 17th-century guitar tablatures [cf. restricting themselves to the monophonic
WoHNii, ijiS]. type, exploited its formal aspect. A fre-
Lit.: Joseph Cooper Walker, Historical quent feature, already found in the canzo
Memoirs of the Irish Bards (1786); Ed- [cf. BeMMR, 107], is the use of identical
ward Jones, Musical and Poetical Relicts endings for the Stollen and the Abgesang
of the Welsh Bards (4th ed., 1825); Ch. so that the form: ||: a x b x re-|| + :
de la Borde, Essai sur les Bardes, 3 vols. suits, as, e.g., in Walther v. d. Vogelweide's
(1840); G. Borrow, Celtic Bards, Chiefs "Palestine Song" [see Ex. i], in Hans
and Kings (1928); W. Evans, The Bards Sachs's "Silberweise" [SchGMB, no. 78],
of the Isles of Britain (1930); A. Dol- and in many chorales of the i6th century,
mctsch, ^Translations from the Pennlynn
Manuscript of Ancient Harp Music
(1937); id., in The Consort (i93off);
P. Crossley-Holland, "Secular Homo- J. 41- Let- cot Ube i^K mtr werde 1 $ t t nun. $u*-<iic
3 Dai hire Urvt unL oucK cUe CT- <Le A Jem. man vtl <Ur
phonic Music in Wales in the Middle- 7- D

Ages" (ML xxiii, no. 2).

Barform [G.]. I. A
term which is used
frequently in modern German studies to
denote one of the oldest and most impor-
tant musical forms, that is, the form with
the basic scheme a a b. The name is de-
rived from the medieval German term for
*his form,
namely Bar. This consisted of
Stollen (Action a) and the Abgesang I A- Uj dt.-t- t n nlmj
Z Lu- cent Praeclnet.3.foi fttatt* wwiio*
(section b) $$. the imaginative descrip-
tion in R. Act I,
VHjkner's Mcistcrsingcr,
3, where Kwpner says: "Ein jedes Meis- c -g-> "Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme"
tergesanges Bar" . . . consists of ... [cf.Bach's chorale prelude and the first
, "unterschiedlichen Gcsatzen" (sundry movement of the cantata]. Another type
isthe "duplicated" bar: a :||: b :|| c, ner's operas, the recitative of which he in-
which forms a connecting link with the terpreted as "superimposed" Bars (Klein-
*sequcncc (*leich), and the "superim- bar, Mittelbar, Crossbar).
posed" bar, in which the Stollen itself is a Lit.: A. Lorenz, Das Geheimnis dcr
complete Bar [Ex. in F. L. Saran, ^Die Form bei R. Wagner, 4 vols.
]enacr Liederhandschrtft (1902) ii, 53 id., "DasRelativitatsprinzip in den mu-
and 57]. sikalischen Formen" (Adler Festschrift,
II. Of particular
importance is that type 1930); id., "Homophone Grossrhythmik
of Bar in which the Stollen is repeated in in Bach's Polyphonik" (DM xxii.4);
toto at the end of the
thus lead- H. A. Grunsky, in ZMW xvi.

ing to the scheme a a b a or a b a.


very early example of this form is the

Bariolage [F., variety of colors] . A spe-
cial effect of violin playing, obtained by
liturgical melody to a hymn, Ales diet
nuntius, by Prudentius (d. c. 450), which
quickly shifting back and forth from open
strings to stopped strings. This technique
probably is one of the oldest Christian
is used for broken-chord
melodies preserved [Ex. 2; cf. AR, 109; passages [Ex. i,
BeMMR, 52]. Minnesinger songs show-
ing the same structure are quite numerous
[cf. DTOe 37.i, p. 31; Saran ii, 29; HAM,
no. 2oc; ReMMA, 235]. The modern
term for this is Reprisenbar or Rund Can-
zone (rounded chanson). Still another
modification of a more recent date is the Bach, Solo Sonata in E major], or for a
"coloristic" tremolo [Ex. 2, Brahms, Sym-
Reprisenbar with repetition of both sec-
tions: ||
a :||: b
a :||. This occurs in phony no. 4, last movement] .

numerous pieces of the i8th century as a Baritone or (rarely) barytone [from

modification of binary form, appropriate- Gr. barys, heavy, low], (i) The male
ly designated as cyclic binary form [see voice intermediate between the bass and
*Binary and ternary form II]. It is this the tenor; see * Voices, Range of. (2)
form which must be considered as the pre- In connection with instruments (oboe,
cursor of *sonata-form, the exposition,
horn, saxophone) the word indicates sizes
development, and recapitulation of which above the bass size. (3) Short for bari-
correspond to the Stollen, Abgesang, and tone horn [see *Brass instruments III(c) ] .

repeated Stollen of the Reprisenbar. Al-

though there is, of course, no historical Baritone clef. See *Clefs.

relationship between the medieval Bar and Baritone horn. See *Brass instruments
the classical sonata, the similarity is note-
worthy, all the more as the Abgesang of
the early songs frequently shows certain Bar-line [Fr. barrel G. Tafystrick} . The
elementary development features, such as vertical line used to indicate the begin-
higher range, *Fortspinnung, and greater ning and the end of a measure. The con-
intensity in general, as appears, e.g., in the sistent use of the bar-line is of relatively
"PalestineSong" and in Hans Sachs's recent date. Original bar-lines appear first

"Morgenweise" [EiBM, no. 9]. It may in the German organ tablatures of the
be noted that in pieces such as the first i5th century (Ileborgh, 1448; Paumann,
movement of Bach's cantata mentioned 1452). In the 1 6th century they were al-
above the Barform of the chorale ("Wa- most universally employed for the writing
chet auf") leads to a structure which is down of keyboard and lute music. Their
quite similar to that of sonata-form. See use frequently differed considerably from
also *Binary and ternary form. that of the present day, however, as ap-
A. Lorenz has tried to show (with ques- pears from the accompanying Example i
tionable success) that the Barform is the (Pisador, Libro de musica de vihucla,
in R. Wag- 1552: "Pavana myllana"), in which the
leading principle of structure
original barring is given on the staff, the The term baroque (probably from Port.
modern barring below the staff. [For a barrocco, a pearl of irregular form) was
similar example cf. ApMZ ii, 21; cf. also used formerly, and still is today, in a de-
y 653.] In ensemble (vocal) mu- cidedly depreciatory sense, as meaning
"grotesque," "in corrupt taste" [cf. Web-
ster], "overladen with scroll-work," etc.
Fine Arts was based
Its application to the
on the opinion (Jacob Burckhardt) that
17th-century style in architecture and
paintings was a debased Renaissance style.
This opinion, however, was thoroughly
revised about 1900 by Heinrich Wolfflin,
who was the first to point out the positive
contributions and the great artistic quali-
itPisador; 2: Josquin ties of Baroque art, and to vindicate the
sic the bar-line was not introduced until term Baroque from any implication of in-
toward the end of the i6th century, when feriority. More recently, musical historians
the notation in single parts gave way to have followed suit and have adopted the
notation in score arrangement. The arias term alongside others such as *Renais-
of the jyth century frequently show the sance, *Gothic, *Rococo [see *History of
anomalous use of the bar-line referred to Music]. In view of this situation, the re-
sistance which the term "Baroque music"
above, i.e., the disregard of upbeat or of

triple time; in other words, the employ- is still

encountering in some circles is
ment of the bar-line as a means of simple hardly justified. If understood properly,
orientation rather than as an indication of this term has the advantage of placing an

accent [cf. the explanations and examples important and well-defined period of mu-
in RiHM ii.2, 12, etc.].
sic history within the
general frame of cul-
Modern editors of polyphonic music of tural development, and of avoiding the

the 1
5th and i6th centuries have increas- emphasis on a special feature of somewhat
ingly resented the "tyranny of the bar- secondary importance which is implied
line" and have tried to make this indis- in the term "thorough-bass period" a
term which, by the way, does not prop-
pensable device of modern notation less
conspicuous by replacing it by apostro- erly include one of the most important
branches of 17th-century music, namely,
phes: ', by punctuated lines: [, or by the
that for organ and harpsichord.
Mensurstrich, i.e., a line drawn between,
not through, the staves [Ex. 2, from Jos- Both the beginning and the end of the
music are rather
quin, Ave Christe, immolate]. Unfortu- Baroque period in clearly
nately, the Mensurstrich is impracticable defined, much more so than those of most
if different meters other the Renais-
(mensurations) are periods, particularly
used in different parts, e.g., %
against %,
with the
Baroque music starts about 1600,
a practice which is not infrequent in the rise of monody, opera, oratorio,

period of Obrecht and Josquin, and still cantata, recitative, and closes 150 years
more frequent in the compositions of the later, with the death of Bach and Handel.
late *Ars nova. Preparatory phenomena are, on the one
Lit.: W. H. Cummings, "Bar-lines" hand, the *ballettos and *villanellas with
their reaction against the Flemish
(Musical Times, 1904, p. 574); Th.Wieh- po-
mayer, in ZMW
vii; H. Keller, in ZMW lyphony, and on the other hand, the style
vii; WoHN1^27; ApNPM, passim.
of the *Venetian School
(G. Gabrieli),
the pomp and splendor of which exceed
Baroque po^pic.
The music of the pe- the limitations of true Renaissance art
riod following upon that of
c. 1 600^1750, and foreshadow the aesthetic basis of
the *Renaissance. It is also frequently re- Baroque style. It may be noticed that
ferred to as the "thorough-bass period." throughout the i7th century the tradition
persisted to some the early *canzona as well as in the solo-
of Renaissance music
extent in the *Roman School, and that, tutti alternation of the *concerto
on the other hand, a new period, the and in the *echo-effects of vocal and of
*Rococo, had already begun when Bach organ music. Other basic conceptions of
and Handel were writing their greatest Baroque music are *improvisation and
masterpieces, the true culmination points "ornamentation. Lastly, mention must
of Baroque music. be made of the final establishment of tonic
Generally speaking, the Baroque period and dominant as the principal chords of
is an era of ecstasy and exuberance, of harmony and, about 1650 (Carissimi), of
dynamic tensions and of sweeping ges- four-measure phrases [see *Vierhebig-
tures, an era of longing and of self-denial, keit].
much in contrast to the assuredness and At the beginning ofthe iyth century
self-reliance of the Renaissance. It is the we find three great figures still rooted in
period in which men liked to consider the tradition of the Renaissance but in-
this life as the "vale of tears," in which augurating the novel trends of Baroque
the statues of the Saints look rapturously music, namely, Monteverdi, G. Gabrieli,
toward heaven, in which the clouds and and Sweelinck. They may be considered
the infinite landscape were discovered. as the sources of three main streams run-
Much of this attitude is reflected in the ning through Baroque music, that is,

expressive melodies of the lyth century, vocal, instrumental, and organ music, to
in its long coloraturas, in its pathetic reci- which, in turn, the three styles mentioned
tative, its frequent use of chromaticism, above can be roughly coordinated, name-
its capricious rhythms. Particularly the ly, accompanied melody, concerto style,

early Baroque music (prior to 1650) and contrapuntal style.

shows, in its *canzonas and *toccatas, The of these streams, starting in

striking traits of capriciousness, exuber- Florence (Caccini, Peri, later Monte-

ance, and irregularity, while later compos- verdi), produces the *monodic style with
ers such as Carissimi and Corelli brought the *recitative and *aria, and with the
about a trend towards greater restraint composite forms of the *cantata, *opera,
and regularity of style. On the other and *oratorio (*passion). The second,
hand, the structural, or, as one might call "Venetian," stream finds its realization
it, the architectural element in Baroque in the instrumental *canzona, the violin
music must not be overlooked. More than *sonata, the trio-sonata in its two varie-
any other period, the i7th century has ties, *sonata da chiesa and *sonata da
contributed toward the development and camera, and in the orchestral forms of the
establishment of clearly defined types *concerto grosso [see also *Concerto III],
and forms, such as the ostinato-forms, the the French "overture, and the *sinfonia.
variations, the suite, the sonata, the da- The last stream, starting with Sweelinck
capo the rondo, the concerto, the
aria, and Frescobaldi, but continuing chiefly in
opera, the oratorio, the cantata. Germany (Scheidt, Froberger, Buxtehude,
From the point of view of style, Ba- Pachelbel, Kuhnau, Muffat, Fischer,
roque music is characterized chiefly by Bach), leads to the *fugue, *organ chorale
the thorough-bass technique, leading to a (choral prelude), "toccata, and *suite
texture of two principal contours, melody (the latter also in France).
and bass, with the intervening space being Lit.: R. Haas, Die Musi\ des Baroc{
by improvised harmony. In Ger-
filled in (BiiHM, 1928) ;LaMWC, passim] AdHM
many, however, the contrasting style of i, 411-700; RiHM ii.3; W. Flemming,

true polyphony not only persisted but Oper und Oratorium im Barocl^ (1933);
reached, in Bach, its very acme of perfec- P. Nettl, Musil(batoc\ in Bohmen und
tion and greatness. Athird principle of Mahren ( 1927) E. Wellesz, Die Anfange

the stile concertante, that des musitylischen Barock * n Wien

Baroque style is
is, contrasting effects, a principle which (1922); W. D. Allen, "Baroque Histories
expressed itself in the abrupt changes of of Music" (MQ xxv); E. Schenck, "Ucber

Begriff und Wesen des musikalischen Base viol. Same as bass viol. See *Viol
Barock" (ZMW xvii); E. Wellesz, "Ren- II.
aissance Barock" (Z/M xi); Th.
^und Basis. Fifteenth- and 16th-century hu-
Kroyer, "Zwischen Renaissance und Ba-
rock" (IMP xxxiv); C. Sachs, in JMP
manistic name for bass.

xxvi; A. della Corte, in LRM vi; id., in Bass [Gr. basis, foundation], (i) The
*Editions XXIV B, 3/4. lowest of men's voices [see * Voices, range

Barpyknon. See *Pyknon. of]. (2) German name (abbreviation

of Kontrabass) for the double-bass. (3)
Barre [F.]. Bar-line. See also *Barrer. In connection with instruments, the term
indicates the lowest and, consequently,
Barrel organ. See *Mechanical instru-
ments II. largest type of the family, e.g., bass clari-
net. (4) In musical composition, the
Barrer [F.]. Term and guitar
of lute lowest of the parts. In the styles of the
playing, calling the simultaneous
for 1 8th and ipth centuries the bass adopts

shortening of the vibratory length of sev- special significance as the determining

eral or all strings by putting the forefinger factor of the harmonic structure [see
across them. An
artificial substitute is the *Harmonic analysis]. The special role of
*capotasto [F. barre], the bass particularly conspicuous in the

and theory of *thorough-bass.

Bartered Bride, The (Prodand Nc- practice
For the origin of the bass, see *Contra-
Comic opera by Bedric Smetana
(1824-84), text by Karel Sabina, com-
posed in 1866. It has been widely sung Bassa [It., low], Ottava bassa (abbrevi-
outside of Czechoslovakia in the German ated 8va bassa) means the lower octave of
translation, as Die verfaufte Braut. It the written notes. Con 8va bassa means
describes an episode from ipth-century
doubling of the written notes in the lower
Bohemian peasant life, centering around octave.
the love of Yenyit^ (Hans, Tenor) and
Bassadanza See *Basse danse.
Marhen\a (Maria, Soprano). The for- [It.].

mer agrees to give up his right to Mar- Bass-bar. In violins, etc., a strip of
henka's hand for a sum of money, under wood glued inside the table, about n in.
the condition that she, marry "the son of
long and diminishing at either end. Its
Micha" whomeverybody believes to be function to support the left foot of the
the stuttering Vazhe^ (Wenzel, Tenor).
bridge and to spread over the table the
In the last scene, however, Yenyik is re- vibrations of the bridge produced by those
vealed as Micha's eldest son, so the "sales- of the strings.
contract" is fulfilled to everyone's satis-
Bass clef. See *Clefs.

The Bartered Bride is one of the first Bass-course. See *Course.

and also one of the most successful exam-
Basse [F.]. Basse chiffre, or continue,
ples of national opera. It is unparalleled
means thorough-bass; basse contrainte,
in its display of gay spirit and rustic hu-
mor and in times of political oppression ground (basso ostinato); basse profonde,
has contributed immensely to stimulate chantante, faille, see Voices, Range of;
Czech basse jondamentale, *Fundamental bass;
basse-a-piston, *Euphonium.
Baryton. (i) See *Viol IV, 5. -(2)
In French ancl German usage, *baritone Basse danse. A
French dance of the
(voice); als0i4$d *** connection with in- period 1450-1550 which it plays a
struments, tjgff Barytonhorn (euphoni- prominent role as the ceremonial court
um), Baryty^boe, etc. (3) In German dance of the Burgundian culture [see
usage, short fcjr Barytonhorn, i.e., *eupho- *Burgundian School]. The name (bos,
nium. low) probably refers to the gliding or

walking movement of the feet, in contrast preserved in the lute books of Petrucci
to the jumping movements in dances (1507/9). Some of the dances in Kotter's
such as the gaillarde (danse haute, dansc tablature of 1515 evidently belong to the

sautee). Various sources from c. 1480 to same class, e.g., his "Spanieler" [see Me-
1580, theoretical, choreographic, and mu- rian's Der Tanz . . .]. Certain of the

sical,together with many paintings of the

I5th century [cf.,e.g.,#<fMM#, 179, 195],
provide information about this dance. Of
particular interest are two choreographic
sources, the MS Brussels 90^5 [see Lit.,
Closson] and a book L'Art et instruction
de bien dancer printed before 1496. These

basse danses in Attaingnant's book for en-

semble are "a double employ," i.e., they
are so written that they can be played in
(slow) duple time as well as in (quicker)
thus serving both as dance and
triple time,
contain illustrations such as are repro- "after-dance" [see *Nachtanz]. Around
duced here [Ex. ij, the notes of which
1525 the chief vogue of the French basse
probably represent a melodic skeleton, danse was succeeded by that of the Span-
giving only the chief note for each meas- ish *pavane. See *Dance music II.
ure (to be played on a trombone?), with Lit.: E. Closson, Le Manuscript dit
the real melody provided (extempo- "Des Basses danses" (1912; facsimile
. . .

rized?) by a melodic instrument, viol or ed.); L'Art et Instruction de Bien Dancer

recorder [for an example of such a "tenor-
by the Royal College of Physi-
(facs. ed.
dance" see W. Merian, Der Tanz in den cians ofLondon, 1936); F. Blume, Stu-
deutschen Tabulaturbuchern des 16. Jahr- dien zur Vorgeschichte der Orchester-
hunderts (1927), p. 44]. The letters Suite (1925); E. Closson, in SIM xiv; O.
underneath the notes indicate dancing Gombosi, "About Dance and Dance Mu-
steps. Nineteen (sic)
basse danses for lute sic in the Late Middle-Ages" (MQ xxvii);
are preserved in P. Attaingnant's publica- E. Hertzmann, in ZMW
xi; C. Sachs, in
tion: Dixhuit basses danses garnies de re- AM Hi, no. 3. Examples in HAM, nos.
coupes et tordions (1529); others for key- 102, 104; SchGMB no 90; ApMZ ii.

board in his Quatorze gaillards, et deux

. . .

basse danses (1530); and for ensemble in Basse d'harmonie [F.]. *Ophicleide.
his Neuf basse danses, deux branles. . .
Basset horn. See *Clarinet family III.
en musique en quatre parties (1530).
Frequently the basse danse is followed by Bassetto, bassett, bassettl. Eight-
a recoupe and a tordion, thus forming an eenth-century name for the violoncello.

early type of suite. The

basse danse is in
Bassflote [G.]. (i) Bass-flute. (2)
moderate tempo, usually in duple time
Eighteenth-century name for bassoon.
[Ex. 2], although there also exist a num-
ber of examples in slow triple time [Ex. 3; Bass horn. See under *Cornett.
the meter of
regarding a controversy on Bassist [G.], bassist^ [It.]. A bass
the basse danse cf. ApNMP, 67]. The
have been singer.
latter variety would seem to

favored in Italy since several dances in Bass lute, Basslaute [G.]. The *chi-

slow triple meter called bassa danza are tarrone, or the *theorboe.


Basso [It.]. Bass. Basso continue, i.e., are of a rather limited artistic value, the
thorough-bass; basso seguente is an instru- quality is even lower in the numerous
mental bass (organ, etc.), which merely battle pieces (mostly English) of the i8th

duplicates the lowest vocal part [cf. RiHM century, some of which actually prescribed
11,2,75f]; basso profondo, cantante, see the firing of guns at certain moments.
*Voices, range of. Franz Kotzwara's Battle of Prague ( 1788)
is still known today. Beethoven made a
Basson [F.]. Bassoon. Basson quinte contribution to this repertory in his "Bat-
isa smaller bassoon, also called tenoroon.
tle Symphony," Wellington's Sieg oder
Basson russe, *Russian bassoon.
die Schlacht bei Vittoria (op. 91, 1813,
Bassoon. See *Oboe family I, C. publ. 1816). Cf. R. Glasel, Zur Geschich-
tc der Battaglia (Diss. Leipzig 1931); E.
Basso ostinato. See *Ground. Also Bienenfeld, in Z1M viii; K. G. Fellerer,
under *Ostinato. in DM xxxii.7.
Basso ripieno [It.]. In iSth-century
Battement [F.]. French 17th-century
orchestral works, a bass part for the tutti-
term for any ornament consisting of an
(*ripieno-) passages only, i.e., not for the
alternation of two adjacent tones, e.g.,
solo sections.
mordent, trill, vibrato.
Bassschltissel [G.]. TheF-clef.
Batterie [F.]. (i) The percussion
Bass viol. Properly (i7th century) the group of the orchestra. (2) A drum
viola da gamba [see *Viol II], Today, roll. (3) Eighteenth-century name for
name for the double bass, a descendant of arpeggio, broken-chord figures, *Alberti-
the old double-bass viol [see *Viol IV, i] .
basses, etc. (4) A
way of playing the
guitar by striking the strings.
Bathyphone. *See Clarinet family III.

Battery. See *Batterie (3).

Baton. The stick used by the conductor
of an orchestra to beat time. The modern Battle pieces. See *Battaglia.
baton is made
of tapered wood or some
other light material, such as aluminum, Battuta [It.]. Beat. A battuta indicates

celluloid, or lucite. The length varies

a return to time after some deviation

from 15 to 28 inches. See *Conducting. (ad libitum, a piacere, etc.). In particular,

battuta means the strong beat at the be-
Battaglia [It., battle]. Name for pro- ginning of a measure; hence ritmo di tre
grammatic pieces (battle pieces) in which (quattro) battute indicates that three
die fanfares, drum rolls, cries, and general (four) measures are to be grouped to-
commotion of a battle are imitated. This gether in a phrase (cf. the Scherzo of
was a favored subject of *program music Beethoven's Ninth Symphony).
from the i6th through the i8th centuries,
the earliest example being Jannequin's Bay Psalm Book. A
book of psalms,
vocal chanson La Guerre
(1529), which published in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
was suggested by the famous battle of in 1640 (the second book printed in

Marignano, 1515 [repr. in *Editions XVI North America). It had numerous later

(7); see also GD

Hi, 462]. This battle editions for over one hundred years. In
and that of Pavia (1525) were the subject 1690 music (in two parts) was added for
of numerous battaglias of the i6th cen- twelve tunes. See *Psalter; *American
tury, e.g., by Hans Neusidler [1535; cf. music I. Example in HAM, no. 283.
DTOe i8.ii]a&d by William Byrd [cf.
See *Festi-
o^e^ ed. by H. An- Bayreuther Festspiele.
drews] la similar pieces vals III; *Biihne (Buhnenweihfestspiel).
f9pi7& century

were writtdBw Adriano Banchieri [cf. BBb bass. See *Tuba (2).
ApMZ i], by jfohann Kaspar Kerll [DTB
2.ii], and others. Although these pieces B.C. Short for *basso continuo.

Be [G.]. The sign b. will disappear if the two strings are in
perfect unison [sec the illustration Inter-
Beak flute. *Recorder.
ference, p. 14], This phenomenon is,
therefore, of fundamental importance in
Bearbeitung [G.]. Arrangement.
*tuning. Slow beats such as two to four
Beat [F. temps\ G. Zahlzeit, Schlag\ It. to the second are not unpleasant to the car.
In certain organ stops (Voix celeste and
battuta]. (i) The temporal unit of a
composition, as is indicated by the (real
Unda maris; see *Vox coelestis) beats arc
or imaginary) up-and-down movements deliberately introduced by using two
of a conductor's hand. In modern prac- pipes slightly out of tune, in order to give
the combined tone an undulating quality.
tice, the duration of such a beat varies
from M.M. 50 to M.M. 140, with M.M. 80 Beats of 5 or 6 per second produce a dis-

being a middle speed. In moderate tempo, tinctly less pleasant result, and the dis-
the % measure includes four beats, beat agreeableness of the effect increases until
the number of beats is c. 30. From there
one and beat three being strong, the oth-
ers weak, while the %
measure has three on the unpleasantness diminishes because
beats, only the first of which is strong. In
the beats rapidly become too quick to be

quick tempo, there will be only two or distinguished. This phenomenon is the
even only one beat to the measure. In basis of Helmholtz* theory of *consonance

music prior to 1600, the beat was of much and dissonance. See also Combination
less variable duration [see *Tactus, *Tem- tones.

pus]. Bebization. See *Solmization.

(2) A lyth-century English ornament
which may be performed in two ways, Bebung [from G. bebcn, to tremble; F.
depending on whether it is a plain beat balancement}. A *vibrato effect peculiar
(indicated by an ascending oblique line to the *clavichord, the action of which

placed before or over the written note) or allows for a repeated pressure motion of
a shaded beat (indicated by a wavy line the finger without releasing the key, a
resembling the French sign for the trill). motion which causes the tangent mo-
The plain beat is an inferior appoggia- mentarily to increase the tension of the
tura performed on the beat and of flexible string and which thus leads to slight vari-
duration. The shaked beat consists of ations of pitch. C. P. E. Bach, in his Ver-
several rapid repetitions of the appoggia- such uber die wahrc Art das Clavier zu
tura and its resolution, beginning with spielen (1753), considers the Bebung as a
the former, so that it resembles an in- great advantage of the clavichord over the
verted trill. In the i8th century the name harpsichord and the pianoforte, both of
beat is often applied to the ornament which lack this effect. It is indicated by
commonly known as the *mordent. P. A. the sign shown in Example i. [Cf. C. P. E.
(3) See *Beats.
Beats [F. battemcnts\ G. Schwcbungen]. r
An acoustical phenomenon, resulting from
the interference [see * Acoustics VI] of Bach's ProbestucJtfy published as Seeks
two sound-waves of slightly differing fre- Sonaten by E. Doflein, Ed. Schott, no.
quencies. It is heard as minute, yet
clear- 2353]. The Bebung is mentioned in the
of the sound theoretical writings of Printz (1668),
ly audible, intensifications
at regular intervals. The number per Mattheson (1735), Marpurg (1750),
second of these intensifications, or beats, C. P. E. Bach, and many later authors. The
is equal to the difference of frequency of sign, however, does not occur in, the litera-
the two tones. Thus, a tone of 440 cycles ture for the clavichord 'before' Bach.
will make four beats per second with a The reference in many musical books
tone of 444; three, with a tone of 443; two, to certain passages in Beethoven and
with 442; one, with 441; and the beats Chopin as Bebung is misleading. An
effectsuch as illustrated in Example 2 Bel canto [It., beautiful singing]. The

(Beethoven, Piano Sonatas opp. 106 and term denotes the Italian vocal technique

no; also op. 69, op. 59, no. 2, op. 133 for of the 1 8th century with its emphasis on
violin) a (slow) *tremolo (ondule),
is beauty of sound and brilliancy of perform-
not a vibrato. See *Tie. ance, rather than dramatic expression or
Romantic emotion. In spite of the re-
Bee [F.] . The mouthpiece of the clarinet
peated reactions against the bel canto
or recorder [see *Mouthpiece (b), (d)].
(Gluck, Wagner) and in spite of the fre-
BScarre [F.]. See *Accidentals. quent exaggeration of its virtuoso ele-
ment (coloraturas), it must be considered
Becken [G.]. *Cymbals 1 as a highly artistic technique and as the

only proper one for Italian opera and for

Bedachtig [G.]. Thoughtfully, with
Mozart. Itsearly development is closely
bound up with that of the Neapolitan
Bedeutend [G.]. With importance. opera (Al. Scarlatti, Porpora, Jommelli,
Hasse, Piccinni). See *Singing I.
Bedrohlich [G.]. Menacingly. Lit.: G. B. Lamperti, Technics of Bel
Canto (New York); H. Klein, The Bel
Be fa, Befa. See *Hexachord III.
Canto (1923); H. Goldschmidt, Die Ita-
Beggar's Opera, The. See under *Bal- lienische Gesangsmethode des ij. Jahr-
lad opera. hunderts (1892); B. Ulrich, Die alt-
italienische Gesangsmethode (1933); G.

Begleitung [G.]. Accompaniment. Silva, "The Beginnings of the Art of Bel

Canto" (MQ viii).
Behaglich [G.]. Comfortably, agree-
ably. Belebend [G.]. Becoming animated.
Behend [G.]. Nimbly, quickly. Belebt [G.]. Animated.

