You are on page 1of 115

S M A C N A T I T L E m M G W 93 - 389350 0004993 734

THE MANAGERS

GUIDE FOR WELDING

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS


NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC.

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

THE MANAGERS
GUIDE FOR WELDING

SECOND EDITION 1993

SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS


NATIONAL ASSOCIATION INC.
4201 LAFAYETTE CENTER DRIVE
CHANTILLY, VA. 22021

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLE*MGW 73 = 8187350 0004995 507

THE MANAGERS GUIDE FOR WELDING


(C) SMACNA 1993
All Rights Reserved

SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING


CONTRACTORS NATIONAL ASSOCIATION INC.
4201 Lafayette Center Drive
Chantilly, VA 22021
Printed in the U.S.A.

FIRST EDITION - 1983


SECOND EDITION - AUGUST 1993

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLErMGW 9 3 = L89350 0004996 4 4 3

FOREWORD

Over the years, sheet metal contractors have known that joining metal is a very labor-intense part of the
business. Many hours have been spent in welding the various parts together that make up the total sheet
metal system. Managing the welding operation of the contractors business is a vital part of the total
operation.

Back in the early ~ O ' SSheet


, Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, Inc. (SMACNA)
seeing the need for more information and guidelines published the first edition of the manual. It was out
of an out growth of concerns that the sheet metal contractor was in need of more specific guidelines on
the welding operation. The first edition attempted to collect information from the various facets of welding
as it applied to the sheet metal business, but from the non-expert perspective. It was recognized that the
manager had to be able to make business judgements and needed the tools to help in the process. Things
such as weld productivity, quality, equipment selection, training, hiring, estimating, process, standards and
safety were examined from the managers prospective.

The purpose of the new edition as in the past was to provide the sheet metal manager with the tools to
manage the welding operation of the business. In the last decade there have been changes that have
effected the welding operations in many respects. The Welding Committee of SMACNA developed this
new edition after reviewing the needs of the Contractor and revised the guide to reflect the latest
technology and methods. It was hoped that the revised guide will help Contractors managing their welding
operation more profitably. This edition includes updated coverage for welding processes such as
submerged arc; flux cored wire guidelines; power supplies and spool guns. An expanded safety chapter

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
cover such item as health effects, hazards, controls, and OSHA. The latest methods of joint design are
included with updated figures and drawings. New guidelines for developing a welding procedure are
provided in the chapter on standards, codes and specifications. Weld quality is updated and includes
coverage for burn table applications. Estimating is expanded and provides both a short and long method
of estimating welding cost and examples are given. Welder training is updated and covers the Nation
Training Fund (NTF) program and welder qualification. Integration of the metric standards are incorporated
into the text using a "soft" conversion.

Welding in the sheet metal business is a joining process that is part of the contractors' operation and it is
a significant pari of the business. SMACNA through its welding committee working with members,
chapters, and the welding industry is committed to providing sheetmetal contractors with guide-lines for
managing their welding.

SMACNA sincerely appreciates the contributions of the welding industry and the input of concerned and
interested individuals.

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition iii


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

WELDING COMMITTEE

James E. Roth, Chairman William Marvel


james e. roth, inc. Bohnert Sheet Metal
Mars, Pennsylvania Miami, Florida

Michael Corrigan Robert A. Nuzzo


Lyon Sheet Metal Works, Inc. Martin Petersen Co., Inc.
Saint Louis, Missouri Kenosha, Wisconsin

Joseph P. Grissell Tommy L. Partain


Grissell Co., Inc. R.F. Knox Co., Inc.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa Smyrna, Georgia

OTHERCONTRIBUTORSAND
FORMER COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Edgar O. Hanley Kenneth Rotz


Consultant Consultant
Potomac, Maryland East Moline, Illinois

Ernest R. Menoid, P.E. Harold A. Neperency


Ernest D. Menold, Inc. SMACNA Inc.
Lester, Pennsylvania Vienna, Virginia

Ronald Thompson John H. Stratton


Waldinger Company SMACNA Inc.
Des Moines, Iowa Chantilly, Virginia

Gerard L. lacouzze
GLI ASSOCIATES
Bowie, Maryland

iv The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 8389350 0 0 0 4 9 9 8 2Lb
REFERENCES

Chapter 2 - Electric Arc Welding Processes


1. Pierre, Edward R., "Welding Processes and 5. AWS A5.4-78, "Specification for Corrosion-
Power Sources," 2nd Ed, Edward R. Pierre Resisting Chromium and Chromium-Nickel
Enterprises, Spokane, Washington Steel Covered Electrodes," bid
2. Cary, Howard B., "Modern Welding 6. AWS C5.5-80, "Recommended Practices for
Technology," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Gas Tungsten Are Welding," bid
Cliffs, N.J. 7. AWS C5.6-79, "Recommended Practices for
3. "Welding & Fabricating Data Book Gas Metal Are Welding," bid
1992/1993," Penton/lPC, Inc., Cleveland, 8. AWS C5.1-73, "Recommended Practices for
Ohio Plasma Arc Welding," bid

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
4. AWS A5.1-81, "Specification for Carbon
Steel Covered Arc Welding Electrodes," Note: Later editions of these publications may
American Welding Society, Miami, Florida be available.

-
Chapter 4 Safety

I . Method for Marketing Portable Compressed 12. Electric Welding, Safe Practices Pamphlet
Gas Containers to Identify the Material No.105, National Safety Council
Contained, ANSI Standard 248.1-1954 (IS0 13. Use Arc Welding Equipment Safely,
R443 and R448), American National Industrial Safety Chart No. 2, U.S.
Standards Institute Department of Labor (Available from U.S.
2. Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Superintendent of Documents)
Inlet Connections, ANSI Standard B57.1- 14. Occupational and Educational Eye and Face
1965, OGA V-1-1965 ( I S 0 R40), Protection, Practice for (Partial Revision of
Compressed Gas Association 22.1-1959), ANSI Standard 287.1-1968,
3. Regulator Connection Standards, American National Standards Institute
Compressed Gas Association 15. Practices for Respiratory Protection, ANSI
4. Safe Handling of Compressed Gas Standard 288.2-1 969, American National
Cylinders, Pamphlet P-1, Compressed Gas Standards Institute
Association 16. Industrial Head Protection, Safety
5. Gas Welding and Flame Cutting, Safe Requirements, ANSI Standard 289.1-1969,
Practices Pamphlet No. 23, National Safety American National Standards Institute
Council 17. Allowable Concentrations of Toxic Dust and
6. Use Gas Welding and Cutting Equipment Gases, ANSI Standard 237, American
Safely, Industrial Safety Chart No. 2, Series National Standards Institute
M, U.S. Department of Labor (Available from 18. Threshold Limit Values of Airborne
U.S. Superintendent of Documents) Contaminants, American Conference of
7. Requirements for Electric Arc Welding Governmental Industrial Hygienists
Apparatus, ANSI Standard C87-1971, 19. Safety Code for Building Construction, ANSI
National Electrical ManufacturersAssociation Standard A I 0.2, American National
8. Safety Standard for Transformer Type Arc Standards Institute
Welding Machines, ANSI Standard C33.2- 20. Safe Practices in Gas and Electric Cutting
1956, Underwriters' Laboratories and Welding RP2009, Third Edition,
9. National Electrical Code, ANSI Standard C I , American Petroleum Institute, 1967
NFPA No. 70, National Fire Protection 21. Health Protection in Welding, Metropolitan
Association Life Insurance Company
1O. Recommended Installation and Test 22. Manual of Accident Prevention in
Procedures for High Frequency Stabilized Construction, ANSI Standard A10.1,
Arc Welders, National Electrical American National Standards Institute.
Manufacturers Association
11. National Electrical Safety Code, National
Bureau of Standards and American National
Standards Institute

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition V


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*HGW 93 REFERENCES
Chapter 4 - Safety (cont.)
= 8389350 0004999 152
23. Welding - Subpart Q, Section 1910.252, American Welding Society, 550 N.W. LeJeune
Occupational Safety and Health Road, Miami, FL 33126
Administration Compressed Gas Association, 500 Fifth
24. Welding Design and Fabrication (magazine) Avenue, New York City, NY 10036
Data Book, Pentodl PC, Inc. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company,
25. Industrial Ventilation, ACGIH, c/o SMACNA Southeast Head Off ice, Metropolitan Plaza,
26. Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial Tampa, FL 33607
Operations, National Safety Council (1500 National Electrical Manufacturers Association,
plus pages) 2101 'IL" Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
27. Fundamentals Governing the Design and 20037
Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, ANSI National Fire Protection Association, Battery-
Standards 29.2-1971 march Park, Quincy, MA 02269
28. Safety for Fire Prevention in Use of Cutting National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan
and Welding Processes, NFPA Standard Avenue, Chicago, IL 6061 1
51BI National Fire Protection Association Penton/lPC, Inc., 1111 Chester Avenue,
29. Safety in Welding and Cutting, ANSI Cleveland, OH 441 14
Standard 249.1, American Welding Society Occupational Safety and Health Administration,
30. Safeguarding Building Construction and Frances Perkins Bldg., Room 52315,
Demolition Operations, NFPA Standard 241 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20210
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors'
REFERENCED ASSOCIATIONS, INSTITUTES National Association, 4201 Lafayette Center
AND SOCIETIES LISTING Drive, Chantilly, VA 22021
Underwriters' Laboratory, 207 E. Ohio Street,
American Conference of Governmental Chicago, IL 6061 1
Industrial Hygienists, P.O. Box 1938, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution
Cincinnati, OH 45201 Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20210
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Government Printing Office, Attn:
1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018 Superintendent of Documents, North Capitol
American Petroleum Institute, 21O1 "L" Street, Street, between G i Washington,
H, N.W.,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037 D.C.
-
Chapter 5 Joint Design

AWS D.l Structural Welding Code 1. Cary, Howard B., "Modern Welding
AISC Specification for Design, Fabrication and Technology," Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings Cliffs, NJ
AISI Cold Formed Structural Steel (Light 2. AWS A2.4-93, "Standard Symbols for
Gage) Welding, Brazers and Non-destructive
Aluminum Association Specification for Examination," American Welding Society,
Aluminum Structures Miami, FL
AISI Stainless Steel Cold Formed Structural 3. ANSVAWS A3.0-80 Welding Terms and
Design Manual Definitions
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping
Codes
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

American Petroleum Institute Standard on


Piping in Tanks
-
Chapter 9 Training
LIST OF WELDING TRAINING FACILITIES
(other than NTF-supported units)

1. Hobart School of Welding Technology, 600 3. Linde Division, Union Carbide Corporation,
West Main Street, Troy, Ohio 270 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10017
2. James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, 4. Airco Welding Products Company, 575 -
The Lincoln Electric Company, 22081 St. Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey
Clair Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 441 17 07974
-

vi The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT

~
SMACNA TITLE*NGW 93 NOTICE TO USERS W 8189350 0005000 572
OF THIS PUBLICATION

1. Acceptance represent an official act of the Association in


This document or publication is prepared for anyway, and it should not be relied on as such.
voluntary acceptance and use within the limita- The Board of Directors of SMACNA shall have
tions of application defined herein, and otherwise final authority for interpretation of this standard
as those adopting it or applying it deem appropri- with such rules of procedures as they may adopt
ate. It is not a safety standard. Its application for for processing same.
a specific project is contingent on a designer or 5. Application
other authority defining a specific use. SMACNA
has no power or authority to police or enforce Any Standards contained in this publication were
compliance with the contents of this document or developed using reliable engineering principles
publication and it has no role in any representa- and research plus consultation with, and informa-
tions by other parties that specific components tion obtained from, manufacturers, users, testing
are, in fact, in compliance with it. laboratories, and others having specialized
experience. They are subject to revision as
2. Amendments further experience and investigation may show is
The Association may, from time to time, issue necessary or desirable. Construction and prod-
formal interpretations or interim amendments, ucts that comply with these Standards will not
which can be of significance between successive necessarily be acceptable if, when examined and
editions. tested, they are found to have other features
which impair the result contemplated by these
3. Proprietary Products requirements. The Sheet Metal and Air Condi-
tioning Contractors National Association and
SMACNA encourages technological development
other contributors assume no responsibility and
in the interest of improving the industry for the
accept no liability for the application of the princi-
public benefit. SMACNA, does not, however,
ples or techniques contained in this publication.
endorse individual manufacturers or products.
Authorities considering adoption of any standards
4. Formal Interpretation contained herein should review all federal, state,
local and contract regulations to specific installa-
A formal interpretation of the literal text herein or tions.
the intent of the technical committee associated

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
with the document or publication is obtainable 6. Reprint Permission
only on the basis of written petition, addressed to
Nonexclusive, royalty-free permission is granted
the committee and sent to the Associations
to government and private sector specifying
national office in Chantilly, Virginia, and subse-
authorities to reproduce only any construction
quent receipt of a written response signifying the
details found herein in their specifications and
approval of the chairman of the committee. In
contact drawings prepared for receipt of bids on
the event that the petitioner has a substantive
new construction and renovation work within the
disagreement with the interpretation, an appeal
United States and its territories, provided that the
may be filed with the Technical Resources Com-
material copied is unaltered in substance and
mittee which has technical oversight responsibili-
that the reproducer assumes all liability for the
ty. The request must pertain to a specifically specific application, including errors in reproduc-
identified portion of the document that does not
tion.
involve published text which provides the request-
ed information. In considering such requests, the 7. The SMACNA Logo
Association will not review or judge products or
components as being in compliance with the The SMACNA logo is registered as a member-
document or publication. Oral and written inter- ship identification mark. The Association pre-
pretations otherwise obtained from anyone scribes acceptable use of the logo and expressly
affiliated with the Association are unofficial. This forbids the use of it to represent anything other
procedure does not prevent any committee chair- than possession of membership. Possession of
man, member of the committee, or staff liaison membership and use of the logo in no way
from expressing an opinion on a provision within constitutes or reflects SMACNA approval of any
the document, provided that such person clearly product, method, or component. Furthermore,
compliance of any such item with standards
states that the opinion is personal and does not
published or recognized by SMACNA is not
indicated by presence of the logo.

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition vii


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E t M G W 9 3 8189350 0005001 Li09
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FORWARD iii
COMMITTEE ROSTER iv -

REFERENCES V
NOTICE TO USERS OF THIS PUBLICATION vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1

CHAPTER 2 ELECTRIC ARC WELDING PROCESSES 2.1


2.1 Processes 2.1
2.2 Carbon Arc Welding (CAW) 2.2
2.3 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) 2.4
2.4 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) 2.5
2.5 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) 2.7
2.6 Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 2.9
2.7 Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) 2.11
2.8 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 2.13
2.9 Summary of Practices and Procedures 2.14

CHAPTER 3 WELDING EQUIPMENT 3.1


3.1 Types of Equipment 3.2
3.2 Power Sources, Applications and Limitations 3.2
3.3 Welding Cables 3.5
3.4 Wire Feeders and GMAW and FCAW 3.5
3.5 Booms for GMAW and FCAW Process 3.7 -
3.6 Torches for GMAW and FGAW Process 3.7
3.7 Torches for GTAW Process 3.7 -
3.8 Seam Welders 3.8
3.9 Turning Rolls 3.8
3.10 Welding Positioners Tail Stocks, Turn Tables, and
Manipulators 3.9
3.11 Electrode Ovens 3.9
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.12 Miscellaneous Equipment 3.1O


3.13 Safety and Protective Equipment 3.10

CHAPTER 4 SAFETY 4.1


4.1 Management Responsibilities 4.2
4.2 Air Contamination 4.2
4.3 Arc Radiation 4.2
4.4 Electric Shock 4.2
4.5 Fire and Explosion 4.3
4.6 Compressed Gases 4.3
4.7 Heat 4.3
4.8 Noise 4.3
4.9 Basic Document References 4.4
4.1O Safety Procedures 4.4
4.11 SMACNAs Safety Program 4.4

viii The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 8189350 0 0 0 5 0 0 2 345
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued)

CHAPTER 5 JOINT DESIGN 5.1


5.1 Basic Design Considerations 5.2
5.2 Welding Symbols and Types of Welds 5.2
5.3 Welding Positions 5.3
5.4 Types of Joints and Edge Preparation 5.4
5.5 Weld Strength 5.4

CHAPTER 6 STANDARDS, CODES AND SPECIFICATIONS 6.1


6.1 Standards, Codes and Specifications History 6.2
6.2 The Myth and Mystique of Code Welding 6.2
6.3 Developing a Welding Procedure 6.3
6.4 Welding Procedure Qualification 6.3
6.5 Welder Qualification 6.4

CHAPTER 7 WELD QUALITY 7.1


7.1 Quality of Welds 7.2
7.2 Pre-Weld Consideration 7.2
7.3 Weld Inspection 7.3
7.4 Trouble-Shooting Weld Quality 7.3

CHAPTER 8 ESTIMATING WELDING COSTS 8.1


8.1 Cost Determination 8.2
8.2 Definitions 8.2
8.3 Basic Cost Equations 8.8
8.4 Cost Computations 8.8
8.5 Other Cost Considerations 8.12
8.6 Reducing Welding Costs 8.12
8.7 Quick Method for Estimating Welding Costs 8.1 3

CHAPTER 9 TRAINING 9.1


9.1 Importance of Training 9.2
9.2 Resources for Training 9.2
9.3 Training for Qualification 9.2
9.4 Requalification Requirements 9.3
9.5 References 9.3
9.6 Supplemental Training 9.3
9.7 Welder Certification 9.3

CHAPTER 10 HIRING WELDERS 10.1


10.1 Hiring Qualified Welders 10.2
10.2 Welder Testing 10.2

CHAPTER 11 GLOSSARY 11.1

CHAPTER 12 INDEX 12.1

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition --`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- ix


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEJMGW 9 3 8L89350 0005003 281 m

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

Joining metal by welding is one of the most welding jobs. It covers weld productivity
most labor-intense operations in the sheet metal and weld quality and provides guidelines for
industry. Predicting and controlling costs and recognizing acceptable performance in these
quality of welding is absolutely essential if areas. This text deals with estimating and
contractors are to manage the work effectively. qualifying welding procedures and welders. It
The present revision was undertaken to refine also provides a checklist for hiring and training
and clarify several areas and to upgrade the competent welders.
manual to promote its use as an effective
contractors guide. A certified welding program of the
National Training Fund (NTF) is available to a
There has been a mystique in the past contractors welders. This certification is
about welding and too often sheet metal administered by NTF to welders seeking
contractors have been totally reliant upon the American Welding Society National Certification
welder for guidance in such matters as the and the program is a way for the contractor to
correct welding procedure, the achievable secure work.
productivity, welding costs and in many instanc-
es, the type of equipment to be purchased. SMACNAs Welding Committee is hopeful
that as contractors use this manual they will
This guide is intended to provide the become more proficient in managing the work
contractors, mangers and supervisory employees and controlling quality to the end that welding
sufficient information to predict welding costs, costs will become more predictable and more
audit welding productivity and recognize weld controllable. Contractors must be able to
quality even though they may not have extensive recognize that in many instances, there are

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
experience in laying down a weld. distinct advantages in using welding over other
joining processes.
This text is not intended for welder
training nor does it purport to provide all of As new applications are developed and
the information necessary for weld design. It more experience is gathered, it is anticipated that
will, however, provide the non-expert with the changes in this manual will be required.
information needed to select the type of Constructive responses from users of this manual
equipment and welding process required for are encouraged.

