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Department of Architecture and Sustainable

Lee Yi Lynn 1402808
Chiu Zheng Yi 1502789
Phim Pha Prommanop A/P Thirak 1405279
Lim Zi Jun 1403173
Chin Hongrui 1505519
Academic Year | Trimester: 02 | 01

Group Members:


Encik Abd Muluk Bin Abd Manan

Dr. Hazman bin Hazumi


1. Introduction 1

2. Fire Prevention and 2-18

3. Lifts and Escalators

4. Electricity 23-28

Exercise 1 of the subject Building Services II requires us to document and

present the services observed in and/or around Kuala Lumpur Convention
Centre (KLCC). In this project, we have formed a group of 4 to study topics
of Fire Prevention and Protection, Lifts and Escalators, and Electricity. We
have also observed and recorded specific information relevant to the topics
being studied.

Fire requirement

Evacuation Plan

Kuala Lumpur Convection Center has an evacuation plan that can helps dismiss people
in the building during emergencies. During the evacuation, all the staffs will assist visitors
to leave the building. The assembly area is located at KLCC Park. Everybody in any part
of the building is required to move quickly to the nearest assembly area. The assembly
park is located at a strategic place that allow easy access from any part of the building.

The Evacuation Router and Assembly Areas are outlined on the maps.

Evacuation plans in KLCC Suria (it can be found at every floor beside the lift)
The assembly area at KLCC Suria.

Fire emergency exit door

A door assembly which is designed to hold back fire and smoke for a designated period
and has been tested under the fire door requirement. The door should be positively self
closing. The fire emergency door allows faster evacuation.


The emergency exit located outward opening door with a crash bar on it and with exit
signs leading to it. The one way emergency door is also always remained closed in the
building. The entire emergency exit in the building is lead to the Ground Floor assembly


The KELUAR sign can be seen clearly from far and close. It followed the rules in UBBL
which is without any decoration on it, and very clear. The emergency doors are big
enough and the space in front of the doors is very spacious for two people to access at
the same time.
Emergency door at KLCC

Emergency exit door located at the tunnel link between KLCC Suria and KL Convention

Emergency exit located at protected corridor in the KLCC Suria Shopping mall. The
protected corridor is long and narrow, as this will automatically lead to the only direction,
which will lead users to where the fire staircase located.
Protected corridor

Figure above showed a protected corridor. Protected corridor is protected and finished
with fire_ resistance construction. It is usually minimum 30 minutes fire resistant

Generally, door on escape routes are all fire doors, no lock, latch or bolt fastening should
be fitted. It should only be fitted by simple fastening that able to allow easy access for
people to escape during emergencies. The fastening should be able to open without any
keys or to manipulate more than one mechanism to unlock the door. There are a few
types of emergency door furniture found in the building.
Emergency door furniture: Push bar or panic bar

A panic bar as well known as push bar is a device for unlocking a door in emergencies.
The mechanism consists of a spring-loaded metal bar fixed horizontally to the inside of
an outward-opening door. It is also normally provided at the doors where large number of
people may be pushed or crushed against the door. The push bars are designed to
release and open the door in the direction of escape using small amount of pressure
applied to the bar by occupants. This type of design is not suitable for continuous or daily
use but only designed for occasional emergency use only.

Closer look at the push bar on the door.

Type of door furniture: Green box (Emergency door release)

Electromanagtic door locks are provided where internal and final exit doors requie the
use of a security proximity card, code or a release button. Occupants have to break the
glass by firmly pressing the glass with thumb to operate it.

The door with this type of release mechanism will release on activation of the fire alarm .
The activation of green box activates a security warning alarm.

Green box Fire door

Fire door

The fire door is designed to be kept closed at all times. The door's movement should
never be impaired by a doorstop or other obstacle. The intumescent and smoke-seal
bounding of fire doors should be routinely checked, and also the action of the door closer
and latch.

Fire doors can be combustible. It is acceptable for portions of the door to be destroyed by
combustion during exposure to a fire as long as the door assembly meets the fire test
criteria of limiting temperature on the non-fire side of the assembly.

The edge of the fire door is the fire rated seals which will expand when exposed to heat
and prevent the passage of smoke.
Fire Staircase

Fire escape staircase is an exceptional sort of crisis way out, typically mounted to the
outside of a building or sporadically inside yet isolate from the primary zones of the


The fire staircase of klcc suria is located inside the protected corridor in the building. The
fire staircase will lead occupants to the escape route and then to the outdoor assembly
area during emergency.

Type of staircase : Half-turn or U- staircase.

A straight stair comprising of two straight flights without turns however with one landing.
QuarterWindingStair. A stair comprising of one flight with a quarter winder, which is
making a
90 turn. The heading of the turn is controlled by the strolling line

The half-turn or U- staircase

Advantages of half-turn or U-shaped staircase:

U-shaped stairs are fundamentally 2 parallel flights of straight stairs joined by a

getting that requires 180 degree turn in the walk line.
U shaped stairs can be less demanding to fit into a building arrangement.
The arrivals can likewise offer a resting point part far up the stairs.
Provide a place to rest when going up or going down to another place.