Beherzt "With coura- Belgian music. The present article

[G.]. heart,"
deals with the musical history of the Cath-
olic (southern, Flemish) part of the Low

Beisser [G., "biter"]. Eighteenth-cen- Countries, as distinguished from that of

tury name for the *mordent [from L. the Protestant (northern, Dutch) part,
morderc, to bite]. the Netherlands. The highly important
role which Belgium played in the earlier
Bel [from Alexander Graham Bell]. A history of music is greatly obscured by the
scientific unit for the measurement of name "Netherlands School" which is
loudness, i.e., the subjective reaction to widely used for a school of i5th- and 16th-
intensity of sound. Loudness varies with century composers nearly all of whom
the logarithm of intensity; this means came from Belgium [see *Flemish
that 20 violins playing with equal indi- School]. This great period during which
vidual intensities are only 1.3 times louder
Belgian musicians held leading positions
than 10, and 100 violins only twice as everywhere in Europe was followed, after
loud as 10 (log 20=1.301; log 100 = 2). 1600, by a long period of low ebb. Only
One-tenth of a bel is called a decibel (db); in the field of organ music did Belgium
this represents the smallest change in produce composers of some historical sig-
loudness that the ear can detect. The nificance, e.g., Charles Luython (c. 1550-
sounds used in poetical music vary from 1620), Pieter Cornet (fl. 1600-25), Gio-
c. 25 db (so^st -.violin tone) to 100 db vanni dc Macque (d. 1614; see *Neapoli-
(fortissimo' M
the full orchestra). Cf.
f tan School II), Charles Guillet (d. 1654),
John Miilsi^Fuguff in Cycles and Eels Abraham Kerckhoven (c. 1627 after
(1935); Stwns and Davis, Hearing 1673), Jean-Baptiste Loeillet (1680-1730),
(i938),pp/4$of!, and Joseph-Hector Fiocco (1703-41)
[see ^Editions XVII]. While the latter Lit.: Fl. van der Mueren, Vlaamschc
two followed the trends of the French Muzie^ en Componisten (1931); LavE
Rococo (F. Couperin), the next Belgian i.3, i8i5ff; Ch.
van den Borren, "The
composer to be mentioned, Francois General Trends in Contemporary Belgian
Gossec (1734-1829) belongs to the Music" (MQ vii); id., "Belgian Music
*Mannheim group, and the slightly and French Music" (MQ ix); ii, AdHM
younger Andre Gretry (1741-1813) plays 1074-77.
an important role in the history of the
French opera (Richard Coeur de Lion, Bell, (i) A percussion instrument of
1784; see ^Leitmotif). It should be noted metal sounded by a clapper usually
that Belgium has a certain claim to one placed inside the bell. The best alloy for
of the greatest composers, namely Bee- bells is 76 per cent pure copper and
24 per
thoven, whose ancestors lived near Ant- cent pure tin. Sometimes small amounts
werp and Mecheln [cf. P. Bergmans, Les of zinc or lead are added. The tone of a

Origines beiges de Beethoven (1927); well tuned bell is characterized by a great

E. Closson, L'Element flamand dans number of overtones which, in old bells
Beethoven (1928)]. (chiefly those of the Continent), are
In the 19th-century music of Belgium, slightly out of tune; owing to the efforts
Cesar Franck (1822-90) is by far the most of English bell-founders (especially, Tay-

important personality. Like Tchaikov- lor of Loughborough), modern English

sky, he adhered to the conception of music bells havefive overtones (including the
as an international language, while Pierre minor, not the major, third) tuned with
Benoit (1834-1901) played a role com- absolute accuracy. The pitch of a bell

parable to that of Moussorgsky, namely, varies inversely with the cubic root of its
that of the initiator of national music, weight. Therefore, if a bell weighing
freed from German as well as French in- 100 pounds sounds c'" (the actual tone
fluence. He is particularly important in is nearer b"), a bell of 800 pounds
the field of the oratorio and of the cantata. ( \ 8 = 2) will be needed for the tone of

Among his successors Jan Blockx (1851- the half frequency, c", one of 6,400 for c',
1912) and Edgar Tinel (18541912) of 51,200 pounds for c, and of 409,600
must be mentioned especially. Paul Gil- pounds for C. The largest bell ever
son (b. 1865) adopted some elements of founded was the Tsar Kolokol of the
Russian music and is particularly known Kremlin of Moscow (1734, destroyed by
for his symphonic poem La Mer (1892). fire in 1737) which, after the best estima-
A composer who in a very short life wrote tion,weighed c. 500,000 pounds, and
several works of great promise was Guil- measured over 20 feet in diameter. The
laume Lekeu (1870-94). Joseph Jongen largest bell in existence is the Trotzkoi,
(b. 1873) was active mainly in the field also in Moscow, weighing c. 350,000
of symphonic and of chamber music. The pounds. Old bells in France and in Ger-
novel trends of 20th-century music have many weigh from 20,000 to 40,000
found little response in Belgium. Paul de pounds. Large modern bells usually
Maleingreau (b. 1887) is the main repre- weigh from 5,000 to 15,000 pounds. The
sentative of neo-classical tendencies based use of bells in churches can be traced back
on Bach. to the 6th century (Gregory of Tours,

Belgium has produced a number of c. 560); the earliest record of large bells

outstandingmusic historians, notably in England dates from the loth century

Francois Fetis (1784-1871), Charles (Turketyl, Abbot of Croyland); the earli-

Coussemaker (1805-76; see *Scriptores), estpreserved bells are to be found in Italy
Pierre van Maldeghem (1810-93; pub- and in Germany (nth century).
lished La Trtsor musicale), Edmund van Three ways of sounding church bells
der Straeten (1826-95; La Musiquc aux are distinguished: (a) chiming, in which
the rope moves the bell just sufficiently
Pays-Bas, 1867-88), and Charles van den
Borren (b. 1874). for the clapper to strike it; (b) ringing,
in which the bell is swung round full Belly. The upper plate of the resonant
circle, thus giving a more vigorous sound; box in violins, lutes, etc. Also the *sound-
(c) clocking, in which the clapper is board of the piano.
moved instead of, as usual, the bell a
method which should not be used since
Be mi, Bemi. See *Hexachord III.

it is likely to cause the bell to crack. Bemol [F.], bemolle [It.]. Flat. Sec
Whereas in continental Europe church *Pitch names; "Accidentals.
sounded in such a way as to pro-
bells are
duce a confused musical noise, the Eng- Benedicamus Domino. A salutation

lish bells are in succession according Roman liturgy, with

of the the response
to certain elaborate Deo gratias. It is used occasionally at the
systems so that a
end of *Mass [cf. GR, 18*, 55*, etc.], and
"melody" produced. This method is

known as "change ringing. See also *Ca- at the end of all Offices. For the latter

rillon; *Campana. purpose various melodies (toni) are pro-

The has been frequently re-
bell effect vided [cf. AR, 58*]. The Benedicamus
Domino plays a most important role in the
quired in orchestral works, the earliest
known example being the two bells (prob- history of early polyphony (Schools of St.
Martial and Notre Dame; see *Ars an-
ably an organ stop) in Bach's solo-cantata
Schlage dock gewunschte Stunde. In the tiqua; *Organum) since its melodies,
modern orchestra real bells are not used especially the first one given in the An-

(because of their lack of definiteness in tiphonarium, have been very frequently

used as the tenor of organa in two or three
pitch), but are replaced by the "tubular
bells" (*chimes; see also *Bells), i.e., a parts. In fact, the entire history of early
number (7 to 10) of cylindric metal tubes polyphony could easily and, no doubt,
of different lengths, hung in a frame and quite instructively, be demonstrated by
struck with a hammer. Debussy's "La means of the numerous pieces written on
Cathedrale engloutie" and Busoni's "So- this tenor [cf. HAM, nos. 28a-i]. Cf.
natina in Diem Nativitatis Christi" con- alsoH. Schmidt, "\Drei Benedicamus Or-
tain bell effects produced on the piano- gana (1933); AdHMy 179; ReMMA, 266;
forte. See also *Campanella. BeMMR, ApNPM, passim.
Lit.: Tyack, A Boo\ about Bells
G. S.
Benediction. An extra-liturgical popu-
(1898); J. J. Raven, The Bells of England lar service of the Roman Catholic Church,
( 1906) S. N. Coleman, The Boo^ of Bells
usually following Vespers and including

(1938; bibl.); G. Morrison, Bells Their

the blessing of the congregation with the
History and Romance (1932); W. W. Host. "Tantum ergo" and "O salutaris
Starmer, "Bells and Bell Tones" (PMA hostia" are the most important
"On hymns of
xxvii); H. Bewerunge, the Tuning Benediction [cf. AR, 88*].
of Bells" (ZIM vii); J. Biehle, "Die
Analyse des Glockenklangs" i). (AMW Benedictus Dominus Israel. The
(2) The bell-shaped opening of wind canticle [see *Canticum] of Zacharias.
instruments such as the horn or the trum- (Note that Benedictus alone will nearly

pet. always refer to *Bencdictus qui venit.)

Bell harp. A sort of psaltery invented Benedictus (qui venit). Second part
of the Sanctus of the Mass. In Mass com-
c.1700 by John Simcock. It took its name
from the bell-shaped form of its frame. positions it is usually treated as a separate
Cf. SaRM, movement [see *Mass III],

Bequadro [It.]. Natural, the natural

Bell-lyra. ^Glockenspiel. See * Accidentals.

Bells, for the orchestral Berceuse [F.]. Lullaby. Usually the

^Percussion instru- name refers to instrumental pieces (piano,
ments A, 2]. orchestra) in moderate 6/8 time, and
with an accompaniment reminiscent of fixed form of French poetry, similar in
the rocking of a cradle. The most famous construction to the *virelai, but with one
example is Chopin's op. 57. stanza only. Such bergerettes occur in the
Kopenhagen Chasonnier [ed. by K. Jep-
Bergamasca. (i) In the i6th and
pesen] and in the *Odhecaton. Cf. H.
centuries a popular tune from the district
Hewitt, Harmonice Musices Odhecaton
of Bergamo in northern Italy whose peas-
A ( 1942), pp. 49f (3) In the i6th cen-
ant inhabitants were proverbial for their
tury the name occurs as a title for instru-
clumsiness and backwardness. Fresco-
mental dances in quick triple time, simi-
baldi (Fiori musically 1635) used this
lar to the saltarello. Cf. RiML,
as a theme of one of
most elab-his 155.
orate canzonas, adding the remark: "Chi German for Berg-
Berg(k)reyen [old
questa Bergamasca sonara, non pocho im- rcigen, -dance of a mountainous country].
parera" (He who plays this Bergamasca Name of various 16th-century collections
will learn a good deal). Jean-Baptiste of songs from German mountainous
Besard [cf. O. Chilesotti, in RMC i, 145] countries (Silesia, Thuringia), composed
and Samuel Scheidt [cf. G. Harms, in two or more parts, in simple note-
Scheldt's WerJ(e, vol. 5] used its scheme
against-note style (E. Rotenbucher, 1551;
of harmonies for continuous variations Melchior Franck, 1602). Therefore, "in
similar to a chaconne, except for the duple
Bergreyenweis" ("in the manner of a B.")
is a 16th-century expression slightly
pejorative for simple chordal style
(*familiar style).
Bergomaska. See *Bergamasca.
time. The same melody occurs, with
modifications, in Salomone Rossi's Berkshire Festivals. See *Festivals.
"Varie Senate . ." (1623) and in

Berlin School. Collective designation

Marco Uccellini's "Sonate, sinfonie, . . ."
Two for agroup of composers, also known as
(1642). simple settings for the gui- Norddeutsche Schule, who worked in
tar are WoHN ii, 166 and
reproduced in Berlin during the second half of the i8th
1 88. Whether somewhat similar mel-
century. Most of them were connected
ody "Kraut und Ruben haben mich with the court of Frederick the Great
vertrieben," which Bach uses in the final
(1712-86) who, through his numerous
quodlibet of his Goldberg Variations [see flutesonatas and other compositions, con-
Ex. under *Quodlibet] goes back to the
tributed actively to the musical life of his
old Italian melody, as has been frequently
residence. The most important members
claimed, is uncertain. Cf. P. Nettl, in
ZMW v; R. Lach, in Museion, of the group were: Quantz (1697-
J. J.
The is a Johann Gottlieb
1773; flute sonatas, etc.);
(2) 19th-century bergamasca Graun (1702-71; symphonies, trio so-
quick dance in 6/8 time, much like the
*tarantella. Alfredo Piatti (1822-1901),
natas); Karl Heinrich Graun (170359;

a native of Bergamo, wrote a Bergamasca opera Montezuma^ text by Frederick the

Great [DdT 15] and oratorio Der Tod
for cello solo. Debussy's "Suite Berga- Franz Benda (1706-86; violin so-
a free composition based Jesu)\
masque" is upon Bach (1714-
natas, concertos); C. P. E.
impressions from the peasant life of
88); Christoph Nichelmann (1717-62;
Bergamo. Friedrich'
songs, harpsichord sonatas);
Bergerette [F., from berger, shep- Wilhelm Marpurg (171^95; songs; edi-

herd], (i) An 18th-century type of tor of Berlinische Odcn t&J fyedcr^ 1756;
French lyric poetry with a pastoral or numerous theoretical Tbooks); Johann
amorous subject. Cf. J.-B. Weckerlin, Kirnberger (1721-83; songs, Jiarpsichord
Bergercttes (Engl. ed. 1913). (2) In pieces, theoretical books); and Jonann Fr.
the 1 5th century, bergerette denotes a Agricola (1720-74; songs).
While in the field of instrumental Bible regal [G. Bibelregal]. See
music these men, particularly C. P. E. *Regal.
Bach, made significant contributions,
their activity in the field of the *Lied
Biblioteca di Rarita Musicali. See
*Editions III.
(Berliner Liederschule) was largely frus-
trated by the spirit of rationalism and Bicinium [L. bis, twice, and canere, to
the Enlightenment to which Frederick
sing]. A
16th-century name
chiefly used
the Great, a close friend of Voltaire, had in German for vocal compositions in two
given ready admittance. The situation parts.
The Greek synonym diphona oc-

changed when a younger generation, curs also. The bicinia, which form a de-
known as Zweite Berliner Liederschule, lightful contrast to the rich texture
of the
turned from the dry moralism of Gellert late- 16th-century motet, madrigal, etc.,
to the inspiring poems of Klopstock and
represent a little-known treasure of great
the young Goethe. Johann P. A. Schulz artistic value and educational significance.

(1747-1800), Johann F. Reichardt (1752- The most important publications are:

1814), and Karl F. Zelter (1758-1832) G. Rhaw, Bicinia Gallica, Latina et Ger-
are the most important members of this manica (1545; partly republished by K.
group. See *Lied IV; also *Singspiel. Ameln, Barenreiter-Verlag; by Reichen-
The name Berliner Schule is sometimes bach, Verlag Kallmeyer); Kaspar Oth-
restricted to this group.
mayr, Bicinia Sacra (1547; partly republ.
Lit.: AdHM, 6998; M. Friedlander, by Lipphardt, Bar. V.); Erasmus Roten-
Das deutsche Lied im 2
18. Jahrhundert, bucher, Diphona amoena et florida
vols. (1902); Flueler, Die norddeutsche (1549); Seth Calvisius, Biciniorum libri
Sinfonie (Diss. Berlin 1910); H. Hoff- duo (1599, 1612); E. Bodenschatz, Bi-
mann, Die norddeutsche Triosonate . . .
cinia XC
selectissima ... (1615; cf.
(Diss. Kiel 1924); E. Stiltz, Die Berliner SchGMB, no. 163). Outstanding exam-
Klaviersonate zur Zeit Friedrichs des ples are found among the works of Lud-
Grossen (Diss. Berlin 1930); A. Mayer- wig Orlando di Lasso (complete
Reinach, "K. H. Graun als Opernkom- works, vol. i), and Michael Praetor ius
ponist (cpl. works, vol. ix, and passim, cf. HAM,
no. i67b). An Italian publication of
Bersag horn. See *Brass instruments
bicinia is Pietro Vinci, //
primo libro della
musica a due voci (1560). Throughout
Beruhigend [G.]. Calming down. the 1
7th century numerous two-part
Bes [G.]. B-double flat. pieces were written in Italy, under the
name *ricercare [see also invention].
Beschleunigt [G.]. Accelerando. S. Scheidt, in his Tabulatura nova
Beseelt [G.]. (1624), uses the term Bicinium for organ
verses and variations in two voice-parts.
Bestimmt [G.]. With decision.
See *Tricinium.
Betont [G.]. Stressed, accented. Bina. Same as vina [see *Hindu music
Beweglich [G.]. In an agile manner. II].

Bezifferter Bass [G.; Zifftr, figure],

Biniou. See under *Bagpipc.
Figured bass, *thorough-bass.
Binary and ternary form.
I. The
Bfa. See*H9cachordIII. terms signify two basic musical forms,
consisting of two or of three main sections
B.-G. Abbrfe^tion for Bach-Gesell-
respectively. The binary form follows the
schajt [see f&c^s II, 2] .
scheme A B, with each section repeated;
B.-H. AW|^|Ition for Breitkopf und the ternary form (also called: *song
Hartel, pTOH*hers of numerous complete form) follows the scheme Ex- ABA.
editions. amples of the former category abound in
the allemandes, gavottes, etc,, of Bach's is frequently considered a ternary form.
suites, while the latter occurs frequently Such an interpretation, although admis-
in the slow movements of sonatas (e.g., sible from the point of view of program-

Beethoven, Piano Sonata op. 7; op. 10, no. notes, is too much of a "listener's simpli-
Scherzo with Trio, and in prac- fication" to be accepted in serious studies.
3), in the
tically all the ^character pieces of the The main objection against it lies in the
Romantic composers, such as Schu- fact that it does not take into account the
mann's Noveliettes, Chopin's Nocturnes, repetition of the exposition which is al-

Brahms's Fantasias, etc. most invariably prescribed in the works

It should be noticed that binary and of the Viennese classics, including Brahms

ternary forms are not so similar in char-

an oversight for which the blame must
acter as the nomenclature might suggest. be put on our conductors and pianists
In fact, to consider them as analogous who consistently disregard in their per-
formances a feature whose aesthetic im-
forms is
quite misleading. The binary
form is essentially a stylistic and structural portance was clearly recognized by the
entity, a unified whole which, like many great masters of the sonata. Another ob-
phrases in music, falls into two halves, the jection is that in the sonata-form the mid-
second of which forms the logical and dle section (development) is based on the
thematic material of the first section (ex-
necessary completion of the first. The
ternary form, on the other hand, is usu- position), while in true ternary form it
the sum of three single units each of has different and contrasting material.
which is complete in itself. This differ- Finally, the historical development of
harmonic sonata-form clearly shows its derivation
ence is clearly reflected in the
scheme normally found with these forms: from binary schemes, such as were used
in the binary form each section is har- in the dance movements of the suite [see
monically "open," the first leading from
*Sonata-form II], Three such schemes
T to D, the second back from D to T; in can be distinguished: ( i) the symmetrical
the ternary form each section is harmoni- binary form, in which both sections are
cally "closed," beginning and ending
in of equal length; (2) the asymmetrical
the same key, but with a different key
(dominant, relative key, parallel key)
often used for the middle section. Stylis-
tic considerations also corroborate this
m 1 1
r;-f T* 1
fundamental difference: the binary form
uses the same or similar material through-
out, whereas the ternary form uses differ-
ent, frequently contrasting, material for
the middle section. Briefly stated, the
binary form is a continuous form,
ternary, a sectional form. The minuet
(scherzo) with trio of the sonata shows
both forms combined, since the whole
movement is in ternary form, each section
in binary form.
II. The historical development of the
binary form is of particular interest
it includes one of the most important de-

velopments of music history, namely, that

the classical
leading to the sonata-form of
sonata, symphony, etc. Owing to the fact binary form, the secoricFiSfction of which
that this form includes three main sec- is
longer than the first, owing to a "bulg-
tions, the exposition, the development, ing-out" process at its beginning; (3) the
and the recapitulation (= exposition), it rounded binary form 9 which has repetition

(in toto or partially) of the first section at Much attention has been given to the
the end of the second [see Ex. 1-3]. The question as to the relationship between
latter is structurally identical with the bird song and our music. Certainly no
earlier type of sonata-form (Haydn, Mo- most ani-
biological relationship exists, as
zart) in which both sections are repeated. mals do not sing. Whether or not our
The same scheme exists in many dance music developed in imitation of bird song,
movements and other pieces of Bach (e.g., as has been frequently maintained, is a
in the Anglaise from his French Suite no. matter of mere speculation. Although it
3 and in the Prelude in D
of Wt. Cl. ii) is true that bird song has many features

as well as in practically all the minuets in common with primitive folk song (ir-
(scherzos) and trios of the classical pe- regularity, wavering of pitch, microtome
riod. In fact, any of these pieces may well deviations from our scale, improvisation),
serve as an example of sonata-form, show- it should be noticed that this type of folk
ing its main sections in a condensed shape. song exists chiefly in the exotic countries

Regarding a medieval type of binary form (Africa, Asia) where there are no singing
in which the first section only is repeated birds.

(as in the later examples of sonata-form), Lit.: S. P. Cheney, Wood Notes Wild
see *Barform. (1891); F. Schuyler Mathews, Field bool(
III. The principle of ternary structure of Wild Birds and Their Music (1904);
appeared first inthe French chansons of W. Garstang, Songs of the Birds (1922);
the 1 6th century (Jannequin; cf. RiHM A. R. Brand, Songs of Wild Birds (1936;
ii.i, 367). The idea of a contrasting mid- with records); E. M. Nicholson, Songs of
dle section is quite clearly expressed in the Wild Birds (1936; with records); A. A.
shepherd's solo of Monteverdi's Orfeo, Saunders, A Guide to Bird Songs of
1607 [cf. also his famous duet "Pur- North-eastern United States (1935), W.
ti miro" from LTncoronazione, 1642; B. Olds, in MQ
viii. Cf. also William
SchGMB, no. 178]. Ternary form be- Gardiner, The Music of Nature (1832),
came clearly established in the *da-capo chapter XII.
aria, c. 1700. Another realization of the
Bis [F., twice], (i) Same as *encore.
ternary construction exists in the alterna-
(2) Indication that notes or passages
tive use of two dances, the first being re-
* Alterna- should be repeated.
peated after the second [see
tive]. In 19th-century music, the ternary Biscroma [It.]. See *Notes.
form was frequently broadened into a

five-part scheme: ABABA or ABAC A, Bisdiapason [L.]. The interval or

particularly in slow movements of sym- range of two octaves.

phonies [cf., e.g., that of Bruckner's
Sym- Bistropha. See *Neumes I (table).
phony no. 7]. See *Forms, Musical; also
*Rondo. Cf. E. J. Dent, "Binary and Ter- Bitonality. See *Polytonality.
nary Forms" (ML xvii, no. 4).
Bivirga. See *Neumes I (table).
Bind. Same as *tie.
Biwa. The Japanese lute. See *P'ip'a.
Bird song. The song of the being birds,
Bkl. Short for G. Basstyarinette,
practically the only case of "music in

bass clarinet.
nature," has been the subject of innumer-
able studies. Interesting facts are that only Black-bottom. See *Jazz III.
small birds sing, that the best singers
(nightingale, I^fjL thrush, blackbird) are Blackening. Same as *coloration [see
* Mensural notation
unobtrusively*"cragged, that they prefer to
sing in soHtucje aer than in flocks, that
Bladder pipe [G. Platerspiel]. See
only male BVC loud musical voices, under *Bagpipe.
and that goocT singers are found only in
moderate climates. Blanche [F.]. See *Notes.

Blasinstrument [G.]. *Wind instru- suiting formations (blues scale) are a
ment Blasmusi^ music for wind instru- characteristic of the *blues.
Blues. See *Jazz II; *Negro music III;
Blasquinte "blown fifth"]. A
[G., *Blue notes. Cf W. C.
Handy, The Blues

term introduced by E. von Hornbostel for

a fifth of 678 cents, i.e., %
of a whole-
Blumen [G.]. Name for the coloraturas
tone lower than the Pythagorean (pure)
of the *Meistersinger.
or the tempered fifth of 702 or 700 cents
respectively. This interval results if a B.M.V, See *Antiphon (2).
stopped pipe (bamboo) is overblown.
Hornbostel derived from this interval a B mi. See *Hexachord III.

circle of Blasquinten (Blasquintenzir^el) Bmoll [G.]. B-flat minor.

similar to that of the ordinary *circle of
fifth and based on the absolute pitch of Bobisation. See *Solmization III.
the Chinese huang chung [see *Chinese Bocal of a brass in-
[F.]. Mouthpiece
music I], He was able to show that the
tones resulting from this procedure re-
cur in many musical cultures of the Far Bocca chiusa [It.]. Same as *bouche
East and of South America, most clearly ferme. Bocca ridente (laughing mouth)
in the Javanese scale pdog [see * Javanese indicates in singing a smiling position of
music II] Recent studies by M. Bukofzer
the lips.
have shown, however, that the blown fifth
is without physical foundation, and the
Bocedisation. See *Solmization III.

theory of the circle of blown fifths has Bockstriller [G., from Boc\, he-goat].
been contested. See *Tremolo (3).
Lit.: E. M. v. Hornbostel, "Die Mass-
norm kulturgeschichtliches Forsch-
als Boehm clarinet (flute). See *Boehm
ungsmittel" (in Festschrift fur P. W. system; *Clarinet (*Flute).
Schmidt, 1928); id., "Musikalische Ton- Boehm system. A system of keying a
systeme" (in H. Geiger, Handbuch der wood-wind instrument which allows the
PhysiJ^, viii, 1928); R. Lachmann, Musi^ holes to be cut in the proper acoustical
des Orients (1929); M. Bukofzer, in
position and size, and yet to be within the
Zeitschrift fur Physit(, 99 (1936) and in
spread of the average hand. It was in-
Anthropos, 32 (1937). vented around 1830 by the flutist Theo-
Blatt [G.]. Reed. bald Boehm of Munich (1794-1881) to
supersede earlier methods of keying in
Blattspiel ("playing from the sheet"). which the holes were not placed exactly
Sight-reading. from the acoustical point of view, but
in a sort of compromise-position, with
Blechinstrument [G.]. Brass instru-
greater regard to the hand than to the ear.
ment; also called simply Blech.
In spite of its complicated mechanism and

Blechmusik. Music for brass bands.

the fact that it detracts slightly from the
tonal quality of the instrument, it has been
Blockflote [G.]. Blockflute, i.e., "'re- universally adopted in the manufacture
corder. See also under *Whisde. of flutes, and the benefits of the system
have been applied also to oboes, clarinets,
Blue notes. In jazz music, name for and (to a lesser bassoons. Du-
^^roduced which
certain degrees of the scale, mainly the plicate fingerings are
third and the seventh, which are used facilitatepassages pre^tesly impossible,
both natural and flatted (E and Eb, B and and the system has the 4$fea,n,tege of keep-
Bb), and frequently with a deliberately ing different keys more wjfess oii the same
"wrong" intonation in between. The re- level as regards difficulty. The pre-Boehm
types of flutes and oboes are now obsolete, companiment of the castanets and rhythms
but clarinets with the older system are still such as:
used. Cf. H. C. Wysham, The Evolution
of the Boehm Flute ( 1 898)
. W. D. D.
Boethian notation. See *Letter nota-
Probably the earliest extant example is a

Bogen [G.]. The bow of a violin, "Bolero a solo" by Beethoven [cf. W.

etc. (2) TheBogenform, see
tie. Hess, in DM
xxx.i2]. Operatic boleros
occur in Auber's La Muette de Portia and
*Forms, Musical (after A, I). Bogen-
Le Domino noir, and in Weber's Prezi-
juhrung, i.e., bowing. Bogent(lavier9
Bogenflugely see *Sostenente pianoforte.
osa. Particularly famous are Chopin's
Bolero op. 19 for pianoforte, and Ravel's
Boheme, La. Grand opera by Giacomo Bolero for orchestra (1928). The Cuban
Puccini (1858-1924), based on Henri bolero is in 2/4-meter.
Murger's La Vie de Boheme, composed
in 1896. The setting is Paris in the 1840*5,
Bologna School. A
term applied to a
and the opera gives a touching though 17th-century group of instrumental com-
somewhat sentimental description of the posers who were active in Bologna. In-
Bohemian life of young artists, centering cluded among its members are Maurizio
around the love between the poet Rodolfo Cazzati (1620-77), Giov. Battista Vitali
(Tenor) and Mimi (Soprano) who, in (i644?~92), Pietro degli Antonii (1648-
the last act, dies of consumption. The
1720), Giov. Battista Bassani (1657-
lighter side of Bohemian life and love is
1716), Domenico Gabrielli (1658-90),
represented by another couple, Marcel Giov. Battista Borri (?), Giuseppe To-
(Baritone) and Musetta (Soprano). relli (d. 1708), Tommaso Antonio Vitali
The opera, one of the best-known ex- (1665-1747), and Giuseppe Aldrovan-
amples of *Verismo, approximates, in its dini (1665 or 1673-1707). See *History
light texture, clarity of orchestration, and of music V.
lyric style, the French rather than the The Bologna School was important in
typically Italian (Verdi) opera. Interest- the formal development of the *trio so-
ing are the *parallel chords in the opening nata (Cazzati, Bassani, G. B. Vitali), solo
to the second act. R. Leoncavallo wrote violin sonata (degli Antonii, Aldrovan-
an unsuccessful opera on the same subject dini), solo cello sonata (Gabrielli), *con-
in 1897, without knowledge of Puccini's certo grosso (Torelli, Gabrielli), and violin
score. concerto (Torelli). The stylistic contribu-
Bohemian music. See *Czech music. tions of these men were in the direction
of a disciplined formalism, an elegance
Bois [F., wood]. Les bois, the wood of expression, and a pervasive lyricism.
winds. These characteristics, combined with their
deliberate avoidance of virtuosity, were in
Boite de musique [F.]. Musical box.
reaction to the technical exuberance of the
See *Mechanical instruments III.
string composers of the early Baroque,
Bolero. A
Spanish dance said to have Biagio Marini, Carlo Farina, Marco Uccel-
been invented by Sebastian Cerezo, a cele- lini (and their German successors Rosen-
brated dancer of Cadiz, around 1780. It miiller, Walther, Biber), who early de-
is a solo or couple dance including
many veloped such extreme features of violin
brilliant and difficult steps, quick move- playing as col legno, scordatura, sul ponti-
ments, such ^t&jgentrechat of the classi- cello,use of double and triple stops, and
cal ballet, as ^wfeis a sudden stop in a of higher positions (5th and 6th). The
characteristic, irat&n with one arm held Bologna School thus constitutes a lyrical
arched ovfer tb&fiead (bien farado). The interlude between the virtuoso experi-
music is in moderate triple time, with ac- mentation of the early Baroque and the

bravura style of the later Baroque (Vi- Bordun [G.], bordone [It.]. See
valdi, Tartini, Handel). *Bourdon.
The most illustrious proponent of the
Boris Godunov. Opera by Modest
Bologna although not a member
proper of the school,was Arcangelo Co- Moussorgsky (1839-81), produced in
1874; orchestral revision by N. Rimsky-
relli (1653-1713), who studied and
worked at Bologna from 1666 till 1671, Korsakov, 1896. The setting is Moscow
of c. 1600,where Boris Godunov (Bass),
becoming a member of the famous Ac-
cademia Filarmonica of Bologna [see
after having murdered Dmitri, the right-
ful heir to the throne, rules over Russia,
*Accademia] in 1670. His identification
with the Bologna School is evident from but, suffering from a sense of guilt (in
the Prologue he is in a convent in order
the restrained classicism of his style as
to gain expiation), and frightened by the
well as from the title "detto il bolognese"
which appears in his op. i (1681), op. 2 appearance of a "false Dmitri" (the young
monk Gregory, Tenor), finally prays for
(1685), and op. 3 (1689).
Much of the activity of the Bologna forgiveness of his sin and, bequeathing
the crown to his young son Feodor
School centered around the chapel of San
(Mezzo-soprano), dead. falls
Petronio, which was organized by Caz-
Boris Godunov the outstanding mas-
zati in 1657. The reorganization of this
terpiece of Russian national opera. Its
institution, in 1701, in conformity with
musical style is remarkably advanced for
the new Neapolitan taste, probably
the time it was written, and although its
marked the end of the Bologna School.
unconventional boldness aroused great
Lit.: G. Gaspari, La Musica in San Pe-
resentment in professional circles, many
tronio (1868/70); id., Musicisti bolognesi
innovations of a more recent date have
(1875/80); F. Vatielli, Arte e vita mu-
been traced back to this work, e.g., the use
sicalea Bologna (1927); id., ^Antichi
maestri Bolognesi, vol. ii; L. Frati, in
of *parallel chords, of *modality, and
other unorthodox devices. Particularly
RMl xxi, xxiv, xxvi, xxxii. Musical exam-
nos. 228, 241, 257; striking is the prominence of the chorus,
ples in "\SchGMB,
HAM, nos. 219, 244-246; Torchi, "\L Arte
representing the Russian people who, it
has been said, are the real protagonist of
musicale in Italia, vol. vii; J. W. Wasie-
the opera, rather than Boris himself.
Icwski, Die Violine im Jahrhundert
(Instrumentalsdtze, 1905). H. G. Mish- Borre, borry, borea [It.]. See *Bour-
kin, "The Solo Violin Sonata of the Bo- ree.
logna School" (MQ xxix, Jan.). H. G. M.
Boston, valse Boston. An American
Bombarde, bombarda. (i) French ballroom dance which was in vogue
(Italian) name for the *shawm, particu- around 1915. It is in the character of a
larly the bass size of this instrument. In slow waltz, with a more subtle rhythm
Germany, the perverted names Bomhart, and a more sophisticated accompaniment
Pomhart, Pumhart, Pommer, occur. See than the ordinary waltz. In post-war Ger-
*Oboe family III. (2). Same as *bom- many it acquired a prominent position as

bardon. an "American importation" and was im-

bued with jazz-like elements. Numerous
Bombardon. See *Brass instruments
composers used the type, e.g. Hindemith
(ist String Quartet; Suite 7922); Erwin
Bombo [It.]. See *Tremolo (i). Schulhoff (Esquisses de Jazz, 1927; Par-
tita, 1925) Louis Gruenjjjcrg (Jazzberries,

Bomhart [G.]. See *Bombarde (i). 1925); Conrad Beck (jg$$*J TanzstucJ(e).