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 1.1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E X M G W 9 3 m 8189350 0005004 118 m

Chapter 2
ELECTRIC ARC WELDING PROCESSES

2.1 Processes
2.2 Carbon Arc Welding (CAW)
2.3 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
2.4 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)
2.5 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)
2.6 Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
2.7 Plasma Arc Welding (PAW)
2.8 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
2.9 Summary of Practices and Procedures

Table 2-1 Performance of Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW


Table 2-2 Electrodes for Welding Stainless Steel (SMAW)
Table 2-3 Shielding Gas Selections for GTAW
Table 2-4 Welding Current Selections for GTAW
Table 2-5 Typical Current Ranges for Tungsten Electrodes in GTAW
Table 2-6 Typical GTAW Procedure for Carbon Steel
Table 2-7 Typical GTAW Procedure for Stainless Steel
Table 2-8 Shielding Gas Selections for GMAW, Short Circuit Transfer
Table 2-9 Shield Gas Selections for GMAW, Spray Transfer
Table 2-10 Gas Metal Arc Welding of Carbon Steel
Table 2-1 1 Gas Metal Arc Welding of Stainless Steel
Table 2-12 Gas Metal Arc Welding of Aluminum
Table 2-13 Filler Metals (Electrodes) for GMAW
Table 2-14 Flux-cored Arc Welding Electrodes for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel
Table 2-15 Flux-cored Arc Welding Wires Electrode Equivalents
Table 2-16 Flux-cored Arc Welding Electrodes for Stainless Steel
Table 2-17 GMAW (Galvanized steel)
Table 2-18 SMAW (Galvanized steel)
Table 2-19 SMAW (Carbon steel)
Table 2-20 SMAW (Austenitic stainless steel)
Table 2-21 GTAW (Galvanized steel)
Table 2-22 GTAW (Carbon steel)
Table 2-23 GTAW (Austenitic stainless steel)
Table 2-24 GTAW (Aluminum)

The Managers Guide for Welding


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- Second Edition 2.1
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 8189350 0005005 054

2.1 PROCESSES
-
It has been said that any welding process is to by such names as "stick welding," "MIG welding,"
the best welding process . . . for some application. "TIG welding," "Heliarc welding," etc. Although in
-
This section will attempt to describe the basic common usage, these names do not always accu-
characteristics and equipment requirements of rately describe the actual process used. Therefore,
several different arc welding processes that are either in describing welding processes in this manual, the
in common use in the sheet metal industry at the terminology will be that used by the American
present time, or show potential for greater use in the Welding Society (AWS).
near future. Hopefully, an understanding of these Basically, welding processes differ from one
various processes will assist the sheet metal another in the type of electrode used, and whether a
contractors in selecting the best welding process for shielding gas is required or not. Shown below are
each particular application. the more common processes along with their
Over the years, the various welding distinguishing type of electrode and shielding gas
processes used in the sheet metal industry have requirements, if any.
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

been referred

EXTERNAL
PROCESS ELECTRODE SHIELDING GAS

Carbon Arc Welding (CAW) Carbon Rod Not Required

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Coated Metal Rod Not Required

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Bare Tungsten Wire Required

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Bare Metal Wire Required

Fiux-cored Arc Welding (FCAW) Flux and Metallic Powders Sometimes Required
encased in a metallic
sheath

Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) No Exposed Electrode Required

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) Wire with Flux Not required

2.2 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * H G W 93 = 8189350 000500b T90 =
2.2 CARBON ARC WELDING (CAW)

The power source is usually the constant current to 24 gage [.7Omm]) galvanized carbon steel. In this
(CC) type and must supply direct current (DC). l h e application, the carbon steel sheets are not melted,
carbon electrode must be negative and this is but rather a lower melting point filler metal such as
referred to as straight polarity or Direct Current silicon bronze is melted by the heat of the arc and
Electrode Negative (DCEN). Reverse polarity is flows into the joint. This particular application of the
referred to Direct Current Electrode Positive (DCEP). Carbon Arc Welding process is sometimes referred to
Because the carbon electrode is capable of as "braze welding or "everdur." By concentrating the
carrying high electrical currents, the heat is concen- arc onto the filler metal, it is possible to avoid
trated in a small area. For this reason, Carbon Arc damaging the adjacent galvanized coating, thus
Welding has found application in welding copper. leaving the corrosion resistance of the coated carbon
However, the most common application of this sheet steel relatively intact.
process in the sheet metal industry involves the
joining of light gage (18 [I .3mm]

Carbon Arc Welding and Brazing Process

CARBON
ELECTRODE
4J \\ CARBON

4u TLLERROD

Figure 2-1

Carbon Arc Welding and Brazing Equipment

CARBON
MANUALLY HELD
TORCH
p 5
ELECTRODE
POWER SOURCE

WORK

Figure 2-2

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.3


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 W 8389350 0005007 9 2 7

2.3 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING


@MAW)
may be used in this process, depending on the
The Shielded Metal Arc Welding process (Figure application and choice of electrode. If the DC
2-3) is similar in its basic concept to the Carbon Arc arrangement is used, then the electrode can be either
negative "DCEN"(Straight Polarity) or positive "DCEP"
~

Welding process, with the major difference being that


the electrode in this case is a covered metal rod (Reverse Polarity), again depending on the particular
instead of a carbon rod. This process is sometimes application and choice of electrode.
referred to as "stick welding". The electric arc is Depending on the application, the choice of a
established between the metal electrode and the proper electrode can be critical. A large variety of
work, but in this case, the electrode itself is electrodes and coverings are available and the
consumed during the welding process. The covering selection is dependent upon such variables as the
on the metal electrode disintegrates as the electrode base metal being welded, its thickness, the position
is consumed and this disintegration produces gases of the weld, the required strength of the weld, and the
which shield the arc from the atmosphere and also type of welding current (DCEP, DCEN or AC).
results in the formation of a slag which protects the Special storage conditions may also be required for
weld itself from atmospheric contamination as it certain types of electrodes. For example, the low
cools. The electrode covering may also contain hydrogen electrodes such as E7018 and E8018
alloying elements which mix with the molten weld which are used in welding certain high strength steels
pool and result in special weld properties. must be sorted in a moisture-free environment. If
The power source used in Shielded Metal Arc these electrodes are left exposed to the atmosphere
Welding should be the constant current (CC) type. on a hot, humid day, they will absorb moisture at
Either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) such a rate that their low hydrogen characteristics
can be affected in as short a time as four hours. If
Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process this occurs, the electrodes must have the moistu!e
baked out of them (usyally at temperatures of 400 F
[204 Cd to 500 F [260 C] for E70 and 700 F [371 Cl
PROTECTIVE GAS ELECTRODE
FROM ELECTRODE to 800 F [427OC] for higher strength electrodes) in
order to qualify as a low-hydrogen electrode. Both ~

portable and non-portable "holding ovens' are


METAL
SLAG. available for electrode storage and they are described -
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

in Chapter 7 of this manual.


SOLIDIFIED
WELD The performance characteristics of the common
METAL steel electrodes are listed in Table 2-1. Suggested
electrodes for welding stainless steels are listed in
Table 2-2.
Figure 2-3

Shielded Metal Arc Weldinq Equipment

METAL

WORK

Figure 2-4

2.4 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLExMGW 93 AL89350 0005008 8 b 3 D

2.4 GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING in certain special applications where minimum
(GTAW) penetration is desired.
Actually, when using DC, the polarity of the elec-
In this process (Figure 2-5), the heat required for trode has a significant effect on the resulting weld.
welding is produced by an electric arc established With the electrode negative (straight polarity) most of
between a tungsten wire electrode and the work. As the energy created by the arc is concentrated in the
in the Carbon Arc Welding process, the electrode is base metal and this results in deeper weld
not consumed. A shielding gas, usually argon, penetration and a relatively narrow melted area.
helium or a mixture of the two, is fed through a However, if the electrode is positive (reverse polarity),
special electrode holder, or torch. This shielding gas the effect is opposite and most of the heat is
exists from the torch around the tungsten electrode concentrated in the electrode. This results in less
and shields both the arc and the weld pool from weld penetration and a wider melted area. Because
atmospheric gases. The effect of the shielding gas is of the concentration of heat in the electrode, a large
such that the resulting weld is smooth, free of spatter diameter electrode must be used. Electrode heating
and slag and is easy to clean or polish. The use of is one of the reasons why DC reverse polarity
the inert gases argon and helium in this process has (electrode positive) is much less popular than DC
resulted in it sometimes being referred to as "TIG" straight polarity (electrode positive).
welding, for "Tungsten Inert Gas" or "Heliarc" welding. DC straight polarity (electrode negative) is used
For specific requirements of internal cleanliness a in the GTAW process to weld a wide variety of metals
backing gas or flux may be necessary. including carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium,
The power source for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding copper and copper alloys. The application of the
should be a constant current (CC) machine. Both GTAW process to the welding of stainless steel is
alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) are especially important in the food processing, kitchen
used in this process. When using DC, the most com- equipment and other specialty segments of the sheet
mon arrangement is straight polarity (electrode nega- metal industry where welds must be ground smooth
tive). Reverse polarity (electrode positive) is used and blended perfectly into the finish of the base
only metal.
Alternating current (AC) is used in GTAW to weld
aluminum, magnesium and their alloys. Dense oxide
Gas Tunqsten Arc Welding Process layers form very rapidly on aluminum and magnesium
surfaces when they are exposed to the atmosphere
and these oxide layers inhibit the welding process.
However, the periodic reversing flow of atom-sized
WELDING particles that take place when using alternating
-
$
I TORCH
current actually tends to break up these oxide layers,
SHIELDING GAS
\ \L II
and therefore, the base metal is automatically
MOLTEN WELD \ \i, III)/)
1 /
TUNGSTEN
ELECTRODE "cleaned". Usually when using alternating current, a
high frequency current is superimposed on the basic
AC current and this high frequency component further
increases the cleaning action on the weld. Also, the
high frequency current makes it easier to initiate the
arc without contaminating the tungsten electrode.
The weld characteristics using AC are somewhere
between those obtained using DC electrode negative
Figure 2-5 and DC electrode positive.
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The Manager's Guide for Welding u Second Edition 2.5


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEmMGW 93 8389350 0005009 7 T T

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Equipment

n INERT GAS

FOOT PEDAL

Figure 2-6

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding using a water-cooled provided there is good joint fit-up. When the material
torch and with optional foot pedal is shown in Figure is so thick that- required penetration cannot be
2-6. The foot pedal is used to give variable control of achieved without some form of joint preparation (such
the welding current and is especially useful in as edge beveling), or when there is poor joint fit-up, -

initiating and terminating the weld. Although not then a filler rod will be necessary. The filler rod
shown in Figure 2-6, the torch is also available with should be compatible with the base metal and it is -
an "on-off" switch. fed into the weld pool.
Regardless of whether AC or DC is used, the Tungsten is used as the electrode because it has
heat generated in the electrode requires that the low electrical resistance, good heat conductivity, can
electrode holder (or torch) be cooled. If the welding easily emit electrons and has the highest melting
current is less than 150 amps, an air-cooled torch will point of any metal (6,170'F [3410 CI). The current-
usually be adequate. Over 150 amps, a water-cooled carrying capacity of the electrode and its ability to
torch is usually required. emit electrons when hot are enhanced by allowing
When welding thinner metals using the Gas the tungsten with thorium or zirconium. The
Tungsten Arc Welding process, good fusion of the presence of these alloying elements in the tungsten
base metal can be achieved using just the arc without electrode also results in a more stable arc and better
filler rod arc starting. The AWS has standardized
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Tungsten Electrodes

AWS
CLASSIFICATIONS TYPE TIP COLOR

EWP Pure Tungsten Green


EWTh1 I Yo Thorium added Yellow
EWTh2 2% Thorium added Red
EWZr-1 1Yo Zirconium added Brown
Diameter - 0.01 O (0.25mm)
to 0.250" (6.3mm)
Lengths - 3 (76mm) to 24" (609mm)

2.6 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * f l G U 93 m B L 8 9 3 5 0 00050LO Y L L m
six classes of tungsten electrodes in their required when using GTAW to weld light gage sheet
"Specifications for Tungsten Arc Welding Electrodes" metal, the arc may tend to wander erratically over the
(AWS A5.12). The four most used classifications are end of the electrode. This problem can be corrected
listed on page 2.6 along with the tip color code used by grinding the electrode to a point, however, special
to identify each type. precautions must be taken. Figure 2-7 offers a few
Tungsten electrodes are available with either a suggestions for the proper grinding of tungsten
standard or a ground finish. The ground finish is electrodes.
preferred because these electrodes are perfectly Tables 2-3 through 2-7 should be consulted for
round and will make good contact with the collet of information regarding the selection of shielding gas,
the welding torch, thus assuring good heat transfer gas flow rates, welding currents and tungsten
and electrical contact from the electrode to the torch. electrode diameters.
At the relatively low welding currents

TUNGSTEN POINTERS Grinding of Tungsten Electrodes

Wrong - crosswise
GRINDING WHEEL POINTERS
grind m a r k s restrict
welding current, cause
- arc wander, chance in- Silicon carbide wheels cut faster than other kinds, but
clusions in weld
cost more, and do not last as long; they need frequent
dressings and tend to be brittle.
Right-lengthwise grind
marks don't restrict cur- Alumina oxide wheels cut slower then carbide
rent Finish pointing on
wheels, but outlast them. Premium alumina oxide

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
120-grit wheel
wheels are worth the extra cost, because they lessen
the chance of contaminating welds through pickup on
the wheel.

Rough-point tungsten electrodes on an 80-grit


O O1 5 to 0.025 in wheel; finish on a 120-grit wheel. Your supplier can
recommend the best structure and hardness for point-
ing, but, in general, the wheel with an open structure is
best, because it picks up fewer contaminants and runs
cooler.

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book


1982183, p. DI23

Figure 2-7

2.5 GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW)

The Gas Metal Arc Weldina Drocess is similar in GMAW are listed in Tables 2-8 throuah 2-13.
concept to the Gas Tungsten ;c Welding process. The GMAW process is often referied to as "MIG"
The main difference between the two is that the welding for "Metal Inert Gas" or "Wire Welding." This
tungsten electrode used in GTAW is replaced with a is not completely accurate, however, since shielding
continuously fed wire which acts as both electrode gases which are not inert (such as CO,) are
and filler wire. A wire feeder is required to commonly used.
mechanically feed the wire at a controlled rate The power source used for GMAW differs signifi-
through the torch (or gun as it is sometimes called). cantly from that used in GTAW. For GMAW a con-
Shielding gases are also fed through the torch and stant voltage (CV) machine must be used instead of
exit around the exposed wire electrode. As in the the constant current (CC) machine used in GTAW.
~
case of GTAW, the choice of shielding gases will The power is almost always supplied as direct current
depend on the particular application. Shielding gas (DC) with the electrode positive.
- selections, suggested flow rates and filler metals for

The Manager's Guide for Welding 9 Second Edition 2.7


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
IMPORTANT: A CONSTANT VOLTAGE
POWER SOURCE SHOULD NEVER BE USED
FOR SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING.THE
POWER SOURCE COULD EASILY BE
OVERLOADED AND PERMANENTLY DAM-
AGED.

The wire feeder and controller are integral parts


of the GMAW process. The metal wire is loaded into
the wire feeder in spools and passes through a set of
feed rolls which force the metal through a flexible
cable and then through the gun. The controller
maintains a constant wire speed once a feed rate has
been selected, and also properly sequences the wire
feed motor, gas flow and welding power supply.
S M A C N A TITLEUMGW 93

. 8 1 ~ 3 5 0O O O ~ O I , I , 358

Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

Figure 2-8
m

SMALL DIAMETER WIRE

(Nozzle position and wire "Stick-out'' relative to the distance from


The manner in which the molten metal is trans- the work is important for good "Arc Characteristic".)
ferred from the tip of the wire electrode to the base
metal results in four distinct modes of operation in the
GMAW process. These four modes are referred to SPRAY TRANSFER - In spray transfer, the
as: molten tip of the wire electrode disintegrates into very
* Spray Transfer small droplets which then "spray" across the arc to
* Pulsed Spray Transfer the base metal. The spray transfer mode has a
* Globular Transfer characteristic buzzing or humming sound once it is
* Short Circuit Transfer established. Typically, spray transfer requires
The particular mode of metal transfer actually relatively high load voltages (24 to 30 volts) and
achieved is dependent on the wire electrode currents (to 300 amps with .045" [1.14mm] wire).
diameter, current, arc voltage and type of shielding The commonly used shielding gas is argon with 1 to
gas. Typical combinations of these variables used to 5% oxygen. Spray transfer is the fastest form of
achieve either spray transfer or short circuit transfer transfer but is usually applicable only to the heavier -
for three common base metals are listed in Tables 2- gage metals (12 gage and heavier).
8 and 2-9.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment

Figure 2-9

2.8 The Manager's Guide for Welding


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Second Edition
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 9 3 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 0005012 294
PULSED SPRAY TRANSFER - The pulsed of time is dependent on such factors as wire feed
spray mode is a modified form of spray transfer. The speed, wire diameter, welding current, arc voltage
difference is that through the use of a special power and shielding gas but they occur quite rapidly,
source, the welding current now consists of two usually from 40 to 250 times per second. Wire sizes
superimposed currents, one a steady "background" for this mode of transfer vary from .030" (0.8mm) to
current to establish and maintain the arc and the .045" (1.1 mm) diameter. The range of open circuit
second, a higher current pulse which melts and voltages and currents used in short circuit transfer
separates the tip of the wire electrode. This results are listed in Table 2-8. Common shielding gases
in distinct single droplets being formed at a rate equal for this process are CO, or a mixture of 75% argon
to the pulse frequency which is usually 60 to 120 and 25% CO,. The short circuit mode of transfer is
cycles per second, assuming the power source feed one of the slower transfer modes in GMAW but it
is 60 Hz. This transfer technique has the advantage has the great advantage of being an all-position
of being very stable and allows larger-than-normal welding technique and it can be used on thinner
electrode wires to be used. It is a somewhat faster materials. For these reasons, it is a commonly
technique than short-circuit transfer but is slower than used transfer technique in the sheet metal industry.
pure spray transfer. The stability of this technique Galvanized mild steel can be welded using the
has proven to be advantageous in welding of high GMAW process with short circuit transfer; however,
nickel alloy steels. the spatter produced is greater than that
GLOBULAR TRANSFER - Globular transfer is encountered when welding uncoated mild steel and
similar to spray transfer in that the metal transfers for this reason the nozzle must be cleaned more
across the arc in individual droplets, but in this case, frequently.
the droplets grow in size until they are larger than the 2.6 FLUX-CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW)
diameter of the wire electrode. These large droplets,
The Flux-Cored Arc Welding process is similar
or globules then move across the arc to the base
to the Gas Metal Arc Welding process, a major
metal. Sometimes the electro-magnetic forces in the
difference being that the metal wire electrode in this
arc actually move the globule back to the tip of the
case is hollow and a flux material is contained
electrode. Globular transfer is not usually a desirable
within this hollow core. During the welding process
condition because of the excessive spatter associated this flux disintegrates and produces gases which
with it.
shield the weld from atmospheric contamination.
SHORT CIRCUIT TRANSFER - In short circuit
FCAW process creates slag similar to SMAWS and
~

transfer no molten droplets move across the arc.


must be removed by chipping or wire brush. In
Instead, transfer occurs only when the electrode wire
most applications the shielding provided by this flux
makes instantaneous contact with the base metal
material is the only shield required. However, in
~

thus causing a short circuit in the welding electrical


some applications external shielding is used and
circuit. At the instant of short circuit the welding
this is provided by passing shielding gas through
current will increase significantly which in turn causes
the welding gun as in the GMAW process.
the tip of the electrode to detach and flow into the
FCAW can be an all-position process
molten base metal. No additional metal is deposited
depending on the electrode wire size and type. It
until the short circuit is again established. The
can be used to weld low to medium carbon steels,
number of short circuits per unit low-alloy high strength steels, cast iron and many
types of stainless steel, using CO, as a shielding
Flux-Cored Welding Process
gas. It is possible to weld from 14 gage (1.994mm)
to 3/16" (5mm) with no edge preparation. Stainless
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

steel can be welded with CO, or a mixture of 75%


argon and 25% CO,. FCAW without external gas
shielding can be used to weld thinner metal. The
FCAW process can also be used to weld galvanized
GA5 I

&--NOZZLE OPTIONAL steel sheet metal as thin as 14 gage (1.944mm)


