Manila Doctors College LEADERSHIP & MANAGEMENT Handouts

A. LEADERSHIP DEFINED • • • • • • • It is the use of one’s skills to influence others to perform to the best of their ability toward goal attainment. Involves one individual trying to change the behavior of other individuals It is the art of getting others to want to do what one deems important It may be formal or informal Leadership is not a fixed position, it is a process. The dynamics of leadership include the leader’s and employees’ goals, leader/manager behaviors, the achievement of organizational goals by the leader and followers in the situation. The exercise of influence and power. Effective leadership and management can be achieved by:

Understanding of Individual Strengths, Weaknesses and Potentials

Knowledge of Basic Ingredients for Leadership and Management

Learning From Other People and Experiences


Systematic Use of Self to Get the Right Things Done at the Right Time

MANAGEMENT DEFINED No single definition of management has been universally accepted. Some popular definitions include the following : • • • • • The process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives in a changing environment The dynamic process of obtaining and organizing resources and of achieving objectives through other people Management is planning, directing, coordinating and controlling, including leadership, giving direction, developing staff, monitoring operations, giving rewards and representing both staff members and administration as needed. The process of getting work done through others. Nursing management is the process of working through nursing staff members to provide care, cure and comfort to patients. To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and to control. To foresee and provide means examining the future and drawing up the plan of action. To organize means building up the dual structure, both material and human, of the undertaking. To command means binding together, unifying and harmonizing all activity and effort. To control means seeing that everything occurs in conformity with established rules and expressed demand.

The management process consists of working with human and physical resources and organizational and psychological processes within a creative and innovative climate for the realization of goals.

Leadership vs. Management Although leadership and management are closely related, they are not identical. The following table summarizes the differences between leaders and managers. Leaders/Leadership May or may not have official appointment to the position Have power and authority to enforce decisions only as long as followers are willing to be led Influence others toward goal setting, either formally or informally by modeling the way Are interested in risk taking and exploring new ideas Relate to people personally in an intuitive and empathetic manner Feel rewarded by personal achievements May or may not be successful as managers Managers/Management Are appointed officially to the position Have power and authority to enforce decisions Carry out predetermined policies, rules and regulations Maintain an orderly, controlled, rational and equitable structure Relate to people according to their roles by enabling others to act Feel rewarded when fulfilling organizational mission or goals by fostering collaboration Are managers as long as the appointment holds

Power - the ability to obtain, retain and motivate people to organize informational and material resources to accomplish a task. Bases of Power: 1. Expert Power - some special ability, skill or knowledge demonstrated by the individual 2. Legitimate Power - manager’s position in the hierarchy 3. Referent Power - based on (a) attractiveness or appeal (charisma) or on (b) connection or relationship with another powerful individual. 4. Reward Power - ability of the manager to control and administer rewards to others for compliance with the leader’s orders/requests 5. Coercive Power - based on fear, depending on the manager’s ability to use punishment of others for non - compliance with the manager’s orders. 6. Connection Power – based on connection with people around you who are influential. 7. Information Power – based on information dissemination. Communication as the best way of sharing information. 8. Position Power – is the degree of formal authority and influence associated with the leader. High position power is favorable for the leader and low position power is unfavorable. 9. Personal Power – is based on one’s ability to overcome obstacles in life. Authority • an officially sanctioned responsibility • the legitimate right to give commands and to act in the interest of an organization

may or may not get results

Relationship among Authority, Power and Ability Authority but no power Authority plus power The nurse has the right but not The nurse has the right and the the ability to get the job done ability to get the job done Power but no authority The nurse has the ability but not the right to get the job done

B. Leadership Theories Many leaders believe that the critical factor needed to maximize human resources is leadership. A more in-depth understanding of leadership can be gleaned from a review of leadership theories. The major leadership theories can be classified according to the following approaches: behavioral, contingency and contemporary. 1. Trait Theory • Traits are inherited; traits could be obtained through learning and experience. Leadership traits include – energy, drive, enthusiasm, ambition, aggressiveness, decisiveness, self confidence, friendliness, fairness, honesty, integrity, dependability, teaching skill. a. Behavioral • • Great Man Theory A few people are born with the necessary characteristics to be “great”. Leaders are well rounded and simultaneously display both instrumental and supportive leadership behaviors. Instrumental behaviors – planning, organizing, controlling activities of subordinates, obtaining and allocating resources, among others. Supportive behaviors - socially oriented, participation and consultation from subordinates. People who use both instrumental and supportive leadership behaviors are “great men” and supposedly are effective leaders in any situation.