Bonang. See *Javanese music I. Bouche [F.]. S(

Boogie-woogie. See *Jazz IV; *Divi- Bouche fermee [Rl^t&tcfe chiusa

sions; *Ostinato. [It.]. Singing without words and with
closed mouth or, at least, closed teeth. relic de Bouffons" (1937); E. Hirschberg,
This is occasionally used as a special effect
Die Encydopddisten und die jranzdsischc
of vocal accompaniment, e.g., in Verdi's Oper (1903); L. de la Laurencie, "La
Rigoletto, last act. grande saison italienne de 1752" (SIM
Bouffons comedians], (i) In the
Bourdon. The general connotation of
1 5th and i6th centuries bouffons were cos-
this term is that of a low tone of long du-
tumed dancers probably similar to those
ration, that a *drone or *pedal point.
who performed the *morisca and the
The term was also applied to instrumental
*matasin. (2) In 1752 the Guerre des
devices producing such tones, e.g., to the
bouffons (War of the Comedians) was a
low-pitched bass-courses of the *viella and
quarrel between two parties of Parisian the *hurdy-gurdy which could be sounded
musicians and opera-enthusiasts those
continuously against a melody played on
favoring the national French serious op-
the higher strings [cf. Petrus Picardus,
era (Lully, Rameau, Destouches) and
CS i, 153], to the large pipes of the organ,
those preferring the Italian opera buffa
or to the drones of the bagpipe. In French
(Pergolesi). Pergolesi's famous opera
buffa La Serva padrona (The Servant as 17th-century music, the name bourdon is
which was composed in 1733, given to pieces in which there is a uniform
had been given in Paris for the first time bass-accompaniment similar to that of the
drones of a bagpipe, e.g.,
in 1752, without arousing more than mod- C-g-c-g^C-g-c-g
... [cf. F. Couperin's Air des vieleux in
crate interest. The second performance,
his harpsichord suite (*ordre) "Les Pastes
however, given by a troupe of Italian co-
de la grande Menestrandise," ed. Augener
medians (buffi), led to a quarrel which
ii, 209; also the musette in Bach's English
divided Paris into two halves and became
Suite, no. 3].
famous in the history of opera. The na-
tional party consisted largely of the aris-
Bourree [English borry, borre, etc.]. A
tocracy (including the King and Madame French 17th-century dance, probably from
de Pompadour) and the plutocracy, while the Auvergne, usually in quick duple
the Italian party numbered among its ad-
meter with a single upbeat [Ex. from
herents the intelligentsia and the musical
connoisseurs (including the Queen and
such outstanding men as Rousseau,
d'Alembert, Diderot). The latter consid-
ered the Italian opera superior because it
Bach's French Suite, no. 6] The dance is .

had more melody, expression, and natural-

mentioned by M. Praetorius (Syntagma
ness, and had shaken off completely the
"useless fetters of counterpoint."
musicum, 1615), but does not appear in
musical composition prior to Lully's op-
speaking, the guerre des bouffons was a eras and ballets (c. 1670), whence it was
fight of the rising *Rococo against the dy- transferred to the suitos of the late i7th
ing *Baroque. [For a similar movement and early i8th centuries (Pachelbel,
in Spain, see *Zarzuela.] Rousseau's fa-
mous Lettre sur la musique jran$aise J.K. F. Fischer, J. S. Bach). See *Dance
music III.
(1753) was one of the hundreds of pam-
phlets issued in this controversy. The ef- Bout d'archet [F.]. Point of the bow.
forts of French musicians to compete with
the popularity of the opera buffa resulted Boutade [F.]. A
dance or ballet in a
in a new kind,, of French comic opera
capricious style. The name is also used
known as Coiaidie m&ee d'ariettes [see for 18th-century instrumental pieces of a
*Comic o$era similar character.
Lit.: GJ Les Createurs de I'o-

ptra*omjj}itS#jiW*fais (1914);
L. Reichen- Bow [F. archet\ G. Bogen\ It. archetto].
berg, Contribution a I historic de la "Que-
This implement of violin playing takes its

name (in all
languages) from the fact that The bow its classical and final
it had originally the form of a bow similar form hands of Francois Tourte
at the
to that used in archery. Chinese and (1747-1833). The most important char-
Arabian fiddles are still played with bows acteristics of his bow [Fig. 5] are the
of such shape, as were stringed instru- long, tapering, and slightly inward curv-
ments in Europe until about the I5th cen- ing stick, the use of metal or ivory
tury. During the i6th and i7th centuries plates for the tip, of Pernambuco wood
various shapes of bows were used, some of for the stick, the exact measurements for
which are reproduced here. Fig. 3 shows perfect balance, probably also the metal
ferrule of the frog through which the hair
passes evenly spread (this latter invention
isalso credited to Tourte's contemporary

The bows used for the viola, cello, and
double-bass are of the same design as the
violin bow, but successively heavier and,
with the two last-named instruments,
Lit.: H. Saint-George, The Bow (3d
ed., 1922); H. Drager, Die Entwictyung
des Streichbogens ( 1937) ; LavE ii.3, 1744.

Bowed harp. Modern name for the

*crwth and similar instruments of North-
ern Europe. Cf. O. Andersson, The
Bowed Harp (1930).

Bowing. The technique of using the

Corelli'sbow which was short and of hard, bow on stringed instruments (violins,
unelastic wood, while Tartini's bow (Fig.
etc.). The mastery of the bow includes
4) was longer and more elastic. In Ger- a considerable number of different man-
many a bow of a slightly curved shape ners of bowing, the most important of
(much less curved, however, than the which are briefly described here. It
early bows) was used, which facilitated should be noted that these terms, except
the playing of polyphonic violin music for the most common ones like detache,
such as was particularly cultivated in Ger- sautille, spiccato, staccato, arenet much
many (Biber, Bach). On these bows it used by players, and that 'the various ef-
was also possible to vary slightly the ten- fects are frequently not ii)|licated exactly
sion of the hair by a gentle pressure of the with their proper notation, although they
thumb. are clearly suggested to the player by the
The nut (frog) originally was a small character of the music.
piece of wood fastened to the stick, around (a) Plain Bowing (legato). This con-
which the hair was wrapped tightly. The sists of two basic strokes: Down-bow [F.
horn-shaped nut shown on Fig. i is still tirc\ G. Abstrich y Herabstrich, Herstrich,
reminiscent of this early shape. Fig. 2 Herunterstrichy Niederstrich\ It. arcata in
shows a device which was used tempo- giu] and Up-bow [F. pousse\ G. Auf-
rarily before 1700 in order to allow for an strichyHeraufstrich, Hinstrich^ It. arcata
adjustment of the tension of the bow, in su]. In down-bow, Indicated by the
namely a wire loop that could hook into sign (i), the arm is mo^&j&iaway fr0 the m
a series of teeth (dentated bow). About body, while in up-bow 2) the arm
1700 this device was replaced by a screw moves towards the bodl^rThe slur (3)
mechanism such as is still used today indicates the number of ftoties to be taken

[Figs. 3-5}. in a single stroke.

(b) Dttacht. A
broad vigorous stroke under (8). It can be played in a highly
in which the notes of equal time value arc expressive manner and is
capable of nota-
bowed ble emotional intensity.
singly with a slight articulation
(g) Staccato. This is a solo effect and
theoretically consists of a number of
martele notes taken in the same stroke.
It can be executed with dazzling brilliance
eitherup-bow or down-bow, but the lat-
ter more difficult. When the bow is al-

lowed to spring slightly from the string

10 it is known as Staccato volante (flying

staccato). Notation as under (9).

(h) Viottt-stro1(c. This is attributed to
Giov. Battista Viotti (1753-1824), and
consists of two detached and strongly
due to the rapid change of bow. This marked notes, the first of which is unac-
stroke is much used for loud passages of cented and given very little bow, while
not too great speed. Sometimes it is indi- the second comes on the accent and takes
cated by lines under (or above) the notes, much more bow. It is done at the point,
as in (4). When an exceptionally long and is
highly effective, especially at a
stroke is used it is called le grand dt- fairly quick tempo. Notation as under
tache. (10).
(c) MartelS [It. martellato]. Literally (i) Arpeggio or arpeggiando. bounc- A
a "hammered" stroke, this is played with ing stroke played on broken chords so
very short bows at the point. The ham- that each bounce is on a different string,
mered effect is obtained by releasing each as in (n).
and suddenly. It cannot
stroke forcefully (j) Tremolo. This is
primarily an or-
be executed rapidly, and is indicated by chestral effectand is produced by mov-
an arrowhead, as in (5). It is generally ing the bow back and forth in short and
found in loud passages. extremely rapid strokes, on the same note
(d) Sautiltt [It. spiccato\ G. Spring- (12). See *Tremolo.
bo gen}. A
short stroke played in rapid (k) Sul ponttcello [F. au chevalet\ G.
tempo in the middle of the bow in such am Steg] . A nasal, glassy effect produced
a way that the bow bounces slightly from by bowing very close to the bridge. Its
the string. This stroke requires good con- use confined almost entirely to chamber

trol on the part of the performer in order music.

to keepit steady. It is a most brilliant It. sul
(1) Flautando, flautato (also
effect and can be done from very soft to tastiera\ F. sur la touche\ G. am Grifl-
quite loud. It is indicated by dots, as in brett). A flute-like effect produced by
(6). Variants of this stroke are known bowing very the finger
slightly over
as piqui, picchettato. board. This stroke generally confined

known as ricochet). This

(e) ]ctc (also to sustained passages or slow notes.
is done by "throwing" the bow on the (m) Col legno. This is done by strik-
string in the upper third of the bow so ing the string with the stick instead of the
that it will bounce a series of rapid notes hair. A
purely orchestral effect.
on the down-bow. Notation as under (n) Flatter la corde. soft, expressive A
(7). Usually from two to six notes stroke in which the string is literally "ca-
are taken in one stroke, although a ressed."
skillful player can do more than this (o) OndulS ondeggiando] An ob-
[It. .

number. solete form of tremolo

(f) Loure. A stroke useful in slow tremolo") in which several notes are
tempo to separate slightly each of several taken in the same bow [see *Tremolo
notes taken in a slur. It is indicated as (i)]. H.N.
Brabanconne. See 'National anthems. signatures, etc. For more details, cf. A.
Reuss, Development and Problems of
Braccio [It., arm]. In the Baroque pe-
Musical Notation for the Blind
riod, the term braccio was used to signify (1932);
the members of the violin family (viola
WoHN i, 449ff ; LavE ii.6, 3836.
da braccio) which were held at arm level, Brandenburg Concertos. Six con-
as distinguished from the viols (simply certos written by Bach in dedi- and
viola) which were held downwards rest- cated to Christian
Ludwig, Margrave of
ing on the knees, or from the larger viola Brandenburg. They represent the artistic
da gamba [gamba, leg] which was held acme of the *concerto grosso, although
resting between the legs of the player. the traditional contrast between a group
Later, after the name violin had estab- of solo instruments (concertino) and the
lished itself, only the second-smallest size ensemble (ripieno) is
clearly manifest
of the family retained the name viola da only in the second, fourth, and fifth con-
braccio, a name the first half of which certos.
survives in the English term viola, the
Brando [It.], brangill [Old E.].
second, in the German term *Bratschc. *Branle.

Brace [F. accolade; G. Klammer}. The Branle, bransle [F., from branler, to

perpendicular line combined with a fling, to sway; It. brando}. A very popu-
bracket that joins the different staves in lar group dance of the i6th century. It

piano music or in scores. Hence, the en- was executed in a great number of local
tirety of the (two or more) staves to be varieties (Arbeau's * Orche so graphic enu-
read simultaneously. merates 26 species) many of which
were of the "follow-the-leader" type, sim-
Braille music notation. The method ilar tothe *farandole and the *cotillon.
of writing music according to the princi- It was accompanied by singing and ap-
ples of the Braille system for the blind. parently included some "swaying" move-
In this system, as is well known, raised ments of the body or of the hands. The
dots are used in various configurations all branle simple was in duple meter, the
of which are derived from an elementary branle gay in triple meter. The branle a
configuration of six dots: :.
mener survived in the *amener of the
are the signs for the C major scale and a i
yth century and, very likely, in the Min-
few other symbols. uet. In England the dance was known
under the name "brangill" or "brawl"
[cf. Shakespeare, Love's Labour's Lost
f g a b * b iii, i]. A
17th-century Italian name is
"brando" [cf. Carlo Farina, Pavane, gag-
The rhythmic value of the note signs liarde, brandi (1626-28) ] See *Dancc
. . . .

isan eighth note, unless a dot is added music II.

underneath to the right or to the left side.
Brass band. A
small military band, or-
dinarily consisting of three or more cor-
nets in B-flat, three E-flat alto Saxhorns,
j-^-rJIJ jjlj one or more baritones or euphoniums,
basses, and drums, as well as, on occasion,
Example of Braille Notation
trumpets, bugles, and kettledrums. It has
In the former case, the value is or 4; % % not the variety of color possessed by the
in the latter, %or %2 M both dots arc full military band, but ion account of the

added, the value is %

or 6 %
See the ac-
. relative ease with whicJi instruments of

companying example. The octave position the Saxhorn family ar^lcarned, a brass
is indicated by
special signs which nor- band is easier to establisfy and maintain.
mally appear at the beginning of each The brass band movement is
measure. Other signs indicate rests, time popular in the United States and in Eng-

land,where such bands are frequently overlapping. For the general acoustical
found attached to high schools and col- properties of the brass instruments, see
leges, religious groups (Salvation Army), under *Wind instruments.
factories, etc. See *Brass instruments III; II. Orchestral Instruments. The brass
'Military band. W. D. D. section of the modern orchestra consists

Brassed. See*HornI. mainly of the *horn, the *trumpet, the

*trombone, and the *tuba. The tuba is
Brass instruments [F. instruments de related to the horn, both having a pipe the
cuivre\ G. Blechinstrumente\ It. stromenti diameter of which increases throughout
d'ottone], the greater part of its length (conical
I.General. That section of the orches- pipe), while in the trumpet and the trom-
tra which includes the instruments made bone the pipe is to a great extent (about
of brass or other metal, such as trumpets, two-thirds) cylindrical and widens only
horns, trombones, tubas, as distinguished at the end into a relatively small bell. The
from those made of wood [see *Wood mouthpieces also show a difference, being
winds; also *Orchestra]. This feature, more cup-shaped with the two latter in-
however, is of a merely external signifi- struments than with the former. For
cance, since the material from which a more details on these instruments, see the
wind instrument is made has a practically separate entries. Other instruments which
negligible effect upon its tone quality and have occasionally been used in the mod-
its other properties [see *Wind instru- ern orchestra are the Wagner tubas [see
ments I]. Moreover, various instruments *Tuba], the cornet, and several other
of the "brass family" were formerly made types mentioned under III.

of wood [see V] and, on the other hand, III.Band Instruments. Under this cat-
the "wood-wind family" includes instru- egory we group all those brass instruments
ments made of metal, e.g., the flute and the which are used chiefly in the brass band
saxophone. A
more characteristic feature and in other bands, primarily for open-air
of the family in question is the mouth- performance of marches and of other pop-
piece, which nearly always has the shape ular music. Some of them, however, have
of a cup, hence the name "cupped-mouth- occasionally been used in the orchestral
piece family" which can be accepted for scores of composers, mainly the cornet.
all practical purposes as a basis of classifi- Most of these instruments can be consid-
cation. If even this definition is
rejected ered as hybrids between the horn and the
on the ground that in certain obsolete trumpet in that they combine features of
or Oriental instruments the mouthpiece the horn (e.g., conical bore) with other
can hardly be said to have the shape of a features of the trumpet (e.g., cup-shaped
cup the instruments in question must mouthpiece). A
methodical survey of
be defined as "lip-vibrated aerophones," these instruments is
extremely difficult,
i.e., wind instruments with which the lips owing to the large variety of types and
of the player serve as a reed [see *Reed]. sizes as well as, particularly, to the utterly
The "brass instruments" as we may confusing terminology. The subsequent
call them with due reservation form survey of the most important types fol-
an extremely large group, including not lows in principle the description given in
only numerous ancient instruments but N. BessarabofF, Ancient European Musi-
also many of a more recent date which cal Instruments (1941), pp. I5off, which
were invented in the i8th and i9th cen- may be consulted for more details.
turies for military purposes, for bands, (a) Cornet [F. cornet-a-pistons', G.
and as improvements of older orchestral Kornett', It. cornetta] An instrument sim-

types. The subsequent grouping is in- ilar in shape to the trumpet, but shorter
tended to place the various instruments and with a relatively longer conical part.
in certain general categories which show It ispitched in Bb (sometimes in A), and
their historical or other position, a group- has a written range from f J to c'", sound-
ing which, needless to say, admits of some ing a whole-tone (or three semitones)


i. French Horn. 2. Trumpet. 3. Trombone. 4. Tuba. 5. Wagner Tuba. 6. Cornet.

7. Euphonium. 8. Helicon. 9. Saxhorn. 10. Bugle.



T. Chinese Lapa. 2.Lur. 3.Lituus. 4. Buccina. 5. Buysmc. 6. Straight Cornctt. 7. Tenor Cornett.
8. Serpent. 9. Natural Horn. 10. Hand Horn. n. Key Bugle. 12. Bass Horn. 13. Ophicleide.

lower. The cornet possesses a timbre sim- (f) Saxhorn. This is an entire family
ilar to that of the trumpet. Owing to its of instruments invented by
Adolphe Sax
shorter tube it has a considerably greater and designed on a uniform model. Their
agility and has, therefore, been used a bore is somewhat narrower than that of

good deal by French and Italian compos- the above-described instruments, result-
ers (Berlioz, Bizet, Rossini). Its tone has ing in a more brilliant timbre. They are
been described as coarse and vulgar, and all upright, with the
pipe starting hori-
has been compared unfavorably with the zontally from the mouthpiece (as in the
brilliant tone of the trumpet. This differ- tubas, etc.), and the pistons stand on top
ence, however, is largely due to a bad style of the upper horizontal part of the tube.
of playing and to the music commonly It should be noticed that the Saxhorns
associated with the instrument. made today frequently differ in details
(b) Flugelhorn [F. bugle] It. flicorno]. (width of bore, etc.) from Sax's original
An instrument similar in design and size design and therefore approach the class of
to the cornet, but with a wider bore. It is the Fliigelhorns. Most authorities maintain
usually built in Bb, more rarely in C. Its that practically impossible to make a
it is

sound is somewhat similar to that of the clear distinction between the Saxhorns
horn, but lacks the latter's mellowness. and the Fliigelhorns. Usually, the latter
The instruments named subsequently are term is restricted to the one size described
larger sizes constructed after the princi- under (b). All agree that there is an in-
ples of the Flugelhorn. They might be extricable confusion of nomenclature in
considered as forming a family for which thisgroup. The most important types of
the generic name "bugles" is often used. Saxhorns are: (i) in Eb or F (Sopranino
The largest members of the family are Saxhorn, Soprano Saxhorn, Soprano Flu-
the *tubas and these are the only ones gelhorn, etc.); (2) in Bb or C (Soprano
used in the orchestra. See also below, Saxhorn, Alto Saxhorn, Alto Flugelhorn) ;
under (f). in low Eb or F (Alto Saxhorn, simply

(c) Baritone [F. bugle t&nor\ G. Tenor- Saxhorn, Althorn, Tenor Saxhorn, etc.);
horn; It. flicorno tenore]. This is a larger in low Bb or C (Baritone Saxhorn, Alt-
instrument pitched C or Bb, and built in horn, Tenor horn, etc.). See *Saxtromba.
two shapes, either in the usual shape of IV. Military Instruments. Under this
the trumpets with the bell pointing up- heading brief mention may be made of
wards, or oval with the bell facing back- instruments used for the purpose of sig-
wards. The range is from E to b'b. naling. They are all natural instruments,
(d) Euphonium [F. basse a pistons; G. restricted to the tones 2 to 6 of the har-

Baryton; It. Eufonio]. Its shape, pitch, monic series, e.g., g-d'-g'-b'-d" for an in-
and range are the same as those of the strument built in G. The most common
baritone. A
larger bore, however, gives it of theseis the bugle [F. clalron\ G. Sig-

a broader, mellower timbre and favors the nalhorn\ It. cornetta segnale] built in G
lower notes. French and other composers or Bb and occasionally in F. Bugles have
have used it in
place of the tuba, e.g., been furnished with a single valve lower-
Stravinsky in Petrouchfa. ing the pitch a fourth, and these are
(e) Helicon. These are bass and con- known under the name Bersag horn.
trabass tubas in a circular form (similar V. History, (a) Trumpets and horns,
to the shape of the horn) instead of the though existing in many ancient cultures,
upright form of the tubas. The circle is were very late in acquiring those proper-
wide enough to allow the player to carry ties which made them useful as musical

the instrument over the shoulder. An instruments in the proper sense of the
American variety, characterized by a spe- word. Only a few tones of the harmonic
bell, is the sousaphone series were available on the primitive in-
cially designed
(named after lohn Philip Sousa who sug- struments, a fact which restricted their
gested it). In Germany similar instru- use to the purpose of signaling, either in
ments are called Bombardon. religious ceremonies or in military serv-

ice. Moreover, the trumpets and horns of folded trumpet. The same principle was
the Jews, Greeks, Romans, etc., possessed also applied to the larger buisine , which
a sound which was far from agreeable but by the i^th century had acquired the dis-
rather terrifying, as are to the present day tinguishing feature of the modern trom-
the trumpets of China, Tibet, India. Plu- bone, i.e., the slides [see *Trombone II],
tarch likens the sound of the Egyptian In the i5th and i6th centuries trumpets
trumpet to the bray of an ass, and the became associated with heraldry [see
Jewish ceremonial horn, *shofar y even ^Trumpet II], while the wooden *cornett
today fills the congregation with awe and [G. Zinf(] acquired a prominent place in
fright. The Jews also had a long straight the chamber music of the i6th century.
trumpet made of silver, the hasosra [see Its was built in a clumsy serpen-
bass size
Jewish music]. The Greek straight tine shape and, therefore, called serpent.
trumpet, called salpinx, was taken over All these instruments had side-holes cov-
from the Orient. The same shape occurs ered by the fingers [see *Wind instru-
with the Roman tuba, a straight instru- ments IV(d)]. Later a few keys were
ment made of bronze, about four feet in added in order to facilitate playing, par-
length. The Romans also had a trumpet ticularlywith the large serpent which, in
which curved upwards at the end in the an improved form, doubled up on itself
shape of a J, called lituus, while the buc- like the bassoon, became known under
cina or cornu was entirely curved in the the name of bass horn or Russian bassoon
shape of a G
and was provided with a [see*Cornett],
wooden crossbar, forming the diameter, (c) About 1650 begins the development
by which it was carried over the shoulder. of the modern horn and trumpet which is
Among the most interesting examples of briefly described under *Horn II and
ancient trumpets are the Nordic *lurer *Trumpet II. Here it will suffice to men-
which, although of pre-historic age, show tion a group of instruments which devel-
a high degree of perfection in bronze oped about 1800 and are characterized by
founding. the use of side-holes (as in the much older
Horns were originally made from ani- cornetts), operated by keys. This princi-
mals' horns as, e.g., the shofar, which is ple was applied, not only to horns and
made from a ram's horn, or Babylonian trumpets, but also to bugles [see IV] with
ox-horns which, we are informed, were which proved more successful (Joseph

covered with gold and studded with pre- Halliday, 1810). The {ey bugle or Kent
cious stones.Metal horns, S-shaped and bugle (Kent horn), as it was named in
widening as the animal's horn, are much honor of the Duke of Kent [F. bugle a
rarer in ancient cultures than the more clts\ G. Klappcnhorn], remained in use
cylindrical trumpets (whether straight or until the second half of the i()th century.
curved, as the cornu, which, in spite of its Later a larger size was constructed under
name, must be classified as a trumpet), the name
ophicleide, which had the dou-
probably owing to the greater difficulty of bled-up shape of the Russian bassoon.
founding. They are also relatively rare Spontini prescribed it in his opera Olym-
among the Oriental nations, pia (1819), and Mendelssohn in his over-
(b) In Europe, also, trumpets appear ture to A
Midsummer-Night's Dream
much earlier than horns. With the Ro- (1826). Although soon replaced by the
man armies their various trumpets spread tuba in the orchestra, the ophicleide was
over Europe. After A.D. 1000 the straight used in Italian, French, Spanish, and
tuba acquired the shape of a long and slim South American bands up to this cen-
pipe with a rather large funnel-shaped tury.
bell. This instrument was called buisine Lit.: A. Carse, "Brass Instruments in

(from Lat. buccina, which, however, was the Orchestra" (ML iii); J. M. Barbour,
circular), while smaller sizes were called "The Use of Brass Instruments in Early
trombetta. From the early part of the i5th Scores" (BAMS iv) See also under
we have the first evidence of a *Wind # Turmsonaten.
century instruments;

Bratsche * of a Brazilian Rhapsody for piano and
[G., from It. viola da brae-
do}. The German name for the viola. orchestra. Alberto Nepomuceno (1864-
Bratschist, viola player. 1920) was the precursor of the modern
National school through his utilization
Brautlied [G.]. Bridal song. of Brazilian elements in such works as
Bravoure [F.], bravura fit., literally his orchestral "Brazilian Suite" and prel-
ude to Garatuja. He also composed many
"courage"], denotes greatest ease in con-
quering technical difficulties. Hence, the songs which laid the basis for the modern
term aria di bravura [G. Bravur-ane\ Brazilian lied. Another pioneer of na-
for an aria in a brilliant, virtuoso-like tionalism in music was Brasilio Itibere
style. (1846-1913), whose orchestral fantasia,
"Sertaneja," is based on Brazilian folk
Brawl. Old English perversion for
themes. In the popular field, the most
noteworthy composer was Ernesto Naza-
Brazil. The first music school in Brazil, reth ( 1863-1934), creator of the Brazilian
the Conservatorio da Fazenda Nacional tango and author of nearly 500 pieces in
de Santa Cruz, was founded by the Jesuits, popular style.
who were the educate the natives
first to Dean of contemporary Brazilian com-
of this country in European ways. Asso- posers is Francisco Braga (b. 1868), who
ciated with this school was the greatest has also distinguished himself as a con-
Brazilian composer of the Colonial pe- ductor. He has written symphonic and
riod, Jose Mauricio Nunes Garcia (1767- dramatic works, chamber music, etc. The
1830), a priest who wrote mostly religious Brazilian art song has been carried to a
music, including an admirable Requiem high degree of perfection by Oscar Lo-
in D
minor, showing the influence of renzo Fernandez (b. 1897), who is also the
Mozart and Haydn. He was followed by composer of a successful opera, Malazarte
Francisco Manoel (1795-1865), compos- (Rio, 1941), and of several symphonic
er of the Brazilian National Anthem, and works imbued with Brazilian color, such
founder, in 1841, of the Conservatory in as "Reisado do Pastoreio," "Imbapara,"
Rio de Janeiro which later became the and "Batuque." In his chamber-music
Escola Nacional de Musica. The prestige output, a trio for piano, violin, and cello is
of Brazilian music was greatly enhanced notable. An exact contemporary of Fer-
abroad by the success of Carlos Gomes nandez Francisco Mignone, professor

(1836-96), the most famous opera-com- of conducting at the Escola Nacional de

poser produced by Latin America. He Musica and composer of numerous or-
was trained in Italy, and several of his chestral works of brilliant coloring, among

operas, including // Guarany (1870), were them three Brazilian Fantasias for piano
received with acclaim at La Scala of Mi- and orchestra, and "Maracatu do Chico
lan. The overture to // Guarany is doubt- Rei." Other contemporaries who should
less the best-known orchestral composi- be mentioned are Barrozo Netto (1881-
tion to come out of South America. Oth- 1941), Fructuoso Vianna, and, among
er operas by Gomes include Fosca, Maria the younger men, Radames Gnattali, Luiz
Tudor, Lo Schiavo, and Condor. A pio- Cosme,and especially Camargo Guarnieri,
neer symphonic composer was Leopoldo composer of a splendid Concerto for piano
Miguez (1850-1902), who wrote the first and orchestra and other works revealing
symphonic poems composed in Brazil; he a powerful creative temperament.
also wrote an opera of Wagnerian tenden- A place apart must be reserved for the
cies, Saldunes, and a notable Sonata for greatest of contemporary Brazilian com-
violin and piano. The Romantic tradi- posers and probably the most outstand-
tion was represented by Henrique Oswald ing composer of all Latin America
(1852-1931), noteworthy especially for Heitor Villa-Lobos (b. 1881), amazingly
his chamber music, and by Alexandre prolific and original creator of some 1400
Levy (1864-92), a brilliant pianist, author works, including many characteristic