SOLIDIFIED OPTIONAL !I III 111 !I and on heavy hot-dipped galvanized steel
SLAG
FLUX-CORED
members. On hot-dipped galvanized members
ELECTRODE remove the galvanizing in the weld area before
MOLTEN METAL
welding.
Wire sizes used in FCAW range from .035"
(0.9mm) to 1/8" (3.2mm). Arc voltage generally
varies from 22 to 34 volts and amperage
requirements range from 150 to as high as 650
amps.
Figure 2-10

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.9


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE+MGW 93 8189350 0005013 120
GUN POSITIONS FOR FCAW

I BUT WELD

A leadingangle
to thegun
gives a lagging
gas shield
2 to 15' angle
dependingon speed

Travel
. _
-'Y

End view Side view

FILLET WELD Near cide of


electrode bisects

End view Lincoln Electric Company

Figure 2-1 1
Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93, pg A21

FLUX-CORED WELDING EQUIPMENT

ELECTRODE
WIRE REEL
WIRE FEED CONTROL

GUN CONTROL

GAS SOURCE& I
(OPTIONAL) I I
WITHOUT GAS
VOLTAGECONTROL !
I
I
I 1
I I
I I
I
I
I
I I
I I
I
-_.-'
I

-\
WORK POWER SOURCE

Figure 2-12

2.10 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEmMGW 9 3 m 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 00050l14 Ob7 m
The power source and welding circuit used in In the PAW process, the plasma is created
FCAW are the same as used in GMAW, that is, the within a specially constructed welding torch which
power source is a constant voltage (CV) machine directs the flow of plasma gas (usually Argon) past
supplying direct current (DC) and the wire electrode a tungsten electrode and then through a very small
can be positive (reverse polarity) or negative (straight orifice (see Figure 2-13). An electric current is
polarity) depending on the application. Refer to established between the tungsten electrode and
Figures 2-11 and 2-12 for pictures of this arrange- either the work piece or the metal nozzle of the
ment. Tables 2-15 through 2-17 should be consulted torch. This electric current flowing through the
for American Welding Society (AWS) classifications restricted gas stream results in very high current
and electrode equivalents; carbon and low alloy steel densities within the gas, and these high current
electrodes, and stainless steel flux cored electrodes. densities heat the gas to such an extent that
One problem with FCAW is that it produces a thermal ionization takes place and a plasma is
considerable amount of smoke and fumes; even more generated.
than the SMAW process. The control of this smoke Since the plasma gas is usually an inert gas, a
must be considered for reasons of safety and health. certain amount of shielding of the weld area will
An efficient means of collecting the smoke and fumes take place. However, additional shielding is usually
generated by this process is to use a smoke-exhaust necessary and for this reason, the Plasma Arc
welding gun. This gun is equipped with an annular Welding torch has a concentric nozzle which sur-
suction nozzle which completely surrounds the rounds the plasma orifice and through which a
conventional nozzle, and since nearly all smoke and shielding gas (usually argon, helium or a mixture of
fume is trapped at the arc it becomes safer than the two) is introduced.
other common welding processes.

2.7 PLASMA ARC WELDING (PAW) Plasma Welding Process

Plasma Arc Welding is an all-position process


that can be used to weld virtually all commercially
available metals. ., TRAVEL+
The word "plasma" as used in Plasma Arc PLASMA GAS

Welding refers to a stream of high temperature gas


SHIELDING GAS
~
containing large concentrations of electrically charged
particles. A plasma is created by heating a gas to
such an extent that the gas undergoes a process
known as "thermal ionization,'' that is, the electrically
neutral atoms or molecules of the gas break up into
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

negatively charged electrons and positively charged


ions. Because of these high concentrations of
electrically charged particles, a plasma is itself an
excellent conductor of electricity.
Figure 2-13

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.1 1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 m 8189350 0005015 TT3
Plasma Arc Weldinq Modes

Figure 2-14
Figure 2-14 depicts the two modes of concentrated in a very narrow area. This results
Plasma Arc Welding which are referred to as the in high travel speeds, narrow weld areas, deep
"transferred" mode and the "non-transferred'' penetration and minimal distortion. These high
mode. In the transferred mode, the electric temperatures require that all Plasma Arc Welding
current flows between the tungsten electrode and torches be water cooled. The equipment
the work piece while in the non-transferredmode, required for the PAW process is shown in Figure
the current flow is between the electrode and the 2-15.
torch nozzle. The transferred mode is the most The usual applications of PAW are in the
commonly used mode in PAW because it current range of 1O0 amperes or less, however,
concentrates both the heat of the plasma stream it has been used with currents as high as 500
and the electric arc in the weld area. The non- amperes. One of the more exotic applications of -
transferred mode is usually used for such this process is in the welding of foil thickness
processes as metal spraying or the concentrated materials using currents ranging as low as .10
-
heating of non-metallic materials. amperes. Various welding conditions used when
The high temperature oi the plasmaoarc applying the PAW process to several different
(30,OOO'F [16,649 Cl to 50,000 F [27,760 Cl) metals are listed in Table 2-15.
and its restricted cross sectional area allow large
quantities of heat to be

Plasma Arc Weldinq Equipment

WATER SUPPLY ---)


DRAIN- 7)
({=
SHIELDING GAS
PLASMAGAS

CONTROL CONSOLE ( O 0o
FILLER
Dnn TORCH l o

WORK 1
SOURCE GAS SUPPLIES

Figure 2-15

2.12 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E x M G W 9 3 8389350 0005016 93T
2.8 SUBMERGED ARC WELDING (SAW)

The Submerged Arc Welding (SAW low need for manipulation skills. Some of the
process (see Figure 2-16) is very different from disadvantages: generally limited to plate or pipe
the other processes previously described. in horizontal or flat position; not very portable
Generally limited to flat or horizontal position (automatic operation); flux kept dry and requires
welds, it is usually used in automatic welding slag removal between passes.
applications. It is not easily portable, that is, the
work must usually be brought to the equipment. SAW can use contact voltage (cv) or
In this process the arc melts a continuous filler constant current (cc) power sources 200 to 1,500
metal wire electrode under a blanket of granular amps, 28 to 44 volts at 60 to 100 percent duty
flux that shields the molten metal from cycle. Welding torches come in 3 basic types;
contamination. Similar to SMAW, the arc also side and concentric flux delivery or deep groove
melts some of the flux which produces gases, flux delivery. A gravity hopper delivers flux to the
shielding the arc and molten weld metal from the welding gun. The gun can be hand held (semi-
atmosphere. It also forms a slag coating which automatic) or machine mounted (automatic).
further protects the solidified weld as it cools. Forced air flux feed systems are sometimes
The remaining granular flux is then collected by used. Granular fluxes are described in AWS
vacuuming or brushing to be screened and A5.17 and A5.24. Filler metal electrodes are
reused. The slag is removed by conventional continuous wire (solid or flux cored) and are
chipping methods and is usually discarded, but described in AWS A5.17, A5.23, A5.9 or A5.14.
the slag may be reprocessed and reused if this
process is extensively used. Because flux covers and shields the arc,
SAW poses less radiation danger than other
SAW may be used on carbon and processes. It also emits less smoke and fumes,
stainless steels in plate thicknesses. Sheet metal so less ventilation is required. Equipment and
gage thicknesses are not usually welded using flux is sensitive and therefore requires greater
this process. Some of the many advantages of care. All other safety precautions used in other
SAW are: high quality weldments; very high processes apply to the SAW process.
deposit rates; smooth, uniform finish welds; no
-
spatter; little or no smoke, no arc flash; minimal
protective clothing or equipment; easily

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
automated and
TO AUTOMATIC
WIRE FEED

TO WELDER TO FLUX
POWER HOPPER

CONTACT W I ' :

I
w ELDING BA~E
L i WIRE METAL

\ TAB WELD TRAVEL


WELD
BACK ING

Figure 2-16 - Schematic View of Submerged Arc Welding Process

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.1 3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 8 1 8 9 3 5 0 0005017 876
2.9 SUMMARY OF PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES

TABLE 2-1
Performance Characteristics of Covered Carbon Steel Electrodes for SMAW

Capable of producing
AWS satisfactory welds in
classification Type of covering positions showna Type of currentb

F60 Series Electrodes

E601O High cellulose sodium F,V,OH,H dcep


E601 1 High cellulose potassium F,V,OH,H ac or dcep
E6012 High titania sodium F,V,OH,H ac or dcen

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
E6013 High titania potassium F,V,OH,H ac, dcep or dcen
E6019 Iron oxide titania F,V,OH,H ac, dcep or dcen
potassium
E6020 High iron oxide ac or dcen
{ :-fillets ac, dcep or dcen

E6022" High iron oxide F,H ac or dcen

E6027 High iron oxide, iron ac or dcen


powder ac, dcep or dcen

E70 series electrodes


E7014 Iron powder, titania F,V,OH,H ac,dcep or dcen
E7015d Low hydrogen sodium F,V,OH,H dcep
E7016d Low hydrogen potassium F,V,OH,H ac or dcep
E7018d Low hydrogen potassium, F,V,OH,H ac or dcep
iron powder
E7018M Low hydrogen iron powder F,V,OH,H dcep
E7024d Iron powder, titania H-fillets, F ac, dcep or dcen

E7027 High iron oxide, iron ac or dcen


powder { ac, dcep or dcen

E7028d Low hydrogen potassium, H-fillets, F ac or dcep


iron powder
E7048d Low hydrogen potassium, F,OH,H,V-down ac or dcep
iron powder

NOTES:
a. The abbreviations indicate the welding positions as follows:
F = Flat
H = Horizontal
H-fillets = Horizontal fillets
V-down = Vertical with downward progression
V = Vertical for electrodes 3/16 in. (4.8mm) and under, except 5/32 in. (4.00mm)
OH = Overhead I{
and under for classifications E7014, E7015, E7016, E7018, and E7018M.
b. The term "dcep" refers to direct current electrode positive (dc, reverse polarity). The term "dcen"
refers to direct current electrode negative (dc, straight polarity).
c. Electrodes of the E6022 classification are intended for single-pass welds only.
d. Electrodes with supplemental elongation, notch toughness, absorbed moisture, and diffusible
hydrogen requirements may be further identified as shown in Tables 2, 3, 10, and 11.
e. Low hydrogen electrodes are available with low moisture content.
Reprinted from AWS A51 - 91

2.14 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*<MGW 93
TABLE 2-2
Electrodes For Welding Stainless Steels (SMAW)
-
8389350 00050L 7 0 2 H

Base Metal, Conditionsof Weldment Filler Rod,


AISI Type in Service AWS Type Remarks

Annealed E430 Annealingimproves ductility. Rod has 15-17 percent Cr for corrosion resistance
405 and ductility.

As-Welded E309 Austenitic welds are soft and ductile. However, base metal heat-affectedzone
E310 has limited ductility.

409 As-Welded E309 Has improved ductility in weld heat-affectedzone. Weld metal has limited
W409 touahness.

430 Annealed E430 Annealing improves weld ductility.

As-Welded Weld metal is soft and ductile, but base metal heat-affectedzones have limited
ductility. Heat-affectedzone is susceptibleto corrosion.

As-Welded Consideration must be given to difference in Coefficient of expansionof base and


E309 weld metals.
E310

446 I
As-Welded
I E308
E309
E310
Type 308 weld metal will not display scaling resistanceequal to the base metal.
Consideration must be given to difference in coefficient of expansion of base and
weld metals.

Annealed or Hardened Annealing imparts difficulty to heat-affectedzones and weld. Weld responds to
and Stress-Relleved heat treatment in a manner similar to the base metal.

As-Welded Austenitic welds are soft and ductile in as-welded condttion. However, base metal
E310 heat-affectedzone will have limited ductility

Annealed or Hardenedand E410 Remarks on Type 410 base metal apply


416 Stress-Relieved

As-Welded E309 Remarks on Twe 410 base metal BDDIV

201 304 As-Welded or E308 Actual weld analysis requirements are 0.08 percent max C. 19.0 percent min Cr
202 305 Fully Annealed and 9 O percent min Ni.
301 308
302

3026 As-Welded or E309 Type 310 weld may be used, but pickup of silicon from the base metal may result
Fully Annealed in weld hot cracking.

304L As Welded or
Stress-Relieved
E347
E308L
-
Stress-RelievingTreatments: 1,200-F (64903-1h or i,600 F (871C)-2hAC.
Avoid stress-relievingbetween 900. (482) and i, i OO. F (593)

303Sc
303

309 309s
I
I
I
As-Weldedor
Fully Annealed

As-Welded
I
I
I
E312

E309
Free-machiningbase metal will increasetendency for hot cracking in welds. Type
312 weld contains a large amount of delta territe to overcome this cracking
tendencv.

310 310s I As-Welded I E310


I I
316 As-Welded or Fully Annealed E318 Welds made with E316, E316L. E317. 318, and E317Cb electrodes may not resist
E309Cb corrosion well as-welded, particularlywhere hot oxidizing acids are used. In such
As-Welded or Stress-Relieved E316L cases, use E309 or E309Cb filler. If these are not available, corrosion resistance
E309Cb
of the other weld metals listed above may be restored by the following heat

As-Welded or Fully Annealed treatments:


E309Cb For Types 316 and 317 - Full anneal ai 1,950-2,050 F. (1065-112tC).
(i)
(2) For Type 316L - 1,600 F (871C) stress-relief.
317L As-Welded or Stress Relieved E309Cb
E317

321 As-Welded or after stabilizing and E347 Type 321 electrodes are not regularly made because titanium is lost during
deposition.

I
stress-relievinqheat treatment

As-Welded or after stabilizing and E347


348 stress relieving heat treatment

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data book 1992/1993pg. Al48

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.15


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G U 93 8389350 0005039 b49
TABLE 2-3
Shielding Gas Selections For GTAW

Welding
type Shielding gas Advantages
Manual Argon Better arc starting, cleaning action, and weld
Welding quality; lower gas consumption.
I Argon-helium I High welding speeds possible.
Machine Argon-helium Better weld quality, lower gas flow than required
Welding with straight helium.
Helium (DCSP) Deeper penetration and higher weld speeds than
can be obtained with argon-helium.
spot Argon Generally preferred for longer electrode life. Better
Welding weld nugget contour. Ease of starting, lower gas
flows than helium.
Manual Argon Better pool control, especially for position welding.

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Welding
Machine Helium Higher speeds obtained than with argon.
Welding
Manual Argon Permits controlled penetration on thin gage material
Welding (up to 14 gage [1.994mm]).
Argon Excellent control of penetration on light gage mate-
rials.
Steel
Machine Argon-helium Higher heat input, higher welding speeds possible
Welding on heavier gages.
Argon-hydrogen Prevents undercutting, produces desirable weld
(UPto 35% H2) contour at low current levels, requires lower gas
flows.
Argon-hydrogen- An excellent selection for high speed tube mill
helium operation.
Helium Provides highest heat input and deepest
penetration.
Argon Ease of obtaining pool control, penetration, and
Nickel and bead contour on thin gage metal.
Cu-Ni-alloys
Argon-helium Higher heat input to offset high heat conductivity of
heavier gages.
Helium Highest heat input for welding speed on heavy
metal sections.
Argon Low gas flow rate minimizes turbulence and air con-
Titanium tamination of weld; improved heat affected zone.
Helium Better penetration for manual welding of thick sec-
tions (inert gas backing required to shield back of
weld against contamination).
Silicon- Argon Reduces cracking of this "hot short" metal.
bronze
Aluminum- Argon Less penetration of base metal.
Bronze

2.1 6 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SNACNA TITLE*MGW 9 3 8389350 0005020 360
TABLE 2-4
Welding Current Selections For GTAW

Alternating
Base Material Direct Current Current
DCSP DCRP
Aluminum up to 3/32" (2.4mm) P G E
Aluminum over 3/32" (2.4mm) P P E
Aluminum bronze P G E
Aluminum castings P P E

Beryllium copper
Brass alloys
Copper base alloys
Cast Iron
Deoxidized copper
Dissimilar metals
~~
Hard facing
High alloy steels P G
High carbon steels P G
Low alloy steels P G
Low carbon steels P G
Magnesium up to 1/8" (3.2mm) G E
Mg over 1/8" (3.2mm) P E
Magnesium castings G E
Nickel & Ni-alloys G
Stainless steel G
Silicon bronze P
Titanium G
E-Excellent G-Good P-Poor

TABLE 2-5
Typical Current Ranges for Tungsten Electrodes in GTAW

I DCSP
Amps
EWP EWP
Amps
DCRP I High frequency unbalanced
wave. ac. Amps
High frequency balanced wave,
ac, Amps

EWTh-1, EWTh-1, EWTh-1, EWTh-1,


Electrode diam., EWTh-2, EWTh-2, EWTh-2, EWTh-2,
in. mm EWTh-3 EWTh-3 EWP EWZr EWTh-3 EWP EWZr EWTh-3
0.010 0.25 up to 15 b up to 15 up to 15 b up to 15 up to 15 b
0.020 0.51 5-20 b 5-15 5-20 b 10-20 5-20 10-20
0.040 1.0 15-80 b 10-60 15-80 10-80 20-30 20-60 20-60
1/16 1.6 70-150 10-20 50-1O0 70-150 50-150 30-80 60-120 30-120
3/32 2.4 150-250 15-30 100-160 140-235 100-235 60-130 100-180 60-180
1/8 3.2 250-400 25-40 150-21O 225-325 150-325 100-180 160-250 100-250
400-500 40-55 200-275 300-400 200-400 160-240 200-320 160-320
500-750 55-80 250-350 4OO-5OO 250-500 190-300 290-390 190-390
750-1O00 80-125 325-450 5OO-63O 325-630 250-400 340-525 250-525
a All values are based on the use of argon as the shielding gas. Other current values may be used, depending upon the shielding gas, type of equipment, and application.
b These particular combinations are not commonly used.

-
Reprinted from AWS C5.5-80

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
2.1 7
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E x M G W 9 3 9 L9350 0005021 2 T 7 9
TABLE 2-6
Typical GTAW Procedure For Carbon Steel

Material thickness, in. (mm) 1/16-1/8 (1.6-3.2) 1/8-1/4 (3.2-6.4)


Joint design Straight butt Single-V-groove
Current, Amps 50-1O0 70-120
Polarity DCSP DCSP
Arc voltage 12 12
Travel Speed As required As required
Electrode type EWTh-2 EWTh-2
Electrode size, in. (mm) 3/32 (2.4) 3/32 (2.4)
Filler metal type E70S-3 E70S-3
Filler metal size, in. (mm) 1/16 or 3/32 (1.6 or 2.4) 3/32 or 1/8 (2.4 or 3.2)

Shielding gas Argon Argon


Shielding gas flow rate, cfh (liter/min) 20 (9.4 20 (9.4)
Purging gas Argon Argon
Purging gas flow rate, cfh (liter/min) 5-7 (2.4-3.3) 5-7 (2.4-3.3)
Nozzle size, in. (mm) 3/8 (9.5) 3/8 (9.5)
Nozzle-to-work distance, in. (mm) 1/2 (12.7) max 1/2 (12.7) max
Preheat, min 60F (16C) 60F (16C)
Interpass temp., max 500F (260C) 500F (260C)
Postweld heat treatment None None
Welding position F,H,V,OH F,H,V,OH

Reprinted from AWS C5.5-80

TABLE 2-7
Typical GTAW Procedure For Stainless Steel

Material thickness, in. (mm) 1/16-1/8 (1.6-3.2) 1/8-1/4 (3.2-6.4)

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Joint design Straight butt Single-V-groove
Current, Amps 50-90 70-120
Polarity DCSP DCSP
Arc voltage 12 12
Travel Speed As required As required
Electrode type EWTh-2 EWTh-2
Electrode size, in. (mm) 3/32 (2.4) 3/32 (2.4)
Filler metal type ER-308 ER-308
Filler metal size, in. (mm) 1/16 or 3/32 (1.6 or 2.4) 3/32 or 1/8 (2.4 or 3.2)

Shielding gas Argon Argon


Shielding gas flow rate, cfh (liter/min) 20 (9.4) 20 (9.4)
Purging gas Argon Argon
Purging gas flow rate, cfh (litedmin) 5-7 (2.4-3.3) 5-7 (2.4-3.3)
Nozzle size, in. (mm) 3/8 (9.5) 3/8 (9.5)
Nozzle-to-work distance, in. (mm) 1/2 (12.7) max 1/2 (12.7) max
Preheat, min 60F (16C) 60F (16C)
Interpass temp., max 500F (260C) 500F (260C)
Postweld heat treatment None None
Welding position F,H,V,OH F,H,V,OH

Reprinted from AWS C5.5-80

2.1 8 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E + M G W 9 3 = 81189350 O005022 133
TABLE 2-8
Shielding Gas Selections For GMAW, Short Circuit Transfer
Metal Shielding gas Advantages

Carbon steel 75% argon Less than 1/8 in. (3.2mm) thick; high welding speeds without burn-thru, minimum
+25% Co, distortion and spatter.