b. Autocratic - involves centralized decision making, with the leader making decisions and using power to command and control others. - keeps power to self - insists on making most or all decisions - directs workers to implement their decisions - discourages upward communication - motivates through threats, punishments c. Democratic - participatory, with authority delegated to others. To be influential, the democratic leader uses expert power and the power base afforded by having close, personal relationships. centralizes authority


involves workers in the decision-making process encourages upward communication allows workers freedom to work within constraints set for tasks

d. Laissez-Faire or Ultra Liberal - passive and permissive, and the leader defers decisionmaking. abdicates the right to lead. provides little, if any, guidance or direction for workers to set goals, motivate themselves and acquire the training or information necessary to make decisions. does not know or care much about what goes on in the work unit 2. Situational Theory (Hersey and Blanchard) • The traits required of a leader differ according to varying situations. A person may be a leader in one situation and a follower in another because the type of leadership needed depends upon the situation. • Variables include – time pressures, physical environment, organizational structure, personality of the leader. • Addresses follower characteristics in relation to effective leader behavior; considers follower readiness as a factor in determining leadership style. 3. Charismatic Theory • Based on valued personal characteristics and beliefs • People may be leaders because they are charismatic (inspirational) • The charismatic leader inspires others by obtaining emotional commitment from followers and by arousing strong feelings of loyalty and enthusiasm. • advocates a vision discrepant from the status quo • emerges during a crisis • accurately assesses the situation • communicates self confidence • uses personal power • makes self sacrifices • uses unconventional strategies Followers of charismatic leaders• trust the leader’s beliefs • have similar beliefs • exhibit affection for, obedience to, and unquestioning acceptance of the leader • are emotionally involved in and believe they can contribute to the mission 4. The contingency theory acknowledges that other factors in the environment influence outcomes as much as leadership styles and that leader effectiveness is contingent upon or depends upon something other than the leader’s behavior. The premise is that different leader behavior patterns will be effective in different situations. Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness (Fiedler) • Views the pattern of leader behavior as dependent upon the interaction of the personality of the leader and the needs of the situation. The needs of the situation or how favorable the situation is toward the leader is contingent or depends upon three variables: (1)

leader-member relationships, (2) the degree of task structure and (3) the leader’s position of power. Leader-member relations - the feelings and attitudes of followers regarding acceptance, trust and credibility of the leader. Good leader-member relations exist when followers respect, trust and have confidence in the leader. Poor leader-member relations reflect distrust, a lack of confidence and respect, and dissatisfaction with the leader by the followers. 5. Transformational Theory (Burns) • Focuses on effecting revolutionary change in organizations through a commitment to the organization’s vision. • A process in which leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality • Is based on the idea of empowering others to engage in pursuing a collective purpose by working together to achieve a vision of preferred future. This kind of leadership can influence both the leader and the follower to a higher level of conduct and achievement that transforms them both. • Two types of leaders: Traditional manager- concerned with day-to-day operations Transformational leader- committed to a vision that empowers others C. Leadership Styles • Leadership studies by Kurt Lewin and colleagues at Iowa State University conveyed information about 3 leadership styles- autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire. o Style - the way in which something is said and done. - a particular form of behavior directly associated with an individual. - how a leader uses interpersonal influences to accomplish a goal. Leadership Styles and Characteristics Concepts Center Image Frame of Reference Role of Leader Sources of authority Personal Approach Objectives Leader Needs Behavior Desired Focus Demands on Employees Autocratic authoritycentered Autocrat “I” Critic Leader trial and error develop self Power dependent work demands obedience Bureaucratic rule-centered Bureaucrat “They” regulator Ruler Democratic group-centered team leader “We” helper group Laissez-faire no direction non leader “You” none self do your own thing be a friend to all friendship friendly none none

role and repetition Participative involvement develop system develop group stability acceptance consistent belonging organization management group loyalty cooperation

Climate Morale (over- all feeling) Weakness Strength

Authoritarianis m antagonistic

Official apathetic

democratic team-oriented crisis-proneness group response

permissive poor no cooperation none

Independence Changeability decision & standards and action norms

Servant Leadership Based on the premise that leadership originates from a desire to serve and that in the course of serving, one may be called to lead. • Occurs when other people’s needs take priority, when those being served “become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous and more likely themselves to become servants.” • This concept may have some substantive appeal for nursing leadership because nursing is founded in principles of caring, service and the growth and health of others. Nursing leaders serve any constituencies, often quite selflessly, and consequently bring about change in individuals, systems and organizations. •