101 ]

piano pieces that mark a new style of Breit [G.]. Broad. Brett gestrichen,
writing for the instrument. Among his broadly bowed.
larger works, especially notable are the
Breve, Brevis. An old note value,
Chores No. 8 for orchestra, Choros No.
ft or ty, and equal to two whole-
10 for orchestra and chorus, the sym-
notes. See *Notes; * Mensural notation.
phonic poem "Amazonas," "Dansas
Also *Alla breve.
Africanas" for orchestra, and "Momo
Precoce" for piano and orchestra. Among Breviary, Breviarium. See '"Liturgi-
his most recent works are 5 cal books I
suites, for
various instrumental combinations, en-
Bridge [F. chevalet, G. Steg- It. pontt-
titled "Bachianas Brasileiras," being com-
cello}.(i) In stringed instruments, the
positions in which the spirit of Brazilian wooden support atop the table across
folk music is fused with that of J. S. Bach.
which the strings are stretched. Its shape
Although Villa-Lobos' production is un- and size difler in the various instruments.
even in quality, and though he lacks a
The bridge of the double-bass has "legs."
finished technique and a sense of organic
In spite of its symmetrical appearance,
form, at his best he creates works which the two halves of the bridge serve some-
are entirely sui generis and which, more
what different purposes. The right
than any others, seem to represent the
(treble) foot rests firmly upon the table,
music of the New World. Villa-Lobos
very nearly above the sound post, while
has been very active in promoting musi-
the other, having no such support, trans-
cal education in Brazil and at present he
mits the vibrations of the string to the
is director of public school music in Rio
body of the instrument. The present-day
de Janeiro.
shape of the violin bridge was developed
Most of the modern Brazilian com-
in the time of Antonio and Gerolamo
posers have drawn freely upon the rich Amati (c. 1550-1630)
and colorful folk music of Brazil, which
(2) Short for *bridge passage.
composed of Portuguese (some Span-
ish), African, and Indian elements. Of Bridge passage. In musical composi-
these the African element perhaps the
is tions a passage of subordinate importance
most potent. A
pioneer in the study and serving as a connection between two
collecting of Brazilian folk music was Lu- themes. It consists of figurations, se-
ciano Gallet, whose work in this field has quences, or other subsidiary material.
been continued by such notable folklorists Frequently it effects the modulation of
as Mario de Andrade and Luiz Heitor key, e.g., from the first to the second
Correa de Azevedo, the latter professor theme in *sonata-form.
of national folk music at the Escola Na Brillenbass from Brille, spec-
cional de Musica. Many Brazilian com-
tacle].Derogatory nickname for stereo-
posers have written *modinhas, the char-
acteristic love song of Brazil, of Portu-
typed accompanying figures in the man-
ner of the * Alberti bass the abbreviated
guese origin, usually of a rather melan- *
writing of which [see Abbreviations,
choly and sentimental nature. Popular Ex. 4, 5] suggests a pair of spectacles.
dances are the *Maxixe and the * samba.
Lit.: G. Pereira de Mello, A Musica no Brindisi [It.]. Drinking song, such as
Brasil (Bahia, 1908); R. Almeida, His- occurs in operas, e.g.,
in Verdi's Traviata
toria da Musica Brasileira (Rio de Janeiro, ("Libiamo"), Mascagni's Cavalier ia rus-
1926); M. de Andrade, Ensaio sobre Mu- ticana ("Viva il
sica Brasileira (Sao Paulo, 1928); L. Gal- Con With
Brio, [It.]. vigor and spirit.
let, Estudos do Folclore (Rio de Janeiro,
i934);f Musique Brtsilienne Moderne, Brise [F.]. French iSth-century name
preface byAndrade Murky (Rio de Ja- for the *turn. In modern terminology,
neiro, 1937); A. T. Luper, The Music of indication for arpeggio playing, or for de-
Brazil (1943). G.C. tached bowing.
Broadcasting. See *Radio broadcast- in 1703, 1704, and 1709. Some of these
ing of music. songs occur in the harpsichord pieces by
Chambonniere and d'Anglebert, e.g., the
Broderie [F.]. (i) French term for
Sarabande de Jeunes Zcphirs, and the
coloratura; also found in German writ-
Gavotte Ou estes vous allez. Others were
ings, not so much for "virtuoso passages,"
but for carefully designed "embroideries," adopted later into the comic opera. Cf.
P. M. Masson, in SIM xii.
such as occur in the polyphonic music of
the 1 5th century [Ockeghem; cf., e.g., Bruscamente [It.]. Brusquely.
SchGMB, no. 52]. (2) Same as aux-
tone [see *Nonharmonic tones 1, 5] .
Bruststimme [G.]. Chest voice.

Broken chord. The tones of a chord

Brustwerk, Brustpositiv [G.]. A
special group of smaller organ pipes
played in succession, instead of simul-
placed in the middle of the front of the
taneously, either in the form of an *ar-
organ, between the large pedal pipes. It
peggio, or in the form of quick passages. is of softer intonation than the
See also *Alberti bass. Haupt-
werJ^ (great organ) and is
usually played
Broken consort. See *Consort. on the second manual.

Broken octave. Sec under *Short Buccina [L.]. An ancient Roman brass
octave. instrument [see *Brass instruments V
(a)]. The name reappears in the medi-
Browning. A
type of i6th- and lyth- eval *buisine, in the German word Po-
century English instrumental music, sim- saune (i.e., trombone), and in the French
ilar to the *Jnnomine, but with the cantus
buccin. The lastwas a pseudo-antique
firmus taken from a secular song: "The trombone used during the
variety of the
leaves be greene, the nuts be browne" or, French revolution for festive occasions,
perhaps, from other popular melodies. with the bell shaped into a dragon's head.
Examples by Byrd, Bevin, Woodcock, Cf. LavE ii.3, 1449.
Stoninge, Coperario (?), and Jenkins (?)
are preserved. Cf. E. H. Meyer, Die Buchstabenschrift. *Letter notation.

mehrstimmige Spielmusil^ des 17. Jahr- Buckwheat notation. See under *Fa-
hunderts (1934), pp. 13^

Bruitisme See ^Futurism.

Biigelhorn [G.]. German term for the

Brumeux [F.]. "Misty," veiled.

entire family sometimes referred to as
*bugles. Cf. SaRM, 62.
Brummeisen [G.]. Jew's harp.
Biihne [G.]. Stage. Buhnenjestspiel
Brummscheit [G.]. Perverted from
(stage festival play) and Buhnenweihfest-
Trumscheit [see *Tromba marina] .
spiel (stage-consecrating festival play)
are names by Wagner, the former for his
Brummstimmen [G.]. Humming *Ring, the latter for his *Parsifal which
voices [see *Bouche fermee]. was written for the dedication of the Bay-
Brunette [F.]. A
i?th- and i8th-cen- rcuth opera house, in 1882. Buhncnmusil^
means ^incidental music for plays, or, in
tury type of French popular song, with or
without accompaniment, on idlyllic, pas- operas, music played on the stage itself, as
for instance in the final scene of Mozart's
toral, or amorous subjects. They replaced
the earlier *bergerettes and *vaudevilles.
Don Giovanni.
The name is probably derived from one Buffet [F.]. Organ case.
famous example "Le Berger Tirsis," with
the refrain "Ah petite brunette, ah tu me Buffo [It., comic]. A comic character
faismourir." Ballard published three col- in Italian iSth-century operas, usually a

lections of Brunettes ou petits tendre airs basso buffo (e.g., Leporello in Mozart's
Don Giovanni). Hence, a singer for Burgundian cadence. See under
comic parts. See *Comic opera. Buffon- *Landini cadence.
istenstreit, see *Bouffons (2).
Burgundian School. The leading
Bugle. A military instrument [see
music school of the early I5th century,
*Brass instruments IV]. The term is also represented chiefly by Guillaume Dufay
used as generic name for the entire group (c. 1400-74) and Gilles Binchois (c.
of brass instruments described under 1400-67). It forms the Hnk between the
*Brass instruments III (b)-(e). For the *Ars nova (i4th century) and the *Flem-
ish Schools(1450-1600) [see ^History of
key bugle (Kent bugle) see *Brass in-
struments V
(c). music]. In older writings, the Burgun-
dian School is called First Netherlands
Buisine. See *Buysine. School [see ^Netherlands Schools]. To-
day, the term Burgundian School is pre-
Bulgarian music. The history of Bul- ferred because the musical activity of this
garian music is closely linked with that period centered in the cultural sphere of
of Russia. The folk song as well as the the kingdom of Burgundy which, under
liturgical music of the Bulgarians has Philip the Good (1419-67) and Charles
been much less exposed to Western influ- the Bold (1467-77), included the whole
ence than, e.g., that of the Czechs. The of eastern France as well as Belgium and
Bulgarians possess a large repertory of the Netherlands. Its court at Dijon was
traditional songs, mostly heroic, which the leading center of culture for all Eu-
they consider one of their greatest treas- rope, a culture which manifested itself
ures. Most of their folk music is dance- in the paintings of the brothers Van Eyck
like, though irregular meters are frequent. as well as in the fantastic fashion of peaked
A few examples of very early folk music shoes, long cone-shaped hats, and extrava-
in rhapsodicrhythm, uncertain intervals, gant colors which still survives in the
microtonic ornaments (glissando), etc.,
"once-upon-a-time" setting of our fairy
still survive in some provinces. The chief tales.
instruments are the gaida, a bagpipe, and The music of the Burgundian School
the *gusla, a primitive bowed instrument
represents a reaction against the complex-
with one string. The liturgical music of
ity and mannerism of the late Ars nova.
the Bulgarian Church was largely that of
Strongly influenced by the English Dun-
the Russian Church, until the adoption
stable, Dufay and Binchois developed a
of the Greek rites, in the i9th century. musical language whose beauty and ten-
The music did not begin
activity in art der sweetness is just as lively today as it
until 1900. Pancho Vladigerov (b. 1899) was 500 years ago. Perhaps their most
is the leading
composer of the present. important contribution was the establish-
Lit.: P. Panoff, Die altslavische Volfa- ment of the third as a principal interval
und Kirchenmusi\ (Bikken's and hue h, H of melodic design. Many melodies of
1930); id., "Die Volksmusik der Bul- Dufay and Binchois (particularly those
garen" (Melos iv, H. i); Ch. Obresch- from their later period) are "orna-
koff, Das bulgansche VolJ^slied (1937); mented triads" [see Ex.; Dufay, Grain dre
AdHM, ii69 f; cf. MoML, 104.

Bund [G.; pi, Bunde]. Fret. Bundfrei,

see *Clavichord.
vous vuell]. No less striking is the exten-
Burden [from P.* bourdon]. A refrain, sive use of *jauxbourdon and of the *Bur-

particularly one consisting of syllables gundian cadence, which, with its two
without meaning, as, e.g., "Hey troly lo," leading-tones, contributes largely to the
or "Fa la la." Such burdens are common transcendental sensuousness of Burgun-
in the *ballettos of the dian music, as do also the high range of
i6th/i7th centu-
ries [see also the men's voices (high tenors, *falsetto),

and the simultaneous use of strongly dis- Busspsalmen [G.] *Penitential psalms.

similar instruments such as recorders,

shawms, viols, and trombones (together Buxheim Organ Book [G. Bux-
with which, in of their heimer Orgelbuch]. A MS collection of
voices) spite
"earthly" incongruity merge into what organ music, written about 1470 and con-
may be called a "celestial symphony." taining a large number of *Intabulie-
The Burgundian composers can be ten- rungen *Burgundian chansons, some

tatively in three generations, as

grouped 30 *preludes and a copy of Conrad Pau-
follows [the single dates indicate years
mann's *Fundamentum organisandi. Cf.
of their activity, at the Papal Choir, at the MfM 1888, Beilage; L. Schrade, Die
court of Dijon, etc., the only known rec- dltesten Dent(maler der Orgelmusit^
ords of their life]: (i) born c. 1375: (1927). Cf.also H. Schnoor,in iv. ZMW
Reginald Liebert, Pierre Fontaine (1420),
Nicolaus Grenon (1421, '27), Johannes
Buysine, buzine, busine, buisine,
buzanne [see *Buccina]. medieval A
Brassart (1431); (2) born c. 1400: Guil-
straight trumpet. See *Brass instruments
laume Dufay (1400-74), Gilles Binchois
V; also ^Trombone II.
(1400-67), Hugo de Lantins, Heyne von
Gizeghcm (1453, '68); (3) born c. 1425: B.V.M. See *Antiphon (3).
Antoine Busnois (d. 1492), Johannes
Regis (1463, '74), Philippe Caron. The Byzantine chant. I. The ecclesiasti-
last-named composers already show the cal chant of the
Byzantine empire
influence of the early Flemish masters (founded A.D. 328 by Constantine the
(Ockeghem, Obrecht) and form the tran- Great; destroyed in 1453, with the fall of
sition to Josquin. Dufay and also various Constantinople) With the exception of
other Burgundian composers spent parts a few ceremonial songs, the *acclama-
of their lives at Cambrai; hence, the name tions, no music other than the liturgical
School of Cambrai, which would seem to chants has been preserved. Although the

apply chiefly to the latest members of the language of the Byzantine Church was
it has become more and more
Burgundian School. Examples in HAM, Greek, ap-
nos. 6572. parent that the Byzantine music as
Lit.: W. Ambros, Geschichte der Musi\ well as the whole of Byzantine culture
(1891); E. Dannemann, Die spatgo- was not a continuation of that of the an-
tische Musityradition in FranJyeich und cientGreeks (as has long been assumed)
Burgund vor dem Aujtreten Dufay's but constituted a new tradition based to

(1936); J. Wolf, "Dufay und seine Zeit" some extent on Oriental (Jewish) models
(StM i) ;
Ch. van den Borren, "\Polyphonia [see Tillyard, Wellesz]. The Byzantine
sacra (1932); J. F. R. and C. Stainer, system of modes (*echoi), for example,
differs sharply from that of the so-called
f Dufay and his Contemporaries (1898);
K. Dezes, "fMessen- und Motettensatze Greek modes (tonoi) but is quite similar
des 75. Jahrhunderts (1927); W. Gurlitt, to that of the Western Church [see
^Gilles Binchois, 16 welrliche Liedcr *Church modes],
(1927); H. Besseler, "\Guillaume Dujay,
II. The Byzantine chant has many
12 geistliche und weltliche Wert{e ( 1932); features in common with Gregorian
J. Marix, "fLcs Musiciens de
la cour de chant, being monophonic, unaccompa-
Bourgogne au XV e siecle, 1420-67 and devoid of strict
nied, chiefly diatonic,
meter. A fundamental difference between
(1937). See also *Chansonnier.
the two bodies of chant, however, is that
Burla, burlesca, burletta [It., jest]. of their textual basis. While the Western
A composition in a jesting mood. Bach's tradition adopted the Jewish psalms as
A minor Partita has a Burlesca; Schu- the basis of their texts, the liturgical texts
mann's Albumbldlter include a Burla. of the Eastern Church are all free poetry

(occasionally modeled after psalms), i.e.,

Busine. See *Buysine. hymns. The earliest of these hymns, the

troparia (4th, 5th centuries), were inter- which that of a later stage,
is known as
calations (*tropes) sung between the middle (or round) notation. The latter
reading of the psalms, but the latter system, which was in use from c. uoo-
dropped out during the ensuing develop- 1450, has been deciphered in all essential
ment. The 6th century marks the begin- details, including the rhythmic signifi-

ning of a new era, that of the fontafyon, cance of the neumatic signs, on the basis
with Romanus (c. 500) and Sergios (c. of information contained in certain theo-

600) as the leading figures. kontakion A retical manuals called papadife. The
is an ode consisting of a short principal feature of this notation is that
(introduction) and a great number (20- its signs do not indicate
pitches (as do,
30) of stanzas of uniform structure which more or less exactly, the Western
end with a refrain (either a single word neumes), but intervals to be taken from
such as . time," or a
". .
complete line) the tone reached previously. The starting
and which, by their initial letters, form an note was indicated by a special sign (the
acrostic. The most famous example of martyrion), which signified the echos of
this species is the *acathistos.
Troparia the melody. Thus, in Byzantine notation,
and kontakia were superseded around the melody deggafgd
would be no-
700 by the \anon (Andrew of Crete, tated as a succession of intervals according
c. 650-720; John of Damascus; and Kos- to the following scheme: (d)stust_
mas of Jerusalem, c. 750). The kanons s f_ (s
= second, u unison, t = third,

are extremely long poems consisting of a f = fourth; descending intervals with a

succession of nine parts (called hymns, minus-sign) [example in i, 520]. GD
odes), each of which was supposed to IV. After 1400 the traditional chant,
contain allusions to one of the nine Can- which was largely syllabic, was enriched
ticles (as a rule, the second ode was by the introduction of coloraturas which,
omitted, on account of the somber nature owing to abuse and individual license,
of the second canticle; the others are all soon led to a complete decadence of By-
chants of praise and joy). The poetic ac- zantine chant. Kukuzeles, who flourished
tivity came to an end in the i ith century, about 1300, seems to have been the first
owing to the codification of the hymns to introduce new signs for stereotyped
and their final reception into the liturgy. melismas. These signs were generally
III. The earliest Byzantine sources con- adopted after 1400 (late Byzantine or
taining musical signs date from the pth
century, and are written in *ekphonetic
notation. According to recent interpreta-
tion C. Ho'eg, La Notation el^pho-

netique (1935)] these signs, which al-

ways occur in pairs (one at the beginning,
the other at the end of a sentence), repre-
sent certain stereotyped formulae, which
were used for phrases of frequent occur-
rence, such as: "And Jesus said." Begin- xcti
eg eg? t ft ij -fit -.?<*. av--&7-cti,
ning with the loth century, sources show
a more fully developed type of musical
notation, indicating a continuous melody.
is p
fc-voj t-juv Vo jte-Y* e-Afi -o$.
As the case in the notation of Gregorian

chant, the early Byzantine "neumes" First Ode of a Canon for Saturday
(c.950-1200) cannot be deciphered. in Holy Week
Only a few melodies from some of the
latest MSS of this period, written in the Kukuzelian notation; see also *Teretism).
so-called Coislin system^ have been tran- In the 1 8th century, Turkish and Arabian
scribed with the help of parallel versions elements were introduced into the chant
the notation of
existing in later sources, (Lampadarios, c. 1730-70), thus leading
to a complete destruction of the tradition. publication was taken over in 1942 by the
At the beginning of the ipth century the Byzantine Institute (American Branch,
Greek archimandrite Chrysanthos devel- *
Boston). See *Acathistus; Acclamation;
oped a notation which utilizes the prin- *Akoluthia; *Automela; *Echos; *Sti-
ciples and some of the details of the By- cheron.
zantine notation and which is still used Lit.: H. J. W. Tillyard, Byzantine
today for the chants of the Greek Church. Music and Hymnography (1923); E.
From our present-day state of knowl- Wellesz, Byzantinische Musi\ (1927);
edge, the MSS of the i2th and I3th cen- O. Tiby, La Musica bizantina (1938);
turies represent the classical tradition of L. Tardo, L'antica mdurgia bizantina
Byzantine chant. The example on p. 106 (1938); ReMMA, i, i26ff;
75ff; AdHM
[cf. MQ 208] illustrates the style
xxiii, GD i, 514^; H. Tillyard, in
J. W. MQ
which prevails in the chants of this period xxiii and in ML
iv; E. Weliesz, in i; PMA
[cf. alsoH^fM, no. 8]. O. Strunk, "The Tonal System of Byzan-
In 1935 C. Hoeg, H. J. W. Tillyard, tine Music" (MQ
xxxviii); O. Gombosi,
and E. Wellesz started a complete edition in AM For additional bibliog-
x, xi, xii.
of medieval Byzantine Musical MSS, raphy, cf ReMMA, 4328: and O. Tiby, in
under the title Monumenta Musicae By- RMl xli, xlii.

zantinae [see *Editions XVIII]. This

C. (i) See *Letter notation; *Pitch half of that century (Giovanni da Cascia,
names; *Hexachord. (2) C, as an ab- Jacopo da Bologna; see *Ars nova). The
breviation, may stand for: con (colla, text deals with hunting and fishing scenes
coll'), i.e., with [see C.a.; *C.b.; *C.o.; (peseta) or with similar subjects of a
*C.s.]; cantus [see *C.f.]; capo [see strongly marked naturalistic character
*D.c.]. In modern part songs C means (fire, cries of street vendors, etc.). The
contralto^ in 16th-century part books, musical form is a strict canon in two parts
cantus. at the distance of eight or more measures.
These "chasing" voices are usually sup-
C.a. Abbreviation for [It.] coif arco,
ported by a free tenor in longer note val-
with the bow.
ues. The form originated in France
Cabaletta [It., possibly from cobola 9
around 1300 (chace\ cf. BcMMR, 131),
but developed in Italy. For a Spanish
cobla, couplet; the derivation from

caballo, horse, is very doubtful ] . short A 14th-century example, cf. O. Ursprung,

operatic song characterized by popular
in ZMW iv, 151.
G. Carducci, Caccie in rime (1896;
style and natural simplicity, with a rather
uniform rhythm in the vocal line and in only texts); W. Th. Marrocco, \The iflh-
the accompaniment. They are frequent in Century Italian Caccia (1942; complete
the operas of Rossini. One of the earliest collection of all the caccias); "\WoGM ii,

examples is "La bella imagine" in Gluck's iii, nos. 42, 56; HAM,
no. 52; J. Wolf,
Paride e Elena ( 1770). In the later Italian IfSing- und Spielmusi\ aus alterer Zeit,
no. 7.
opera (Verdi) the term was applied to
the final stretto close of arias or duets in Cachucha. An Andalusian dance simi-
which elaborate treatment usually gives lar to the *bolero. It was introduced to
way to quick, uniform rhythm. the opera by Fanny Elssler in the ballet of
Le Diable boiteux (1836).
Caccia [It., chase, hunt] . An important
form of 14th-century Italian poetry and Cacophony [from Gr. \a\os, bad].
music which was chiefly used in the first Bad sound, discord. Richard Strauss's
tone-poems were decried as cacophony at penultimate chord, there is a choice be-
the time of their first performance. tween the dominant (V) and the sub-
dominant (IV), both in root position.
Cadence [from L. cadere, to fall; G. The combination V-I is called authentic
Kadenz; It. cadenza]. I. A melodic or cadence [Ex. ij, the progression I V-I,
harmonic formula which occurs at the
end of a composition, a section, or a plagal cadence [Ex. 2]. The authentic
cadence occurs usually in the fuller form
phrase, conveying the impression of a IV-V-I
or permanent conclusion. In (IIMM) [Ex. 3 1 or, still more
momentary IV-I-V-I 8
each period of music there exist a rather complete, (II -I-V-I) [Ex.
limited number of such formulae or, at 4]. All four of these last are sometimes
limited number of types of which called mixed cadences.
least, a
The remaining cadences fall into two
allclosing passages are but variations or
modifications. Those which were in cur- classes,imperfect, and deceptive (or inter-
rent use during the i8th and i9th centu- rupted) cadences. The imperfect cadences
ries have been studied in great detail. are the same as the two elementary perfect

Unfortunately, the classification and ter- cadences, except that they have the tonic
in this field are greatly lacking chord in another arrangement, e.g., with
in uniformity and frequently also in clar- the third or fifth in the soprano [Ex. 5! ;
The following presentation is made or have the penultimate chord in inver-
with a view, not to completeness of the sion [Ex. 6] these are called inverted
enumeration of terms, but to clarification or medial cadence, as opposed to a radical
of the essential points [cf. the chapter on [L. radix, root] cadence; or occur in
"Cadences" in W. Piston, Harmony transposition to the dominant or (more
(1941)]. rarely, the subdominant) [Ex. 710],
cadence is called perfect (final, full) These "transposed" cadences occur almost
if it can be
satisfactorily and normally regularly at the end of the first half of a
used as the close of a composition. Ac- musical phrase and are therefore termed

cording to the standards of classical har- half-cadence (authentic or plagal).

The deceptive cadence [F. cadence
rompue or cvitee\ G. Trugschluss\ It.
inganno} is an authentic (or, sometimes,
plagal) cadence the tonic chord of which
(I) is deceptively replaced by some
other chord, most frequently by VI [Ex.
ii ]. Some other possibilities are indi-
cated in Ex. 12-14. $ ee a ^ so *Masculine,
feminine cadence.
II. The cadences of early music differ
sharply from those described above, par-
ticularly prior to 1500 when progressions
such as V-I and IV I were very little used
[see *Harmony]. The history of these
cadences is
interesting since the various
formulae are characteristic of their period
and may well serve as identifying marks.
Prior to 1450, practically all cadences are
based on the progression II-I in the low-
est part (tenor). This cadence appears in
various modifications [Ex. 15 19], among
which that with two "leading-tones," one
mony this requires that the last chord be before the octave, the other before the
the tonic triad (I) and that it have the fifth,is
particularly frequent before and
tonic note in the soprano. Regarding the after 1400 [Ex. 16-18; see *Landini

cadence]. After 1400 another modifica- schmidt, Studien zur Geschichte der
tion of the II-I cadence
appears in which italienischen Oper (1901), i, 212],
the contra-tenor jumps up an octave from III. The cadences of the classical and
the lower fifth to the higher fifth [Ex. 20] . romantic periods offer little historical in-
terest since they usually conform with the
standard types outlined in I. Toward the
end of the i9th century, however, the
amplification of the harmonic vocabu-
lary brought with it numerous novelties
in the writing of cadences, such as the use
of modal cadences [Ex. 25; Moussorgsky,
Boris Godunov, 1869], the use of a dis-
sonant final chord [Ex. 26; Ravel, Les
grands vents], of polytonal formations
[Ex. 27; Busoni, Sonatina Seconda, 1912]
and, more recently, the return to a "con-
trapuntal" type of cadence reminiscent of
medieval cadences in the stepwise motion
of the bass and in their "plagal" feeling
[Ex. 28; Hindemith, Sonate fur Klavier,
Lit.: A. Casella, The Evolution of
Music, through the History of the Perfect
Cadence (1924); E. M. Lee, "Cadences
and Closes" (PMA xxxi); H. J. Moser,
"Das Schicksal clcr Penultima" (JMP xli);
H Moscr, "Die harmonischen Funk-
tionen in der tonalen Kadenz" i); (ZMW
C. Artorn, "Cadenze e pseudocadenze"
This cadence is interesting because it (RMI xxxiv); R. Tenschert, "Die Ka-
foreshadows the authentic cadence with denzbehandlung bei Richard Strauss"
its V I movement in the lowest part (ZMW vii).
[Ex. 21 This as well as the plagal
cadence was introduced around 1450, as Cadence [F.]. French ryth-century
a result of the addition of a true bass to name for the trill.
musical texture (Ockeghcm, Obrecht; see
^Flemish Schools), The earlier type (II Cadent. See under *NachschIag.
I) survived only in the so-called Phrygian
cadence [Ex. 22]. It should be noticed Cadenza. An extended section in free,
that, until 1500, the third is practically improvisatory style inserted usually near
always omitted in the final chord of the the end of a composition where it serves
authentic as well as of the plagal cadence as a retarding element, giving the player

[still in Purcell!; see *Picardy third]. In or singer a welcome chance to exhibit his
the 1 6th century the "suspension"-for- technical brilliance shortly before the
mula [Ex. 21] was universally accepted, piece closes. Its traditional place is in the
while in the lyth century the "anticipa- concerto, between the six-four chord
tion"-formula [Ex. 23] is very common. (marked with a fermata) and the domi-
Composers of the i7th century frequently nant chord of the final cadence [see Ex.].
use both formulae simultaneously in two Such cadenzas make ample use of highly
parts (violins) in a strikingly dissonant virtuoso passage work, but also draw from
combination known as Corclli-clash [Ex. the thematic substance of the movement,

24; for an early instance, in Stefano presenting its subjects in artfully devised
Landi's San Alessio (1634), cf. H. Gold- modifications or combinations. They usu-

[ 109]
with an extended on the the final chord of a cadence occur in the
ally close trill

dominant chord. lute and keyboard music of the i6th cen-

In the earlier concertos (Haydn; tury (Don Luis Milan, 1535; Girolamo
Mozart; Beethoven, Piano concertos nos. Cavazzoni, 1542). Early examples of the
1-4) the cadenzas are not included in
modern cadenza, on IJ
are found in Co-

relli and Vivaldi(c. 1700). Throughout

the century improvised cadenzas of
1 8th

a highly virtuoso type were an established

feature of the solo arias in the Neapolitan

operas, whence they were adopted

in the
concerto (Mozart).
Lit.: R. Stockhausen. DieKadenzen zu
den Klavierfonzerten der Wiener Klas-
si\er (Diss. Vienna 1936); H. Knodt,
the composition, since they were supposed
"Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Kaden-
to be provided by the performer. In the
zen im Instrumentalkonzert" (SIM xv);
9th century cadenzas to the famous con- A. Schering, "Die freie Kadenz im In-
certos were written by the outstanding
strumentalkonzert des 1 8. Jahrhunderts"
virtuosos (Hummel, Thalberg, Mosche-
(KIM, 1906, p. 204).
les, Reinecke, Joachim), frequently with-
out proper regard to matters of style, so Cadenzato [It.]. With determination
that it is not unusual to hear a Mozart (as in a cadence).
concerto winding up with a cadenza full
Caecilianismus [G.]. See *Cecilian
of the lush harmonies and heavy texture
was movement.
of the late Romanticism. Beethoven
the first to write his own
cadenzas as an Caisse [F.]. Drum. See *Percussion
integral part of the work, in his last Piano instruments B, 1-3.
Concerto, op. 76 (Emperor Concerto).
His precedent was followed by most of Calando [It.]. Diminuendo, usually
with rallentando.
his successors (Schumann, Brahms), who
wanted guard their works against the
Calascione. Same as *colascione.
poor and the stylistic incongruities
of the "pianist-composers." There exist Calata. Italian lute dance of the early
* - *
authentic cadenzas (written by the com- i6th century, notatcd in ( -) time, but

posers themselves) for all the Beethoven actually in

* - (3 x *) meter, and therefore
concertos and for a number of the Mozart
similar to the *bassa danza. Petrucci's
concertos. Although not entirely satisfac-
Intavolatura de lauto iv (1508) contains
tory, they should be consulted by anyone W.
confronted with the necessity of choosing 13 calatas, one for two lutes. Cf. J.
Wasielewski, Geschichte der Instrumen-
(or writing) a cadenza. Judicious artists
will probably find them preferable to any talmusi^ im 16. Jahrhundert (1878),
of those in current use, with the sole ex- Beilage.

ception of the excellent cadenzas to Calcando [It.]. "Trampling," i.e., ac-

Mozart's piano concertos written by Bu- celerando.
soni. In the piano compositions of Chopin
and Liszt ample use is made of another Calino casturame. This title of a piece
in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Boo\ is prob-
type of cadenza, consisting of relatively
short passages of glittering passage work, ably a perversion of Irish "Cailinog a stuir
"Young my treasure."
written in small notes, and inserted where me,'* girl,

a momentary retardation or a display of See *Charivari.

pianistic brilliancy was desired.
Cadenzas in the form of running pas- Calliope. Originally the name of the
sages following (rather than preceding) Greek Muse of Eloquence, the term was

adopted for an instrument which its un- piano adaptation of the former) in which
known inventor probably expected to the sound of small bells is imitated.
have divine powers of persuasion, as it
consisted of a number of steam-blown Can. In English Service music, abbrevi-
whistles (played from a keyboard) which ation for cantons. See *Polychoral
could be heard over a distance of ten
miles. It was used at American fairs to Canadian music. Cf. M. Barbeau and
attract people from far and wide. Edw. Sapir, Fol{ Songs of French Canada
(1925); J. M. Gibbon, Canadian Fol^
Calmato [It.]. Calmed.
Songs (1927); Soeurs de Sainte-Anne,
Dictionnaire biographique des musiciens
Galore, Con [It.]. With warmth.
Canadiens (1935); E. Gagnon, Chansons
Cambiata [It., from cambiare, to populaires du Canada (7th ed., 1940); M.
change]. See *Nonharmonic tones I. Barbeau, in ML
xiii, no. 2.