75% argon More than 1/8 in. (3.2mm) thick: minimum spatter; clean weld appearance; good
+25% Co, puddle control in vertical and overhead positions.

CO, Deeper penetration; faster welding speeds.

Stainless steel 90% helium +7.5% No effect on corrosion resistance; small heat-affected zone; no undercutting;
argon +2.5% CO, minimum distortion.

Low-alloy steel 60-70% helium Minimum reactivity; excellent toughness; excellent arc stability, wetting charac-
+25-35% argon teristics, and bead contour; little spatter.
+4-5% Co,

75% argon Fair toughness; excellent arc stability; wetting characteristics, and bead contour;
+25% Co, little spatter.

Aluminum, copper Argon & argon Argon satisfactory on sheet metal; argon-helium preferred on thicker sheet
magnesium, nickel, + helium material (over 1/8 in. [3.2mm]).
and their alloys

Reprinted from AWS C5.6-89

Metal Shielding gas Advantages


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Aluminum Argon O to 1 in. (O to 25 mm) thick; best metal transfer and arc stability; least spatter.
35% argon 1 to 3 in. (25 to 76 mm) thick; higher heat input than straight argon; improved fusion
+65% helium characteristics with 5XXX series Al-Mg alloys.
25% argon Over 3 in (76 mm) thick; highest heat input; minimizes porosity.
Magnesium Argon Excellent cleaning action.
Carbon steel Argon Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld puddle;
+3-5% oxygen good coalescence and beat contour; minimizes undercutting; permits higher speeds
than pure argon.
Argon +5-10% Less oxidation of weld than Argon-O, mixtures; better penetration pattern and bead
Carbon dioxide wetting comparable to Argon +3-5% O.,
Low-alloy steel Argon +2% Minimizes undercutting; provides good toughness.
oxygen
Argon +2-8% Less oxidation of weld than Argon-O, mixtures: better penetration pattern and bead
Carbon dioxide wetting comparable to Argon +3-5% O.,
Stainless steel Argon +1% Improves arc stability; produces a more fluid and controllable weld puddle, good
oxygen coalescence and bead contour; minimizes undercutting on heavier stainless steels.

Argon +2% Provides better arc stability, coalescence, and welding speed than 1 percent oxygen
oxygen mixture for thinner stainless steel materials.
Copper, nickel, and Argon Provides good wetting; decreases fluidity of weld metal for thickness up to and
their alloys their alloys 1/8 in. (3.2 mm).
Argon Higher inputs of 50 & 75 percent mixtures offset high heat dissipation of heavier
+helium gages.
Titanium Argon Good arc stability; minimum weld contamination; inert gas backing is required to
prevent air contamination on back of weld area.

Reprinted from AWS C5.6-89

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.19


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
Material Thickness Welding Current
Electrode Amperes DCRP ARC Shielding Travel
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Diameter Voltage Gas Flow Speed
Gage Decimal (mm) (in.) Groove Fillet CFH IPM
L I I I I I

22 .O31 .O30 40160 45165 15117 20-40 15-22

20 .O37 .O35 55/85 60190 15118 20-40 15-22


L I

3116 .187 .O35 1301150 1401160 19122 20-40 6-10

3116 .187 .O45 1701200 1801205 20124 25-45 12-16


~

114 .250 .O35 1301150 1401160 19122 20-40 4-8

114 .250 .O45 1751220 1901225 20125 25-45 8-12

TABLE 2-1OM

3116 4.750 1.1 1701200 1801205 20124 11.8-21.1 5.1-6.8

1I4 6.350 0.9 1301150 1401160 19122 9.4-18.9 1.7-3.4

114 6.350 1.1 1751220 1901225 20125 11.8-21.1 3.4-5.1

2.20 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 m 8389350 0005024 TOb m
TABLE 2-11
Gas Metal Arc Welding of Stainless Steel
Material Thickness
Shielding Travel
I
L

Gage I Decimal (mm)


Gas Flow
CFH
Speed
IPM

20-40 20130
20-40 20128
.O50 20-40 15/25
16 .O63 20-40 15123
14 ,078 20-40 15120
12 .IO5 20-40 12/16

pj-p
11 .I25 20-40 12115
20-40 12115
20-40 12116
.250 20-40 10115
NOTES (See Below)

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
TABLE 2-11M
Gas Metal Arc Weldinn- of Stainless Steel
I
Material Thickness
I

Electrode
Welding Current
Amperes DCRP ARC
1
Shielding Travel

Gage (mm)
Diameter
(mm.) Groove I Fillet
Voltage Gas Flow
UMIN
Speed
MMIS

I I I I 50165

+
22 0.777 0.8 45/60 16119 9.4-18.9 8.5-12.7
I 20 I 0.929 I 0.8 60185 I 65/90 16/19 9.4-18.9 8.5-11.6
I 18 I 1.270 I 0.9 65/85 70190 16119 9.4-18.9 6.4-10.6
I I I

+
16 1.600 0.9 761100 82/99 16119 9.4-18.9 6.4-9.7
14 1.981 0.9 871115 I 941108 16119 9.4-18.9 6.4-8.5
12 2.642 0.9 9811 30 106/117 17/20 9.4-18.9 5.1-6.8
I 11 I 3.175 I 0.9 104/138 1131121 17/20 9.4-18.9 5.1-6.4
10 3.429 0.9 110/145 I 1201135 17/20 9.4-18.9 6.1-6.4
311 6 4.750 1.I 1351150 I 145/160 18/22 9.4-18.9 5.1-6.8
I 114 I 6.350 I 1.1 1351155 I 1451165 18/22 9.4-18.9 4.2-6.4
NOTES 1 Shielding gas composition
Helium SO%, Arson 7 5%, Carbon Dioxide 2 5%
2 Elecirode Class ER3XX

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.21


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEsMGW 93 = 8389350 0005025 942

TABLE 2-12
Gas Metal Arc Welding of Aluminum
Wire Shielding Travel
Feed Gas Flow Speed
IMP CFH IPM

25O-275 15 12-18
25O-275 15 12-20
275-290 15 12-24
275-290 15 12-24
295-320 15 14-24
330-370 30 24-36
30 30-33
175-190 35 20-25
215-225 35 20-25
114 .250 1/16 170-225 21-26 150-195 35 20-24
NOTE 1. For groove and fillet welds - material thickness also indicated fillet weld size. Use vee groove for 3/16" and
thicker.
2. Use Argon for thin and medium material; use 50% Helium for thick material increase gas flow rate 10% for
overhead position.

TABLE 2-12M
Gas Metal Arc Weldina of Aluminum

-
NOTE 1. For groove and fillet welds material thickness also indicated fillet weld size. Use vee groove for 4.750mm and
thicker.
2. Use Argon for thin and medium material; use 50% Helium for thick material. Increase gas flow rate 10% for
overhead position.

2.22 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E + M G W 73 D 8389350 000502b 889 D
TABLE 2-13
Filler Metals (Electrodes) For GMAW

~ I Base
metal Material
Suggested Electrode

Electrode
Current range

Electrode
type classification n diameter
(use latest
edition) Amperes

Aluminum 1100 ER1100 or ER4043 0.030 0.8 50-175


and 3003,3004 ER1100 or ER5356 3/64 1.2 90-250
aluminum 5052, 5454 ER5554, ER5356, A5.10 1/16 1.6 160-350
alloys or ER5183 3/32 2.4 225-400
5083,5086, 5456 ER5556 or ER5356 118 3.2 350-475
6061,6063 ER4043 or ER5356

Copper
and
Copper
alloys
Deoxidized copper
Cu-Ni alloys
Manganese bronze
Aluminum bronze
TW bronze
ERCuNi
ERCUAI-A2
ERCUAI-B
ERCuSn- A
A5.6 { 0.035
0.045
1/16
3.32
0.9
1.2
1.6
2.4
150-300
200-400
250-450
350-550

Nickel and 0.020 0.5 ___


Nickel Monel** Alloy 400 ERNiCu-7 0.030 08 ___
alloys

Austenitic
' Inconel** Alloy 600

Type 201
ERNiCrFe-5

ER308
A5.14

{ 0.035
0.045
1/16

0.020
0.9
1.2
1.6

0.5
100-160
150-260
100-400
__-
stainless Types 301, 302, 0.025 0.6 __-
steels 304 & 308 ER308 0.030 0.8 75-150
Type 304L ER308L 0.035 0.9 100-160
Type 310 ER310 0.045 1.2 140-310
Type 316 ER316 1/16 1.6 280-450
Type 321 ER321 5/64 2.0 ___
Type 347 ER347 3/32 2.4 ___
7/64 2.8 ---
___
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

118 3.2

Carbon Hot rolled or ER70S-3,or 0.020 0.5 ___


Steels cold-drawn 0.025 0.6 ___
plain carbon ER70S-2, ER70S-4 A5.18 0.030 0.8 40-220
steels ER70S-5, ER70S-6 0.035 0.9 60-280
0.045 1.2 125-380

I 0.052
1/16
5/64
3/32
i/a
1.3
1.6
2.0
2.4
3.2
160-450
275-475
___
---
___

Magnesium AZlOA ERAZ61A, ERAZ92A


alloys AZ31 B, AZ61A
AZ80A ERAZGIA, ERAZ92A
ZElOA ERAZGlA, ERAZ92A 0.040 1.o 150-30V
ZK21A ERAZGIA, ERAZ92A A5.19 3/64 1.2 160-32V
AZ63A, AZ81A 1/16 1.6 2 10-40v
AZ91C ERAZ92A 3/32 2.4 320-51O*
AZ92A, AM100A ERAZ92A 118 3.2 400-600*
HKBlA, HM21A,
HM31A EREZ33A
LA141A EREZ33A

Titanium and Commercially Use a filler metal one


titanium pure or two grades lower 0.030 0.8 ___
alloys ERTi-0.2Pd A5.16 0.035 0.9 ___
Ti-0.15 Pd ERTi-5A1-2.5% 0.045 1.2 ___
Ti-5A1-2.5Sn or comm. pure
* Spray Transfer Mode '* Trademark-InternationalNickel Co.
Reprinted from AWS C.6-89

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 2.23


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 93 = 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 0005027 715
TABLE 2-14
Flux-Cored Arc Welding Electrodes For Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel
CARBON- AND LOW-ALLOYSTEEL ELECTRODES FOR FCAW PER AWS A520 a'

Charpy
V-notch,
flb(f) Single/
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Shielding Current multipass Applications


E70T-1 mo) COZ DCEP Multi General-purpose flat and horizontal welding.
Railcar fabrication, beams and girders,
ships, over-the-road vehicles, storage tanks.
E70T-2 --- CO, DCEP single For single-pass welds on rusted, contami-
nated base material. Castings, machine bas-
es, oil-field equipment, railcars.
E70T-3 --- self DCEP single Rapid, automated welding on thin-gage
steel.
E70T-4 ___ self DCEP multi
E70T-5 20 (-20) COZ DCEP multi Basic slag for good impact properties, low
weldmetal hydrogen, low crack sensitivity.
E70T-6 20 (-20) self DCEP multi
E70T-7 ___ self DCEN multi
E70T-1O ___ self DCEN single High-speed welds on thin-gage steel
E70T-G _-- d d d
E71T-1 20(0) CO, DCEP multi General-purpose all-position welding. Use at
low currents (150-200 A) to bridge wide
gaps, at higher currents (200-250 A) for
DCEP penetration. Barges, oil rigs, storage
vessels, earth moving equipment
E71T-5 20 (-20) COZ DCEP multi
E71T-7 --- self DCEN multi
E71T-8 20 (-20) self DCEN multi
E71T-11 ___ self DCEN multi Thin-gage material, structural steel
E71T-GS -_- C d d
a. Electrodeshould deposit weld metal of plain-carbon-steelcomposition; types -2.-3, -10, -GS, intended for high-dilutionsingle-passwelding, carry no
composition requirements.
b. Minimum mechanical properties,as-welded; tensile, 72,000 IMnz (496MPa) yield 60,000 I b h 2(414MPa) percent elongation. 22.
c. Argon additions may improve weldmetal propertiesand welding characteristics.
d. New or proprietarywire. propertiesas specified by the supplier.

Reprinted from 1992/93 Welding & Fabricating Data Book A-21

TABLE 2-15
I ELECTRODE EQUIVALENTS 1
I SMAW FLUX-CORED I SMAW FLUX-CORED I
E7018 E70T-5 E8018-C1 E81Tl-Ni2
E70T-1 E91Tl-Ni2
E71T-1 E80T5-Ni2
E705-5 E90T1-n12
E7018-1 E705-5 E8018-C2 E80T5-Ni3
E7018-A1 E70T5-Al E8018-NM E80T5-Kl
E80T1-Al E8018-W E80T1-W
E81T1-Al E9018-M E90T1-K2
E8018-82 E80T1-82 E91Tl-K2
E81T1-82 E90T5-K2
E80T5-B2 E10018-M E l 00T1-K3
E9018-83 E90T1-83 E l 00T5-K3
E91T1-B3 E10018-D2 E l 00T5-D2
E8018-C3 E80T1-Nil E11018-M E l 1OT5-K3
E81T1-Nil E l 10t1-K3
E80T5-Ni1

Reprint from Tri-Mark, Inc.

2.24 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEaMGW 93 m 8l189350 0005028 651 m
TABLE 2-16
Flux-Cored Arc Weldina Electrodes For Stainless Steel

I AWS
CLASS

I
TYPICAL MECHANICAL

KSI
PROPERTIES
75/25

(Nmm')
TYPICAL WELD
DEPOSIT Yo

75/25 (CO,)
APPLICATION

________~~

Tensile Strength C- 0.032 (0.034) For welding types 301, 302, 304, 304L. 308, and 308L. May be used for
86.0 (593) Mn- 1.20 (1.17) welding types 321 and 347 if sewice temperature does not exceed 500'F
308L Yield Strength SI- 0.79 (.067) (260C). Low carbon content minimizes carbide precipitation.
58.5 (403) P- 0.014 (.014)
A522 Elongation in 2" (50mm) S- 0.005 (0.005)
E306LT-1 45% Cr- 19.50 (19.20)

o Tensile Strength
NI- 9.98

C- 0.034
(9.85)

(0.034) Designed for welding type 309 wrought, or cast forms, but used extensively
309L 84.5 (589) Mn- 1.32 (1 25) for welding type 304 to mild or carbon steel. Also used for welding 304 clad
Yield Strength SI- 0.94 (.88) sheets and for applying stainless steel sheet linings to carbon steel.
A5.22 66.5 (450) P- 0.025 (.025)
E309LT-1 Elongation in 2" (50mm) S- 0.007 (0.007)
37% Cr- 22.63 (22.39)
NI- 12.60 (12.52)

Tensile Strength C- 0.038 (0.032) For welding type 316 stainless. Contains molybdenum which increases
31 6L 89.2 (615) Mn- 1.32 (1.25) creep resistance at high temperatures and resists pitting corrosion induced
Yield Strength SI- 0.86 (32) by sulfuric and sulphurous acids, chlorides and cellulose solutions. Used
A522 69.0 (476) P- 0.027 (.025) widely in the rayon, dye and paper making industries.
E316LT-1 Elongation in 2" (50mm) s- 0.011 (0.010)
36% Cr- 18.52 (18.28)
NI- 12.29 (12.30)
MO- 2.47 (2.47)

* Mechanical properiies shown were established using the recommended 75% Ar/25% CO, When using straight CO, properties will still be well within AWS A5 22 specifications for their respective
classifications.
WELDING DATA
~

AMPERES 130 165 190 220 AMPERES 170 210 250 300

~ VOLTS 25 26 28 30 VOLTS 25 27 26 29

WIRE FEED SPEED WIRE FEED SPEED


in Imin 227 341 445 567 in Imin i54 193 243 321
Wmin 5 80 8 70 11 30 1440 mimin 3 90 4 90 6 17 8 15

DEPOSITION RATE DEPOSITION RATE


Ibs hr 4 25 6 14 8 06 10 24 Ibs hr 534 6 89 8 57 11 43
kanir 193 2 76 3 66 4 85 kg/hr 2 42 3 12 3 89 5 18

a EFFICIENCY I 841 83 I 84 I 84 I & EFFICIENCY a3 82 5 a3 83

'+ For 10 ga (3 429 mm) material and heavier For 3/16' (4 75 mm) plate, or heavier

SUGGESTED WELDING PARAMETERS

0 4 5 (1 2 mmj 1 1 6 (1 6 mm)

VERTICAL-UP VERTICAL-UP

OVERHEAD OVERHEAD

For be51 results, set wire feed speed and adpst voltage for SmOolheSl operalion Electrode extension range is fmm 112'to 1" (12 5 rnm 10 25 mmj, with an optimum range of 5W 10 .Y4 (15 mm to 20 mm). Weid using reverse pclarity DC(+)

- Reprinted from Alloy Rods Corporation

The Manager's Guide for Welding --`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---


Second Edition 2.25
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 93 m 8189350 0005029 598 m
TABLE 2-17
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of Galvanized Steel
BASE METAL FILLER METAL CURRENT TRAVEL SPEED AMPERES VOLTS

Ga. (mm) Class Dia. (in) (mm) TypeIPolarity IPM MMIS Groove Fillet

18 (1.311) ER70S-6 0.035 (0.9) DCEP 12/18 518 551100 901110 15/17
I l I I I I I I I
16 I (1.613) I ER70S-6 I 0.035 (0.9)
I I I I
DCEP I12/18
I
12/18 I518
I
518 I661110
I
661110 I96/112
I
96/112 115117
I
15/17

14 (1.994) ER70S-6 0.035 (0.9) DCEP 12/16 5/7 771120 102/115 16119

12 (2.753) ER70S-6 0.035 (0.9) DCEP 10115 416 881130 1081117 18/20

11 (3.132) ER70S-6 0.035 (0.9) DCEP 10114 416 941135 112/118 18/20

10 (3.510) ER70S-6 0.035 (0.9) DCEP 8/12 315 1001140 1 151120 18120

GAS:
Composition: 75% Argon, 25% Carbon Dioxide
Flow Rate: 20 to 40 f 3/h (9-18 h i n . )

TABLE 2-18
Shielded Metal Arc Weldina (SMAW) of Galvanized Steel

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
11 (3.132) E6010 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 8/14 3/6 64/88 94/91

10 (3.510) E6010 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 6/10 3/4 65/90 55/95

TABLE 2-19
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) of Carbon Steel
I BASEMETAL I ELECTRODE I CURRENT I TRAVELSPEED I AMPERES I

I 10 I (3.510) I E6010 I 3/32 (2.4) I DCRP I 6/10 I 3/4 I 65/75 I 70/115 I

2.26 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A T I T L E t M G W 93
TABLE 2-20
= ALB9350 0005030 2 0 T

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) of Austenitic Stainless Steel


BASEMETAL I ELECTRODE CURRENT TRAVELSPEED 1 AMF IRES

Ga. 1 (mm) I Class I Dia. (in) (mrn) Type/Polarity IPM I I


MM/S Groove Fillet

18 I (1.311) I E3XX I 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 12/20 I 5/8 I 50/60 55/60

16 I (1.613) I E3XX I 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 55/70

14 I (1.994) 1 E3XX I 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 55/80

12 (2.753) E3XX 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 55/90

11 (3.132) E3XX 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 67/81 55/95

10 I (3.510) I E3XX I 3/32 (2.4) DCRP 55/1O0

11 (3.132) ER70S-X 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 1/8 (3.2) 66/95 115/120 DCEN

10 (3.500) ER70S-X 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 1/8 (3.2) 70/1O0 125/130 DCEN

TABLE 2-22
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) of Carbon Steel
TUNGSTEN
ELECTRODE

Ga. (mrn) Class Dia. (in) (mrn) Dia.' (in.) (mm.) Groove Fillet Tme/Polaritv

18 (1.34) ER70S-X 1/16 (1.6) EWTh-2 45/65 I 50/55 I DCEN

I 1
~~

16 (1.613) ER7OS-X 1/16 (1.6) EWTh-2 (3.2) 51/73 68/73 DCEN

14 (1.994) ER7OS-X 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 I 1/8 (3.2) 57/81 I 86/91 I DCEN

-
12 (2.753) ER7OS-X
I
I 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 I 118 (3.2) 63/90 I 105/110 I DCEN

11 (3.132) ER70S-X 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 1 118 (3.2) 66/95 I 115/120 I DCEN

10 (3.510)
~
ER70S-X 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 1 1/8 (3.2) 70/100 I 125/130 I DCEN

GAS:
Cornposition: Argon (welding grade)
Flow Rate: 15 to 25 f 3/h (7-12 Wmin.)
'max.