Disadvantages of half-turn or U-shaped staircase:

U -shaped staircase is hard to construct.
Probable to need more floor space than a straight stair

Escape route in the building

The standard width of escape route and exits

Maximum Number of Persons Minimum Width (mm)

60 750
110 850
220 1050
More than 220 5mm per person

Figures below showed this is the places relatively safe as it is a temporary place of safety
when evacuating the building during emergency. The barrier is 30 minutes of fire
resistance between people escaping and the fire. There are many exit signage with clear
direction pointed all along the escape route and also distance between the assembly
area from the escape route. The height of the route if below 2.5m.
Fire Alarms, Fire Detection, Fire Extinguishment, and Fire Fighting Access

I. Fire alarms system

- A fire alarm system (FAS) is number of devices working together to detect
and alert people through visual and audio appliances when smoke/fire is
present. These alarms may be activated from smoke detectors, and heat
detectors. They may also be activated via Manual fire alarm activation
devices such as manual call points or pull stations and telephone that can
reach the fire fighting department
- Each tower has a separate fire alarm system but is networked via an LAN
to allow management to be centralized at the central fire command centre
(CFCC), located at street level, which monitors status and controls the fire
alarm and detection systems, automatic sprinkler system, smoke control
system, lift status, emergency power and firemens telephone system, and
is linked directly to the Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia (FRDM).
- During normal building operations, the fire safety system is monitored and
controlled by the building control system (BCS), but in the event of fire, the
fire alarm system takes over control

Components of the fire alarm system

(i) Fire Alarms

Figures show fire alarms in the building

- It is a siren like device that will alert the public to a fire in the building
- The alarm is located in every corner of the building
II. Fire Detection
(i) Fire switch

Diagram shows a fireman switch.

- The fireman switch is a specialised switch isolator. These switches can

often be seen on the outside the walls of shops. They are used by firemen
to turn off neon lighting or other electrical equipment in case of fire to
prevent the overheated equipment from exploding.

(ii) Manual call point

- It is a fire alarm that triggered manually by breaking the glass, triggering all
fire alarms
(iii) Smoke detector

Diagram shows smoke detector inside the building

- A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of

- Commercial security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm control panel as
part of a fire alarm system.
- Generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself.
- This device is located at all corners of both public and service space in the
convention centre.
III. Fire Extinguishment, and Fire Fighting Access
(i) Fire extinguisher

Diagrams show the fire extinguishers locate in the building

- A fire extinguisheris an active fire protection device used to extinguish or

control small fires, often in emergency situations.
- It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, such as one which has
reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route, smoke,
explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire
- A fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel
containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish afire.
- Normally the device is locked inside a red cabinet covered by a thin glass
- It is designed to be used or reached during the emergencies by breaking the
glass layer covering it.
(ii) Fire hydrant

Diagram shows a fire hydrant locate at the KLCC park

- A fire hydrant is an active fire protection measure, and a connection point by
which fire fighters can tap into a water supply.
- It is located at the outdoor KLCC park area with lesser obstacles around it,
as it should be according to the uniform building by-laws.
- Made for the fire department to easily reach the fire hydrant through the
pathway along
(iii) Fire hose

Fire hose cabinet and reel pictured above left and right respectively

- A Hose Reel is a cylindrical spindle made of metal, fiberglass, or plastic and

is used for storing a hose.
- The hose reels installed are spring driven (which is self-retracting).
- It requires maintenance from time to time.
- It is located at every corner of the convention centre as indicated in the fire
escape plan
(iv) Wet riser

Diagram shows a wet riser pump on the service space

Diagram shows a fire hose reel connect with the wet riser
- Wet risers are used to supply water within buildings for fire-fighting purposes.
The provision of a built-in water distribution system means that fire fighters
do not need to create their own distribution system in order to fight a fire and
avoids the breaching of fire compartments by running hose lines between
- Wet risers are permanently charged with water. This is as opposed to dry
risers which do not contain water when they are not being used, but are
charged with water by fire service pumping appliances when necessary.
- It is connected to a hose reel located inside a marked cabinet
- It is located in service spaces, close to fire doors
- Provides instant water supply for fire fighting
- Requires periodical maintenance, inducing costs
(v) Fire sprinkler

Diagrams show fire sprinkles

- A fire sprinkler system is an active fire protection measure, consisting of a
water supply system, providing adequate pressure and flow rate to a water
distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected.
- It is triggered upon detection of a specific amount of heat
- Automatically puts out fires
- High maintenance costs

Lift system

KLCC is built with a double-decker lift system to transport thousands of employees

and visitors vertically every day.

29 high-speed double-decker lifts and 10 escalators are located in each tower.

All lifts in the KLCC building provide different lift services depending on location
and type of lifts.