Filipino Style (E. Franco) • • • • • • • • • • • Manager by “Libro” • • • • • • • • “Sweats it out”, gives oneself to hard work action hungry highly dedicated manners rather formal an introvert a serious worker will not give in to bribery or any anomalous deals capitalizes on a loophole and will use them to avoid too much work, or as an excuse for failure driven to make short cuts does unconventional or illegal ways to attain objectives operates by the dictates of the book- what the manuals and other formal documents say systematic, thorough, analytical usually has adequate formal training in Management learns his managerial skills by ear has a vast field of practical experiences to compensate for his lack of formal education in management the opposite of the “libro” manager a hybrid of all types of managers a gifted reconciler of all philosophies and beliefs held by various types of managers integrates various types of management, depending on the needs and conditions of the organization

Manager by “kayod”

Manager by “Lusot”

Manager by “Oido”

Manager by “Ugnayan”

• •

participatory coordinative

D. Management Theories The current theories of management practice have evolved from earlier theories. Management practices were actually a part of the governance in ancient Samaria and Egypt as far back as 3000 B.C. Most of our current understanding of management, however is based on the classical perspective of management or the classical theories of management that were introduced in the 1800s during the Industrial Age as factories developed. 1. Historical Background • The scientific discoveries of the 17th century provided the basis for the Industrial Revolution of the 18thC. The change from hand power to machine power moved production of manufactured goods from workers’ homes to factories, where machines and energy resources could be concentrated. o Factory owners and managers learned to increase productivity and profit through division of labor and task specialization. When a factory or business became too large for the owner to direct all aspects of production, he appointed assistant manages and delegated selected management responsibilities to them, while retaining final authority for planning, policy making and control. • In the 19th C American factory growth was stimulated by technological advances and an influx of immigrants, who created an expanding market for manufactured goods. 2. Scholars and Theorists A number of management scholars developed the theoretical base for current management practice. A.Principles of Scientific Management 1. Frederick Taylor (1856-1915)- developed his Theory of Scientific Management to increase efficiency of industrial production methods. • Recognized as the Father of Scientific Management. Through the use of stopwatch studies, he applied the principles of observation, measurement and scientific comparison to determine the most effective way to accomplish a task. • Advocated that work be studied scientifically to determine the “one best way” to perform each task, that is, the method of task performance that would yield maximum work output for minimum energy input by the worker. • Believed that: o managers were chiefly interested in maximizing financial profile and o workers were chiefly interested in maximizing pay o that scientific management would stimulate both to increase productivity, and profits would increase to the point that managers and workers would no longer quarrel over division of spoils. • His system for work improvement consisted of the following steps: 1. Observing the worker’s performance through time and motion studies to determine the one best way to carry out each task. 2. Scientifically selecting the best worker to perform each job, the person with characteristics and abilities needed to carry out job tasks in the most efficient manner.

3. Training the selected worker to perform tasks in the most efficient manner. 4. Paying the worker a differential piece rate to motivate him to perform the task in prescribed, efficient fashion. 5. Appointing a few highly skilled workers to managerial positions and giving each manager responsibility for planning tasks for subordinate workers. 6. Appointing a foreman for each aspect of the work and instructing the production worker to report to a different functional foreman for each aspect of the job. Bureaucratic Organizations 1. Max Weber (1864-1920) • Advocated bureaucracy as the ideal form of organization for a complex institution. • Characteristics of bureaucracy 1. well-defined hierarchy of authority 2. division of work based on specialization 3. highly specific rules governing workers’ rights and duties 4. detailed work procedures 5. impersonal interpersonal relationships 6. career service 7. salaried managers 8. promotion/reward based on merit and technical competence. • Claimed that the bureaucracy was superior to other forms of organization because it provides greater stability, precision and reliability in controlling employees.

Human Relations Management Human Relations (replaced later with the term organizational behavior) 1. Elton Mayo (1933) and Fritz Roethlisburger (1939) • Through studies conducted, they concluded that factors other than environmental conditions have greater influence on worker productivity. These factors include: support from peers, work group norms, participative decision making and recognition from administration. • The Hawthorne studies led to the belief that human relations between workers and managers and among workers were main determinants of efficiency. The Hawthorne effect refers to change in behavior as a result of being watched. Participative Management Participative style - the leader focuses on involving followers in the decision making process. Hawthorne Effect Employee Satisfaction Theory Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) a. Theory X : Leaders must direct and control and motivation results from reward and punishment.