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
2.27
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
11 (3.132) ER3XX 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 118 (3.2) 65/90 115/120 DCEN

- 10 (3.510) ER3XX 3/32 (2.4) EWTh-2 1/8 (3.2) 70195 125/130 DCEN

2.28 --`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
1 1 1 I
SMACNA T I T L E M M G U 93 8189350 0005032 0 8 2
TABLE 2-24
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) of Aluminum

Material
Thickness 1 Type of
Weld I Tungsten
Electrode
Filler
Rod
N F Shkkng Welding r ; uN
Current
Travel
Speed
I Gage I Decimal I I Dia.
Dia. Amps AC-HF Passes IPM

I18 1 .O40 1 Sq. groove 11/16 1/16 114 19 40-60 16


14 .O64 Sq. groove 3/32 3/32 5116 19 70-90 1 11
-

1 :: 1 1 I 1 ::
14 .O64 Fillet 3/32 3/32 5116 15 70-90 1 9

10 .lo2 Sq. groove 3/32 3/32 5/16


- I 19 I 90-110 1 1 I 11

10 .lo2 FiI let 3/32 3/32


5/32 7/16

5/32 7116 180-200


160-180
groove

1 1 1 I
.250 Fillet 3116 3116 112 30 230-250 10

114 .250 Vee


groove
5/32 5/32 7/16 30 1200-220
I 2 l 9
TABLE 2-24M
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) of Aluminum

1
~ ~

Material Type of Tungsten Filler Nozzle Shielding Welding Number Travel


Thickness Weld Electrode Rod Size Gas Curreht of Speed

A-4-
Dia. (mm) Dia. ID (mm) Ilmin. Amps AC-HF Passes MM/S
(mm)

1.016 Sq. groove (9) 40-60 1 1 7


(2.4) (9) 70-90 1- I 5
1.625 Fillet (7) 70-90 1 1 4
90-1 1o 1 I 5
2.590 Fillet 95-115 1 1 4
Fillet (4) 180-200 1 1 4

(4) 160-180
groove
6.350 Fillet 230-250 1 1 4
6.350 (4) (4) 200-220

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 2.29

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 8389350 0005033 T L 9 =
Chapter 3
WELDING EQUIPMENT

3.1 Types of Equipment


3.2 Power Sources, Applications and Limitations
3.3 Welding Cables
3.4 Wire Feeders for GMAW and FCAW
3.5 Booms for GMAW and FCAW Process
3.6 Torches for GMAW and FCAW Process
3.7 Torches for GTAW Process

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
3.8 Seam Welders
3.9 Turning Rolls
3.1O Welding Positioners, Tail Stocks, Turn Tat: 2s & h,anipula .ors

3.1 1 Electrode Ovens

3.12 Miscellaneous Equipment

3.13 Safety and Protective Equipment

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 3.1

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLErMGW 9 3 8189350 0005034 955
3.1 TYPES OF EQUIPMENT however, the three-phase current provides greater
electrical efficiency and the best welding conditions.
A very wide choice of welding equipment is DC power sources perform well for "out of position"
available to the sheet metal contractor, ranging from weld situations. Constant current DC power sources
very simple alternating current (AC) transformer type operating from three-phase current provide the most
power sources to very sophisticated systems that are desirable power source for SMAW.
mechanized. AC-DC power sources are basically transformer
The contractor considering the purchase of type welding machines with a rectifier, operating from
welding equipment should be sure that the equipment a single phase primary current. The rectifier's
will perform satisfactorily on the metals to be welded, function is to change AC to DC. All AC-DC welding
using the most efficient and least costly process power sources are of the constant current type. The
available. Equipment should be considered that may addition 3f a rectifier and the necessary DC circuitry
be used for more than one process. make it possible for the welding operator to select
Supplies for welding power in the form of AC, DCSP or DCRP by the turn of a switch. AC-DC
alternating (AC) or direct current (DC) can be power sources are used for SMAW and GTAW
supplied from power lines or another source of processes.
electricity. This power is converted to usable current Some AC-DC power sources are specifically
at the welding arc. designed for GTAW by having built-in high frequency,
gas and water solenoid valves, a primary contactor,
Classifications of Power Supplies a control circuit and possibly a rheostat control. An
illustration is shown in Figure 2-6.
Types of Sources of Power The use of AC-DC inverters which convert current
Current Electricity Conversion to high frequencies permits the use of smaller trans-
AC/DC Power line Transformer formers which reduces weight. Welding processes
Generator Rectifier are controlled by electronics which provide control of
Alternator Inverter the static and dynamic attributes of the process.
Transformer rectifiers can be characterized to perform
The last classification of power supplies is the ability like an inverter. Inverters can change output quickly
to provide constant current or voltage. because of the use of solid-state electronics and the
ability to provide high frequencies.
3.2 POWER SOURCE, APPLICATIONS AND LIMI- Because of the elimination of mechanical parts,
TATI0 NS invertors are smaller; respond faster: and cut input
power by up to 75%. Normally inverters are more
Alternating current (AC) transformer type power expensive than transformer power sources.
sources are the most economical of all welding power
sources and are best suited for stick electrode Portable Welding Machine
welding (SMAW) in the flat or horizontal position.
These machines always operate off a single phase
primary current which is an advantage for many sheet
metal shops. Initial cost is low and since they have
no moving parts, require little maintenance. These
power sources designed for SMAW process are of
the conventional "Constant Current" type.
Direct current (DC) generator power sources are
available as electric motor-drivengenerators operated
from an AC three-phase primary current or as
generators driven by fuel-powered engines using
gasoline, propane or diesel fuel. The latter type is
referred to as a portable welder and normally is used
when electrical service is not available. Portable type
power sources also produce limited power for Figure 3-1
Photo courtesy of Hobart Brothers Company
electrical tools and lights.
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Direct current generator power sources are not


efficient power sources as they consume a consider-
able amount of fuel o: electricity to drive the
generator even though a weld is not being made.
Direct cur:ent (DC) rectifier power sources are
electrical devices for changing AC directly to DC.
The primary current may be single or three-phase,

3.2 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*flGW 93 BLB7350 0005035 891
One of the biggest breakthroughs in portable Inductance controls the rate of rise of short circuit
welding machines is the more portable 110 volt current. The rate can be slowed so that the short
powered units (Figure 3-2). These units are highly may be interrupted with minimum spatter. The
portable (70 Ibs. or 3/.7 kg.) and some units can inductance also stores energy. It supplies this energy
provide up to 130 amps. They can provide a wide to the arc after the short has been interrupted and
variety of welding applications such as flux-cored wire causes a longer arc. In short circuiting transfer
for windy conditions outdoors. welding, an increase in inductance increases the "arc
DC transformer-rectifier power sources with con- on" time. This, in turn, makes the weld pool more
stant voltage (constant potential) characteristics and fluid, resulting in a flatter, smoother weld bead. The
operating from a three-phase primary current are best opposite is true when the inductance is decreased.
suited for the GMAW process. In spray transfer welding, the addition of some
The self-correcting arc length feature of the inductance to the power supply will produce a better
constant voltage welding system is very important in arc start. Too much inductance will result in erratic
producing stable welding conditions. However, other starting. When conditions of both correct shorting
specific characteristics such as voltage, slope and current and correct rate of current rise exist, spatter
inductance are used to better control arc heat, is minimal. The power supply adjustments required
spatter, weld shape, etc. The addition of controls for for minimum spatter conditions varywith the electrode
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

these features will increase the cost of the power material and size. As a general rule, both the
source but they are essential in welding aluminum amount of short circuiting current and the amount of
and stainless steel. inductance needed for ideal operation are increased
as the electrode diameter is increased.
VOLTAGE - Welding voltage has an important Providing power to more than one welding station
effect on the type of process variation or metal can be done using a multiple-operator welding power
transfer desired. Short arc welding requires relatively source. These are normally high current and high
low voltages while spray transfer requires higher voltage power sources that feed station consoles.
voltage. The use of one welding machine with multiple
welders helps reduce equipment cost and reduces
SLOPE - The addition of slope control allows the the need to move units. Individual station output and
operator to fine tune the power output. Slope in there number must match the capacity of the main
GMAW is used during short circuit transfer to limit the power source. Constant current is provided at the
short circuit current so that spatter is reduced when arc and the machine must provide a constant voltage.
short circuits between the wire electrode and It is important to know that all power sources are
workpiece are momentarily interrupted. The greater divided into three general classifications as listed in
the slope, the lower the short circuit current and the National Electrical Manufacturer's Association
within limits, the lower the spatter. The amount of (NEMA) Standard EW-I. NEMA Class 3 power
short circuit current must be high enough (but not too sources have a limit on the maximum amount of
high) to detach the molten drops from the wire. primary amperage they may draw from a given
When little or no slope is present in the welding primary source. Under the NEMA Class 3 rating,
circuit, the short circuit current rises to a very high these welders have a 20% duty cycle. This means
level and a violent but miniature reaction takes place. they can be operated at rated amperage for 2
THIS CAUSES SPATTER. minutes out of every 10 minutes. During the other 8
When a short circuit current is limited to minutes, the machine must be permitted to idle and
excessively low values by use of too much slope, the cool. These power sources are sometimes referred
wire electrode can carry the full current and the short to as utility or farm welders.
circuit will not be interrupted. In this case, the wire NEMA Class 2 power sources may have 30%,
either piles up or sticks to the workpiece and may 40% or 50% duty cycle ratings. There is no limit on
flash off. When the short circuit current is at the the amount of primary amperage they may draw.
correct value, the parting of the molten drop from the Secondary amperage welding on these power sourc-
wire is smooth with very little spatter. es is normally limited to ratings of 300 amperes or
less.
INDUCTANCE - Power supplies do not respond NEMA Class 1 power sources are designed for
instantly to load changes. The current takes a finite heavy duty industrial type operations. Duty cycle
time to attain a new level. Inductance in the circuit is may be rated at 6O%, 80% or 100% at a specific
responsible for this time lag. The maximum amount amperage output. Secondary amperage on these
of current attainable during a short is determined by power sources can be as high as 2000 amps.
the slope of the power supply.

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 3.3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 m 8389350 O005036 728 m
Most power sources can deliver a welding current
higher than its rated amperage. When a welding
current lower than the machine rated amperage is
used, the duty cycle may be higher.

To calculate allowable duty cycle at required


amperage, use this equation:

Allowable

Example:
20% x 180 80%
(90 )
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Weldina Cable Construction

SEVEN CORDS NINETEEN CORDS

SPIRAL

LATERAL

A separator is spiral wrapped or laterally applied between the insulating


jacket and the wires to aid stripping and to serve as a barrier against curing
gases and copper pickup.

Figure 3-2
Reprinted from 1992/93 Welding & Fabricating Data Book A99

3.4 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*:MGW 9 3 8189350 0005037 664
3.3 WELDING CABLES 3.4 WIRE FEEDERS FOR GMAW AND FCAW

Welding cables should be correctly sized. (See A variety of wire feeders for the GMAW and the
Table 3-1) Cables should be equipped with proper FCAW processes are available with the ability to feed
terminal lugs and ground clamps. soft and hard wires as well as cored-type wires.
The positive ground connection is as important as Some wire feeders are limited in the diameter of wire
the lead connection. A positive screw clamp (e.g. they can feed as well as wire feed speed. Most
Lenco) is much preferred over an alligator clamp. quality wire feeders feature such items as:
Grounding to building steel on a project is common * Gas testing system - allows operator to purge
practice, however, in the shop, a ground floor grid is gas lines or quickly check gas flow.
recommended. * Anti-stick circuit - gives precise control of
Cable splices should be made with approved burnback and prevents wire-freeze in weld
connectors. High amperage weld processes may pool.
*
require special ground clamps to assure consistent Cold wire inching - a safety feature which
quality welds and prevent ground cable heat-up. permits the welding wire to be advanced
Loose, poorly designed connections, poor ground through the torch without weld current being
clamps, too-small or worn-out cables all contribute to applied. It can also be used to check wire
unwanted heat and energy loss. feed speed by feeding wire for a measured
Use terminals made for welding cable and check length of time and then measuring inches of
connectors for overheating. Prevent cables from wire fed.
freezing and overheating. Do not permit cables to be * Low voltage circuitry for torch trigger - pro-
hit, cut or scraped and keep cables from becoming vides additional operator safety.
emerged in liquid or overloaded. Some wire feeders have an optional feature that
permits arc spot welding but special arc spot welding
nozzles must be used on the welding torch.

TABLE 3-1
Suggested Copper Cable Sizes

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
I
Machine I I Cable Sizes for Combined Lengths
Size in Duty of Electrode and Ground Cable
Amperes Cycle
O to 50 Ft. 50 to 100 Ft. 100 to 150 Ft. 150 to 200 Ft. 200 to 250 Ft.
(O to 15 m) (15 - 30 m) (30 to 46 m) (46 to 61 m) (61 to 76 m)

1O0 20 6 4 3 2 1
180 20-30 4 4 3 2 1
200 60 2 2 2 1 1/o
200 50 3 3 2 1 1/o
250 30 3 3 2 1 1/o
300 60 1/o 1/o 1/o 210 310
400 60 2/0 2/0 210 310 410
500 60 2/0 2/0 310 310 410
600 60 2/0 2/0 310 410 2x30*

in parallel
Reprinted from AWS Welding Handbook - Vol 2, 8th Edition, Pg 851

Also available are combination feeders and spool gun to pull the wire, rather than push the wire,
torches referred to as spool on gun wire feeders may achieve better results. Other torches can draw
(Figure 3-3). These units offer 30 and 50 foot service wire from an existing wire feeder by using a "push-
line from a portable control box and use either two or pull" system (Figure 3-4),which will permit buying filler
one pound spools depending on the alloy. For soft metals at a lower cost.
filler metal such as aluminum, a

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 3.5


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 8389350 0005038 5 T 0
Spool-On-Gun Wire Feeder

Figure 3-3
Photo Courtesy of Hobart Brothers Company

Portable Gun Assemblv

Figure 3-4
Photo courtesy of Hobart Brothers Company

3.6 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E r M G W 9 3 8389350 0005039 437
3.5 BOOMS FOR GMAW AND FCAW PROCESS Since these torches have a number of parts that
need periodic replacement, the contractor would be
This accessory is available as a stationary, floor- wise to standardize when purchasing torches. This
mounted unit or as a moveable cart-type. The floor- could eliminate the need to stock parts for different
mounted unit contains facilities for holding hoses, brands.
power lines, etc., as well as holding the wire feeder. Heavy duty torches used for automatic welding
The cart-type can carry the complete welding may be air or water-cooled. Torches of this type
equipment package to include water ballast tank and would be used on seam welders or other mechanized
circulating pump for a water-cooled torch if desired. equipment.
These booms greatly increase the working range of
welding equipment and keep cables and hoses off
the floor. 3.7 TORCHES FOR GTAW PROCESS

Boom Cart These torches are available in a variety of sizes,


shape or have a 60' or 90' head angle. It is also
available water-cooled. The torch body can be a
straight pencil or have a 60- or 90' head angle. It is
also available with a flexible head. GTAW torches
are available for mechanized welding and arc spot
welding applications.
(i5-24m) Since the weld rate of travel is slower in the
GTAW process than other weld processes, it is likely
that the weld duty cycle will be longer. Therefore,
contractors purchasing torches for the GTAW process
3%'' O D
should be certain the torch capacity is adequate for
the welding requirement.

FCAW or GMAW Torches

POWER CABLE
CONTACTOR
Figure 3-5 LEADS
ELECTRODE
GAS LINE

3.6 TORCHES FOR GMAW AND FCAW PROCESS

A large assortment of welding torches are


available having various duty cycles and current
ranges. The type of shielding gas used will have a
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

direct effect on torch capacity. Torches having a


specified amperage capacity at a specified duty cycle
J WATER LINES
using CO, shielding gas will have a considerably
ELECTRODE
lower capacity using argon or argon mixtures (CO, CONTACTOR
acts as a coolant). LEADS

Torches of GMAW and FCAW weld processes are \


available as air-cooled or water-cooled units. Water-
cooled units are best suited for high amperage use
and high duty cycle operations. They may have
straight or curved bodies. Straight body torches are I I
~ best when using soft wire (aluminum). Some torches
may be used fw arc spot welding by equipping them
~
with special nozzles (providing the wire feeder has Figure 3-6
the capability).

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 3.7


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 8389350 0005040 359
3.8 SEAM WELDERS Seam Welder

Seam welders for use with the GMAW, GTAW, or


FCAW processes are available as external or internal
types.
External type seam welders are used primarily to
weld the longitudinal seams of round, square or
rectangular ducts. They may also be used to splice
flat sheets. Standard seam welders are not designed
to weld corner welds of square or rectangular ducts.
These seams must be made in a flat area as a butt
joint.
Internal seam welders are best suited for welding
longitudinal butt seams of very large sized ducts.
They also work well for splicing of flat sheets.
The use of seam welding equipment promotes the
production of good quality welds at fast travel speed.
Electric operated adjustable elevation work cars
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

are available to lift parts into working position.


Seam tracking systems are accurate in positioning
the welding torch. These systems continuously
sense the position of the joint, then translate these
signals into vertical and horizontal positioning of the
torch.

Figure 3-7
Photo Courtesy of Pandjiris Inc.

3.9 TURNING ROLLS Power Turnina Rolls

Much of the welded work performed by the sheet


metal contractor is in the fabrication of round duct
and tanks or vessels. Large and heavy sections of
round ducts or tanks are best handled and welded by
the use of power operated turning rolls, usually
combining several idler units with one powered unit.
The powered unit has a control for forward and
reverse as well as a speed control. These units are
available in many capacities and are adjustable for
different diameter weldments.
Small diameter turning rolls work very well in the
fitting together of joints of pipe and welding of circum-
ferential seams. Rolls of this type can be purchased
and are adjustable to accept different diameters of
cylinders. They can also be shop-made using
casters.