2 sets of 6 of the double-deck passenger elevators transport passengers from

floors 123 and 137 respectively. Another set of 5 passengers lifts transport
passengers to the 41st and 42nd floors where they can switch lifts to reach the
upper zones of the tower.

To reduce cab noise in the buildings narrow shafts, all elevators are shrouded
with aerodynamic coverings.

All main lift lobbies are equipment with fire safety measurement and firefighting lift
for easy access during fire breakout.

Double decker lift system

All main lifts are double-decker with the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to
even-numbered floors and upper deck to odd-numbered floors

Lower floors (levels eightseven) are served by two banks of 6-1600/1600

kilogram double-deck elevators.

Upper floors (levels forty-foureighty-three) are served by one bank of 6-

1600/1600 kilogram, and two banks of 3-1600/1600 kilogram double-deck

Sky lobbies (levels forty-one and forty-two) are served by five 2100/2100 kilogram
double-deck shuttle elevators.
All passengers are required to take an escalator to reach the odd-numbered floor
in the lower deck.

The elevators cars are separated into 2 different parts, which 1 part controls the
lifts for even numbered floors while the other handles the odd floors of the

Each double-deck passenger lift withstands the capacity of 52 passengers, 26

passengers per deck.

Construction of the Double-Decker Lift

General lift system

Apart from this main bank of lifts, there are a series of "connecting" lifts to take people
between the groups. Unlike the main lifts, these are not the
double-decker type. Two lifts are provided to take people
from levels 37/38 to levels 41/42 (levels 39 and 40 are not
accessible as office space). This helps someone in the lower
half of the building from having to go back to the ground floor
just to access to the upper part of the tower. Meanwhile,
there are 6 heavy-duty elevators a provided for utility

Advantages of using the double-deck elevator system:

Can withstand more passenger capacity each travel


Occupy less building core area than general lift system

Provide more space efficiency

Escalator system

KLCC is built with single arrangement of the step-type escalators. Its single-rider widths
are 24.

All escalators metal grooved steps are linked together and driven by a motor-driven chain
on tracks proving a non-stop circulation motion in a certain speed.

In the event the mechanism breaks down, the escalator can still be used as a staircase
access. Escalators have moving safety handrails. As the escalator ends, the steps each
disappear into an end comb-plate.

Construction of the escalator

The single arrangement of escalators in KLCC

As for vertical transport to the basement level, 2 16 width set of single rider escalator are

These escalators speed were adjusted to be increased when a motion is detected by a

sensor to save electricity usage in the building.

Energy efficiency escalator


Gas-District Cooling (GDC) System

-District Cooling

-Central plant as central source

-Absorption Chiller in central plant

-Waste Heat Boiler generate steam to generate chilled water by absorption

-De-ionizied water as refrigerant and LiBr as absorbent

-Auxiliary Boiler supply steam production

-Absorbent pump circulate LiBr solution beside purging unwanted gaseous,

maintaining vacumm condition in chiller

-Increase overall thermal efficiency

Diagram showing system of absorption chiller in KLCC

-chilled water distributed through long piping system to undergo heat exchange in heat
exchanger in multiple building

-Heat exchanger transfer chilling energy from Primary Loop (water from central plant)
to Secondary Loop (internal building chilled water loop)

-Cold air dissipated using typical fan coil and air handling unit
-Warm water transfer back to central plant for cooling.

-Done by using gas-powered generator

-Sources of energy:

-Main fuel: natural gas from Petronas

-Back up (decrease in gas pressure): diesel oil fuel

-Waste gas (NOx, Co, SOx) were emitted

- Steam injection system equipped to gas turbine to reduce waste gas


-supply cooling to more than 1 building simultaneously

-low and flexible operational cost

-energy efficient


-minimize noise in internal building

-improve aesthetic of building faade

-environmental friendly

-highly reliable

Solar Panel

-High amount of solar panel on rooftop generates 600MW/year

-Supplies 30% of Suria KLCCs energy requirement


-Reduce greenhouse gas (CO2)

-High energy efficiency

Solar panel on Suria KLCCs rooftop

Wiring and switches


-Uses of concealed wiring and conduit method

-All wiring system is above ceiling

-Benefits: Durable, longer life, aesthetic purpose, reduce risk of electric shock

-Disadvantage: difficult in installation, higher cost

Ceiling showing the cover for electrical maintenance access in KLCC

-Distributor box

-electricity supply system divides into subsidiary circuit, provide protective

fuse/circuit breaker

Diagram of distributor box in KLCC

-Electrical room

-Door is locked all the time due to safety issue

-Normally contains electric switchboards, distribution boards, circuit breaker and

disconnectors, electricity meters, transfomers, back up batteries in battery room, fire
alarm control panels and more.

-Located nearby telecommunication room.

Exterior of electrical room in KLCC
Entrance of substation room in KLCC park

Electrical Substation

-transfer voltage from high to low (or vice versa)

-between generating station and consumer

-unable to access fur to safety issue

-located underground of KLCC park

-provide sufficient land area, electrical safety clearance and for maintenance