The traditional manager in a bureaucracy operates on the ff. set of assumptions – 1. The average individual inherently dislikes work, and will avoid it when possible. 2. The average individual prefers to be directed, wants to avoid responsibility and is more interested in financial incentives than personal achievement. 3. Because people dislike work, they must be controlled, threatened and coerced to put forth enough effort to meet organizational objectives. b. Theory Y : Leaders remove obstacles as workers have self control, self discipline; their reward is their involvement in work. A different set of assumptions provides a more accurate assessment of human nature 1. Expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as rest or play. 2. People will exercise self control and self direction when pursuing goals to which they are personally committed. 3. Under proper conditions, the average person learns both to seek and accept responsibility. The capacity to apply creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed among workers. c. William Ouchi • Developed the Theory Z as a means of applying Japanese management principles to American industry. This approach combines elements of Japanese and American management practices in order to combine the strengths of both. • Theory Z calls for the following: 1. long term employment 2. a combination of specialized and generalized training for career development 3. slow promotion based on non-threatening peer evaluation 4. group decision making based on both qualitative and quantitative data 5. decentralized control of performance quality 6. concern for both employee and agency welfare Management Function Theories 1. Frank (1868-1924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth • Did pioneering work in time and motion studies. • Emphasized the benefits of job simplification and the establishment of work standards, as well as the effects of the incentive wage plans and fatigue on work performance. • Analysis of elements of an operation include: Training of the worker, use of proper tools and equipment, use of incentives, use of time and motion studies to make the work easier 2. Henry Gantt (1861-1919) • Also concerned with problems of efficiency. • Introduced the Gantt chart which depicts the relationship of the work planned or completed on one axis to the amount of time needed or used on the other. • Developed a task and bonus remuneration plan whereby workers received a guaranteed day’s wage plus a bonus for production above the standard to stimulate higher performance. • Argued for a more humanitarian approach by management, placing emphasis on service rather than profit objectives, recognizing useful non-monetary incentives such as job security, and encouraging staff development. 3. Path-Goal Theory (Robert House) • Is based on expectancy theory, which holds that people are motivated: a. when they believe they are able to carry out the work

• •

b. when they think their contribution will lead to the expected outcomes c. the rewards for their efforts are valued and meaningful The leadership style is matched to the situational characteristics of the followers, such as the desire for authority, the extent to which the control of goal achievement is external or internal, and the ability of the follower to be involved. The leadership style is also matched to the situational factors in the environment, including the routine nature or complexity of the task, the power associated with the leader’s position and the work group relationship. This alignment of leadership style with the needs of the followers is motivating and believed to enhance performance and satisfaction. By using the appropriate style of leadership for the situation (i.e. directive, supportive, participative or achievement-oriented) the leader makes the path toward the goal easier for the follower. a. Directive style - provides structure through direction and authority, with the leader focusing on the task and getting the job done b. Supportive style - is relationship oriented, with the leader providing encouragement, interest and attention. c. Achievement oriented style - provides high structure and direction as well as high support through consideration behavior.

4. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) • Developed the following management principles1. There should be such a division of work and task specialization that different workers consistently carry out different job responsibilities 2. Each worker should be given authority commensurate with the amount of his responsibility. 3. Each employee should receive orders from only one superior. 4. One person should direct all activities that support a single objective. 5. The interests of the individual worker should be subordinated to interests of the total work group. 6. There should be an unbroken scalar chain of authority extending from the top executive to the lowest-level worker. 7. All employees should be treated with equity and justice 8. Managers should help workers to develop teamwork and esprit de corps. Others : 9. Discipline 10.Remuneration 11.Centralization 12.Order 13.Stability of tenure of personnel 14.Initiative • Management functions : planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling • Recognized the tentative and flexible nature of these principles, stressing that effective management results from basing each action on the appropriate principle. 5. Chester Barnard (1886-1961) • Concerned with the optimal approach for administrators to achieve economic efficiency. • Saw the manager’s responsibilities as defining objectives, acquiring resources and coordinating activities. Stressing the importance of cooperation between management and labor, he noted that the degree of cooperation depends on non-financial inducements, which informal organization can help provide.