Camera [It., chamber]. In Baroque Canarie, canario. A French dance of

music (1600-1750) da camera indicates the 7th century, designed as an imitation
music for use outside of the church, as of the "sauvages des iles Canaries," the
distinguished from da chiesa, i.e., music natives of the Canary Islands who repre-
to be performed in the church [see
sented the "exotic" element in the Euro-
*Chiesaj. This dichotomy was applied pean culture of the i6th and i7th centu-
to sonatas, cantatas, duettos, etc. Espe-
ries. It is in quick %
or %-time, with a
cially in the first case it entailed a distinct dotted note on each strong beat, almost
difference of form which is discussed
identical in rhythm with that of the gigue.
under *Sonata B, II. In modern Italian The earliest examples are to be found in
usage, music a da camera means chamber the harpsichord suites of Champion de
music. Chambonnieres (1602-72) and of Louis
Camerata [It., from earner a chamber,
Couperin (c. 1626-61). Others occur in
Name fora group of distin- the operas of Lully, Purcell (Diocletian,
guished literary men, artists and musi- 1690), in Johann K. F. Fischer's Musi^al-
isches Blumenbuschlein (1696), in Georg
cians who, shortly before 1600, used to
Muffat's primum
gather in the palace of the Count Bardi at Florilegium (1690),
Florence to discuss the possibilities of a etc. Examples in ApMZ ii; TaAM vii, 43.
new musical style in imitation of the Cf. P. Nettl, in StM viii. See * Dance
drama [see
music of the ancient Greek music III.

*Nuove Musiche; *Opera]. Members of

this "charmed were the poet Ot-
Cancan. A popular dance of the late
tavio Rinuccini and the musicians Vin-
9th century which developed from the
cenzo Galilei, Giulio Caccini, and Jacopo quadrille and which became world-
known for its vulgarity and indecorous-
ness.J. Offenbach introduced it into his
Lit.:H. Martin, "La 'Camerata' du
Comte Bardi et la musique florentine du Orphee aux enjers (1874).
xvie siecle" (RdM, nos. 42-44, 46, 47); Cancel. Same as natural (sign).
G. Gilli, Una Corte alia fine del '500

(1928). Cancion [Sp.]. Song.

Camminando [It.]. Proceeding, push-
Cancionero [Sp.]. Collection of songs,
ing on.
particularly folk songs. Important pub-
Campana [It.]. *Bell. Campanology is lications of this type have been issued by
the art of bell-founding and bell-ringing. F. Pedrelland by E. M. Torner. For an
Campanella (little bell) is the *glocken- important 15th-century MS, known as
spiel; also the title of a violin piece by
Cancionero musical del palacio, see
Paganini and of an etude by F. Liszt (a ""Sources, no. 27; ^Spanish Music I.

Cancrizans [from L. cancer, crab]. In saron (the comes begins at the higher
crab-wise motion; see *Retrogracle. fourth), etc. According to special devices:
(c) canon by ^augmentation or diminu-
Canntaireachd. See under *Pibroch, tion (the comes has the melody in doubled

Canon A or in halved values); (d) canon by *in-

[Gr., law, rule], (i) poly-
version (the comes has the inverted mel-
phonic composition in which all the parts
have the same melody throughout, al- ody; also called per motu contrario)\ (e)
though starting at different points. The retrograde canon or crab canon or canon
canon is the strictest species of imitation. cancrizans (the comes imitates the dux
is an example by Schubert in retrograde motion; see ^Retrograde) ;
(f) canon al contrario riverso (the comes
is the retrograde inversion of the dux;
such a canon can be executed by reading
the melody with the page turned upside
down; see ^Retrograde, Ex. 2); (g) group
canon (the dux and, consequently, the
comes two
consist of or more parts
each; a famous example of this type is
Byrd's motet "Diliges Dominum"; most
of the many-voiced canons of the lyth
century for 12, 16, or even 48 voices

belong to this group); (h) circle canon

or perpetual canon (i.e., one which leads
back to the beginning and which, there-
fore, may be repeated several times; most
(Piano Trio op. 100, Scherzo). It ap- of the popular canons, called *rounds, be-
pears that in a canon the normal contra- long to this type); (i) spiral canon or
puntal texture of horizontal (melodic) canon per tonos (here the melody ends
and vertical (harmonic) relationships is one tone higher than it started; thus the
"reinforced" by diagonal threads which canon must be played six times, first in
consistently connect the places of imita- C, then in D, in E, in F-sharp, etc.; an
is this added di-
tion [see *Texture]. It example is found in Bach's Musical Offer-
mension which accounts for the special ing under the title: "Ascendente modula-
artistic charm of the canon. Any phrase, tione ascendet gloria regis," i.e., "May
heard now in the leading voice (dux, ante- the glory of the king rise as the modula-
cedent), will soon be heard in the follow- tion ascends"). A
canon is called mixed
parts are added (usually
ing voice or voices (comes, consequent); if in the bass)
in the meantime, however, the dux has which do not participate in the imitation
proceeded to another motive which thus (e.g., the canons in Bach's Goldberg Vari-
sounds against the first and which, in ations).
turn, will soon occur in its comes. History. In early music, the pres-

Types. The following types of canon ent-day type of canon occurs under names
are commonly distinguished, (a) Ac- such as *rota or *rondellus (*round, e.g.,

cording to the temporal distance between the well-known *Sumer is icumen in of

the parts: canon of one, two, etc., meas- circa 1310), *caccia (i4th century), and
ures; in earlier terminology: canon ad *fuga (i6th century), while the term
minimum, ad semibrevem, ad brevem (or canon has a much wider significance,
ad tempus), i.e., in the distance of a namely, that of any kind of inscription
minim, etc. (b) According to the interval ("rule") giving a clue as to the intended
of imitation: canon in unison, of the fifth, execution of a composition which is pur-
fourth, etc.; earlier terms are: canon ad posely notated in an incomplete or ob-
unisonum, ad hypodiapentc (the comes scure manner (riddle canon). Such
in the works of Guil-
begins at the lower fifth), ad hyperdiates- canons appear first
laume de Machaut, among which there suration.
Accompanying "Fuga triumis a
is a motet
"Trop plus est belle" [cf. F. vocum" by Josquin [cf. ApNPM, 180],
Ludwig, G. de Machaut) Musifyalische An interesting example of a "group-
Werfe ii, 71; J. Wolf, Musi^alische
Schrijt-tajeln (1930), p. 23], the tenor of
which is to be sung "ad modum ron-
delli" (rondellus means here, not round,
but *rondeau), i.e., as follows: a b a a a
b a b, although only a b is notated. Ex-
amples of much greater complexity occur
in the French MSS of the late *Ars nova
[cf., e.g., the "Canon balade" in WoHN
i, 375]. In the Flemish era (c. 1450-
1550) the canonic inscriptions grow more
and more enigmatic so that Tinctoris, in canon" for two lutes occurs in Vincenzo
his Diffinitorium (c. 1500) aptly defines Galilei's Fronimo (1563; see *Editions
the canon as "a rule which shows the in- XIV, 4) under the name "Fuga."
tention of the composer in an obscure In the 1 7th century, canons were fre-

way" [CS 179]. Among the simpler

iv, quently devised in such a way as to admit
examples of riddle canon are the various of a number of solutions. A well-known
inscriptions indicating retrograde motion example is a "Non nobis domine" (at-
[see *Retrograde]. More complicated is tributed, probably wrongly, to W. Byrd),
the inscription given with the Agnus Dei which admits 6 or 7 solutions differing
of Dufay's Missa L'homme arme: "Can- according to number of parts, to the inter-
cer eat plenis et redeat medius" (The crab vals, and to the distance of the imitating

proceed full and return half). This means parts [cf. GD iii, 642^. Pier Francesco
that the tenor should be read first back- Valentini (d. 1654) wrote a canon which
wards (a crab "proceeds" backwards) in boasts of more than 2000 solutions. At
the full note-values, then forward from the same time, the English provided a
the beginning, but in halved note-values. great number of popular canons in their
Even more oracular are inscriptions such *catches. It was chiefly through Bach's
as "Ne recorderis" (literally "Don't re- genius that the canon again obtained an
member") which must be read "Ne re important position in musical art, a posi-
corderis," i.e., "Don't remember re" tion which it has maintained to the pres-
"Don't sing re" "Omit all the notes re" ent day. Particularly noteworthy are
i.e., "D." Riddle canons of particular Bach's Kanonische Variationen uber das
complication occur in the English 15th- Weihnachtslicd and the canons in his
century Missa O quam suavis [new ed. Goldberg Variations. Haydn, Mozart,
by H. B. Collins (1927)]. For more de- Beethoven, contributed many charming
tails see WoHN
i, 427; GD
ii, 713 ("In- examples to the popular repertory, but
scriptions"); RiHM ii.i, 83-95; dpNPM, also used canon technique in their sonatas

179. (mostly in the menuets) and variations.

Less obscure, hence of greater practical A well-known example of a more recent
date is the last movement of Cesar
importance, are the so-called mensuration
canons of the i5th and i6th centuries. Franck's Violin Sonata (1886) which,
Here, a single written part has to be read however, employs a rather facile tech-
simultaneously in different ^mensurations nique, while Brahms made a more in-
or ^proportions. These canons, some- genious use of the canon, e.g., in his /j
times called *fuga, start simultaneously Canons (for women's voices), op. 113.
at the intervals of tonic and dominant, Lit.: Jadassohn, Canon and Fugue

but proceed differently, owing to the dif- (1899); C. H. Kitson, Invertible Counter-
point and Canon (1927);
ferent value of the longer notes (tonga, E. Prout,

brevis) under the various signs of men- Double Counterpoint and Canon\ B.
Ziehn, Canonical Studies (1912); L. Fein- (1609), written in the form of strophic
des Kanons bis with the same bass used for every
inger, Die Friihgeschichte

Josquin (1937); F. Jode, ^Der Kanon stanza, but with different melodies for

(1926); P. Mies, "Der Kanon im mehr-

the voice [see *Strophic bass], may be

satzigen klassischen Werk" viii); (ZMW considered as the point of departure. As

0. E. Deutsch, "Haydn's Kanons" a matter of fact, Alessandro Grandi's
"cantade" (Cantade et arie a voce sola,
(ZMW xv).
(2) In ancient Greek music, canon is appearance of the name)
1620; first fol-

the name of the monochord which served low the same scheme of the "strophic-bass
to demonstrate the "laws" of acoustics. cantata," as do also the majority of can-
See *Kanun. tatas written before 1650 [cf. RiHM ii.2,

(3) In Byzantine chant, a special type 20, 31; AdHM i, 437]. On the other
of poetry, more correctly spelled kanon; hand, a piece such as Peri's "Se tu parti"
see Byzantine chant II. more clearly foreshadows the later can-

(4) In the Roman liturgy, canon is the tata, since its three stanzas (written to

central and most solemn of the the same bass) contain contrasting sec-
*Mass, said by the officiating priest after and recitativo, separated by
tions, arioso,
the Sanctus. It begins with the words Te instrumental ritornellos, and thus antici-

igitur [cf.Lt/,4]. pate to some extent the composite struc-

ture of the developed cantata. This struc-
Canonical hours. See *Office hours. ture becomes more clearly evident in the
cantatas of Francesco Rasi (Dialoghi rap-
Canonic treatment, style. The term
refers to short passages written as a more presentativi, 1620; cf. RiHM, 299), Gio.
Pietro Berti (Cantate ed arie, 1624), G. F.
or less free canon and forming a part of a
Sances (Cantade, 4 vols., 1633-40), and
larger composition such as a sonata (fre-
Benedetto Ferrari (Musiche varic, 1637).
quently in the development section).
The free composite cantata in a way,
Canso. See *Canzo. the vocal counterpart of the contemporary
*canzona da sonare reached a peak in
Cantabile [It.]. Singable, singing.
Luigi Rossi (1598-1653; cf. RIHM,
Cantata [from cantare, to sing].
It. 37iff), Giacomo Carissimi (1605-74; c ^-

1. A
composite vocal form of the Baroque RiHM, 383^, and Marc'Antonio Cesti

period, consisting usually of a number of (1623-69; cf. AdHM ii, 439). This form
movements such as arias, recitatives, was taken over by the masters of the Nea-

duets, choruses which are based upon a politan School (Provenzale, Stradclla, Al.
continuous narrative text, lyrical, dra- Scarlatti) who, however, standardized
matic, or religious. Owing to the activity its structure into a form consisting of two
ofJ. S. Bach, the church cantata (cantata
arias of contrasting character, each intro-
da Mesa), i.e., a cantata of devotional duced by a recitative. It is interesting to
subject matter, is particularly well known
notice that an almost identical process of
and clearly defined. However, the secular
standardization took place simultane-
cantata (cantata da camera), was not only ously in the instrumental field, leading
the earlier, but also the more frequent from the canzona to the sonata da chiesa
and da camera. Stradella wrote more
type throughout the iyth century, espe-
cially in Italy. The cantata appeared than 190, Al. Scarlatti more than 600 can-
shortly after 1600 as the third offspring of tatas, mostly of the type described above,
the *monodic style [see *Opera, *Orato- which was almost exclusively adopted in
rio], replacing the 16th-century madrigal. the 1 8th century as a convenient and con-
In its experimental, stage (till
early, ventionalized scheme for virtuoso display
1630) occurred under different names
it and sentimentality (Leonardo Leo, Leo-
and in a great variety of forms and styles. nardo Vinci, Niccolo Jommelli, Johann
Certain pieces in Caccini's Nuove musiche Hasse).
(1602) and in Peri's Varic musiche II. In France the first cantatas were
written by Antoine Charpentier (1634- meister began publishing annual sets of
1704), a pupil of Carissimi. It was, how- cantata texts from his own pen, mostly
ever, not until after his death that the poetic paraphrases of scriptural passages
Italian cantata became popular among proper for the various feasts of the church
French composers. A great number of year. Some of these sets were written ex-
cantatas, mostly to French texts, appeared presslyfor certain composers,
e.g., for
between 1705 and 1730, written by Andre Krieger (Set i, 1704), for Philipp Erie-
Campra (1660-1744), Nicolas Bernier bach (Set ii, 1708), and Georg Philipp
(1664-1734), Michel Monteclair (1666- Telemann (Sets iii, iv, 1711, 1714). How-
1737), Jean-Bapt. Morin (1677-1745), ever, many other musicians also were
Nicolas Clerambault (1678-1749), J. J. eager to seize upon these extremely timely
Mouret (1682-1738), and Jean-Philippe and popular texts, above all J. S. Bach
Rameau (1683-1764). The latter 's can- who, by the artistic greatness and religious
tatas (complete ed., vol. iii) are all secular, dignity of his music, sanctioned Neu-
mostly for one voice, and consist usually meister's "theatrical" poetry as well as the
of three recitatives, each followed by an "operatic" form of the da-capo aria.
aria. Cf.LavE 1.3, 15571!. Bach's cantatas (195 are preserved out
III. The development of the cantata in of a total number of probably close to 300)
Germany, although strongly influenced usually open with a chorus in fugal style
by the Italians, presents an entirely differ- which sometimes assumes great propor-
ent picture, chiefly on account of the em- tions, continue with a number of reci-
phasis on the church cantata (Kaspar tatives and arias, one for each of the two
Kittel's Arien und Kantaten of 1638 are or three soloists, and close with a har-
practically the only secular cantatas of the monized chorale. See *Chorale cantata.
7th century; cf. RJIIM, 349). Schiitz's After Bach, the cantata merged with the
Symphoniae sacrae (1629) contain sev- oratorio of which it represents the dimin-
eral compositions which, although based utive and more casual type. Most of these
on Latin texts, must be regarded as can- cantatas were written for special occa-
tatas, being similar in form and style to Haydn's Birthday Cantata for
sions, e.g.,
those of Grandi or Rossi. However, the Prince Nikolaus Eszterhazy (1763), or
cantatas of Tunder (1614-67), Weck- Mozart's cantata Die Maurerfreude (The
mann (1621-74; DdT 6), Rudolf Ahle Joy of the Masons, 1785), or Beethoven's
(1625-73; DdT 5), Buxtehude (1637- Der Augenblic\ (op. 136,
1707; DdT 14), and J. S. Bach's uncle 1814). Numerous
later composers (Schu-

Johann Christoph Bach (1642-1703) bert, Spohr, Weber, Schumann, Mendels-

already show a distinctly German charac- sohn, Liszt, Brahms, d'Indy, Saint-Saens,
ter, being more serious, more genuinely Bennett, Stanford, Parry, Sullivan,
dramatic, and more elaborate musically Vaughan Williams) have made contri-
than the contemporary Italian cantata, butions to the repertory, but none of last-

owing chiefly to the inclusion of orchestral ing importance. American composers of

and choral participation. A specially in- cantatas were John K. Paine and Dudley

teresting type is the *chorale cantata Buck (The Voyage of Columbus).

which was cultivated by Tunder, Johann Lit.: E. Schmitz, Geschichte der welt-
Ph. Krieger (DdT 53/54), Kuhnau lichen Solo1(antate (1914); M. Lange,
(DdT 58/59), and others, while Buxte- Die Anfange der Kantate (Diss. Leipzig
hude's numerous cantatas are all based on 1938); K. F. Rieber, Entwictyung der
free poetic texts and are, in a way, more geistlichen Solo^antate im ij. Jahrhun-
"Italian" than those of the other German dert (Diss. Freiburg 1925); W. S. Han-

composers. The tendency from the cho- nam, Notes on the Church Cantatas of
rale to free texts (and, as a consequence, J. S. Bach (1928); W. G. Whittacker,

from cantus-firmus pieces to entirely free Fugitive Notes on Church Cantatas and
composition) found a strong nourish- Motets of J. S. Bach (1923); E. J. Dent,
ment about 1700 when the pastor E. Neu- "Italian Chamber Cantatas" (MA ii);

H. Prunieres, "The Italian Cantata of ticum Moysis /), "Audite verbum" (can-
the i7th Century" (ML i); vii, no. ticum Jeremiae), "Bcnedicite omnia
E. Schmitz, "Zur Geschichte des italien- opera Domini" (canticum puerorum)\ to
ischen Kammerduets im 17. Jahrhun- the latter: "Magnificat anima mea" (can-
derts" (IMP xxiii); E. B. Helm, in BAMS ticum Mariae or canticum B.V.M.] see
vi;H. Goldschmidt, in ZMW ii; H. Rie- ^Magnificat), "Benedictus Dominus
mann, in SIM xiii; A. Heuss, in Z1M x; Deus Israel" (canticum Zachariae),
F. Treiber, in AMP ii. "Nunc dimittis" (canticum Simeonis).
Musical publications: DdT 3 (Tun- The chants of the latter class form the
der); DdT 6 (Bernhard, Weckmann); climax of Vespers, Lauds, and Compline
DdT 14 (Buxtehude); DdT 21/22 respectively. Canticum canticorum is the
(Zachow); DdT 51/52 (Graupner); Song of Solomon, selections from which
DdT 53/54 (Kricgcr); DdT 58/59 have been frequently composed as motets
(Kuhnau, Schelle); DTB 6.i (Nurnberg (e.g., "Quam pulchra es," by Dunstable;
SchGMB, no. 34), most completely by
masters); cantatas by Buxtehude (ed. by cf.

W. Gurlitt), Georg Bohm (ed. by J. Wol- Palestrina (29 motets; cf. compl. ed. vol.
Nikolaus Bruhns (ed. by F. Stein); iv). See ^Service; *Byzantine chant
H. Riemann, Kantatenjruhling, 4 vols.; (fanon).
SchGMB, nos. 212, 213, 260, 284; HAM, Cantiga. Spanish monophonic songs of
nos. 214, 227, 235, 258, 279. the 1
3th century, mostly in honor of the

Cante flamenco, cante Hondo. See Virgin Mary (C. de Santa Maria), which
are preserved in great number (over
400) in four MSS of the Bibl. Nazionale
Canti carnascialeschi [It., carnival and the Bibl. Escoriale, in Madrid. They
were collected for the king Alfonso el
songs]. Early- 16th-century part songs in
the styles of the *frottola, the *villanella, Sabio ("the Wise," 1252-84) who was a
the *canzonetta, the *balletto, etc., de- great lover of poetry and music and who
signed for the elaborate carnival festivities probably himself contributed a good part
which took place at the court of the Med- of the contents. The pictorial reproduc-
icis and of other Italian sovereigns. Hein- tions of instruments and players con-
rich Isaac wrote a number of such songs tained in the MSS arc of the highest im-

during his stay at the court of Lorenzo portance [cf. GD ii, 482; iii, 260; iv, 184].

de Medici, c. 1480. Unfortunately these The chief form of the cantigas is that of
are lost. Numerous anonymous examples the *virelai. Regarding their textual as
exist in several Italian MSS of the i6th well as musical form the cantigas are very
similar to the Italian *laudas of about the
century. Example in HAM, no. 123.
Lit.: F. Ghisi, / canti carnascialeschi same However, the strict virelai
"Carnival Songs" (MQ xxv); form more frequently used in the Span-
(1937); id.,
P. M. Masson, f Chants de Carnaval flo- ish pieces. Examples in HAM, no. 22;
rentins (1913); *Editions V, 43. ReMMA, 274; OH
ii, 297; BcMMR, 166.

cantigas have been the subject of
Canticum [E. canticle; F. cantique]. studies by various scholars the first of
In the Catholic liturgy, biblical songs whom, J. Ribera, made sensational claims
similar to a psalm but occurring elsewhere as to theArabic origin of the songs and
in the Scriptures than in the Psalter of gave transcriptions in what he believed
David. They are classified as: (a) cantica to be "Arabic rhythms," providing some
minora those which
(lesser canticles), i.e., of the songs with a 19th-century dance
occur in the Old Testament, and (b) can- accompaniment. Actually, the cantigas
tica majora (major canticles, Gospel can- are an outgrowth of the Provencal trouba-
ticles), i.e., those from
the New Testa- dour movement and must, therefore, be
ment. To the former class belong: rendered, as these, in modal rhythm, less
"Audite caeli quae loquor" (canticum strictly applied, however, than in the case
Moysis //), "Cantemus Domino" (can- of the trouvere songs.

Lit., H. Angles, Las Cantigas (1927); the breaking up (fractus) of a long note
G. Chase, History of Spanish Music value into smaller parts. Hence, they des-
(1942); ReMMA, 245 (bibl. p. 450); P. ignate polyphonic music, as opposed to
Aubry, Iter Hispanicum (1908), 37$ plainsong (cantus choralis, cantus planus)
(facsimiles). with its notes of (supposedly) equal
Cantilena, (i) A vocal melody of a lyri-
cal rather than a dramatic or virtuoso Cantus firmus [L., fixed melody], A
character; also an instrumental passage of pre-existcnt melody which is made the
the same nature. (2) In medieval writ- basis of a polyphonic composition by the

ings the term is loosely used to denote addition of contrapuntal voices. As re-
secular vocal compositions, homophonic gards their origin, the cantus (or cantt)
as well as polyphonic (ballades, rondeaux, firmi usually belong to one of the four fol-
etc.) [cf. ReMMA, 294, 322]. Cantilena lowing groups: (a) plainsong melodies;
romana is the Roman (i.e., Gregorian) (b) Protestant chorales; (c) secular melo-
chant. dies; (d) abstract subjects. To group (a),
which is
by far the most numerous, be-
Cantillation. Chanting in plainsong
long all the *organa and *clausulae, prac-
style, especially that of the Jewish service.
tically all the motets of the I3th and I4th
Cantino [It.,F. chanterelle]. The high- centuries, a number of masses of the I5th
est string of lutes, viols, etc. A i6th-cen- and i6th centuries [see *Mass B, II (b)]
German term is as well as the numerous organ verses
tury Sangsaite.
(*verset), organ hymns, etc., of the i6th
Cantio sacra. Latin name for the
Cabezon, Redford,
century (Schlick,
motet. Many collections of motets bear The
Titelouze). latter pave the way to
the title: Cantiones Sacrae (Tallis, Byrd,
group (b) which includes the *organ
G. Gabrieli, Schiitz). An Italian syno- chorales (*chorale preludes) of Buxte-
nym is Canzoni spirituals hude, Pachclbel, Bach, Brahms, etc., as
well as the chorale choruses in cantatas,
Canto [It.].Song; soprano; melody;
subject. Canto fermo, *cantus firmus. passions (for instance, the first chorus of
Bach's St. Matthew Passion). Group (c)
Canto pianOy plainsong.

Cantor. In the Catholic service the lead-

two to six, of the chorus (the schola),
ers, wui- ri.j tL- La.

who sing the solo portions of the chants

(incipits and verses). In the Anglican
service, see under *Polychoral style. In
the Protestant church, the director of
music (e.g., Bach
in Leipzig). In the Jew-
ish service, the solo singer, also called

Cantus [L.]. Medieval and Renaissance

term for melody; especially for the upper
part (soprano) of polyphonic composi-
tions (abbreviated C). Also for entire
vocal compositions, chiefly secular, as,
Ave maris Stella (i) by Cabezon; (2) byDufay
e.g., in the three volumes of the *Odheca-
ton which are
designated: A, Canti includessome motets of the i3th century,
Canti B, Canti C. Cantus figuratus (figu- and numerous masses of the i5th century,
ralis), cantus fractus, and cantus men- e.g., Missa *rhomme arme, Missa basse
suratus all refer to the use of exactly meas- danse. To
the last group belong the vari-
ured (mensuratus) note-values (figurae) ous compositions based on the hexachord
of different lengths such as result from (e.g., Sweelinck, Fantasia super ut, re, mi,
fa, sol, la) or those based on a *soggetto concomitant of its adoption as a *cantus
cavato. firmus for polyphonic compositions.
The cantus firmus appears most fre-
Cantus prius factus [L., song made
quently in the *tenor, usually in long
notes (*Pfundnoten) which form a strong
Same as *cantus firmus.
in advance].

contrast to florid design of the other parts Cantus visibilis [L., visible song]. A
[Ex. Cabezon, Ave maris Stella]. In
i; misleading translation given by John
many cases, however, the c.f. was sub- Hothby (d. 1487) of the English term
jected to considerable ornamentation and "sight," which was used in the i4th cen-
melodic elaboration, a process by which
tury in connection with improvised "Eng-
the original melody became more or less lish discant"; see Fauxbourdon (2).
completely disguised [cf. the analyses in
DTOe i9.i; also BeMMR, 202]. Particu-
Canun. See *Kanun.

larly complex examples of this type exist Canzo, canso [Provencal for chanson].
in certain masses in which the discant is
A form of troubadour music and poetry,
a free elaboration of the c.f. [see *Dis-
also referred to in modern writing as
cant mass]. Less "scholarly" than these
canzone, Kanzone, chanson. It consisted
methods is the treatment encountered in of various stanzas of 6 to 7 lines each with
hymns of Dunstable, Dufay, and Ockeg- music provided according to the follow-
hem in which the c.f. is used in the so-
ing scheme:
prano, skillfully changed from a plain-
song into a graceful melody in triple
meter, and supported by two or three
^ a
5 6


lower parts [Ex. 2: Dufay, Ave maris This is the Provencal (troubadour)
Stella; cf. *Editions V, 49]. Examples in
counterpart of the northern French
HAM, nos. 28-32, 44, 65, 67, etc. See
ballade and of the German
*In seculum; *L'homme arme; *Felix
(Minnesinger) Bar [see *Barform|. Ex-
namque; *Innomine. amples in HAM, nos. i8b, c; ReMMA,
Lit.: P. Aubry, Recherche s sur les RiHM
2i 4 f; BeMMA, 107; i.2, 25if.
tenors fran fats (latins) dans les motets du
(1907); id., in TG xiii; F. H.
xiiie siecle Canzona or canzone (pi. canzone or
Sawyer, "The Use of Cantus Firmus
. . .
canzoni). (i) In Italian poetry of the
by the Netherland Schools" (PMA 1
3th through the I7th centuries, name for
Ixiii). serious lyrical poems, usually in four or
five stanzas of eight lines each. (2) In
Cantus lateralis f L., song written side 1 8th- and 19th-century music, name for
by side]. Fifteenth- and 16th-century lyrical songs (e.g., the canzone "Voi che
term for the large *choir books in which sapete" in Mozart's Figaro) or for instru-
the parts of a polyphonic composition mental pieces of a similar character (e.g.,
were written "side by side" on the double the slow movement of Tchaikovsky's
page, in distinction from the *part books. Symphony no. 4,designated "in modo di

canzone"). (3) See *canzo.