Figure 3-8
Photo Courtesy of Teledyne Readco

3.8 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLESMGW 9 3 8389350 0005041 095

Welding Positioner

Figure 3-9
Photo Courtesy of Teiedyne Readco

3.10 WELDING POSITIONERS, TAIL STOCKS, 3.11 ELECTRODE OVENS


TURN TABLES & MANIPULATORS
Electrode ovens are available in several sizes and
Contractors having a quantity of identical models that range from low capacity portable units to
weldments or weldments that are heavy and hard to large floor models capable of holding as much as
handle may find a use for this type equipment, 1,000 pounds (455 kgm) of covered electrodes.
manufactured to hold, turn and rotate weldments so Some ovens are designed to keep covered
welds may be made in a flat or down hand position electrodes dry until used. Other ovens have the
which would produce higher quality welds at capacity to rebake and recondition covered
increased weld speeds. Considerable research electrodes that have absorbed moisture.
should be done before purchasing expensive and Every electrode manufacturer recommends proce-
sophisticated welding equipment of this nature. dures for handling and storing each covered
electrode type in order to prevent moisture damage.
Low hydrogen electrodes or those with iron powder
coverings or covered electrodes of stainless steel,
aluminum, inconel, monel, brass, bronze, hard
surfacing and other special low alloys may require
oven protection.

The Managers Guide for Welding


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Second Edition 3.9
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLE*MGW 93 D 8389350 0005042 T 2 1

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 3-10
Photo Courtesy of Phoenix Products Co.

3.12 MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT


Cylinder cari for transporting gas cylinders
A number of suggested items under this heading will
help the welder produce quality welds at reduced costs. * Larger shops fabricating heavy weldments
Many of these are low cost items but provide the should consider a jib crane equipped with an
foundation for every weld iob. electric or air hoist for each welder.
Provide each welder with a good solid steel work
bench of proper height approximately 5 fi. x 7 fi. (1.5 -
2.1 m), having a minimum of 3/8"(9.5 mm) thick steel
work surface. The bench should have several bins to 3.13 SAFETY AND PROTECTIVE
hold electrodes plus a good sized roller mounted EQUIPMENT
drawer to hold the welders' tools.
Provide welders with power tools for abrasive wheels In addition to the welders' hood (with proper
and wire cup brushes. shade glass), leather gloves, sleeves and capes
Provide safety glasses and face shields to be used are personal protective equipment required.
when grinding. Safety shoes, hearing protection and safety
To clamp, hold, lift or use in moving weldments, the glasses are recommended.
welder should have an adequate supply of items such Welding areas should be equipped with
as: curtains or shields to separate workmen and
Vice grips - regular straight jaw and "C" protect them from adjacent welders' arc or
clamp type grinding sparks.
Screw type "C" clamps Adequate fire protection equipment should be
Bar or pipe clamps near each welding station.
Chain or cable come-alongs (See Section 4 for additional safety
Portable pumps and pistons (similar to Enerpac) information.)
Lifting chains and shackles
Sheet clamp with safety lock (sirnilar to Renfro)
Beveling tools to provide for correct joint design

3.1O The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 0005043 968 =
Chapter 4
SAFETY

4.1 Management Responsibilities


4.2 Air Contamination
4.3 Arc Radiation
4.4 Electrical Shock
4.5 Fire and Explosion
4.6 Compressed Gases
4.7 Heat
4.8 Noise
4.9 Basic Document References
4.1 O Safety Procedures

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition --`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`--- 4.1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEUMGW 73 L9350 0005044 8 T 4
4.1 MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES 4.3 ARC RADIATION
The construction industry was among the first to The intensity and wave length of radiation
establish welding safety requirements. It is essential produced by welding and thermal cutting depends on
that the sheet metal contractor understand that safety process, parameters, composition of electrode, base
-
involves responsibilities for management, supervisors metal, coatings and flux. Air carbon arc welding and
and the welder mechanic. Managements gouging produces the highest intensity of radiation,
-
responsibilities include knowledge of laws and followed by SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, PAW, and PAC,
regulations dealing with hazards, obligations to oxyfuel welding and cutting, brazing, and soldering.
institute safe practices, obligations to use supervisors SAW, when used properly, emits almost no radiation.
and welders who are suitably trained, and obligations Arc welders must protect their eyes and skin from the
to take action under emergency situations. Welding arc and from infrared rays emitted by molten metal.
is a key process in the sheet metal industry and it For primary protection of the eyes wear a welders
has largely replaced mechanical fasteners. helmet with the proper shade filter when arc welding
Therefore, costs are reduced for the contractor and (except SAW). Oxyfuel welders and cutters and torch
customer. Future designs in the industry will rely brazers and solders can use goggles with shaded
more and more on welding for strength, appearance, lenses or filter from O.S.H.A. recommended shades.
ease of application and lower cost. Use of contact lenses while welding may cause
Sheet metal welders working in close proximity to irritation, itching, watering and infection by dust and
welding operations encounter a variety of hazards other contaminants. Electrical radiation from the
whenever they strike an arc. Electrical shock, burns, welding arc can harm bystanders who wear
fire, noise, and explosions are hazards, but fumes, insufficient eye protection. The common precaution
heat, stress and radiation can be just as dangerous. in industry has been the use of welding safety
Welding can be made very safe and precautions that curtains. These are of opaque woven materials such
focus on the health hazards of welding; the exposure as silica fiber, dusk, or synthetic, or of dyed semi-
sources; and methods to control and avoid the transparent plastic, typically polyvinyl chloride plastic
potential hazards by the use of protective equipment film. Safety glasses should be worn at all times
and proper work procedures, are some ways of under the welding hood because of sparks entering
controlling the hazards. the hood and to protect the welder from adjacent
welding activity when the hood is lifted.
4.2 AIR CONTAMINATION
4.4 ELECTRICAL SHOCK
The hazard of air contamination is caused by Well designed welding machines minimize the
metal fumes, flux vapors, noxious gases, chemical possibility of electric shock. Proper equipment
vapors and dust. These hazards can be controlled or installation, sound maintenance, and safe operating
avoided by use of protective equipment and proper practices keep the risk low. Locate equipment so
work procedures. O.S.H.A. (Occupational Safety and that water does not collect at its base. String main
Health Administration) considers natural ventilation to power lines overhead and drop leads to each
be adequate if the work place per welder is at least machine. Place main power terminals under welding
10,000 (283 m) cubic feet (.e. 25 ft. x 25 ft. x 16 ft.
machine covers, accessible only with tools. Provide
or 7.62m x 7.6 m x 4.88m) and the ceilings are at covers for lug terminals so that wrench, welding wire
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

least 16 feet (4.88m) high with no barriers or or other metal cannot short out across the terminals.
partitions to impede air flow. Welding in smaller Keep cable and connectors in good condition.
areas, or if exposures cannot be kept below
Improper or worn electrical connections can cause
permissible exposure levels (pels) set by O.S.H.A. short circuits and increase the chance of electrical
calls for forced ventilation.
shock. Repair or replace worn, damaged or bare
Use of local or spot exhausters can avoid the need
cable. Splice welding cable with approved
for massive recirculation and make-up air systems.
connectors only and insulate the splice properly.
Work inside confined spaces or welding that
Make no splice within 1 O feet (3.05m) of the electrode
generates material such as lead, cadmium, beryllium,
holder. Use the correct cable size. Continued
mercury, or fluorine compounds calls for air supplied overloading leads to cable failures, electric shock,
respirators if forced ventilation cannot remove and fire hazard. Make tight electrical connections.
contaminants. Air supplied respirators deliver clean Keep welding current from going through gas
air through a supply hose. If air quality is cylinders, flammable liquid containers, pipes
questionable welders should wear respirators. containing air, steam, gas, flammable liquids,
Welding in a confined space is particularly dangerous
electrical conduit, chains, wire ropes, hoists, metal
because inert gas displaces oxygen. handrails and ladders machine shafts, bearings,
weighing scales, and building structures.

4.2 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 = BL89350 0005045 730

Plug in controls, operated by welder to be 120 4.6 COMPRESSED GASES


volts or less. Keep gloves, shoes, clothing and other Pressurized fuel gas and oxygen cylinders must be
protective apparel dry to prevent shock. Wear rubber handled with care. Containers for cryogenic gas are
soled shoes or boots or stand on dry board or of double wall construction with vacuum between
insulated platform. Keep grease, water and dust from inner and outer shell. Handle with extreme care to
collecting on plugs, sockets or electrical connections. prevent damage and loss of vacuum. Store cylinders
Do not wear rings, metal wrist bands, or other upright with gas off and the cap on at least 20 feet
jewelry. Avoid electrical contact between body and (6.1 m) from flammable and combustible liquids and
other objects connected to the work or electrically easily ignitable material such as wood, paper, oil, and
grounded, when handling the electrode holder or grease, or install a non-combustible barrier. Keep
cable. Do not handle electrode holders from two oxygen cylinders separate from fuel gas cylinders.
machines at the same time. Do not drape or loop the Cylinders must be transported in an upright position.
cable around the body. Cylinders become a hazard when tipped. Use
devices to keep cylinders erect in storage. Do not
4.5 FIRE AND EXPLOSION drop, drag or roll cylinders on their sides. Do not
Fixed fire suppression equipment such as hammer on cylinders. Lift cylinders on cradles or
automatic sprinklers, dry chemical fire extinguisher, enclosed platforms. Do not lift cylinders with electric
and carbon dioxide systems are effective means of magnets, hooks, ropes or slings. Do not use
extinguishing fires. Where these are impractical, a unmarked cylinders and mark empty cylinders,
portable fire extinguisher may serve. Portable fire empty I.

extinguishers are classified according to the types of


fires that they extinguish: 4.7 HEAT
Class A - Ordinary combustible Welding and cutting operators risk burns by
material such as wood, sparks, molten metal and heat radiated from the arc
paper, cloth, and rubber. or flame. Welders should wear protective clothing
Class B - Flammable liquids, gases, such as jackets, aprons, capes and leggings of fire
and greases, such as resistant cloth or leather. When the risk is low,
petroleum products, pain general work clothing is sufficient.
thinner. Work clothing should be 100 percent wool or
Class C - Energized electrical treated cotton. Polyesters and synthetics might ignite
equipment, such as motors, and cause severe burns. Shirts should be long
fuse boxes, welding sleeved and thick enough to stop passage of UV
machines. radiation, with buttons on cuffs. Keep cuffs buttoned
Class D - Combustible metals such as or sleeves rolled under and keep collars buttoned to
magnesium, titanium, prevent entry or collection of sparks. Shift tails
zirconium, sodium, should be long enough to tuck into trousers.
potassium. Trousers should have no cuffs and be long enough to
When you cannot remove combustible materials cover boot tops. Shirts and trousers should be dark
from the vicinity of welding or flame cutting someone colored to reduce light reflection. Leather boots or
should stand fire watch. According to O.S.H.A. the shoes with plain smooth toes will not catch sparks.
fire watch should know how to sound the alarm and
how to use available fire extinguisher. A fire watcher 4.8 NOISE
is required where combustible materials are within 35 Excessive noise can reduce the ability to hear.
feet (10.6m) of welding or cutting. Sparks can fall The reduction can be temporary or permanent
from work level and reach combustible material on depending on noise (loudness), frequencies (pitch),
lower levels. O.S.H.A. 29 Code of Federal duration of exposure, and an individual sensitivity.
Regulation (CFR) 1910.157 specifies rules for Exposure time and noise level that cause a hearing
location and marking of portable fire extinguisher. loss varies among individuals. O.S.H.A. requires that
workers not be exposed to noise levels that are
excessive and recommends AWS-F6.1-78 a method
for measuring noise emitted by arc welding
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

processes. If noise levels cannot be kept below safe


levels workers must wear hearing protection such as
ear muffs or ear plugs.

The Managers Guide for Welding 9 Second Edition 4.3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E r M G W 93 = 8189350 000504b b77

4.9 BASIC DOCUMENT REFERENCES 4.1 1 SMACNAs SAFETY PROGRAM

NFPA Standard 515, Standard for Fire Prevention SMACNAs Safety Program includes specific provi-
in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes, lists certain sions for performing welding operations and for con-
specifically segregated responsibilities for managers, ducting safety training on a regular basis. In addition,
supervisors and welders. It is recommended that the programs of the National Training Fund
contractors obtain and study this document for incorporate safety considerations. Investigations of
guidance. Among the many published standards and these programs is highly recommended.
procedures dealing with the subject of safety, two
other documents should be owned and understood by
managers and those assigned responsibility for
safety: ANSI Standard 249.7, Safety in Welding and
Cutting, sponsored by the American Welding Society
and OSHA Regulation Section 1910.252 Subpart Q
- Welding. Both have elaborate prescriptions for
dealing with hazards and protecting personnel and
property. The contractors library should also contain
a copy of the annually published Welding and
Fabricating Data Book, Penton/l PC, Inc. This text is
a useful compilation of manufacturers, products, local
sources and engineering data. Substantial portions
of it illustrate safety equipment and safety
precautions. The contractor must also be familiar
with the requirements of local building and fire codes.
Local agencies may have jurisdiction over welding
operations.

4.10 SAFETY PROCEDURES

It is absolutely essential that the contractor have


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

written procedures for conducting welding operations


in a safe manner and have personnel assigned with
responsibilities for safety and safety training.
Important measures for implementing such a program
would include the following:
* have separate procedures for shop and field
conditions
* conduct safety training routinely
*
hold periodic safety meetings with employees
* check legal obligations
* monitor work station conditions
* provide adequate ventilation
* require the use of personal protective
equipment
* issue instructions to workers to report any
unsafe condition
Table 4-1 indicates certain hazards that may exist
and identifies control measures that might reasonably
be expected. Furthermore, when work is being
performed in an existing building rather than on new
construction, the safety officers at the facility should
be contacted and the work coordinated with their
ground rules. Frequently, as is the case in new
construction work, a fire watch may be advisable or
required.

4.4 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * N G W 9 3 m 8189350 0005047 503 m

WELDING HAZARD CONTROL

Operate Eqpt. Within Normal Limits

Discontinue Work; S h u t Off Equipment

Remove & Repair Problem Item

Control or Relief Devices

Special Training

Special Inspection

Issue Verbal Warning

Emergency Instructions & First Aid

Equipment Maintenance

Clean, Uncluttered Work Station

Proper Electrical Grounding

Signs, Markers

Barricades

Shields (partitions, screens, blankets)

Fire Watch

Ventilation

Mechanical Exhaust (fume capture)

Eye and Skin Protection

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
4.5
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLEgRGW 73 8387350 0005048 4 4 T m

Chapter 5
JOINT DESIGN

5.1 Basic Design Considerations


5.2 Welding Symbols and Types of Welds
5.3 Welding Positions
5.4 Types of Joints
5.5 Weld Strength

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 5.1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 9 3 = 8389350 0005049 38b
5.1 BASIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS weld. For butt joints, in order to achieve full penetration
when welding from one side, metals thicker than 10
In the design of a welded joint, all of the following gage (3.51Omm), it is necessary to bevel or groove at
factors should be considered: least one of the edges to be welded. A gap (root
* Size and type of weld opening) at the joint is also required when welding these
* Thickness of the base metal thicker metals. For metals 10 gage (3.51Omm) or
Reinforcing members thinner, full penetration can usually be achieved without
* Distortion the additional cost involved in beveling or grooving,
* Welding process to be used although it may be necessary to provide a root opening.
* Welding position and accessibility (A detailed discussion of the edge preparation and root
* Edge preparation opening requirements for various types of joints and
In general, the sheet metal contractor will find that the metal thicknesses is given in Chapter 5.4). In addition
first four factors, size and type of weld, metal thickness, to these requirements for beveling or root openings,
addition of reinforcing members and distortion, are cleanliness and condition of the edges to be welded
usually tied together and are directly related to the must be considered. The presence of foreign matter
relative thinness of the materials commonly welded in such as paint, cutting oil, grease, etc., will seriously
the sheet metal industry. For example, when designing affect the quality of the weld, since small quantities of
a welded joint for a 16 gage (1.613mm), hot rolled steel these materials can cause significant porosity. Special
(low carbon steel) rectangular duct fitting, the proper edge cleaning such as grinding or degreasing may be
reinforcement of the fitting may be of primary required to control this problem. The irregularities and
importance. Without proper reinforcement, the sides of impurities often present in a mill edge can be eliminated
the fitting may "breathe" or vibrate excessively due to by shearing off that edge. Because of these potential
turbulent or pulsating air flow. This will expose the problems, designers will often specify special edge
welded joint due to metal fatigue. Proper reinforcement preparation or cleaning procedures.
is even more critical when dealing with materials such
as the 300 series stainless steels which are much more 5.2 WELDING SYMBOLS AND TYPES OF
subject to metal fatigue than the low carbon steels. WELDS
Distortion is a common problem encountered in the
welding of light gage sheet metal. Proper reinforcement The standard welding symbols, as published by the
can significantly reduce distortion, however, American Welding Society in AWS A2.4 are the
consideration should also be given to such things as shorthand of the welding designer. They are used to
weld location (e.g. at the corner instead of in the middle convey information such as the type of weld, size of
of a flat surface), clamping or jigging of the assembly, weld, type of joint and edge preparation (if required).
intermittent welding instead of continuous welding (if Each piece of information is represented by a different
suitable) or selection of a less heat-concentratedwelding element of the complete welding symbol. The location
process. and meaning of the various elements that make up a
The welding process and the skill of the welder must complete welding symbol are shown in Figure 5-1.
be compatible. For example, a vertical corner weld on The basic weld symbol that is placed along the
16 gage (1.613mm), 304 stainless steel using GTAW reference line indicates the type of weld that is required.
may be very easy for a particular welder but that same There are only eight types of welds which are separate
weld using SMAW may be very difficult. and distinct, although some of these weld types may
The position in which a weld is to be made cannot have several variations. The eight basic weld types are
always be controlled. The designer must be aware of shown in Figure 5-2.
the actual position to be used in order to properly For the sake of completeness, the five variations of
designate the particular electrode or welding process. the groove weld are shown in Figure 5-3. Some of
(Precise definitions of welding positions are given in these would seldom, if ever, be encountered in the
Chapter 5.3). This is usually less of a problem in the welding of sheet metal.
shop where either entire assemblies or sub-assemblies Some typical welding symbols and the actual welds
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

can sometimes be turned over or jigged into various they represent are shown in Figures 5-4 through 5-10.
positions. In the field, however, welds are almost
always made with the joint in its final and only possible
position. For this reason, the problem of accessibility is
usually of greater importance in the field. The designer
must locate field welds so that they are clear of all
obstructions such as adjacent duct work, piping or
building steel. The welder must have clear access to
the entire joint.
Edge preparation is an especially important design
consideration since the configuration and condition of
the edges to be welded will directly affect the depth of
penetration, porosity and inclusion of impurities in the

5.2 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLE*NGW 93 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 0005050 O T 8

Standard Location of Elements of a Welding Symbol

I
FINISH SYMBOL
CONTOUR SYMBOC $/ GROOVE ANGLE. INCLUDED ANGLE
OF COUNTERSINK FOR PLUG WELDS
ROOT OPENING, DEPTH OF FILLING
GRM)VE WELD SIZE 7 ,,/-FOR PLUG AND SLOT WELDS
DEPTH OF BEVEL. SIZE OR
u ,/ ,,- -
LENGTH OF WELD

PITCH (CENTER TO CENTER


STRENGTH FOR CERTAIN WELDS
1 1 SPACING) OF WELDS

FIELD WELD
SPECIFICATION
PROCESS OR
OTHERREFERENCE , \ WELD ALL-
AROUND
SYMBOL

TAIL (OMITTED

IS NOT USED) / I / \
REFERENCE LINE
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

WELD SYMBOL
REFERENCE LINE TO
ARROW SIDE MEMBER
OF JOINT OR ARROW

c
OR PROJECTION WELDS SIDE OF JOINT

ELEMENTS IN THIS AREA REMAIN


I AS SHOWN WHEN TAIL AND
ARROW ARE REVERSED

Figure 5-1
Reprinted from AWS A2.4-93

The Eight Basic Tvpes of Welds and Their Associated Weld Svmbol

FILLET WELD BACK OR BACKING WELD


Most popular of all welds Bead type back or backing
(may be single or double) welds of single groove welds

PLUG OR SLOT WELD SURFACING WELD


Used with prepared holes Surface built up by welding

h i
SPOT OR PROJECTION FLANGE WELD
WELD
Used for light gage metal
Used without prepared holes
joints
Use arc or resistance

SEAM WELD
Continuous-use arc or
resistance

GROOVE WELD
Second most popular-may
be single or double-has
many variations
A l5ZF3
Figure 5-2
Reprinted from AWS A2.4-93
5.3 WELDING POSITIONS

As mentioned in Chapter 5.1, the position in which AWS has defined the four basic welding positions as
a weld must be made is an important design FLAT, HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL and OVERHEAD.
consideration. It may affect the choice of welding These four basic positions, as applied to both fillet
process to be used and the skill required of the and groove welds, are illustrated in Figure 5-9.
welder using that process. Also, any welding Examination of the basic positions shown in
- procedure must Figure 5-9 reveals that the flat and horizontal position
indicate the position in which the welding is to be welds can be tipped or rotated into either vertical or
- performed. It is therefore important that the various overhead position.
welding positions be clearly defined. The

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 5.3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G U 9 3 W 8389350 0005051 T 3 4

The Five Basic Types of Groove Welds

ROOVE
TYPES SINGLE SYMBOI DOUBLE (CYMBOI

CONVERSIONS
;QUARE O" TO 'la"
UP TO 3/16"

I I

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
V
I__- --
Li----
4
BACKING O" TO 'Is"

rtf

1 314 44
FLARE
V

FLARE
BEVEL

Figure 5-3

5.4 TYPES OF JOINTS AND EDGE


PREPARATION

There are five basic types of joints used for Examples of weld joint designs for various metal
welding; these five basic joints are shown in Figure 5- thicknesses with edge preparation indicated when
1o. required, are shown in Figure 5-11.
Each of these five joints can be welded using
several different types of welds, thus giving the 5.5 WELD STRENGTH
designer a wide range of combinations from which to
choose. Stress analysis, if required, would ordinarily have
Edge preparation such as beveling is usually been performed by the designer and would have
required only when welding metals thicker than 10 resulted in a design specification for welding. If the
gage (3.51Omm). The need for edge preparation is sheet metal contractor is responsible for weld design
based on the need to provide access to the weld and must determine weld strength, qualified
area so that adequate weld preparation can be designers for stress analysis must be used.
achieved. In some instances, a root opening alone or
a root opening with a backing strip can be used
instead of a mechanically prepared joint. This should
be given serious consideration by the designer
because of the labor costs involved in edge
preparation.