6. Luther Gulick and Lyndal Urwick (1937) • Planning, organizing, supervising, directing, controlling, organizing, reviewing and budgeting (POSDCORB)

7. James Mooney (1939) • Believed management to be the technique of directing people and organizations and the technique of relating factors. Organization is management’s responsibility. • Enumerated four universal principles of organization: (1) coordination and synchronization of activities for the accomplishment of a goal can be accomplished in part through (2) functional effects, the performance of one’s job description, and (3) scalar process organizes (4) authority into a hierarchy. Consequently people get their right to command from their position in the organization. E. Leadership and Management Skills 1. Time management
80% of unfocus ed effort Time Managem ent 20% of effort

20% of results

Requires shift
The Pareto Principle 1800s

80% of results

Time is a precious commodity. It must be used wisely and efficiently - Clarify goals - Set priorities among competing goals - Identify the one or two most valued goals to achieve - Obtain the personnel and materials needed for critical activities - Schedule time for activity performance - Discipline self to adhere to the plan until the goal is reached or the plan is changed Outcome Orientation - Determine how one’s available time is spent  Keep a daily log  Identify the general categories of activity performed – planning, budgeting, scheduling, etc.  Determine percentage of total work time spent in each type of activity - Correct the imbalance  Time Analysis Personality characteristics influence one’s use of time. Identify one’s personality traits that support or detract from an effective use of time

1.    2.    3.   4.

Goal-oriented regularly sets goals establishes priorities measures progress towards goals

Plan-oriented develops detailed plans rarely procrastinates follows up plan Completion-focused defines what is needed to finish assignment persistent and self-demanding Emphasis-oriented  maintains a routine  makes decision under pressure  calmly handles demands 5. Limit-sensitive  delegates easily  separates work from personal life  stays within personal energy time

Principles of Time Management c. Prioritizing use of Time 1. Effective communication facilitates time management  Correct information  Clear messages 2. The ability to plan effectively is essential to the effective use of time  Planning charts the course of action in order of importance 3. Delegate to ensure that work of the organization is completed on schedule Efficiency – doing the right task (DOING THE RIGHT THING) Effectivity – doing the right task correctly (DOING THINGS RIGHT) Time Traps 1. Bust work – repetitive activity without attention to purpose 2. Procrastination – reluctance to begin for fear of failure or punishment 3. Telephone interruptions – inappropriate, unnecessary, run-on conversations 4. Unexpected office visitors – drop-in calls by supervisors, idle co-workers 5. Unproductive meetings – lack of planned agenda, inefficient discussion leader 6. Unnecessary work – inability to refuse participation in worthless projects

Time Wasters and Time Savers Time Wasters External  Interruptions by phone, staff, visitors, etc.  Doing work that could be delegated  Doing unnecessary paper work  Socializing Internal  Lack of objectives, procrastination  Failure to establish priorities  Inability to make decisions  Failure to plan and organize work  Inability to delegate Time Savers Set priorities and objectives Organize work Allow co-workers to perform duties listed in job description Avoid wasted motions – learn to be dextrous Evaluate paper works, procedures, etc. and eliminate unnecessary ones Avoid procrastination Use computer, tape recorder, etc. Use the waste basket

       

d. Prioritizing Outcomes • Critical tasks • Intermediate tasks • Non urgent tasks Distractions Casual visitors Unplanned phone calls Unwanted / low priority jobs Requests for assistance Strategies Make your environment less inviting. Remain standing. Keep a pen in your hand Use an answering machine or voice mail. Set a time to return calls Say no to jobs that have time value or in which you have little interest. Leave low-priority tasks undone Encourage others to become more independent Give them encouragement, but send them back to complete the job

2. Conflict Management

Conflict  The process that occurs when real or perceived differences exist in the ideas, feelings, and a actions of two or more points (individuals or groups)  In organizations, conflict arises because of: o Rapid and unpredictable rates of change o New technological advances o Competition for scarce resources o Differences in cultures and belief system o Variety of human personalities  Is inevitable  May be personal or work-related  May be short-lived or exist for months or even years  Ay manifest itself in a variety of ways o Glare at one another o Exchange of angry words o Withdraw  Is a warning to management that something is amiss  Can threaten the harmony or balance of an organization or can be desirable and useful in improving organizational performance Advantages of Conflict 1. Decreases the likelihood of “groupthink” 2. Prevents intellectual stagnation 3. Facilitates personal change and maturation 4. Provides impetus for problem solving 5. Stimulates curiosity Stages of Conflict 1. Latent – antecedent conditions predict conflict behavior 2. Perceived – cognitive awareness of stressful situation exists 3. Felt – feelings and attitudes are present and affect the conflict 4. Manifest – exert behavior results from three earlier stages Management of Conflict 1. Determine the basis of the conflict Intrapersonal Interpersonal Group 2. Analyze the source of the conflict  Cultural differences  Different facts  Separate pieces of information  Different perceptions of the event  Defining the problem differently

  

Intergroup Organizational

  

Divergent view of power and authority Role conflicts Number of organizational levels


4. 5. 6.