Cantus planus [L.]. Plainsong, Gre- (4) A
designation of 16th-century
gorian chant. The term was not used Italian vocal music, including:
until the i3th century, earlier names be- (a) certain members of the early *frottola
ing cantus choralis, cantilena Romana, family, set to free poems (called "can-
etc. The word planus (even, level) is usu- zoni") of Petrarch and others, which
ally explained as referring to the fact that, were important predecessors of the early
in this period, the original tradition of madrigal (Examples in Canzoni, Sonetti,
Gregorian rhythm was lost and the chant Strambotti et Frottole, 1517, reprinted
began to be interpreted in uniform values 1941 by A. Einstein); (b) later popular
of rather long duration (a brevis each), forms of the villanella type [see *Villa-
an interpretation which was probably a nella] also variously known as "Canzoni

Villanesche" (Nola, 1541; Cimello, 1545) of half-notes and marked by the frequent
and "Canzoni alia
Napolitana" (Ferretti, appearance of repeated notes at the begin-
1573; Conversi, 1572). In the latter dec- ning of the subjects [see Ex.]. At first
ades of the century, the *canzonetta be- there were relatively few differences be-
came popular (Horazio Vecchi, 1580 and tween keyboard and ensemble canzonas
later years; Hassler, 1590). Cf. E, Helm, (those of Claudio Merulo, for example,
The Early Italian
Madrigal (unpubi. diss. appear to have been performed by both
Harvard 1939); E. Hertzmann, Adrian media). During the i7th century, how-
Willaert in der weltlichen Vo1(almusi\ ever, the keyboard canzona became grad-
seiner Zeit ( 1
93 1 ) .
ually more concentrated in its form, lead-
(5) An important instrumental form ing to the fugue, while that for ensembles
of the 1 6th and
i7th centuries. It devel- became more sectional and finally identi-

oped from the Franco-Flemish chansons fied itself with the sonata.
of Jannequin, Crecquillon, Clemens non I.
Keyboard Canzona. The first steps
Papa, and others [see *Chanson (3)] in the development of independent can-
which were reprinted in Italy in great zonas were taken by Girolamo Cavazzoni
numbers, under the name "Canzon fran- (Intavolatura doe ricercari, canzoni, ,
. . .

cese." The immensepopularity of these 1542) in pieces such as his "Canzone

pieces led to numerous arrangements for sopra Fait d'argent" which uses the the-
lute (Francesco da Milano, 1536, 1546, matic material of Josquin's famous chan-
etc.,and others) and for keyboard (Marc* son "Fault d'argens," but differs from this
Antonio da Bologna, 1523; Attaingnant, in the contrapuntal elaboration of the

1530, 1531; A. Gabrieli, Canzoni alia

themes [cf. HAM, nos. 91 and 118].

francese per I'organo, 1571). Composers While Andrea Gabrieli's canzonas are
furthermore wrote, in the style and form mostly ornamented arrangements [see
of certain vocal chansons, original instru- *Intabulierung] of vocal chansons, origi-
mental pieces which were known as "Can- nal organ canzonas were published by
zoni alia francese" or "Canzoni da so- Merulo (1592, 1606, 1611), Pellegrini
nare." procedure which became
It is this (1599), Mayone (1603, 1609), Cima
the point of departure of a long and inter- (1606), Trabaci (1603, 1615), Cifra
esting development which in the instru- (1619), and others. These pieces are im-
mental eventually led to the sonata
field portant as forerunners of the fugue; in
of the 7th century [see *Sonata B, I],
1 fact, the name Fuge was used in Germany
while in the field of keyboard music it as synonymous with canzona (B. Schmid,
paved the way for the *fugue. As early 1607: "Fugen, ode: wie es die Italiener
as the 1 6th century, canzones were desig- nennen, canzoni alia francese"; Mursch-
nated either for keyboard (primarily or- hauser, 1707: "canzona sive fuga"). Fres-
cobaldi (1615, 1628, 1635, and 1645) es-
gan) or for instrumental ensemble. They
were characterized, like their chanson tablished the variation-canzona consisting

models, by clarity and balance of form of various fugal sections, each based on a

(typical schemes are A B A, A B B, A A

free rhythmic variation of one and the
B C, etc.) and by variety of texture (free same theme, and frequently interspersed
alternation of imitative, dialogue, and with free transitional passages. His ex-
homophonic styles with the former in ample was followed by Froberger, Kerll,
predominance). In contrast to the con- Poglietti, and many other German com-

temporary ricercar, they possessed a posers, including Bach (B.-G. vol. 38, no.
Canzonas for Instrumental Ensem-

bleswere first composed in the 1570*5 [see

*Editions XIV, vol. 2, for description and
Canzona Theme
reprints of these works]. .
lighter, less "learned" style and a more chiefly in Lombardy and Venetia, such
lively rhythm, moving in quarter- instead canzonas were published by Maschera
(1584); G. Gabrieli (1597, 1615); Canale terms "canzone" and "sonata" have be-
(1600); Mortaro (1600, 1610); Rognioni come synonymous and the former is in
(1605); Soderino (1608); Banchieri general replaced by the latter (Legrenzi,
(1596, 1603, etc.); and many others. They Vitali). At the same time, the older term
fall into three types. Some works, gen- continues to be used by some composers.
erally in four parts and closely modeled Long associated by theorists and com-
on the chanson in style and form, were posers with the "Allegro" style and also
primarily contrapuntal in character (they with the fugal style of writing, the word
always began with an imitative expo- "canzona" (or "canzone") is sometimes
sition) and had little stylistic contrast found as the designation of the principal
among their various sections. Canzonas fugal movement of the sonata (Young,
of this rather conservative type continued 1653; Purcell, 1683, 1697; Baldacini
to be written throughout the early lyth [1699], 1720; see also Brossard, 1706). It
century. Another type, allied in principle also occasionally enters the operatic Cover-
to the ricercar, occasionally manifested ture (e.g., in S. Landi's S. Alessio, 1634).
tendencies toward thematic unity (Ca- See *Sonata B, I.

nale) of the sort found in the variation Lit.: J. M. Knapp, The Canzone Fran-
canzonas for keyboard written by Fresco- cese and its Vocal Models (unpubl. mas-
baldi [cf. above]. A third
type, repre-
ter's thesis, Columbia 1941); E. Crocker,
sented by the brilliant polychoric canzonas An Introductory Study of the Italian Can-
of Giovanni Gabrieli and his followers zona for Instrumental Ensembles (unpubl.
(1597, Raverii Collection 1608, 1615), diss., Radcliffe 1943); A. Schlossberg, Die
was freer in structure, consisting of an italienische Sonate fur mehrere Instru-
alternation between sections in lively imi- mente im ij. Jahrhundert (1935); RiHM
tation and four-four time, and homophonic ii.2, passim. Examples in HAM, nos. 88,
sections in triple time. Occasionally these 118, 136, 175, 191, 194, 209, 210. E. C.
sections were very short and fragmentary
in character [see *Flick-kanzone].
Canzona francese. See *Canzona (5).

The free, multi-sectional type of can- Canzonet, canzonetta. Diminutive of

zona reached a climax in the ensemble *canzona; denotes in the late i6th century
works of Frescobaldi (four editions, 1623- short vocal pieces in a light vein, much
34). These canzonas, marked in the later in the character of a dance song [see *Bal-
editions by systematic changes of tempo The term was used by Quagliati
("allegro" for the imitative sections in (1588), Vecchi (various publications be-
canzona style, "adagio"
for the homo- tween 1580 and 1 600), Monteverdi (1584),
phonic sections in slower rhythms), may H. L. Hassler [cf. DTB
5], and several
well be considered a turning-point lead- of the English madrigalists [see ^Editions
ing to the sonata da chiesa. Henceforth, X, vols. i, 3, 20, 26, 28] .

the canzona identifies itself more and more

with the sonata. Its individual sections, Caoine [pronounced Keen]. An Irish

tending gradually to be reduced in num- dirge of ancient tradition. Cf. the article
ber, are also more highly developed, and
in GD. See also *Coronach.
more sharply contrasted
Capelle, Capellmeister [G.]. Old
one another. At the same time, vestiges of
spelling for *Kapelle, Kapellmeister.
the old canzona, such as the ABA struc-
ture typical of the original chanson and Capotasto [It., master fret; perverted
the long introductory fugal section, re- forms are: capodastro, capo taster, Kapo-
main for a long time. These characteris- daster, F. barre]. A mechanical contriv-
tics may be observed in certain canzonas ance used with guitars, lutes, etc., to
of Marini (1626), Buonamente (1636), shorten the vibrating length of all the
Merula (1615, 1637, 1639, and 1651), strings simultaneously. It consists of a
Neri (1644, 1651), and Cazzati (1642, small piecemade from hard wood or metal
1648, and later years). By c. 1650, the which can be fixed across the finger board.
By setting the capotasto across, e.g., the sets of bells were operated mechanically.
first fret, a piece in C-sharp can be played The use of a keyboard in connection with
with the same fingering as if it were in C. bells can be traced back to the early i6th
See *Barrer. century (Audenarde, 1510). Carillons be-
came extremely popular and achieved
Cappella [It.]. Chapel. See *A cap-
high perfection in the Netherlands, Bel-
gium, and Northern France from the I5th
Capriccio. [It.; F. caprice; from L. ca- through the i8th centuries. In the I9th
pra, goatj. (i) A term used by various century they spread to England and, more
19th-century composers, for instance Men- recently, to America. A
modern carillon
delssohn and Brahms, for short piano consists of 30 to 50 bells with a clapper

humorous or capricious char- inside, tuned chromatically from C or G

pieces of a
acter. They arc usually in ternary form. through three or four octaves. The clap-
It also appears as a title of *potpourris or pers are connected by wires to long wood-
en keys, arranged like those of a manual
fantasias [cf. Saint-Saens, "Caprice sur
les airs de ballet d'Alccstc dc Gluck"]. and a pedal of an organ. The manual
(2) In the lyth century, capriccio is one keys are struck with the closed hand which
of the four important prcfugal forms [see is
protected by a glove. The largest caril-
*Canzona lons are those at the University of Chicago
*Ricercare, (5), *Fantasia].
The capriccio, as the name suggests, is Chapel and at the Riverside Church of
less restrained than the others and fre- New York. The Curtis Institute, Phila-

quently involves certain peculiarities, such delphia, offers instruction in carillon play-
as the use of special themes. This is espe- ing. Modern carillon players make ample
Frescobaldi (Ca- use of tremolos, full chords, rapid pas-
cially true in the case of
cucu; Capriccio sopra Jt
il sages,and other effective devices. There
priccio sopra
re mi fa sol la; Capriccio sopra la Bcrga- is,however, in certain circles, a tendency
towards a more reserved style of playing
masca). Frobergcr's 18 capriccios are
which worthy of support.
scarcely different from his canzonas, both
is certainly

being based upon the principle of Fresco- Early composers of carillon music were
baldi's variation-canzona [cf. i, AdHM Matthias van der Ghcyn (1721-85), and
Earlier examples of fugal capriccios Potthoff (b. 1726). Pieces by the former
543 ].

for instruments (I) or for keyboard (K) were published in 1 862 by X. van Elewyck
are found in the publications of Lodovico (ed. Schott). Old organ pieces called
Balbi (1586; I), Francesco Stivori (1594; "Carillon" are found in O. Chilesotti, Mu-
Giovanni Maria Trabaci ( 1603; K), siciJ del passato, and in Louis
I), Couperin,
Ocuvrcs completes (ed. P. Brunold, 1936).
Biagio M.irini (1626; I), etc. Later pieces,
such as Johann Kaspar KcrlTs Capriccio Probably these were played by means of
an organ glockenspiel such as is used also
sopra il Cucco (c. 1680) and Bach's Ca-
in Bach's cantata "Schlage doch, gewun-
priccio sopra la lontananza sel suo jratcllo
dilettissimo (c. 1705), are of the nature of schte Stunde." For a lute piece "Carillon
free fantasias, the latter being a piece of d'Anvers" cf. DTOe xxvi.2, 64; also *Edi-
tions III, 8. Recent composers of pieces
program music picturing "the departure
of his beloved brother." for carillons are Josef Denijn (b. 1862)
and J. A. F. Wagenaar.
Carcelera [Sp.]. A type of *cante hon- Lit.: J. Blavignac, La Cloche (1877);
do y describing prison scenes. X, van Elcwijk, \Anciens Clavecinistes

Caricature. See *Satire in music. fliimundcs (1877; contains two pieces by

van der Gheyn); W. G. Rice, Carillon
Carillon [F., from L. quadrilio, a set of Music (1926); F. P. Price, The Carillon

four]. A set of bells (originally four) (1933); J" Rizzardi, Les Carillons de

hung in a tower of a church and played Belgiqite (1938); G. W. Rice, in MQ i;

by means of a keyboard or by a clockwork J. St.

Archer, ML xviii, no. 2; W. W.

mechanism. As early as the i3th century Starmer, in PMA xxxi; id., in Z/M vi;
E. Buhle, "Das Glockenspiel in den Mi- Carnaval. A piano composition by Ro-
niaturen des friihen Mittelalters" (Fest- bert Schumann (op. 9, 1834) consisting
schrift fur Liliencron, 1910). of 20 short pieces which describe various
scenes and characters of a masked ball.
Carmagnole. A song of the French The subtitle: "Scenes mignonnes sur qua-
Revolution (1792), of unknown author-
tre notes" (Tiny Scenes Based on Four
ship. It was sung to a rather vigorous
Notes), refers to the use of the word Asch
dance of the same name.
(a Bohemian town where a lady friend of
Carmen [L., pi. carmina\ song], (i) A Schumann's lived) as a musical motive,
1 and 15th-century name, chiefly used
4th- the "translation" into notes being A-S-
by theorists, for the upper part (*cantus) (i.e., Es, Gernian for E-flat) C-H (Ger-
of accompanied songs. (2) Around man for B). These four notes, A-Eb-C-B,
1500, name for instrumental polyphonic occur in theinitial subjects of most of the

pieces in imitative style, usually (always?) pieces.Another interpretation of the same

without cantus firmus. They are fore- word is As-(German for A-flat) C-H ( Ab-
runners of the *ricercare. Examples exist C-B) which is used in the pieces 10 to 18.
in the Glogauer Liederbuch [see *Lieder-

buch], in Isaac (DTOe xiv.i), in Hof- Carnival of Venice. An Italian pop-

haimer (H. J. Moser, 97 gesammelte Ton- ularmelody of the i9th century which has
satze Paul Hofhaimer's, 1929), in Senfl, been chosen by a number of composers
in Kotter's tablature of 1513, etc. Cf. H. J. (Paganini, Schulhoff, Herz, Benedict) as
Moser and Piersig, "\Carmina (Nagel's a theme for variations. It also occurs as the
Musi^-Archw). main theme (followed by variations) of
Liszt's Rhapsody no. 9, called "Carnival
Carmen. Opera in four acts by Georges
of Pesth."
Bizet (1838-75), composed in 1875 (li-
bretto by Meilhac and Halevy, after a
Carnival songs. See *Canti carnascia-
story by Merimee). The central figure is
the passionate gypsy Carmen (Soprano)
who fascinates the sergeant Don Jose
Carol [F. noel\ G. Weihnachtslied}. A
(Tenor), leads him to mutiny, lures him
traditional song for the celebration
to join a band of smugglers, abandons him
in favor of the toreador Christmas; occasionally the term is used
(bull fighter)
also for other devotional songs of a joyful
Escamillo (Bass), and is
finally stabbed
character (Easter carol; May carol). The
to the heart by Don Jose in the moment
when the victorious Escamillo emerges
name is evidently derived from the medi-
eval French word *carole for a round
from the bull fight.
To and exciting plot Bizet
this concise
dance, the assumption being that this term
was associated in English with the early
has written a music which, although in a
pagan dance-songs performed in celebra-
"popular" vein, heights of
rises to greater
tion of the winter solstice, a ritual which
artistic perfection than hundreds of more
later merged with that of Christmas. The
ambitious and more "serious" operas. Al-
earliest preserved examples, in two or
though the music has been attacked as three parts, date from the first half of the
being "pseudo-Spanish" (which, in a way,
I5th century [SchGMB, no. 32 a, b]. Nu-
is), Carmen stands before the musical
merous carols of the 1 6th- 1 8th centuries
world as the inimitable incorporation of
have been published in collections which
what the Spanish call *flamenco. It is in-
also include French and German Christ-
teresting to note that the opera was far
mas songs. See *Noel.
from being a success at its first perform-
Lit.: P. Dearmer, ^The Oxford Boo\ of
ances,and that its most fascinating piece,
Carols (1928); id., The Story of the Carol
the Habanera, is not by Bizet [sec *Ha-
(1911); E. B. Reed, Christmas Carols
banera; also *Polo; *Seguidilla].
printed in the i6th century (1932); Ful-
Carmina Burana. See *Goliard songs. ler-Maitland, English Carols of the i$th

Century (1891); H. J.Mass*, "Old Carols" castanets of themodern orchestra (e.g., in
(A/Lii, no. i). Bizet's Carmen) are provided with con-
trivances such as springs or handles which
Carole. Medieval French name for round
greatly facilitate the playing, but take
dances, danced in a closed circle. The
name is derived from L. chorea, dance, away much from the fascination of true
castanet playing.
which was transformed into choreola,
car ola> carole [cf. the explanation: "cho- Castrate. The castration of singing boys
rea, gallice charole" given in the 13th- was frequently practiced in Italy from the
century Dictionarius Johannes de Gar- 1 6th through the i8th centuries, in order

landia; cf. Collection des documents in- to preserve the boyish character of the
edits sur I'histoire de France, i. 603]. No voice. The singing apparatus of the cas-

specific music for such dances has sur- trato (also called evirato) combines the
vived. Possibly the *virelai in its original larynx of a youth with the chest and lungs
monophonic form was sung in connec- of an adult. Hence, it combines an un-
tion with the carole. See *Dance Music usually wide range with a sound of great
II. Cf. T. Lacroix-Novaro, "La Carole"
power and of a special timbre which ex-
ercised great fascination upon the hearers.
Famous castrati were F. Senesino (1680-
Carree [F.]. The double whole note, or
c. 1750), G. Caffarelli (1703-83), and
Carlo Farinelli (properly Carlo Broschi,
Carrure [F.]. The
symmetrical con- 1705-82).
struction of musical phrases in measures Lit.: F. Habb'ck, Die Kastraten und
of 2, 4, 8, etc., as occurs particularly in ihre Gesangsfyinst (1927); id., Carlo
dances. See *Vierhebigkeit. Broschi (1923); G. Monaldi, Cantati

evirati celebri (1921); id., in RMl xxvi;
Cassa fit.]. See *Percussion in-
struments B 2, 3.
F. Rogers, in v;MQ AdHM,

Catalectic [Gr., incomplete]. In poetry,

Cassation [probably from It. cassare, to
a line called catalectic if a syllable is
say farewell; or from new Latin gassatim,
missing in the last foot, for instance, in
street-like]. An instrumental form of the
iambic meter w'w'w"orw'w'v-/'v^
18th century, designed for outdoor per-
formance, which includes elements of the
instead of : w w
' w' w '.

symphony as well as of the suite; hence, Catch. English *rounds of the i7th and
identical with the *divert> The
practically i8th centuries. first publication, the
mento and the *serenade. Mozart wrote Pammelia (1609), was followed by a long
three cassations (K.V. nos. 62, 63, 99). series of collections, among which Hilton's
Catch That Catch Can (1652-58) is the
Casse-Noisette. Original title of
most famous. Catches were most in vogue
Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker. See
in the reign of Charles II, and it was
*Nutcracker Suite.
mainly in this period that the catches
Castanets [F. castagnettes\ G. Kastag- acquired that peculiarity which has rele-
netten ] . Clappers consisting of two pieces gated them to the "poison chest" of mu-
of hard wood in the shape of a shell, sical literature, namely, the indecent char-
hinged together by a string which passes acter of their texts. Numerous catches of
over the thumb and first finger of the the Restoration, including some of Pur-
player. They are used by Spanish dancers cell's, arc so clearly obscene that their texts
as an accompaniment for the bolero, fan- had to be altered or completely replaced
dango* etc., usually in pairs (one in each in modern editions. A number of catches
hand). Similar instruments were used in are so constructed that, to the pres-
ancient Rome and appear on pictorial ence of lengthy rests in their melody, a
representations contained in medieval *hocket-like effect of alternation is
manuscripts [see under Cantigas]. The duced by the voices singing in canon, as is
illustrated by our example (from Pam- Catholica. A name given by Glareanus
melia). Occasionally this device was used [Dode^achordon, 1552] to contrapuntal
to bring about a special meaning, indecent pieces which are so designed that they
or comical, resulting from the interlacing may be sung in various church modes.
The most famous example is Ockeghem's
Missa cujusvis torn (Mass in Any Mode).

liJI J J IJ=jfcJ Jl J Just which modes are admissible and

My dame Has In tw hutd) at home A which accidentals will have to be used in

each single mode is a problem to which

perhaps too much attention has been giv-
en by numerous scholars. At any rate, it
*Y WttV; a
'^S t ^"y* dogj
is most unfortunate that this piece should

have been reprinted in practically all the

arrangement of the words or phrases books on music history, thus perpetuating
(catches a double entente", cf. HAM, no. the popular misconception regarding
325). A
complete list of the publications
Ockeghem and early Flemish music. See
containing catches is given in GD. Mod- *Flemish School. Cf. J. S. Levitan, in
ern publications (with revised texts) are:
E. F. Rimbault, The Rounds, Catches and
MQ xxiii; also RiHM i.2, 233.

Canons of England (1864); H. Purcell, Cat's fugue. Popular name of a piece

in fugal style by Domenico Scarlatti, so
Complete Worlds, vol. 22.
called because the subject consists of some

Cathedral music. Music written for irregular wide steps in ascending motion
such as might have been produced by a
the choirs of the English cathedrals, con-
cat stepping over the keyboard.
sisting chiefly of *Services*and *anthems.
Important early collections are: J. Bar- Cauda [L., tail], (i) In mensural nota-
nard, The First Eoo\ of Selected Church tion, the vertical dash attached to certain
Music (1641; contents cf. GD i, 226); notes (maxima, longa, minima, etc.) or to
W. Boyce and J. Kent, Cathedral Music ligatures.
(3 vols., 1760-78; new ed. by Novello;
contents cf. GD
i, 441); Samuel Arnold, fb
Cathedral Music (4 vols., 1790; reprinted
by Rimbault in 1847; contents cf. GD i, With *ligatures, the presence or absence
117). The present-day cathedral choirs of the cauda determines the proprietas,
still draw on the repertory of these books i.e., the value of the initial note. In the
which include among their authors prac- early i4th century numerous note forms,
tically every English composer from Tye called semibrcvcs caudatae (or signatae),
and Tallis to Samuel Arnold and his con- were derived from the semibrevis by up-
temporaries. However, numerous new ward and downward dashes, with or with-
compositions have been added by more out flags, etc. They form the basis of the
recent composers, such as S. S.Wesley Italian notation of the i4th century [cf.

(1810-76), Th. A. Walmisley (1814-56), ApNPM, yjoR].

F. A. Ouseley (1825-89), John Stainer (2) In 13th-century composition, a vo-
(1840-1901), Ch. V. Stanford (1852- calizing cadenza at the end of a piece or a
1904), and many others. See also ^Service. section thereof. Particularly *conductus
Lit.: J. S. Bumpus, A History of Eng- were provided with such cadenzas (con-
lish Cathedral Music, 1549-1889 (2 vols., ductus habens caudam) and if so, were
1908); E. H. Fellowes and C. H. Stewart, considered superior to the probably
A Repertoire of Cathedral Music (1922). earlier conductus non habens caudam
[Ex. in ApNPM, 239; HAM, nos. 38, 39].
Catholic church music. See *Church Cadenzas in free rhythm are also frequent
music; ^Gregorian chant; *Mass; *Psalm inthe organa of the i3th century [cf.
tones; *Psalmody. ApNPM, 240]. Short cadential passages
in downward scalar motion were called Figaro, while the "Se vuol ballare" from
*copula. the same opera shows an unusually de-
veloped type similar to an aria. Other
Cavalleria Rusticana ("Rustic Chiv-
examples occur in Rossini's Barber of
alry"). Opera in one act by Pietro Mas- Seville (1816), in Weber's Freischutz
cagni (b. 1863), composed in 1890. The
(1821), in Gounod's Faust (1859). The
setting is a Sicilian village on Easter morn- name has also been applied to instrumen-
ing. The young farmer Turiddu (Ten- tal pieces of a song-like character
Santuzza (Soprano), is turn-
or), lover of
Beethoven, Quartet op. 130].
ing to his former love Lola (Mezzo-
Soprano), now married to Alfio (Bari- C.B. Abbreviation for col basso or for
tone). A
trifle (Turiddu's entrance into contrabasso.
the church at Lola's side) suffices to con-
C.d. Abbreviation for [It.] colla destra>
stitute a "break of the honor code," result-
with the right hand.
ing in a duel between Alfio and Turiddu
in which the latter is killed.
Cebell. Old English name for the ga-
This opera, which was Mascagni's only used by H. Purcell and others.
success, owes its appeal to the concise
and dramatic plot as well as to the realistic Cecilian movement. A 19th-century
musical approach. Widely welcomed as movement for the reform of the Roman
a relief from the numerous imitations of Catholic church music, initiated by
Wagner, it inaugurated the musical move- K. Proske, Ratisbon choirmaster (1794-
ment known as *verismo and was re-; 1861), and named after St. Cecilia, the

sponsible for a mushroom crop of one-act patron saint of music. The movement
operas. aimed at the reinstallment of Palestrina's
a cappella music instead of the pompous
Cavata [from L. cavare, to hollow out,
and rather worldly church music for choir
to engrave]. An inscription or an epi- and instruments that had come into use
grammatic sentence in which an impor- during the i8th century (e.g., Haydn's
tant thought concisely expressed. In
and Mozart's masses). It led, in 1867, to
18th-century music the term is used occa- the foundation of the Allgemeiner Deut-
sionally for short epigrammatic ariosos to scher Caecilienverein (F. X. Witte, 1834-
be found at the end of a lengthy recitative
88), which was sanctioned by the Holy
(recitativo con cavatd). Many examples See in 1870. The term Cecilianism is used
of this method occur in Bach's choral
to denote the puristic and generally rather
works, e.g., in the recitativo no. 3 of his
reactionary tendencies of this society.
cantata "Ein feste Burg" [see * Arioso].
The cavatas in Traetta's operas [cf. DTE Cefaut, ce fa ut. See *Hexachord III.