5.4 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEUMGW 93 m 8 1 8 9 3 5 0 0005052 970 m
Weldinq Svmbois for Fillet Welds

EDF- %6"

(8mm)

SYMBOL

of single-fillet weld

'/2"

cL!G+-
(13mm)

DESIRED WELD SYMBOL

f equal double-fillet welds


74

(1Ornm)

DESIRED WELD
SYMBOL
(1Omm)

l/,'

Y4" x fi"
(6 X 13mm)
ORIENTATION
SHOWN ON
DRAWING
DESIRED WELDyy SYMBOL
....
~. ' Note: %" (13mm) leg
h-(D) Site of fillet weld having unequal legs on member B

G
n

SYMBOL
DESIRED WELD
(E) Continuous fillet weld

DESIRED WELD SYMBOL


(F) Length of fillet weld

Figure 5-4

Reprinted from AWS A2.4-93

The Manager's Guide for Welding


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Second Edition 5.5
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 m 8389350 0005053 807 m

4" 4"
-(102mm)- (1 02mm)-

(51mm) (51mm) (51mm)


WEDS SYMBOL

(A) LENGTH AND PITCH OF INTERMITTENT WELDS

(51mm) (51mm) (51mm)


WELDS SYMBOL

(B) LENGTH AND PITCH OF CHAIN INTERMITTENT WELDS

b(127mm)- (254mm) -

.............
................. ...............
.................
................ .................
I 1

..............
................... ...............
................
................ .................
I

Reprinted from AWS A2.4-93

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5.6 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLEWGW 93 rn A I , A W ~ O 0005054 743 m
Weldinq Symbols for Pluq Welds

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
SECTION A-A
L A
WELD CROSS SECTION SYMBOL

(A) ARROW-SIDE PLUG WEL SYMBOL

G A
SECTION A-A

WELD CROSS SECTION SYMBOL

(6) OTHER-SIDE PLUG WELD SYMBOL


~ ~~

Figure 5-6

Reprinted from AWS A2.4-93

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 5.7


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 93 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 0005055 b8T =
Welding Symbols for Edge-Flanqe Welds

I WELD CROSS SECTION SYMBOL


JOINT DETAILED
SYMBOL
JOINT NOT DETAILED
(A) ARROW-SIDE EDGE-FLANGE WELD SYMBOL
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SYMBOL SYMBOL
WELD CROSS SECTION
JOINT DETAILED JOINT NOT DETAILED
(8)OTHER-SIDE EDGE-FLANGE WELD SYMBOL

Figure 5-7

Reprinted from AWS A2.4-93

5.8 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A T I T L E + M G W 93 8189350 0005056 5 L b W

Welding Symbols for Corner-Flange Welds

- -

.....
.....
.....
._....
...... \

WELD CROSS SECTION SYMBOL SYMBOL


JOINT DETAILED JOINT NOT DETAILED
(C) ARROW-SIDE CORNER-FLANGE WELD SYMBOL

A WELD CROSS SECTION


.....
......
......
......
......
......
.....
.....

SYMBOL
JOINT DETAILED

(D) OTHER-SIDE CORNER-FLANGE WELD SYMBOL


SYMBOL
JOINT NOT DETAILED
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 5-8

Reprinted from AWS A2.4-93

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 5.9


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A T I T L E r M G W 93 8389350 0005057 452

Basic Weldinq Positions

FLAT POSITION HORIZONTAL POSITION VERTICAL POSITION OVERHEAD POSITION

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
/

'AXIS OF WELD '\AXIS OF WELD AXISOF WELD


/
AXIS OF WELD
HORIZONTAL
HORIZONTAL HORIZONTAL VERTICAL

FLAT POSITION HORIZONTAL POSITION VERTICAL POSITION OVERHEAD POSITION

PLATES AND AXIS PLATES VERTICAL PLATES VERTICAL AND PLATES AND AXIS OF
OF WELD HORIZONTAL AND AXIS OF WELD AXIS OF WELD WELD HORIZONTAL
HORIZONTAL VERTICAL

Figure 5-9

Stress analysis is addressed in the following Such documents describe the design of welds in
publications: terms of an allowable stress which is the maximum
AWS D.l Structural Welding Code force per unit of area that can be applied in one type
AISC Specification for Design, Fabrication and of load or a combination of loads. Loads are
Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings normally described in terms of tension, compression,
AISI Cold Formed Structural Steel (Light Gage) bearing, bending, shear or torsion. Any welded
Aluminum Association Specification for Aluminum assembly would have to be analyzed for the manner
Structures in which such loadings would apply to the physical
AISI Stainless Steel Cold Formed Structural arrangement of the structure and the properties of the
Design Manual metal.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel and Piping
Codes
American Petroleum Institute Standard on Piping
in Tanks

5.10 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEwMGW 9 3 m 81893.50 0005058 399 m
Basic Weld Joints

APPLICABLE WELDS

SQUARE-GROOVE FLARE-V-GROOVE
V-GROOVE FLARE-BEVEL-GROOVE
BEVEL-GROOVE EDGE-FLANGE
U-GROOVE BRAZE
J-GROOVE
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPLICABLE WELDS
FILLET FLARE-BEVEL-GROOVE
SQUARE-GROOVE EDGE-FLANGE
V-GROOVE CORNER-FLANGE
BEVEL-GROOVE ROOT
U-GROOVE PROJECTION
J-GROOVE SEAM
FLARE-V-GROOVE BRAZE

APPLICABLE WELDS

FILLET FLARE-BEVEL-GROOVE
PLUG ROOT
SLOT PROJECTION
SQUARE-GROOVE SEAM
BEVEL-GROOVE BRAZE
J-GROOVE

APPLICABLE WELDS
FILLET FLARE-BEVEL-GROOVE
PLUG ROOT
SLOT PROJECTION
BEVEL-GROOVE SEAM
J-GROOVE BRAZE

APPLICABLE WELDS

SQUARE-GROOVE EDGE-FLANGE
BEVEL-GROOVE CORNER-FLANGE
V-GROOVE SEAM
U-GROOVE EDGE
J-GROOVE
EDGE JOINT

Figure 5-10

Reprinted from AWS A2-4-93

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 5.11


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLErMGW 93 m 8389350 O005059 225 m
Weld Joint Design

BUTI JOINTS (B)

Partial penetrating square groove weld, weld one side:


8-Pla
1. Effective throat thickness shall be taken as one half the thickness of
the thinner part joined.
2. Shall not be used when root of weld is subject to tension.
3. Suitable for all types of loading except fatigue loading and high
transverse loads.

+
I T Max. = 'h" (3.1mm)

8-Plb Partial penetrating, square groove weld, weld both sides:

1. Effective throat thickness shall be taken as three fourths the


thickness of the thinner part joined.
2. Root opening not more than 1/16" (1.6mm).
O-%6" max. (1.6mm) 3. Gouging or chipping out the back side of the root pass is not
required.
T Max. = Vi" (6.4mm) 4. Suitable for all types of loading except fatigue loading and high
transverse loads.

E-PIC Partial penetrating, open square groove weld, weld one side:

1. Effective throat thickness shall be taken as three fourths the


thickness of the thinner part joined.
2. Root opening not less than one half the thickness of the thinner part
joined.
3. Shall not be used when root of weld is subject to tension.
T Max. = lh"(6.4mm)
4. Suitable for all types of loading except fatigue loading and high

+
transverse loads.

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Partial penetrating square groove weld, weld one side:
B-PId
/-Il- I. Effective throat thickness shall be taken as 85% the thickness of the
thinner part joined up to 3/16" (4.8mm) maximum thickness.
2. Effective throat thickness for 1/4" (6.4mm) thickness shall be taken
0-1/16"max. (1.6mm) as 118" (3.2mm).
3. Shall not be used when root of weld is subject to tension.
T Max. = Y4" (6.4mm)

Open square groove weld, weld one side on backing strip.

I . Effective throat thickness 100% thinner part joined.


2. #16 gage (1.613mm) material is approximate minimum value of T.
3. Backing strip should be in form of a stiffener whenever possible.
'-4 b-
RO

I T Max. = fi" (6.4mm)

8-Llb
Open square groove weld, weld both sides:
r-H+
1. Effective throat thickness shall be taken as 100% of the thinner part
joined.
2. Gouging or chipping out of the back side of the root pass is not
necessary.
T Max. = fi" (6.4mm)

Reprinted from AWS Dl.1-92

5.12 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 ALA9350 O005060 T47

Weld Joint Designs (Cont'd)

6-PPa

e I
\ y -

4
O-%" m&. (3.2mm)
T Max. = 95'' (13mm)
O-YS min. (0.8mm)
Partial penetrating single vee groove weld, welded from one side:
1. The effective throat thickness shall be taken as three fourths the
thickness of the thinner part joined.
2. Shall not be used when root of weld is subject to tension bending.
3. Shall not be used when subject to fatigue, impact loading or service
at low temperature.
4. Preparation and welding relatively inexpensive.

Single vee groove weld, welded from both sides:


B-W 60" min.
1. Effective throat thickness shall be taken as the thickness of the
thinner part joined.
2. Economical for thicknesses (T) between 1/4and 3/4inch (6.4-
19mm) from a standpoint of welding required.
6 T Max.2 = ?4"(1m3mm) m )

BP4 Partial penetrating, single bevel groove weld, welded from one side:
1. May be used for horizontal joints.
O-%" max.
(3.2mm) 2. Effective throat thickness shall be taken as three fourths the
thickness of the thinner part joined.
O-%'' min. 3. Shall not be used when root of weld is subject to tension bending.
(2.4mm) 4. Shall not be used when subject to impact and/or fatigue loads.
5. Should be used only where design of the stmcture will resist
Lower edge for horizontal angular distortion of the joint or where angular distortion is not
.Lposition detrimental.
T Max. = %" (13mm)
CORNER AND TEE JOINTS (C AND T)
Square Groove weld, welded both sides:

pc+
TC-L1
1 . Suitable for all types of loading except fatigue loading.
2. Economical in preparation and welding.
3. The root of the first weld should be back gouged to sound metal
(3.2mm) before depositing the second weld.

T Max. = Yi" (6.4mm)

TC-L4b + Single bevel groove weld, welded both sides, with skewed angle not
less than 45':
1. Good for most types loading.
2. Economical for thicknesses between 1/4and 3/4inch (6.4-19mm)
from the standpoint of welding required.
5-90" 3. Shall not be used when tension due to bending is concentrated at
45" min. the root of weld.
4. Should not be used when subject to fatigue, impact loading or
service at low temperatures.
5. To obtain maximum strength, root of first weld should be gouged to
sound metal before depositing second weld.
6 . Difficult to obtain sound weld due to perpendicular groove face.
TC-P5b Double fillet welded tee joint:
I . Efficiency determined by weld size.
2. When greater strength is required a beveled joint should be used.
3. Shall not be used when subject to impact and/or fatigue loads when
the direction of loading is other than parallel to the axis of the
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

weid.
4. Single fillet weld may be used when root of weld will not be
subject to tension bending.
S = % rnax. (16mm)

Figure 5-11
Reprinted from AWS D1.l-92

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 5.13


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 BLB9350 00050bL 983

Weld Joint Designs (cont'd)

I CORNER JOINTS (C)

Partial penetrating outside single fillet welded comer joint:


1. 70% effective throat thickness when S = T.
2. Shall not be used when root of weld is subjected to tension
c-p bending.
3. Should not be used when SUBJECT to impact and/or fatigue if
T Min. = 12 gage (2.753mm) direction of loading is transverse to axis of the weld.
RO = O for T = '/4 or less 4. Design for zero root opening except for 118" (3.2mmj gap in which
'/I6 for T = or less case 1/16" (1.6mm) shall be allowed for each plate.
'/n for T = K or less

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Partial penetrating square groove comer joint, inside fillet weld:
1. Efficiency determined by weld size.
2. Used intermittent welds whenever possible.
3. Shall not be used whenever root of weld is subject to tension
bending.
T Min. = 16 gage (1.613mm) 4. Should be used whenever good appearance of the outside comer
T Max. = I"/' (6.4mm) must be maintained.

C-Pla
Partial penetrating square groove weld, welded from one side:

d= 1. Shall be used only when the inside of the joint is inaccessible for
welding or when the appearance of the outside comer is not critical.
2. Should not be used when root of weld is subject to tension bending.

T Max. = 16 gage (1.613mm)

C-Plb x7T-- Partial penetrating open square groove weld, welded form one side:
1. The effective throat thickness shall be taken as 3/4 T.
2. Shall not be used when root of weld is subject to tension bending.
3. Should be used only when surface across joint is required to be
relatively flush.

c-Plc

Partial penetrating outside single fillet welded comer joint:


1. Effective throat thickness determined by weld size.
2. Shall not be used when root of weld is subject to tension bending.
3. Should not be used when subject to impact and/or fatigue if
direction of loading is transverse to axis of the weld.
4. Overlap facilitates set-up and allows for variation in plate size.
5. Strength may be increased by adding continuous or intermittent
fillets on the far side of the joint if accessible when T is 1/4"
T Min. = 16 gage (1.613mm) (6mmj or greater.
T Max. = Y4"(19mm)

Figure 5-11
Reprinted from AWS D1.l-92

5.14 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEmMGW 9 3 8389350 0005062 8 1 T

Chapter 6
STANDARDS, CODES
and SPECIFICATIONS

6.1 Standards, Codes and Specifications History


6.2 The Myth and Mystique of Code Welding
6.3 Developing a Welding Procedure
6.4 Welding Procedure Qualification
6.5 Welder Qualification

The Managers Guide for Welding


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Second Edition 6.1
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT

~~
S M A C N A TITLEUMGW 9 3 8389350 O005063 756

6.1 STANDARDS, CODES AND documents were very difficult for the sheet metal
SPECIFICATIONS HISTORY contractor to use since the materials and thickness
addressed within these documents were beyond the
In the early 1900's the manufacturing and scope of sheet metal fabrication and erection. Even
engineering communities recognized that the steel D1.3, although written for sheet steel, being for
pressure vessels and structural steel assemblies for structural use, worked poorly when used for the
buildings and bridges were being fabricated and welding of ducts, hoods and architectural items.
erected in accordance with each individual However, since publication of AWS D9.1-80, the
manufacturer's or engineer's requirements. The lack sheet metal contractor has been able to develop
of standard rules of construction caused concern that welding procedures, qualify welders and perform
minimum rules of safety were not being met. As a welding operations to a specification developed
result, committees were formed to develop standards, specifically for sheet metal welding.
codes and specifications. These documents were There is still a large volume of welded fabrication
written to provide a level of quality to assure that the and erection being performed by sheet metal
product being fabricated would meet necessary contractors to the requirements of project
engineering requirements. These codes Set-up specifications that reference either the AWS
standard criteria that tells the fabricator how to Structural Welding Code-Steel or the ASME Boiler
prepare a welding procedure, test and qualify and Pressure Vessel Code. The difference in
welders, inspect the quality of the work and in very requirements between these documents and the
specific language sets forth all of the requirements for AWS D9.1 are substantial and failure to understand
making sound, high quality weldments. These codes these differences could result in extensive repairs or
give the welding industry the controls needed by the even refabrication of the items. The contractor
owner and the designer to assure the safety and the required to work in accordance with the provisions of
satisfactory performance of the product. these other codes must be familiar with these
Two commonly referred to codes for welded differences and perform the work within the code's
fabrication and erection are the ASME, Boiler and requirements. It is recommended, that if the welding
Pressure Vessel Code and the AWS Structural of sheet metal has incorrectly been specified to a
Welding Code-Steel. In addition, there are numerous structural or boiler code, that the contractor ask that
standards, codes and specifications for the welding of the specifications be amended to use AWS D9.1.
pipe, sheet metal, sheet steel in buildings, structural AWS D1.3 became a code in 1981 and AWS D9.1
reinforcing bars, tubular structure, etc. became a code in 1990.
Code welding came late to the sheet metal
industry. Requirements to weld to a Sheet Steel or 6.2 THE MYTH AND MYSTIQUE OF CODE
Sheet Metal Code have been in place for less than WELDING
twenty years. In the mid 1970's, AWS assigned a
committee and undertook the writing of a code Many people in the fabricating industry are fearful
specifically designed for the welding of thin-gage of bidding or taking work that is specified to be
thickness materials. Published in 1978 and welded to a code. This fear is unwarranted. There is
designated AWS D1.3, Specification for Welding nothing magical or mystical about the requirements of
Sheet Steel in Structures, this document established a welding code. In almost every case those
standards for welding procedures and welder requirements are just good common sense or good
qualification tests. And Similar to the other welding managerial practices that may be already in place. If
codes, inspection criteria were also a part of this those controls are not already in place, they should
document. But the big difference is that AWS D1.3 be. These conditions improve your quality and
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

recognizes that welding of sheet thickness steels is productivity for both code and non-code applications.
not the same as welding plate that needs joint Normally, the welder does not understand the
preparation and multi-pass welds. This was the first provisions of the code, and they do not see any
document to recognize these different requirements sense in writing procedures and taking welding tests.
and establish the proper requirements of this unique This attitude is very understandable. That same
part of the welding industry. But it was not the last welder also does not want the manager to stand and
document to do so. watch what they are doing. So the idea that you will
In 1980 the American Welding Society published tell them what size electrode to use, where the
AWS D9.1-80, Specification for Welding of Sheet machine should be set and the travel speed that
Metal. Prior to that time a specification written for should be used will "irk" the average welder who
use in heating, ventilation and air conditioning sheet thinks that they know4their job. But from a
metal welding did not exist. Consequently, project management and control perspective, it makes
specifications usually required the use of one of the excellent sense.
existing codes, standards or specifications. These Listed below are some of the benefits that may be