Need for consensus Communication barriers Separation in time and space Accumulation of unresolved conflict Consider alternative approaches to conflict management  Avoiding – unassertive and uncooperative  Accommodating – cooperative BUT unassertive  Compromising – assertive and cooperative  Collaborating – assertive and cooperative  Competing – assertive BUT uncooperative Choose the most appropriate approach Implement the conflict management strategy Evaluate the results        

Degree of association Parties dependent on others Competition for scare resources Ambiguous jurisdiction

Escalation-of-conflict Tactics       Competition Righteousness Stop listening Labeling Dealing with personalities Issue expansion      Bickering Coalition formation Threats Constricting others Intentional hurt

Descalation-of-conflict Tactics  Listening  Showing tact and concern for others  Appealing to descalation  Goodwill gestures  Airing feelings  Negative inquiry  Metacommunications  Responding to all levels of communication  Fractionalization  Position paper  Problem solving  Establishing outside criteria

High 9

Concern for staff

(Lose/Win) Nurse manager with a high level of concern for people and human relationships with secondary concern for work accomplishment. In conflict uses the smoothing, accommodating approach

(Win / Win) Nurse manager who combines high regard for people with deep concern for accomplishing work. In conflict, uses the confronting, collaborative, problem-solving approach


(Lose / Lose) Nurse manager who functions adequately, balancing the necessity to get the job done while maintaining morale at a satisfactory level, maintains status quo. In conflict, uses the compromising, bargaining (Win / Lose) approach. Nurse manager has Nurse manager has low regard for both tasks and relationships. Shows lack of concern for clear articulation of goals. In conflict, uses the avoidance, withdrawal, and indifferent approach


1 Low 1

primary concern for work accomplishment in an authoritarian manner, allowing minimal interference from human relationships. In conflict, uses the power/competition restriction and force 5 9 High


Leadership styles and conflict resolution

Concern for work accomplishment

3. Motivation

1. Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) • Hierarchy of satisfaction of physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self actualization needs. 2. Frederick Herzberg (1968) • Two-factor Theory • Hygiene or maintenance factors - prevent job dissatisfaction: provide adequate salary and supervision, safe and tolerable working conditions. • Motivators – job satisfaction: satisfying and meaningful work, development opportunities, responsibility and recognition. Theories of Motivation 1. A. Maslow: Human Motivation  The human being is motivated by a number of basic needs  The unsatisfied needs have the greatest influence on behavior 2. F. Herzberg: Motivation – Hygiene Theory (Job Satisfaction) Workers are motivated by hygienic and motivational factors Lack of hygiene factors (work conditions) causes job dissatisfaction Absence of motivation factors (work itself) causes lack of job satisfaction MOTIVATORS
(higher-order needs) Job Content (can raise performance)

  

(lower-order needs) Job Context (cannot motivate BUT can become sources of dissatisfaction and lower performance)

Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth

PERFORMA NCE ON THE JOB Supervision Company policy and administration Working conditions Interpersonal relations Status Job security Salary Personal life

Ways to Increase Staff Motivation 1. Manage change properly implement change only for a good reason - to solve some problems - to make work procedures more efficient so that time will not be wasted - to reduce unnecessary work load  introduce change gradually  plan the change and the strategy for introducing it 2. Assign undesirable jobs on the rotation basis 3. Job redesign – create jobs high degree of internal work motivation high quality of work performance high satisfaction with the work low absenteeism and turnover methods: job rotation job enlargement job enrichment 4. Provide productive climate and high morale (group spirit).

Enumerate the Roles of the Nurse Leader and manager. How does a good nurse manager should perform in the ward? Cite situations where a nurse manager can exhibit good behavior towards the following: 1. Patient 2. Supervisors 3. Staff nurses 4. Co-workers (nursing aides, midwives, etc.)