14.!] approach the *cavatina. See also

Celere [It.]. Quick.
*Soggetto cavato.
Celesta. See *Percussion instruments
Cavatina [It., dimin. of *cavatd\. In
1 8th- and 19th-century operas and ora-
A, 4 .

torios, a short solo song simpler in style Cello. Contraction of *violoncello.

than the aria and without repetition of
words or phrases. The proper form for Cellone. See *Violin family (i).

the cavatina would seem to be in one sec-

Cembal d'amour. *Clavecin d'amour.
tion without repetition (except for a short
instrumental anticipation of the beginning Cembalo [It., abbr. of clavicembalo].
of the song), in other words, just a "sen- The Italian and German name for the
tence" set to music [see *Cavata]. Exam- ^harpsichord. According to C. Sachs
ples of this type are the two cavatinas in (SaRM, 75) the word is not derived from
Haydn's The Seasons as well as "Porgi Gr. \ymbalon (hollow vessel, bell; see
amor" and "L'ho perduta" from Mozart's *cymbal), but from tympanon (same root
as tip, zip, G. zupfen, to pluck). There- pered scale; thus, the semitone equals 100
fore the name does not point to a simi- cents, and the octave contains 1200 cents.

larity of the sound of the instrument to* The various tones of the chromatic scale
that of bells, but to the plucking of the are represented by the multiples of 100,

strings. as follows:
o 100 200 300 400 500 600
Centitone. See under ^Intervals, Cal- c c* d dtf e f ft
culation of, V.
700 800 900 1000 1 100 I2OO
Cento [L.], centone [It., a patchwork g g# a a# b c

quilt j. The term and its derivatives "cen- This scale can be conveniently used for
tonization," "to centonize" are used with diagrams showing the exact position of
reference to literary and musical works other intervals, e.g., those of the Pythag-
formed by from other works.
selections orean scale, of just intonation, of exotic
The liturgical book compiled by St. Greg- scales, etc. [see
Javanese music]. For
ory (c. 670) was as early as the 9th century readers familiar with the elements of
called "antiphonarius cento," on account arithmetic be remarked that cents
of the theory (probably erroneous) that it are a logarithmic measurement; see *In-
was a combination of three earlier books tervals, Calculation of, IV.
Pope Gelasius fcf. P. Wagner,
written by
Einfuhrung in die Gregorianischen Me- Cephalicus. See *Neumes.
lodien, i, 199-214; O. Ursprung, Katho-
Cercar la nota [It., to seek the note]
lische Kirchenmusit(, 21 ]. In poetry, cento
indicates in vocal
technique a slight
denotes a poem consisting only of refrains
The term also applies to anticipation of the following note, e.g.,
[see *Refrain].
musical melodies pieced together from d-(c)-c. It may also occur in the form of
a passing note, e.g., e-(d)-c.
pre-existent fragments (a procedure not
infrequent Gregorian chant and in
Ces, ceses [G.]. See *Pitch names.
Oriental music) as well as to operas of the
1 8th
century put together by several com- Cesolfa(ut), ce sol fa (ut). See
posers. See *Ballad opera and, in par- *Hexachord III.
ticular, *Pasticcio; also *Quod libet.
cetra [It.], (i) *Zither.-
Central America. Lit.: J. Castillo, (2) Cittern [see *Guitar family].
"Autochthonic Music" [of Guatemala] C.f. Abbreviation for *cantus firmus.
(Bull, of the Pan American Union, vol. 62,
no. 4); F. Densmore, Music of the Tule Chace [F.]. See under *Caccia.
Indians of Panama (1926); N. Garay,
Tradiciones y Cantares de Panama (Brus- Chaconne and passacaglia. Two
sels, 1930); R. Gonzalez Sol, Datos histo- closely related forms of Baroque music,
ricos sobre el arte de la musica en El Salva- each in the character of a continuous vari-
dor (San Salvador, 1940); N. Slonimsky, ation [see * Variation I] in moderately
slow triple meter. An additional feature
"Viewing a Terra Incognita of Music"
is a slow *harmonic rhythm, changing
(Musical America, 1941). See also gen-
eral bibliography under Latin American generally with the measure. The terms
music. G. C. are interesting not only on account of the
many futile attempts that have been made
Cents. The unit of a scientific and exact to explain their derivation and original
method of measuring musical intervals meaning, but also on account of the at-
which was introduced by A. J. Ellis (1814- tempts, equally numerous and futile, to
90) and which has been widely adopted make a clear distinction between them.
in acoustics as well as in *comparative As is shown subsequently, Baroque com-
musicology. The cent is one one-hun- posers used the terms indiscriminately.
dredth of the semitone of the well-tem- This does not necessarily mean that they
could not be put to better use in mod- defined above) belong the "Passacaglia"
ern terminology. Unfortunately, modern of Bach (for organ) and that of Louis Cou-
writers have been entirely unsuccessful in perin (for harpsichord) as well as "cha-
this matter, and the music histories as well connes" of Buxtehude, J. K. Kerll [TaAM
as reference books are full of contradictory vii, 104] (both for organ), and Pachelbel
and frequently arbitrary statements as to (for harpsichord; TaAM
ix, 59). To the
the distinction between a chaconne and a same belong numerous vocal com-

passacaglia. The only distinction which positions contained in 17th-century operas

can and should be made is that between and cantatas, e.g., Monteverdi's famous
continuous variations with or without a duet Pur ti miro \SchGMB, no. 178; see
basso ostinato (*ground). In order to also *Aria III]. To the class of chaconne
conform with the titles of the two most belong Frescobaldi's "Cento partite sopra
famous examples, those composed by il
passacaglio" [TaAM v, n] and Georg
Bach, the former type will have to be called Mutfat's "Passacaglia" [ct. HAM
passacaglia, the latter chaconne. A pas- as well as Bach's "Chaconne." The in-

sacaglia, then, is a continuous variation terpretation, frequently given, of Bach's

based on a clearly distinguishable ostinato chaconne as an ostinato composition is
which normally appears in the bass erroneous. Although, with a reiterated
(ground) but which may also be trans- scheme of harmonies, it is always possible
ferred occasionally to an upper voice, as is to reconstruct to some extent a ground
the case in Bach's passacaglia. A chaconne bass from the bass notes of these harmo-
is a continuous variation in which the nies [cf. RiML, 295], such a procedure
"theme" is only a succession of chords leads, in the case of Bach's chaconne, to a
which serves as a harmonic basis for each decidedly poor melody, such as Bach
variation. The difference between these would never have chosen as a point of
two types may be illustrated by the accom- departure. Well-known i^th-century ex-
panying examples, the first two of which amples of chaconne are Beethoven's C
minor Variations (1807), and the closing
movement of Brahms's Symphony no. 4.
PIJ. Ij.
More recent examples occur in F. Busoni's
Toccata: Preludio, Fantasia, Ciaccona
(1921) and in E. Krenek's Toccata und
Chaconne, op. 13.
should be noticed that French
Finally it

Baroque composers usually applied the

terms chaconne and passecaille to pieces
in an entirely different form, i.e., that of
the rondeau with reiterated refrain and
several couplets [see *Rondeau (2)]. Ex-

amples are a Chaconne by Chambonnieres

[HAM, no. 212], a Chaconne-rondeau by
[Ex. i, 2] show a very frequent ground, d'Anglebert [TaAM vii, 135; HAM, no.
the descending tetrachord in its diatonic 232], and a Passecaille by Fr. Couperin
form and in its chromatic modification, [Pieces de clavecin ii].
while Ex. 3 shows the use of a (related) There is reason to believe that the cha-
scheme of harmonies, without ground. conne originally was a wild and sensual
For a 16th-century adumbration of passa- Mexican dance which was imported into
caglia, see under *Ostinato (Dump and Spain during the i6th century. In 1599
Hornepype). we read about "an invitation to go to
As has been mentioned previously, no Tampico in Mexico and there dance the
clear distinction between passacaglia and chacona." Queveda calls it the "chacona
chaconne exists in the praxis of Baroque mulata," and Cervantes the "Indiana
composers. To the class of passacaglia (as amulatada" [cf. C. Sachs, A World His-
tory of the Dance ( 1941 ) ] Once imported
. the fact remains that in chamber music
into Europe it lost its unbridled character composers have shown a greater respect
entirely, as did also the *sarabande and, for tradition than in other fields, the ob-
300 years *tango. The passa-
later, the vious reason being that the relatively lim-
caglia (possibly from Sp. *pasacalle> street ited and fixed resources of, e.g., a string
song) also was originally a dance. quartet prohibited the introduction of
novel features comparable to those of con-
Chaleureux [F.]. With warmth.
temporary orchestral or piano music.
Chalumeau from L. calamellus, The chamber music works (chiefly
name for string quartets) of
Haydn, Mozart, Bee-
pipe], (i) Seventeenth-century
thoven (opus numbers below 100), and
(a) an early oboe (shawm), (b) an early
The chalumeau Schubert represent the classical period of
clarinet. in Gluck's Or-
chamber music. In his late quartets (op.
pheus is
probably a real clarinet (with
127, 130-133, 135, written between 1824
keys). (2) The lowest register of the
modern clarinet.
and 1827) Beethoven has created an en-
tirely singular type of chamber music, a
Chamber music. I. General. Instru- type which is too personal to be called
mental ensemble music performed by one classic, and yet too transcendental to be
considered as Romantic. The Romantic
player to the part, as opposed to orchestral
music in which there are several players period of chamber music embraces Schu-
to the part. According to the number of mann, Brahms, Dvorak, and Franck (to
players (or parts), chamber music is clas-
name only the most important compos-
sified as follows: *trio (three players), ers), with Brahms ranking first among
them. While Debussy, Ravel, and others
*quartet (four), *quintet (five), *sextet
(six), *septet (seven), *octet (eight). (e.g., Schonberg, String Sextet Verklarte

String trios (quartets, etc.) are for stringed Nacht, op. 4) tried to exploit the impres-
instruments only [see *String quartet]; sionistic and coloristic resources of cham-
if one of the strings is replaced by another ber music, there has been more recently a
instrument, names such as pianoforte trio return to a purer and more appropriate

(pianoforte and two strings) or horn style, as the result of the contemporary
revival of the contrapuntal approach to
quintet (horn and four strings) are used.
The violin (violoncello) sonata, for violin musical composition, and of the adoption
of a more objective and sober type of ex-
(violoncello) and pianoforte, is sometimes
not considered as chamber music, on ac- pression than prevailed in the late Ro-
count of the markedly solistic character of mantic and in the Impressionistic schools
the parts. In true chamber music, em- [see *Neo-classicism]. For more details,
see the entries for the different species of
phasis lies on the ensemble, not on the
single player.
chamber music, particularly *string quar-
The present-day repertoire of chamber

music begins with the late string-quartets II. History. Chamber music, in the
widest sense of the word, already existed
(written after 1780) of Haydn and Mo-
zart. In these works the basic principles in the late Middle Ages. Instrumental en-
of form and style were established to semble pieces such as occur in the Glo-
which composers of cham- gauer Liederbuch (c. 1470; see *Lieder-
practically all
ber music have adhered: the form is that buch) or the *carmina of Obrecht, Isaac,

of the *sonata in four movements; the Hofhaimer bear all the characteristic
style is characterized by
individual treat- marks of true chamber music. So do the
ment of the parts and exclusion of virtu- 16th-century ensemble ricercares [see
oso-like elements. Naturally, there exist *Ricercar I (a)] by Adrian Willaert,

examples in which these principles are not Buus, Padovano, as well as the instru-
observed, a notable exception being Bee- mental canzonas [see *Canzona (5), I]
thoven's string quartet in C-sharp minor, from the end of this century. (Regarding
free form. Yet the claim that a canzona by Allegri was
op. 131 with its extremely

the "first string quartet," see under Chamber pitch [G. Kammerton]. See
*String quartet II.) Naturally, all these Pitch.
pieces were not written for, nor restricted
to, specific instruments, but were per- Change ringing. The ringing of a set
formed on whatever instruments were (peal) of church bells by individual men
available, viols, recorders, cornettos, or and in a methodical order, the turn of the
mixed ensembles. The chief type of Ba- men being prescribed not by a musical
roque chamber music is the *trio sonata melody, but by certain schemes of arith-
in its two varieties, the sonata da chiesa metic permutation. For instance, a set of
and the sonata da camera. It developed in five bells: i, 2, 3, 4, 5 may be
played in the
Italy and spread, around 1675, to France, order: 45231 or 3514 2, etc. In actual
Germany, and England where it replaced performance, usually a limited selection of
the earlier *fancy. Around 1750 there such permutations is played in succession,
emerged a new type of chamber music, the main principle being the exchange of
the string quartet, with its associates, the two numbers. For instance, in a peal of
string quintet (Boccherini), and the string five bells, the first "change" would be
trio (Haydn); see *String quartet II. 12345, the second: 21345, tne third:
Anextended list of chamber music as- 23145, Certain standard selections

sociations is found in Pierre Key's Music are known under traditional names such
Year Boo^. as "Grandsire Triple," "Treble Bob," etc.
Lit.: W. W. Cobbett, Cyclopedic Sur- The history of change ringing goes back
vey of Chamber Music (2 vols., 1929); id., to the 6th century. An important land-

in PMA xxxviii; T. F. Dunhill, Chamber mark was the publication of Tintinnalogia

Music (1913); N. Kilburn, Chamber Mu- by F. Stedman (1688). Change ringing
sic (1932) G. Stratton and A. Frank, The
is still
widely practiced in England. In
Playing of Chamber Music (1935); H. S. fact, it is a typically English sport in which
Drinker, The Chamber Music of Brahms healthy exercise is combined with a small
(1932); W. Altmann, Kammermusi^- but gratifying amount of mental effort.
Literaturverzeichnis seit
1841 (26 ed. Lit.: E. Morris, The History and Art of

1931); N. Ruet, Musique de chambre Change Ringing (1931); J. Stainer, in

(1930); LavE ii.5, 3144 (repertoire and PMA xlvi [cf. the article in GD i, 602].
bibliography); S. Laciar, "The Chamber
Music of Schubert" (MO xiv); H. Mers- Changing note. See *Nonharmonic
mann, "Beitrage zur Auffiihrungspraxis tones III.

der vorklassischen Kammermusik in

Deutschland" (AMW
ii); L. de la Lau-
Chanson [F.]. (i) The French term
rencie, "Les Debuts de la rnusique de for song, hence, the counterpart of the
chambre en France" (RdM, nos. 49-52). German *lied. However, while in the
German lied emphasis lies on the artistic

Chamber opera. An opera of small di- production, the chanson is usually of a

mensions, of an intimate character, and more popular nature. Throughout the last
for small orchestra (chamber orchestra). two centuries there has been an enormous
The reaction against the great Wagnerian output of popular chansons, short strophic
opera led to works such as R. Strauss's songs mostly of an amorous character,
Ariadne auf Naxos (second version, which are frequently written, set to music,
1924), Hindemith's Cardillac (1926), sung on the and sold by one and
C. Douglas Moore's White Wings (1935). the same man.was not until the end of

the 1 9th century that the chanson was

Chamber orchestra. A small orchestra cultivated as an artistic form [see *Song
of about 25 players. Prior to 1800 orches- in].
tras usually were of this size, and recent The virtual non-existence of French

composers have again written for such art-songs in the i8th and I9th centuries
groups (chamber symphony). is in
striking contrast to the picture pre-

t 129 ]
sented in earlier periods. In fact, the were published by Ballard, e.g., Airs sen-
history of the chanson (i.e., of songs with eux et a boire (16 vols., 1627-54).
French text) is more ancient, fertile, and (2) In trouvere music, chanson is the
musically important than that of any other equivalent of the Provencal (troubadour)
nation's song literature. The earliest pre- *vers (not of the *canzo), i.e., a through-
served example, a Provencal song "Hora composed song, in contradistinction to
vos die vera raizun" [cf. P. the repetition- and refrain-types (formes
Aubry, Les
plus ancients monuments de la musique fixes) :
ballade, virelais, rondeau.
Fran^aise (1905), pi. I], dates from the (3) The chanson
of the i6th century,
nth century. The i2th and i3th centuries frequently called polyphonic or French
are the era of the *troubadours and *trou-
chanson, is written in the imitative style
veres whose melodies, usually cast in one of the contemporary motet, but with such
of the formes fixes (*ballade, *rondeau, modifications as were required by the
*virelai), constitute an unparalleled treas- different nature of purpose and text, i.e.,
ure of early secular song. The i4th cen-
quicker and more pungent rhythm, a
tury sees the rise of accompanied songs, in leaning towards homophonic texture,
the same forms, under G. de Machaut and sectional construction in relatively short
his successors [see *Ars nova]. As an
phrases ending simultaneously in all the
antithesis the rhythmic and contra-
parts, and frequently repetition of a sec-
puntal complexity of the late i4th century tion for another line of the poem. A char-
there developed, in the *Burgundian acteristic feature of the chanson (as well
School of the i5th century (Dufay, Bin- as of its derivative, the instrumental *can-
chois, also Ockeghem, Obrecht), a new zona) isthe use of repeated notes in the
style of unsurpassed charm and beauty, initial subject, as is illustrated in the
perhaps the artistic high-point in the en- accompanying example (Jacotin, Je suis
tire history of the French
song. [For mod- desheritee\ cf. SchGMB, no. 117).
ern editions of 15th-century chansons see
under *Burgundian School and *Chan-
sonnier (2).] A limited number of popu-
lar melodies of the I5th century,
the famous *L'homme arme, survive in
masses and motets for which they served
as a cantus firmus. Around 1500 we have
the beginning of another important era,
that of the so-called polyphonic chanson,
characterized by the abandoning of the
formes fixes in favor of free composition,
and by the adoption of the imitative coun-
terpoint as the basic principle of style The earlier polyphonic chansons (Oc-
(Isaac, Josquin, Jannequin). It is this keghem, Obrecht, Isaac, Josquin, La Rue)
type to which the name chanson or French show an elaboration of style and dignity
chanson usually refers in historical writ- of expression which are still in the best
ings [see below under (3)]. With the Flemish tradition [cf., e.g., Ockeghem's
early iyth century and the rise of the mo- "Ma bouce rit" in HAM, no. 75, or the
nodic style, the polyphonic chanson disap- chansons of Josquin; see ^Editions V, no.
peared and, strangely enough, the creative *Odhecaton]. With Clement
3; see also
activity in the field of art-song ceased Jannequin (d. c. 1560 ?), Claude de Ser-
abruptly. The interest turned to *vauxde- misy (c. 1490-1562), Pierro Certon (d.
villes, *pastourelles, *bergerettes, and 1572), and numerous followers, the chan-
*brunettes, i.e., to the more populartypes son changed its character from the Flem-
which dominated throughout the i8th and ish into the typically French, from re-
9th centuries [see also *Air de court]. served intimacy into nimble elegance and
Extensive collections of such chansons frivolity. Jannequin's chansons are re-
markable for their frequent use of ter- Chansons de geste du Xlle siecle (1932);
nary form: A B A. A
type of some special GeHM, 258F.
interest, though of very mediocre artistic
value, is the program chanson of Janne- Chanson de toile [F., spinning song].
quin [see *Program music]. The popu-
The "female counterpart" of the *chanson
de geste. The chief character is always a
larity of the new chanson found its proper
expression in a vast number of contempo- woman, an ill-mated wife or a love-sick
rary publications as well as in the many girl. The musical recitation was prob-
hundreds of *Intabulierungen of French ably similar to that of the chanson de
chansons which fill the German and geste.
Italian lute tablatures and keyboard books
of the 1 6th century. Pierre Attaingnant
Chanson mass. See *Mass B, II (b).

alone printed 35 books of chansons be-

Chanson mesuree. See *Vers mesure.
tween 1535 and 1549 [cf. RiML, 298];
simultaneously Jacques Moderne pub- Chansonnier. (i) Medieval (13th-
lished the ten books of his Parangon des
century) manuscripts containing the
chansons (1538-43). See also * Sonata
songs of the troubadours and trouveres.
B,I. Most of these have been published in fac-
Lit.: LaMWC, 215; AdHM, 373; L. simile editions, some of them with tran-
Laloy, "La Chanson franchise au xvie scriptions [see *Trouveres; AdHM y 192;
siecle" (RMC "Ronsard et
i), J. Tiersot, RcMMA, 448],
(2) Fifteenth-century
la musique de son temps" (SIM iv), D. v.
manuscripts containing polyphonic chan-
Bartha, "Probleme der Chansongeschichte sons, e.g., the Chansonnier cordijorme
im 1 6. Jahrhundert" (ZMW xiii). For (the pages have the form of a heart), or
publications of music see ^Editions XVI the Copenhagen chansonnier (publ. by
and XIX; M. Cauchie, -\Quinze chansons K. Jeppesen, 1927).
jran$ais du XV le siecle (1931); L. de la Lit.: G. Raynaud, Bibliographic des
Laurencie, -\Chansons au luth et airs de chansonniers jranqais du xiiie au xive
cour du xvie siecle (1931). Examples in siecle (1884); K. Jeppesen, -\Der Kopen-
HAM, nos. 91 (118), 107, 145; SchGMB, hagener Chansonnier (1927); E. Droz,
nos. 116-118. fTVo/V Chansonniers fran^ais du xve
siecle (1927); G. Thibault, "Le Chan-
Chanson de geste song of deeds].
[F., sonnier . . de Copenhague"
The French epic poems of the Middle 1927); F. Bukofzer, "An Unknown
Ages, such as the Roman de Roland (nth Chansonnier of the i5th Century" (MQ
century). They were of great extension xxviii).
(over 10,000 lines of nearly equal meter),
and fell in sections of various lengths ( 20 Chant. General denomination for litur-
or 50 lines) called laisse, each of which gical music in the character of plainsong,
contained one continuous "thought" of i.e., monophonic, unaccompanied, and in

the poem. They were probably sung to a free rhythm. Music of this type exists in
short melodic formula which was re- many Oriental and exotic cultures. In
peated for every line of a laisse, with the particular, the term applies to the liturgi-
exception of the last, for which a new cal melodies of the Christian Churches,
melody with a more definite close was e.g., *Byzantine chant, Russian chant,
chosen (a a a a b). Only one such and the four branches of Western chant,
melody survives, in a late quotation in- namely, *Ambrosian (Milanese), *Gal-
serted in Adam de la Halle's play Le Jeu lican,*Mozarabic, and Roman chant, the
de Robin et Marion [cf. ReMMA, 204]. lastbeing usually known as *Gregorian
See *Rotrouenge; ""Chanson de toile. chant or *plainsong. More specifically,
Lit.: F. Gennrich, Der musiJ(alische the term refers to the traditional method
Vortrag der altjranzosischen Chansons of singing the psalms [see *Chanting].
de geste (1923); Raoul de Cambrai, In the * Anglican chant the monophonic
recitations of the Gregorian psalmody are Impromptu, Moment musical, Capriccio,
replaced by settings in four-part harmony. Fantasia, etc., aside from special titles of
a more or less programmatic nature, such
Chantant [F.]. In a singing style. as: Albumblatt, Der Dichter spricht
Chanter. See *Bagpipe. (Schumann), Jeux d'eau (Ravel), The
Maiden's Prayer, etc. The last title has
Chanterelle [F.]. See *Cantino. been deliberately included here in order
to hint at the vast production of third-
Chantey. See *Shanty.
class literature which, of course, deserves
Chanting. The ecclesiastical singing of
no further mention here. However, all
the psalms and canticles in the daily offices
the great composers of the i9th century
of the Roman Catholic and, in particular,
have made contributions in this field, first
of the Anglican Church. It is character-
of all Beethoven, who opens the repertoire
ized by the use of a melody, called psalm
with his Bagatelles. Schubert followed
tone, which is repeated with every verse with his Impromptus and Moments mu-
of the psalm but which can be adapted to
sicaux (musical moments), Mendelssohn
the different lengths of the verses by the
with his Songs Without Words and Kin-
iteration of the same tone, the recitation
derstiicke (Children's Pieces), Chopin
tone. The psalm tones of the Latin, Gre-
with Nocturnes, Preludes, fitudes, Im-
gorian, rite are monophonic and in free
promptus, etc. While these composers usu-
rhythm. The "Anglican" chants are har- ally included a number of pieces under
monized and in strict meter. The Angli- one collective title, R. Schumann went a
can Church, however, makes frequent use
good deal further toward individualiza-
of the Gregorian chant also. See *Psalm
tion and programmatic thought by choos-
tones; Anglican chant.
ing separate names for each piece, for in-
stance, in his Kinderszenen op. 15 or in
Chanty. See *Shanty.
his Fantasiestikke op. 12. New
Chapel [F. G. Kapellc; It.
chapclle; names introduced by him are: Noveletten,
cappella]. The term, which is derived Nachtstiicke (Night Pieces), Bunte Blat-
from It.
cappella^ i.e., cape or cloak, orig- ter (Colored Leaves), Albumblatter (Al-
inally denoted a building in which re- bum Leaves). Brahms followed with Bal-
vered cloaks or other relics of saints were laden, Inter-
housed. It was later extended to denote mezzi. Briefly, the character piece is the
private churches of sovereigns, popes, favored and characteristic form of Ro-
bishops, as well as the entire staff attached mantic piano music, where it serves as
to these churches and, in particular, the the vehicle of expression for every con-
musicians and singers employed there. ceivable mood, thought, vision, or emo-
The connotation of "private body of mu- tion.
sicians" survives in the Chapel Royal of Naturally, no general statements can
the English kings, an institution which be made with regard to so diversified and
played a valuable part in the development so markedly personal a repertory. How-
and cultivation of the English music [cf. ever, the great majority of these pieces
GD i, 606; W. H. Gratton Flood, in ML are written in the ternary form B A, a A
v]. See also *Kapelle. form which proved especially suitable for
the expression of two contrasting moods,
Characteristic note. Leading note.
the first dramatic (A), the other lyrical

Character piece [G. Characterstuc1(\. (B), or vice versa.

A term rarely used, yet much to be recom- Interesting precursors of the 19th-cen-
mended, to cover an important branch of tury character piece are found in the harp-
19th-century music (chiefly for the piano- sichord suites by Couperin who would
forte) which includes a large repertoire seem to be the inventor of an important
of short pieces published under many dif- technique of this genre, i.e., the use of a
ferent fancy names, such as Bagatelle, certain "pianistic figure" as the basic mo-
tive of the entire piece "Les Bar-
(cf., e.g., Chest of viols. A set of six or more
ricades mysterieuses" from the Sixieme viols, usually including two trebles, two
Ordre). Many pieces by Rameau and tenors, and two basses, which, in the I7th
Domenico Scarlatti fall under the same century, were kept in a chest with several
category. Cf. W. Kahl, "Das lyrische partitions. Cf. Th. Mace's Mustek's
Klavierstiick Schuberts . . ." (AMW iii). Monument (1676), 245. See*Consort.
Charivari [Am. Shivaree]. French A Chest voice. The lowest register of a
term, of unknown origin, which signifies voice [see *Register (2)].
a deliberately distorted and noisy per-
formance, as is
given in provincial towns
Cheute [F.]. French name for orna-
before the homes of unpopular or mental tones in the character of a pass-
tionable people, or as a mock serenade for ing tone (such as occur in the arpegement
a newly married couple. A German word figure-, see *Arpeggio) or of an anticipa-
tion (*Nachschlag).
is Katzenmusi\ (cat music), an Italian,
scampata. There exists believe it or
Chevalet [F.]. Bridge of violins, etc.
not a book on the history of the chari-
See*Bowing (k).
vari from its origins to the 4th centu-
ry (!): G. Peignot, Histoire morale, civile, Chev6 system. A system of musical
politique et literaire du charivari, depuis notation, invented by the French doctor
son origine vers le IV e siecle (1833). E. Cheve (1804-64), and much used in
France for teaching purposes. It com-
Charleston. See *Jazz III.
bines the principle of the Movable Do
La with the old idea of indicating notes by
Chasse, [F., the hunt], (i) Nick-
name for Haydn's Symphony in D, no. figures (Spanish keyboard tablature of

73, referring to the last movement; also Cabezon, 1572 [see *Tablature II]; Jean
for his Quartet in Bb, no. 2. (2) Name Jacques Rousseau, 1742; Pierre Galin,
of instrumental pieces (sonatas, etc.) of 1817). The figures i to 7 represent the
the 1 8th and i9th centuries, written in tones of the scale (in any given key);
imitation of hunting scenes. lower or higher octaves are indicated by
a dot under or above the figures. A rest
Chaunter. See *Bagpipe. is indicated
by o. Cf. E. Cheve, Methode
clementaire de la musique vocale (1846);
Check. A part of the action of the
WoHN ii, 403.
Cheville [F.]. Peg of stringed instru-
Chefs d'Oeuvre Classiques de 1'Op-
ments. Cheviller, peg-box.
era. See ^Editions IV.

Chef d'orchestre [F.]. Conductor. Chevrotement [F., from chevre, goat].

Unsteadiness in singing, like the bleating
Chef d'attaque, concertmaster.
of a goat. See also under *Tremolo (3)
Cheironomic. See *Chironomic. and * Vibrato (2).
Chekker. See *Echiquier. Chiamata [It., call; F. chamade}. In
Venetian operas of the
i7th century,
Chelys [Gr., turtle], (i) Greek name pieces written in imitation of the "call"
for the *lyre, the body of which was fre-
after the finish of the hunt. See H. Kretz-
quently made from the shell of a turtle. schmar, in VMW viii.
(2) Sixteenth-century humanistic name
for the lute. See *Testudo. Chiaramente [It.]. Clearly, distinctly.

Cheng, (i) A
Chinese string instru- Chiarenzana. A rare 16th-century lute
ment, similar to the *Ch'in. (2) Incor- dance in quick triple meter. Examples
rect spelling for the Chinese mouth or- occur in Marcantonio de Pifaro, Intabu-
latura de lauto (1546).
gan *sheng.
Chiave [It.]. Clef. simply mean a change of clef [see Ex. 4],
Others (Kroyer) have insisted upon the
Chiavette, chiave trasportata [It.].
transposing interpretation (i.e., change
A late- 16th-century system of writing of pitch), at least as a possibility. In a
vocal music with all the clefs moved up
or down from normal way the whole question is futile since it
their position, usu-
depends entirely upon the absolute pitch
ally a third (e.g. the F-clef on the third of the 1 6th century about which nothing
or the fifth line). The chiavette might
is known, and which, for that matter,
be considered the vocal analogon to the
probably did not exist. At any rate, the
transposing instrument of the orchestra.
importance of the chiavette has been
Ex. i meant to the singer: c-e-g; how-
greatly exaggerated in scholarly studies
as well as in books for instruction.
Lit.: Th. Kroyer, Der vollfommene
Partitur'spieler(1931); id., in Adler-
Festschrijt (1930); id., in ZMW
A. Schering, in ZMW
xiii; E. Ehrmann,
in StM ix.

Chiesa church]. In Baroque music,
da Mesa instrumental pieces
ever, the conductor gave the pitch a third
lower (a, or ab), so that the actual sound (sonatas) or vocal pieces with instrumen-
was: A-c#-e, or Ab-c-eb. (It will easily tal accompaniment (cantatas) which are
be noted that ^absolute pitch would have designed for use in the church, in contra-
distinction to similar pieces for domestic
been a severe handicap to the a-cappella
use, designated da *camera. See *Sonata
singers of the Palestrina period.) The
just mentioned notation is called "high
chiavette," because the notation is higher Chifonie [F.]. Medieval (i2th-i5th
than the actual sound. An example of
centuries) corruption of *symphonia, i.e.,
the "low chiavette" (which is much more
rarely used) would be as illustrated under
Ex. 2 (actual sound: e-g# b). The tran- Chilean music. During the colonial
scription into modern notation of pieces period music in Chile was cultivated less
written in chiavette is very simple; the as an art than as an adjunct of social, civil,
notes remain in the same position on the and religious functions. There was no
staff, the clef is moved to its normal posi- outstanding musical figure during this
tion, and the proper signature (A or A- period. In the era of Independence, the
flat high chiavette; E or E-flat for low
for first composer worthy of note was Man-

chiavette) is added [see Ex. 3]. uel Robles (1780-1837), who composed
Examples of pieces notated in the chia- the original national anthem of Chile,
vette (i.e., with all the clefs moved down the so-called Cantion National (1820).
or moved up) are frequent between 1550 Though this song enjoyed wide popular-
and 1600 (Palestrina, Missa Papae Mar- ity, was
displaced as the official national
celli\ Tavernor-Tye, motet O splendor; anthem by the Himno Patridtico (1828),
Josquin, De
profundis, cf. RiHM ii.i, written by the celebrated Spanish com-
258). According to the above interpreta- poser Ram6n Carnicer at the request of
tion such pieces would actually be in the the Chilean ambassador in London,
key of A or of A-flat. It should be noted, where Carnicer was then living as a po-
however, that recent scholars (Ehrmann) litical exile. This Himno Patridtico re-
have denied the transposing effect of the mains the official anthem of Chile. The
chiavette, contending that the clefs were best-known Chilean composer of the i9th
moved down only in order to avoid the
century was Jose Zapiola (1804-85), clari-
use of ledger lines. According to this in- netist and bandmaster, who in 1839 com-

terpretation, the chiavette notation would posed a highly popular patriotic song,
Himno dc Yunguay. In 1842 he founded poser in the modern vein. A pupil of
a symphony orchestra in Santiago and in Soro in Chileand of Del Campo in Spain,
1864 was appointed choirmaster of the he founded the Bach Society of Chile and
cathedral there. Other important musi- in 1933 became dean of the faculty of fine
cal were Federico Guzman
pioneers arts of the University of Chile. He is also
(1837-85), pianist and composer of over professor of composition and musicology
200 works in Romantic style; Guillermo at the National
Conservatory, and since
Frick (1813-96), amateur composer and 1940 president of the newly-created Insti-
founder of the Club Musical of Valdivia; tute of Musical Extension, which central-
and Francisco Oliva, from 1860 director izes and controls virtually the whole of
of the National Conservatory (founded Chile's concert activity (orchestra, chorus,
in 1850). chamber music, and ballet). As a com-
Chile occupies a prominent place in the poser Santa Cruz has written a Suite for
contemporary musical scene of South Strings, a string quartet, choruses, Cinco
America, thanks to a notable group of Poemas Trdgicos for piano, songs, etc.
composers born in the i88o's and '90*5. His music has depth and distinction, with
Most of these composers, while not neg- polytonal tendencies.
lecting "pure" or abstract music, have Chile's principal conductor is Armando
imbued their works with national traits Carvajal (b. 1893), director of the Na-
derived largely from Chilean folk music. tional Symphony Orchestra. Claudio
The dean of this nationalist school is Arrau (b. 1904) is the best-known Chil-
Humberto Allende (b. 1885), who stud- ean pianist, while the younger pianist
ied at the National Conservatory in San- Arnaldo Tapia-Caballero has gained
tiago and has been active as a teacher of favorable recognition.
violin and composition. Among his There is no indigenous influence in the
major compositions are the symphonic popular music of Chile, since the descend-
poems Escenas Campesinas Chilenas and ants of the aboriginal inhabitants have
La Voz de las Calles, and Tres Tonadas remained in isolation, preserving their
for soli, chorus, and orchestra. Among own arts and customs instead of mixing
hispiano works, the Tonadas de cardeter with the Spanish population.
popular chileno have been widely played. Chilean dances are the *cueca and the
He has also written a violin concerto, *esquinazo.
chamber music (inch a String Quartet, Lit.: E. Pereira Salas, Los origenes del

1926), songs, etc. His younger brother, arte musical en Chile (Santiago, 1941);
Adolfo Allende (b. 1892), is also esteemed H. Allende, "Chilean Folk Music" (Bull
as a composer. Carlos Isamitt (b. 1885), of the Pan American Union, vol. 65, no.
who is both
painter and composer, has 9); N. Slonimsky, "Chilean Composers"
written a notable orchestral work entitled (Musical America, vol. 63, no. 10); C. S.
Friso Araucano (the Araucanian Indians Smith, "The Composers of Chile" (MM
were the indigenous inhabitants of Chile), xix, no. i). G. C.
some chamber music (inch 3 string
Chimes. See *Percussion instruments
quartets), Childhood Scenes for piano,
etc. Samuel Negrete (b. 1893), Hector A, 5. The term is also loosely used for a
Melo (b. 1899), Prospero Bisquerrt (b. set of bells (gongs, etc.) and for the or-
chestral *glockenspiel. Cf. W. W. Star-
1881), Alfonso Leng (b. 1884), Carlos
Lavm (b. 1883), and Enrique Soro (b.
mer, in PMA
xxxiv, xxxvi.

1884) are other notable composers. Most Chiming. See under *Bell.
promising of the younger composers are
Jorge Urrutia (b. 1905), Rene* Amengual Ch'in. An important traditional instru-
(b. 1911), and Alfonso Letelier (b. 1912). ment of the Chinese and of the Japanese,

Domingo Santa Cruz Wilson (b. 1899) who frequently referred

call it 1(pto. It is
is the leader of organized musical activ- to as "Chinese lute," although actually it

ity in Chile as well as an outstanding com- is a

long zither, consisting of a lengthy
135 1
and slightly convex board over which peror, Huang-Ti, around 2700 B.C. One
seven silken strings are stretched. They of the most remarkable characteristics of
are tuned: c d f g a c' d'. Underneath the the Chinese system is the existence of a
lowest string 13 places for
stopping are principal tone of absolute pitch, the so-
marked by inlaid studs in a very peculiar called huang chung (yellow bell; see
arrangement, that is, symmetrically dis- *Blasquinte), which was considered a
posed from the center to the right and to cosmologic and sacred element of music
the left in the following distances: %, %, as well as the very foundation of the state
%> %> %> %> and % to one side, hence: and the people. During several centuries,
%> %, %, 4/5> %, % to the other. The the extinction of a dynasty was invariably
resulting tones are as follows: ascribed to their failure to secure the true

Vibratory Length:
Frequency: ,
865435 2
3 4568
7543^3 2
Pitch: c d*eb e f g a c' e' g' c" c" g" c'"

(The d* is higher than that of our scale.)

Actually, the high notes of this series are huang chung; therefore, to new rulers it
not sounded, since the places to the right was a matter of prime concern to regain
side of the above scheme are used only for the exact measurement of the bamboo
the production of *harmonics, similar to pipe of absolute pitch. The political and
those of the violin. Since, with this sort social importance of music was empha-
of touch, stopping at %
produces the sized particularly by Confucius (551-
same pitch as ordinary stopping at %, 478 B.C.) whose teaching anticipates in a
the tones of the right half actually dupli- striking manner the Platonic theory re-
cate those of the left half, but with a dif- garding the relationship between music
ferent timbre. The playing of the ch'in and social order [see * Aesthetics of
is a highly complicated technique, involv- music II]. Numerical symbolism (e.g.,
ing many peculiarities such as glissando, the sacred number four, or the number
vibrato, pulling of the strings toward the twelve; see below) played a prominent
player or away from him, tapping, etc. part in Chinese musical theory, as in
The koto is a similar instrument, usually Chinese culture in general. In the centu-
with 13 strings. [Illustration on p. 823.] ries afterConfucius the occupation with
Cf. R. H. von Gulick, "The Lore of the music, poetry, and other arts became so
Chinese Lute" (Monumenta Nipponica y prevalent that the Emperor Shi Huang-ti,
i, ii, iii, 1938-40); SaHMI, iSjf.
in 246 B.C., ordered all music books and
instruments to be destroyed, in order to
Chinese crescent. See *Crescent.
prevent a general neglect of practical af-
Chinese music. History. The music
I. fairs, agricultural, social,political, etc.
of China presents the singular picture of This order caused the complete loss of
a traceable history of about 4000 years. innumerable priceless manuscripts as well

Considering the no less singular tra- as a severe setback of musical activity and
ditionalism and conservatism of Chinese development. Fortunately, the Emperors
culture in general, there is no reason to of the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-A.D. 220)
distrust reports according to which it again favored music, which reached its

reaches back into the third millennium classical period under the T'ang Dynasty
B.C., although modern research has (618-907) and the Sung Dynasty (960-
placed doubt on the legend that the sys- 1279). in this period that huge or-
It is

tem of Chinese music was established by numbering 300 or more instru-

Ling-Lun, at the time of the Yellow Em- ments, were used for ritual and courtly
music. The gamelang of present-day tinued up to 60 and even 360 lii's until
^Javanese music may well be a modest finally it became clear that this series
remainder and reminder of such perform- never returns to its initial
point. In the-
ances. Very little information regarding ory, a very close approximation to the
the recent development of Chinese music well-tempered i2-tone scale was estab-
is available. One of the few data is the lished as early as the 5th century.
theoretical establishment of well-tempered In Chinese music (especially of the
tuning by the Prince Tsai-yu, in 1596 sacred and traditional type) the principle
[see ^Temperament III]. In general, of transposition is of prime importance.
however, musical development would Melodies are played in one or the other
seem to have been declining or stagnating (i.e., key) according to the month and

during the past three centuries, sinking the hour, each numbering twelve (the
from its former level as a great spiritual Chinese hour is a double-hour). More-
and political factor to a cheap and some- over, each melody belongs to one of five
what noisy entertainment for the masses "modes," according to its center tone
[see below, III]. which may be any of the five fundamental
II. Tonal System. From the principal tones.
tone huang chung, represented subse- III. Musical Practice. For a general
quently by f (the actual pitch was, accord- survey, Chinese music may be divided
ing to recent studies, between and Eb), D into four classes: sacred music, chamber
others are derived by means of bamboo music, folk music, and operatic music.
tubes, called /, the length of which is Music of the first type shows many fea-

alternately in the relation of 2:4 and 4:3 tures of an age-old tradition. number A
to that of the preceding tube. Since 2:3 of ancient hymns are preserved, all of

gives the higher fifth, 4:3 the lower which proceed in long-held tones of equal
fourth, the following series of tones (also duration, usually in large intervals of the
called lii) results [see also under *Pan- pentatonic scale [Ex. 2; cf. AdHM, 13].
pipes (p'sai hsiao)]:

Formerly, possibly already in the pre-

The result is a cycle of fifths, identical
hymns were accom-
Christian era, these
with that of the Pythagorean system. The
panied by a large orchestral body (120
f-c'-g-d'-a, are the basis of
first five lii's,
harps, 1 80 lutes, 200 mouth organs [see
Chinese music from the earliest eras to *sheng], 20 oboes, drums, bells, and
the present day. They lead to an anhemi- chimes are mentioned in a description
a c' d', which was
tonic penta-scale, f g referring to the Tang Dynasty, A.D. 618-
as as 1550 B.C.)
later (possibly early 907), probably with the employment of
broadened by the admission into actual
parallel fourths and fifths, as in the medi-
music of the next two tones which form eval organum, and with the percussion-
half-tones, called pien: instruments supplying a monotonous
kung shang chiao picn-chih rhythmic background \LavE i.i, p. 124].
f g a (b) Rhythm, measures, and phrases almost
chi yu pien-kung kung
invariably are arranged in groups of four.
d' (*') The Chinese chamber music, performed
Already in the earliest known writing on on the traditional instruments *ch'in (a
music, by Lii Pu Wei (c. 320 B.C.), the zither) and *p'ip'a (a lute) is the most
fifths are interpreted as pure fifths (3:2), highly developed type of Chinese music
see Ex. 3]. The which
possibly under Greek influence (Pythag- (
traditional opera,

oras). In the first century A.D. the goes back to the i4th century, is seri-
ous and restrained [see Lit., Kwan-chi
Pythagorean comma was discovered, and
the series of consecutive fifths was con- Wang]. Today it is largely replaced by a

popular type of opera which originated pitch for the conveying of the proper
about 1850 and which is rather vulgar and meaning of its words or syllables. The
noisy. Aside from this, music lives in four basic inflections are a level, a rising,
China mainly as folk song and as cere- a falling,and a rising plus falling tone,
and one and the same syllable has entirely
differentmeanings according to whether
one or the other of the above inflections
is used for pronunciation [cf. G. Her-

zog, in MQ
Lit.: Sophia Chen Zen, Symposium on
Chinese Culture (1931; article "Music"
by Y. R. Chao); J. H. Lewis, Foundations
of Chinese Musical Art (1936); J. A. van
Music (1884,
Aalst, Chinese J
933)j P ere
Amiot, MSmoires sur . . . la musique
chinoise (Peking, 1780); L. Laloy, La
Musique chinoise (1914); G. Soulie, La
Musique en Chine (1911); E. Fischer,
Beitrage zur Erforschung der Chine si-
schen MusiJ^ (1910; also in SIM xii);
Kwan-chi Wang, Ueber die chinesische
tyassische Oper (Diss. Bern 1934); Liu
Tien Hua, ^Selections from the Reper-
toire .
of. Mei Lan-fang (1929);

monial music for weddings, funerals, etc. Chung Sik Keh, Koreanische Musi^
Example in HAM, i. (Diss. Basle 1934); AdHM, i3ff; LavE
IV. Instruments. Chinese musical in- i.i, 77; A. Dechevrens, "Etude sur le

struments are traditionally classified into systeme musical chinois" (SIM ii); }. Yas-

eight groups according to the material ser, "Rhythmical Structure of Chinese

from which they are made: gourd (mouth Tunes" (Musical Courier 88, 1924); A.
organ, *sheng)\ bamboo (panpipe, *t'sai Tcherenine, "Music in Modern China"
hsiao)\ wood (chu. a wooden percussion (MQ xxi); E. M. v. Hornbostel, "Ch'ao-
instrument in the form of a trough); silk t'ien-tze, eine chinesische Notation"
(zither, *ch'in and she, both provided (AMW i); R. W. Marks, "The Music and
with strings from silk); clay (globular Musical Instruments of Ancient China"
flutes, hsuan)\ metal (bell, chung; bell (MQ xviii).
chimes, pien chung)\ stone (sonorous Chinese pavilion. See *Crescent.
stone, ch'ing; stone chimes, pien ch'ing)

and skin (drums, po fu). Particularly

Chironomic [from G. cheir, hand].
characteristic of the ancient and ritual term used with reference to neumes lack-
music are the chimes made from stones ing clear indication of pitch, the inference
(frequently in the shape of an L) or from being that such signs were interpreted to
the choir by hand signs of the conductor
bells of identical shape but differing in
thickness. Such a chime usually consists [see *Neumes II]. See also *Conducting
of stones or bells suspended in two
16 III.

horizontal rows from a rectangular stand. Chitarra. Italian name for guitar. Chi-
The upper row tuned to the male, the
tarrina is a smaller type, used in Naples.
lower to the female series of tones [see
Chitarrone [It., great *chitarra]. See
the explanation under *panpipes].
V. Finally it may be mentioned that *Lute III.

the Chinese language belongs to the cate- Chiuso [It., closed]. In horn playing,
gory of "tone-languages," a language
i.e., same as stopped; see *Horn I. In 14th-
which depends on certain inflections of century music, see *Ouvert and clos*

Choir. A body of church singers, as op- equivalent of the English adjective choral
posed to the secular chorus. The name is is the German noun Chor-
(united to the
also used with reference to instrumental noun which it
precedes). Thus, we have
groups of the orchestra, e.g., the brass the following equivalents: E. choral fan-
choir, the string choir, the wood- wind tasia G. Chor]antasie\ E. chorale fan-
choir. tasia G. Choralfantasie .
Similarly :
choral cantata Chorl(antate\ chorale
Choir-book [G.Chorbuch]. The large- cantata Choral^antate.
sized manuscripts of i5th-and 16th-cen-
tury polyphonic music which were placed Choral [G.]. (i) The plainsong of the
on a stand and from which the whole Catholic Church, usually called Grego-
choir (about 15 singers) sang. See the nanischer Choral [see *Gregorian chant] .

Derivatives are: Choralnotation ^plain-

pictures in BeMMR, 234, 248. For choir-
book arrangement [G. Chorbuch-anord- song notation), Choralnote (plainsong
nung] see under *Score II. See also *Can- note), and Choralrhythmus (plainsong
tus lateralis. rhythm). (2) The hymn tunes of the
German Protestant Church [see *Cho-
Choir-organ. Originally a small organ rale]. Derivatives are: * Choral bear beit-
such as is suitable for the
acompaniment term also apply to the
ung (this may
of the choir. Today the name is usually
Gregorian Choral), Choraljantasie (cho-
applied to the third manual of the normal rale fantasia), Choralfyntate (chorale
organ which is provided with stops use- cantata), Choralpartita (chorale partita),
ful for accompanying purposes. See *Or- Choralv orspiel (chorale prelude).
gan III.

Choralbearbeitung [G., chorale treat-

Choir pitch. See *Pitch 2. ment, chorale composition]. Generic
term for any composition based upon a
Chomonie. See *Anenaiki.
Choral (chorale). The term chiefly refers
Chor A chorus or a choir. to the various methods of composition
applied to the Protestant chorales in the
Choral, chorale. In view of the differ- period from 1600 to 1750 [see *Chorale
ent meanings and of the confusing usage cantata, *Chorale fantasia, *Chorale prel-
of these terms a few general explanations ude, *Chorale partita, *Organ chorale];
are needed. According to Webster, the however, it also includes the i5th- and
word choral has two meanings, depend- 16th-century settings of Catholic hymns
ing upon its accentuation: cho'ral (adj.) (vocal settings by Dunstable, Dufay,
means: pertaining to a chorus or a choir: Adam von Fulda, Heinrich Finck; organ
choral' (noun) means a hymn tune, a settings by Schlick, Cavazzoni, Cabezon,
sacred tune. For the latter meaning, the M. Praetorius, Titelouze).
spelling chorale is given as second choice.
Choral cantata [G. Chor\antate\. A
Although, as a rule, this dictionary fol-
cantata which employs a chorus (as most
lows the first choice of Webster, the spell-
cantatas by Bach do), in contradistinction
ing chorale is adopted here because it
to a solo cantata (the usual type of the
makes possible a written distinction be-
tween the two meanings. Thus, a choral 17th-century Italian cantata). For the
is a fantasia
German term Choralfyntate see *Chorale
fantasia employing a chorus, cantata.
whereas a chorale fantasia is a fantasia
which is based on a hymn tune. Unfortu- Chorale [G. Choral}. The hymn tunes
nately, the further compli-
situation is German Protestant Church. The
of the
cated by the fact that the word chorale term *Choral is also used to denote the
usually refers to the hymn tunes of the Gregorian chant (Gregorianischer Cho-
German Protestant Church which in Ger- ral), but this meaning is not generally
man are called Choral (accent on the last accepted into English usage. The impor-
syllable), while, on the other hand, the tance of the Protestant chorale lies in the
central position it holds in the German (Wittenberg, 1529, 1535, 1543), Blum
music of the Baroque, as the basis of nu- (Leipzig, 1530), Schumann (Leipzig,
merous cantatas and the whole tradition 1530), and Babst (Leipzig, 1545, 1553),
of the organ chorale. only melodies are given and these were
The evolution of the Protestant chorale sung by the congregation in unison. Many
with Martin Luther (1483-1546),
started of the most beautiful chorales still sung
the founder of the Protestant Church today are found in these early books. It
(1519). Luther, a rather accomplished should be noted, however, that their origi-
musician himself, considered the chorale nal form shows a much less conventional-
as one of the most important pillars of his ized and, for that matter, a much more
reform movement and played a very ac- impressive rhythmic form than that of the
tive part in the building of a repertory of present day. Especially interesting is the
texts and melodies suitable for his purpose. irregularity of phrasing and meter [ex-
In conformity with his principle of con- ample in AdHM
i, 448] .

gregational participation, he favored ver- The

year 1524 also marks the beginning
nacular texts and simple, tuneful melo- of musical composition based upon the
dies. In his search for suitable texts Luther Protestant chorales. Joh. Walther's Geyst-
chiefly resorted to the Catholic hymns, liches Gesang\ Buchleyn [see *Editions
many of which he (or his collaborators) XXVI, 7] contains 38 polyphonic settings
translated German, e.g.: "Nun
into (three to six voices) of such melodies in
komm der Heiden Hciland" ("Veni re- the style of the Flemish motet, i.e., with
demptor gentium"); "Herr Gott Dich the melody in the tenor and with occa-
loben wir" ("*Te deum laudamus"); sional imitation in the contrapuntal voices
"Der Tag der ist so freudenreich" ("Dies [expl. in HAM, no. in; AdHM i, 449].
cst laetitiae"); "Wir glauben all an einen Similar publications are: G. Rhaw, Newe
Gott" ("Credo in unum deum patrem deudsche geistliche Gescnge (1544; . . .

omnipotentem"), etc. The chief sources DdT 34) and Spangenberg, Kirchengc-
( 1545). The involved
for his melodies were secular folk songs senge Deudtsch . . .

which he or his collaborators provided polyphonic texture of these pieces natu-

with new (sacred) texts ["geistliche Con- rally excludes the possibility of congrega-
trafactur"; *Parody]. Examples of
see tional performance or even participation.
chorale melodies borrowed from folk A decisive step toward fuller realization
songs are: "Durch Adams Fall ist ganz of Luther's ideal was made by Lukas
verderbt" (from the Pavia song: "Freut Osiander (15431604) in his Funffzig
euch, freut euch in dieser Zeit"); "Von geistliche Lieder und Psalmen (1586).
Gott will ich nicht lassen" (from a love Here the melody was placed in the discant
song: "Einmal tat ich spazieren"); "Was and a simple homophonic style was adopt-
mein Gott will, das g'scheh' allzeit" (from ed for the accompanying parts. His ex-
the chanson: "II me suffit de tous mes ample was followed by Sethus Calvisius
maulx," published by Attaingnant, 1529); [Harmonia cantionum ecclesiasticarum
"Auf meinen lieben Gott" (from Reg- ( *597)
1 Hans Leo Hassler [Kirchen-

nart's "Venus du und dein Kind"). gescinge, Psalmen und geistliche Lieder
The earliest sources of Protestant cho- . . .
simplicitcr gesetzt (1608)], and Sam-
rales are three publications of Luther's uel [Tabulaturbuch hundert
friend and
collaborator Johann Walther geistlicher Lieder (1650) ] .

(1496-1570), all from 1524: the so-called The 1 7th century shows continued ac-
"Achtliederbuch" (containing 8 poems tivity in the creation of chorale melodies
to four melodies; original title: Etlich (monophonic as well as polyphonic or
christlich lider Lobgesang . in der Kir-
. . with *figured bass), although generally
chen zu sin gen) and two volumes En- with inferior results. The tunes do not
chiridion odereyn Handbuchlein with . . .
possess the originality and forcefulness of
25 poems to 15 melodies. In these books the earlier ones, becoming more senti-
as well as in those published by Klug mental and conventionalized. Nonethe-

less, the tradition of the chorale was suffi- Use he Kirchenlied (1927); see also the
ciently strong to prevent it from becoming books on Bach by Spitta, Schweitzer, and
subdued by the superficialities of the oper- C. S. Terry; G. R. Woodward, "German
aticmaelstrom, and composers such as Hymnody . . ." (PMA xxxii); additional
Johannes Criiger (1598-1662), Johannes bibliography in MoML, 396.
Schop (d. 1664), Johann Georg Ebeling
Chorale cantata [G. Choral^antate].
(1637-76), Jakob Hintze (1662-1702),
Johann Rudolph Able (162573), con-
A term used, usually with reference to
Bach's cantatas, to denote those in which
tributed many fine tunes to the texts of
chorale texts (and, as a rule, chorale mel-
Paul Gerhardt, Johann Rist, and others.
odies also) are used for movements other
From the artistic point of view, however,
than the final one which is
nearly always
the activity in the field of *Choralbear-
a harmonized chorale. The following
beitung attracts the chief interest. The
and types may be distinguished [cf. W. G.
cantatas, oratorios, passions of the
Whittaker, Fugitive Notes on Church
late 1
7th and
early i8th centuries (espe-
Cantatas and Motets of /. S. Bach
cially those of Bach) contain numerous
(1923)] (a) those in which chorale texts

examples of vocal chorale composition in

are used for all the movements; (b) those
a simple homophonic style as well as in
elaborate Simul-
in which some of the chorale verses are
contrapuntal texture.
recast in free poetry in order to allow for
taneously, there developed the no less im-
aria-like treatment; (c) those in which
pressive repertoire of the *organ chorale,
chorale texts are used in some movements
or, as it is usually called, chorale prelude.
whilst the others are free recitatives or
To the present-day musician the cho-
arias. The only example of (a) is his early
rales are best known in their harmoniza-
cantata: "Christ lag in Todesbanden"; an
tion by Bach. It is
interesting to compare
Bach's settings with, e.g., those of Samuel example of (b) is: "Ach Gott vom Him-
mel"; of (c), "Wachet auf," "Ein feste
Scheidt, his predecessor of 100 years (b.
The accompanying example Burg." C. S. Terry's book, /. S. Bach,
1587). (Je-
Cantata Texts (1925), affords an excellent
sus Christus unser Heiland; a. Scheidt, b.
insight into this question since the chorale
texts are distinguished from the free texts

by being printed in italics. Bach's prede-

cessors in the use of chorale texts and mel-
odies for cantatas were: Franz Tunder
(1614-?; DdT 3); Johann Kindermann
(1616-55; DTB13);' Johann Rosenmul-
ler (1620-84); Wolfgang Briegel (1626-

1712); Johann Ph. Krieger (1649-1725;

DdT 53/54); Johann Pachelbel (1653-
1706; DTB 6), and Johann Kuhnau
(1660-1722; DdT 58/59).
Chorale fantasia. An organ composi-
tion in which a chorale melody is treated
in the free manner of a fantasia or even an
Bach) shows that all the elements of improvisation. Samuel Scheidt 's Fantasia
Bach's method arc already present in super Ich ruf zu Dir9 Herr Jesus Christ
Scheidt. See *Organ chorale. Examples [DdT i; also in K. Straube, Alte Orgcl-
in HAM, nos. in, 167 b, 190. Meister (1904)], his greatest organ com-
Lit.: J. Zahn, Die Melodien der evangc- position, is actually a *chorale motet. True
llschen Kirchenlieder (6 vols., 1889); chorale fantasias occur in the works of
Johann Westphal, Das evangelische Kir- Buxtehude, e.g., "Nun freut euch lieben
chenlied in geschichtlichcr Entwic^lung Christen g'mein," and in some early com-
(1911); C. Bohm, Das deutsche evangc- positions of Bach ("Christ lag in Todes-
banden"; "Ein feste Burg") which show the textual meaning of the corresponding
the influence of Georg Bohm (1661- stanza. A recent example of chorale par-
1733), particularly in the peculiar frag- tita is E. Krenek's variations on "Ja ich
mentary treatment of the chorale melody glaub an Jesum Christum" (Toccata und
[cf. Georg Bohm, Sdmtliche Wer^e, ed. Chaconne, op. 13) in which the chorale is
by J. Wolgast (1927), 132, "Vater unser treated as an Allemande, Sarabande, Ga-
im Himmelreich"]. See *Organ chorale votte, Walzer, Fugue, and Foxtrot (sicl).
II. The impression of sacrilege conveyed by
this procedure may be somewhat lessened
Chorale fugue. See under *Chorale
by the reference to what may have been
motet. Krenek's model, namely, Buxtehude's
Chorale motet. A composition in which variations on "Auf meinen lieben Gott,"
which an Allemande, Sarabande,
consist of
a chorale melody is treated in motet
style [see *Motet II], i.e., as a succession
Courante, and Gigue, thus forming one
of f ugal sections, each based on one of the of the numerous examples of the 17th-

successive lines of the chorale. Examples century fusion of variation and suite [see
abound in vocal music movements 'Variations I V(b)].
of Bach's Cantatas nos. 16, 27, 58, 60, 73,
Chorale prelude [G. Choralvorspiel}.
95, etc.) as well as in organ music where An
the chorale motet forms one of the prin-
organ composition based on a Prot-
estant chorale and designed to be played
cipal types of organ chorale. Compositions before the chorale is sung by the congrega-
of the described kind are often referred to
tion. Because of the close historical con-
as "chorale fugue" [G. Choralfuge]. nection between the Protestant chorale
Since, however, the basic structure is that
of the 16th-century motet rather than that
prelude and the earlier organ hymns of
the Catholic service which cannot be
of the Baroque fugue, the former term
considered as "preludes" the whole
would seem to be more appropriate. Ex-
matter is treated under the heading *or-
amples of true chorale fugues based on
gan chorale.
one theme only (usually the opening mo-
tive of the chorale) occur among Bach's Chorale variation. See *Chorale par-
organ chorales (e.g., "Gottes Sohn ist tita.

kommen"). On account of their shortness

* Choralfuge, [G.].
they are also called fughettas. See Organ
See *Chorale motet.
chorale II.

Chorale partita. Variations [see *Par- Choralis Constantinus. A cycle of

liturgical compositions for the entire ec-
tita] organ on a chorale melody.
clesiastical year, written by H. Isaac (c.
Bach wrote several such sets which are
among the most remarkable compositions 1450-1517) for the Cathedral of Constanz
of his pre-Leipzig period. In fact, their (Switzerland). The first part [DTOe 5i]
mature to doubts
contains compositions of the Proper of the
style is sufficiently
as to whether they
Mass [see *Mass B, I], the second [DTOe
belong to his period of
"friiheste Jugendzeit," as Spitta and i6.i], compositions for the Office of the
Schweitzer have contended. Many exam- main feasts and of special saints. Cf. A.

ples of the same type occur in the organ

zur Nedden, in ZMW xii; P. Blaschke, in

works of Buxtehude, Pachelbel, Georg KJ, 1931.

Bohm (1661-1733), lohann Gottfried [G.]. The rhythmic
Walther (1684-1748), and others [cf. of the
interpretation "Gregorian chorale,"
their complete works; also K. Straube,
i.e., of Gregorian chant [see 'Gregorian
Chordvorspiele alter Meister]. The num- _i *.
chant VI].
ber of variations is usually that of the
number of stanzas of the chorale; some- Choral Symphony. Popular name for
times the character of a variation expresses Symphony in D mi-
Beethoven's Ninth

nor, op. 125, composed in 1823/24. The Chorlied [G.]. Choral song, particular-
name refers to the use of a chorus for the ly without accompaniment (Schumann,
last movement which
begins with an in- Mendelssohn, and others).
strumental introduction leading through
a recitative: "O Freunde, nicht diese Chororgel [G.]. Choir organ.
Tone" to a gigantic composition for cho- Chorton [G.]. See *Pitch (2).
rus and orchestra of Schiller's poem:
Freude, schoner Gotterfunken. The orig-
Chorus. ( i ) A
large body of singers, not
inal title is: Sinfonie mit Schlusschor iiber
connected with a church [see *Choir].
Schiller's Ode: "An die Freude," fur
Also music for such a body. (2) Me-
dieval Latin name for the *crwth or for
grosses Orchester, 4 Solo- und 4 Chor-
the *bagpipe SaRM, 80].
stimmen. [cf.

Chorbuch Chorwerk, Das. See ^Editions, His-

[G.]. See *Choir-book.
torical, V.
Chord. The simultaneous occurrence of
Christmas Oratorio [G. Weihnachts-
several tones, usually three or more. The
oratorium\. Bach's Christmas Oratorio,
chords can be divided into two main
composed in 1734, consists of 6 church
classes, consonant and dissonant chords.
cantatas, not intended to be performed in
To the former belong the major and mi-
immediate succession, but on six different
nor *triad and their ^inversions, i.e., the
days,from Christmas Day to Epiphany.
*sixth-chord and the *six-four-chord; to
Most famous is the Pastoral Symphony
the latter all the others, e.g., the *seventh-
from the second day and the aria "Schlafe
chord, the *ninth-chord, the augmented mein Liebster" following upon it. num- A
sixth-chord, and the numerous strongly ber of the pieces contained in the oratorio
dissonant formations of recent music,
are borrowed from earlier cantatas. An
many of which are derived from the
*fourth-chord [see also *Mystic chord].
important forerunner of Bach's work is
H. Christmas Oratorio, entitled:
The study of the chords, their relation- und gnadenreichen
Plistoria der jreuden-
ships and functions, forms an important
Geburt Gottes und Martens Sohn Jesu
field of music theory called *harmonic
Christi (1664). The edition by Spitta in
analysis. Sec also *Consonance and dis- vol.i of Schiitz's
complete works was com-
sonance II.
pleted (on the basis of newly discovered
Chordal style. A material) by A. Schering who also edited
style in which chords
a score for practical use.
play a prominent role; see *Texture. In
strict chordal style there is a given number Chroai [Gr., colors]. In ancient Greek
of parts, usually four (e.g., a hymn tune);
theory, the microtome modifications of
in free chordal style there is no such re- the two movable tones of the tetrachord.
striction (e.g., Chopin's Prelude no. 20). Aristoxenos mentions, in addition to the
See also ^Familiar style; *Homophonic. enharmonic tetrachord which divides the
three whole tones of the fourth (a to e
Chorea [Gr., dance]. In medieval writ-
ings, a dancing song [Joh. de Grocheo, c.
downwards) + % + %>
into the steps 2

1300; Robert de Handle, 1326, cf. CS i,

divisions such as + % + l/2 (vari-
ant of the diatonic tetrachord + + % i 1
402]. In the late i6th century, chorea is a
generic term for dance; it is used for the
and i% +