6.2 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGU 9 3 8189350 0005064 b2
expected through the regular use of written welding welding procedure development are given within each
procedures: of the codes. AWS defines an essential variable as
QUALITY AND REPEATABILITY - Welding a variable within the welding procedure that, when
performed in strict adherence to welding procedures altered, results in physical, mechanical or
can assure consistent quality and repeatability in metallurgical changes in the deposited weld.
welding production. In order to develop a welding procedure in
INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY - Consistent accordance with AWS D9.1, the following essential
use of welding procedures can give the contractor variables must be known prior to writing the
much better control of the welding operations by procedure.
providing written instructions for the welder to use, BASE METAL - The base metal group, .e.
such as welding process, machine setting, type of carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum and aluminum
electrodes, etc. alloy, etc., as well as the ASTM, AISI or other
MEASURE PERFORMANCE - Welding material designation which will specifically identify the
procedures provide the basis for comparison of material to be used.
welder performance to previously established COATING - The type of coating on the material
production methods. to be welded, .e. ASTM A525, G90, G60.
WELDING MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS -Use BASE METAL THICKNESS - The base metal
of written welding procedures not only establishes the thickness, in order to establish the range of thickness
type and size of electrodes, shielding gases and to be encompassed by the welding procedure.
materials that are required for the job, they can also BACKING - If backing is to be used, the base
be used in determining the quantities of electrodes metal grouping as well as the designator.
and gases and the arc time needed for the size of FILLER METAL - The type of filler metal to be
weld to be made in accordance with the joint design. used in making the weld as well as the AWS D9.1 -"F"
TRAINING - Training programs can be number classification.
established to train welders in particular welding PROCESS - The welding process to be used,
processes using the procedure as the base line .e. shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc
document. welding, etc.
WELDING CURRENT - The type of welding
6.3 DEVELOPING A WELDING PROCEDURE current to be used in making the weld, .e., AC, DC
and polarity straight or reverse, etc. If gas metal arc
A welding procedure is nothing more than a welding is selected, the mode of metal transfer.
recipe for making a weld. Just like a recipe for SHIELDING GAS - If shielding gas is to be
baking a cake gives all of the ingredients, such as, used for the process selected, the type, the mixture
oven temperature, baking time, etc; a welding and flow rate.
procedure tells the welder the type of electrode, -
POSITION The position in which the weld is to
where to set the voltage and amperage, the travel be made, e. flat, horizontal, etc.
speed, etc. It gives all of the ingredients needed to Once the essential variables of the welding
make a good, sound, high quality weld at a very procedure have been established, the non-essential
productive rate. The welder does not have to variables need to be defined, .e. joint preparation,
experiment with machine settings and other variables filler metal size, amperage range, voltage range and
until a satisfactory weld is achieved. speed of travel. Once the essential and non-

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The requirements for the development of essential variables are known, they must be recorded
welding procedures to meet project specifications on a welding procedure specification form similar to
vary according to which of the codes are referenced that shown in Figure 6-1.
for welded sheet metal fabrication and erection.
However, one of the requirements for welding 6.4 WELDING PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION
procedure development common to all the codes, is
defining the essential variables of a welding The methods and requirements for qualification
procedure. of a welding procedure will vary with the code,
The variables referred to, are those ingredients standard or specification to which the welding
that will have a direct effect on the weld, if changed. procedure is being qualified. The ASME Boiler and
Only those ingredients having that effect are Pressure Vessel Code requires mechanical testing of
considered "essential" to the process. For example, test specimens removed from the welded test
you cannot change from 18 ga. (1.31 1mm) material sample. The AWS Structural Welding Code-Steel
to 10 ga. (3.510mm) without changing machine requires visual examination and non-destructive
settings, etc. Therefore, base metal thickness is an testing in addition to the mechanical testing of the
essential variable for any welding procedure. The welded test sample, whereas AWS D9.1 Code for
minimum essential variables to be considered during Welding of Sheet Metal, requires visual inspection of

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 6.3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 9 3 8389350 O005065 529 =
the welded test sample. However, one of the 6.5 WELDER QUALIFICATION
requirements for welding procedure qualification
common to all codes, standards and specifications is The requirements for welder qualification will
that a welded test sample must be prepared in vary according to which of the codes, standards or
accordance with the essential variables of the sheet specifications the qualification testing is being
metal contractors written welding procedure performed. However, each of these documents
specification and tested to the acceptance requires that welding of the qualification test sample
requirements defined within the document to which be performed in accordance with one of the sheet
the welding procedure specification was developed. metal contractors welding procedure specifications.
To qualify a procedure to the requirements of The methods of testing the welded test sample for
AWS D9.1 Code for the Welding of Sheet Metal, the welder qualification will also vary according to the
essential and non-essential variables observed during document requirements. The AWS Structural
the weld test sample preparation must be recorded Welding Code-Steel and the ASME Boiler and
on a procedure qualification record form. The test Pressure Vessel Code require mechanical testing, or
sample must then be subjected to visual inspection under certain conditions, nondestructive testing of the
without the aid of magnification, (prescription eye welded test sample, whereas AWS D9.1 Code for
glasses for vision correction are excepted) and the Welding of Sheet Metal, requires visual inspection of
inspection results recorded on a form similar to that the weld test sample in order to determine whether or
shown in Figure 6-2. The results of the visual not the welder is able to meet the Code
inspection recorded on the procedure qualification requirements.
form must be compared to the acceptance In order to qualify welders to the requirements
requirements defined within AWS D9.1 for the type of of AWS D9.1, the sheet metal contractor must record
joint detail, either butt or fillet, that is being qualified. the essential and non-essential variables observed
Unacceptable visual inspection results may require during the preparation and welding of the qualification
adjustments to be made in the essential and non- test sample. This information must be recorded on a
essential variables of the welding procedure form similar to that shown in Figure 6-3. In addition,
specification to achieve satisfactory results prior to visual inspection results must also be recorded on the
the preparation of additional weld test samples for form and these results compared to the welder
requalification of the procedure. qualification requirements stated within the Code.
Unsatisfactory visual inspection results would require
requalification testing of the welder.
Welder qualification testing is a benefit to the
sheet metal contractor in that the level of skills a
welder possesses to produce welds with consistent
high quality can be determined, as well as providing
verification that the welding procedure qualification is
adequate for the intended end use. The welders
qualification will remain in effect indefinitely unless
the welder is not engaged in the process for which he
is qualified for a period exceeding six months, or

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
unless there is a specific reason to question the
welders proficiency.

6.4 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLESMGW 93 ALA9350 00050bb 465

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 6.5


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEmMGW 93 8389350 O005067 3TL

PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION TEST RECORD (PQR)


Variables
PQR Number -

Base metal WPS Number


Metal thickness
Weld in butt joint visual exam results
Coating
*see 3,4,1 or 7,4,1)
Joint preparation
Fusion
Backing
Penetration
Position of welding
Reinforcement
Welding process
Porosity
Manual, semiautomatic, or a u t o m a t i r :
Undercut
Cracks
*Filler metal spec.
Fillet weld visual exam results
*Filler metal class
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(see 3.4.2 or 8.4.2)


*Weld metal grade
Fusion
Electrical characteristics -ac - dcep-
Effective throat
dcen
Convexity
Mode of transfer
Porosity
Shielding gas/combination
Undercut
Gas flow (CFH)
Cracks
Welders name
Welders ID No
*See Definitions in Glossary - Chapter 11
JOINT PROCEDURE

Filler Speed
Metal of
Size Current Range Voltage Range Travel Joint Detail

We, the undersigned, certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test specimens were
prepared, joined, and examined in accordance with the requirements of ANSVAWS D9.1, Sheet Metal Welding
Code.

Manufacturer or Contractor
Authorized by
Date
Figure 6-1A
Reprinted from AWS 09.1-90

6.6 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLEaMGW 9 3 9 8389350 0005068 238

Variables

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Manuai, stmiautomatic, or automatic

* F imetal class

Electticalcharade
Modc of transfer

of I

Wc,the undersigned, certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test specimens were prepared,
joined, and cxamkd in accordancc With the requirements of ANSI/AWS D9.1, Sheet Metai Welding Code.
Manufacturer or Contractor B e sk e d . & C U
A

Figure 6-16
Reprinted from AWS D9.1-90

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 6.7


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
WPS number Supported by PQR No(s)
WPS Rev. No WPS Rev. Date

Variables

Base metal
Metal thickness

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Coating type
Joint preparation
Backing material
Position of welding
Welding process
Manual, semiautomatic, or automatic
*Filler metal spec.
*Filler metal class.
*Weld metal grade
Electrical characteristics ac -cep dcen
Mode of transfer
Shielding gas/combination
Gas flow (CFH)
*See Definitions in Glossary - Chapter 11

JOINT PROCEDURE

Filler Welding Power Speed


Metal of
Size Current Range Voltage Range Travel Joint Detail

We, the undersigned, certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test specimens were
prepared, joined, and examined in accordance with the requirements of ANSVAWS D9.1, Sheet Metal Welding
Code.

Manufacturer or Contractor
Authorized by
Date
Figure 6-2A
Reprinted from AWS D9.1-90

6.8 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 93 = 8189350 0005070 996
Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
/
WPS Rev. Date

+Filler metai class.

Electrical characteristics

JOINT PROCEDURE

Power speed

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
of
Voltage Range Travel Joint Detail

lo- 12 i*. //c ,r,

We, the undersigned, certify that the statements in this record are correct and that the test specimens were prepared,
joined, and examined in accordance with the requirements of ANSIIAWS D9.1, Sheet Metal Welding Code.

Manufacturer or Contractor
Authorized
Da

Figure 6-2B
Reprinted from AWS D9.1-90

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 6.9


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 9 3 8389350 0005071 8 2 2 W
WELDER AND WELDING OPERATOR QUALIFICATION TEST RECORD
Qualifcation Test Performed
WPS number
Name
Square groove (butt joint)
I.D. no.
Fillet
Date of test
Weld test
Braze weld test

Essential Variables Qualified by Test


Type of base metal Welding process
Method of application
- Manual - Semiautomati- Automatic
Mode of transfer (GMAW)
Coating material on sheet Yes -No
Welding current -ac- dce- dcep
Backing material
Shield gas used
Filler metal F number
Position w e l d e d F l a L Horizontal-Vertical
Overhead

Visual Inspection Results


Square groove (butt Acceptance criteria Fillet Weld Acceptance Criteria
joint) weld
Braze
Weld Weld

Yes No Yes No
I
I

Joint fusion (metallic Joint fusion (metallic bond)


bond)
I
I
Required joint I NA N Required minimum effective
I
penetration I ! A throat
I
I I
I I
Face reinforcement I Required maximum
I I
I I
I
convexity
II I
I I
More than one pore or Pore or inclusion over 0.23

1
I I
I I
inclusion than 9.23 I I

1 I 1
I I

Undercut exceeding I N A ! N Undercut exceeding 0.1% or


0.15t, or 0.25t I A 0.23 NA NA
Cracks I I Cracks I l I
I I

Thickness range qualified Inspection performed by


Positions qualified Name of inspector
Types of joints qualified Signature
Date
Figure 6-3A
Reprinted from AWS D9.1-90

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6.10 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLEaMGW 9 3 W BLB9350 0005072 769 M

WELDER AND WELDING OPERATOR QUALIFICATION TEST RECORD

Square groove (butt Fillet Weld Acceptance Criteria


joint) weld

f Weld
I
Braze
Weid

Joint fusion (metallic bond)


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Required minimum effective


throat
Required maximum
convexity
Pore or inclusion over 0.251

Figure 6-3B
-
Reprinted from AWS D9.1-90

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 6.11


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEtMGW 9 3 8189350 0005073 bT5

Chapter 7
WELD QUALITY

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
7.1 Quality of Welds
7.2 Pre-Weld Consideration
7.3 Weld Inspection
7.4 Trouble-Shooting Weld Quality

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 7.1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 93 = ALA9350 0005074 531 9

7.1 QUALITY OF WELDS


The power source and all other components
The sheet metal contractor or the welding should be checked for proper working conditions.
supervisor must be capable of determining the Proper joint design will have a direct bearing on
acceptable quality of welds performed by welders. welding speed, weld penetration and weld strength,
Every contractor or welding supervisor should be and it will help reduce warpage, especially on light
thoroughly acquainted with the latest edition of Sheet materials.
Metal Welding Code AWS D9.1. This welding Quality workmanship in cutting, bending, rolling or
specification furnishes an outline of acceptance other pre-weld operations are very helpful to the
criteria for 3 gage and lighter materials. welder in making quality welds. Sheared edges
Remember - good weld quality starts before the eliminate irregularities in mill edges. Poor fit-up is
first arc is struck. one of the greatest contributors to poor weld quality
The welder employed by the sheet metal and is especially evident when welding light gage
contractor must be versatile. Sheet metal welders coated materials.
are often required to weld very light gage materials, Recently, plasma or burn tables have become a
heavy plates or structural shapes. The material can standard piece of equipment in most sheet metal
vary from galvanized steel, aluminum, stainless steel, shops. The plasma cut leaves a small amount of
alloys, magnesium or copper; and at times dissimilar slag and burned material (dross) that must be ground
materials must be joined. Therefore, it is important or sanded off. If the material to be welded is not
that the welder be experienced and qualified in the cleaned, the weld will be contaminated and possibly
weld process to be used. have areas of porosity. This cleaning process is
necessary on all A.W.S. code welding and food and
7.2 PRE-WELD CONSIDERATION beverage applications. It should become standard
operating procedure when welding plasma cut
Pre-weld consideration must be given to many material. This will improve quality, reduce re-work
areas to help assure good weld quality. It is also and increase productivity.
important to select the correct weld process using When shielding gases are required in a particular
weld filler metals compatible with the base metals. welding process, the weld area must be protected
These metals should be clean and free of rust, oil from drafts or other air movements which may disturb
or paint or other foreign materials detrimental to good the flow of these gases.
weld conditions.

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Examples of Good and Bad Welds

CURRENT TRAVEL TRAVEL ARC CURRENT ARC


TOO TOO TOO TOO TOO WRONG TOO
CORRECT HIGH FAST SLOW LONG LOW POLARITY SHORT
h

Figure 7-1

7.2 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLE*MGW 93 m 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 0005075 478 m

7.3 WELD INSPECTION

Inspection of welds for material thickness 114 in. UNDERCUT - Undercut may not exceed 15% of
(6.4mm) and lighter shall be in accordance with AWS material thickness of sheet being welded is 3/16 in.
D9.1. Inspection of all production welds shall be (4.7mm) or thinner, or exceed 25% of material
visual without the aid of magnification (prescription thickness when the metal thickness of sheet being
eyeglasses for vision correction are acceptable). welded is greater than 3/16 in. (4.7mm).
Welds should be cleaned before inspection. (See CRACK - There shall be no cracks.
note) The following acceptance criteria for work shall CONFORMANCE - Completed welds shall be
be as follows: visually inspected for location, size, and length in
accordance with the engineering drawing and
FUSION - Complete fusion shall be obtained. specification requirements.
PENETRATION - Required joint penetration as Visual inspection of welding beads is sufficient to
specified for the application shall be present. diagnose elementary problems. Dye penetrant will
REINFORCEMENT OF GROOVE WELDS - A show up surface cracks or pin holes. For heavier
maximum of 1/8 in. (3.2mm) face reinforcement and weldments where structural strength is a requirement,
1/8 in. (3.2mm) root reinforcement shall be the use of radiography, ultrasonic or magnetic particle
acceptable. testing may be required.
THROAT AND CONVEXITY OF FILLET WELDS -
The minimum throat shall be as specified for the 7.4 TROUBLE-SHOOTINGWELD QUALITY
application with maximum convexity not to exceed 1/8
in. (3.2mm). The contractor or welding supervisor trouble-
POROSITY OR INCLUSIONS - Some limited shooting weld quality should first be sure the weld
porosity or inclusion is acceptable. Fusion: process for the particular job is correct. All pre-weld
* One visible pore or inclusion no larger than considerations should be rechecked. Consult the
50% is permitted in any iin. (25mm) of weld. trouble-shooting guide tables for the weld process in
* Three visible pores or inclusions no larger use.
than 25% of material thickness are permitted
in any 1 in. (25mm) of weld. NOTE: f o r cleaning stainless steel welds, use
uncontaminated stainless steel wire brush.
Carbon steel will cause oxidation of stainless
steel base metal.

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 7.3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEJMGW 93 8189350 0005076 304

TABLE 7-1
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
SMAW Troubleshooting Guide

Trouble Possible Causes How to Correct

Incomplete 1. Faulty joint design 1. Check root opening, root face dimension, included angle
Penetration 2. Welding speed too rapid 2. Reduce welding speed
3. Insufficient welding current 3. Increase welding current
4. Electrode size too large 4. Use smaller electrode

Poor 1 . Current too high or too low 1. Adjust current


Appearance 2. Improper technique 2. Check welding procedure
3. Faulty electrode 3. Dry electrode to remove moisture; change electrode

Undercutting 1. Current too high 1. Reduce current


2. Arc length too long 2. Shorten arc length
3. Improper manipulation of the electrode 3. Change electrode angle so that arc force will help fill
4. Welding speed too rapid undercut
4. Reduce electrode speed

Excessive 1. Current too high 1. Reduce current


Spatter 2. Arc length too long 2. Shorten arc length
3. Excessive arc blow 3. See remedies for arc blow
4. Faulty electrode 4. Replace electrode

Arc Blow 1. Magnetic field, created when using dc, 1. Use ac welder
causes the arc to wander 2. Counter blow by adjusting electrode angle
3. Rearrange or split ground clamp
4. Replace magnetic work bench
5. Use brass or copper back-up bar
~~

Pinholes 1. Foreign matter in joint 1. Remove rust, scale and other foreign matter from weld area
base metal

I Slag in Weid

Porous
I 1. Joint design; sharp V-shaped recess
2. High viscosity of molten metal, rapid

1.
chilling, too low a weld temperature

Welding speed too rapid


1 . Avoid contours that are difficult to penetrate with arc
2. Use preheat and higher weld heat input

1. Reduce welding speed


Welds 2. Current too low 2. Raise current setting
3. High sulphur or other impurities 3. Use low-hydrogen electrodes
4. Faulty electrodes 4. Dry electrodes to remove moisture; use fresh electrodes

Cracked 1. Faulty electrode 1. Use low-hydrogen electrodes


Welds 2. Joint too rigid; stressed weld 2. Redesign joint; use preheat and postheat; weave
3. Shape of bead 3. Use slower travel or faster-freezing electrode to give a more
4. Craters convex bead
5. Fast cooling rate 4. Back step to fill craters
5. Preheat or postheat or both

Distortion 1. Improper weld design 1. Redesign to allow for expansion and contraction
Warping 2. Overheating 2. Use lower current and more efficient chill bars
3. Welding speed too slow 3. Increase travel speed
4. Improper welding sequence 4. Improve welding sequence - weld heavy sections first
5. Faulty clamping 5. Clamu urouertv to chill bar

Brittle 1. Wrong electrode 1. Use how-hydrogen or austenitic electrode


Welds 2. Incorrect heat treatment 2. Use proper preheat and postheat cycles
3. Air-hardening deposit 3. Use austenitic electrodes
4. Base metal pick-up 4. Reduce penetration by directing arc on weld puddle

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93,p. A l 3

7.4 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * M G W 93 LB9350 0005077 240

TABLE 7-2
GMAW Troubleshooting Guide

Trouble Possible Causes How to Correct

Irregular Polarity wrong Check polarity, try reversing


arc start Insufficient shielding gas Check valves, increase flow
Poor ground Check ground - return circuit
Open circuit to start switch Check circuit to start switching

Irregular Insufficient drive roll pressure Increase drive roll pressure


wire feed, Wire feed too slow Check, adjust wire feed speed
bum back Contact tube plugged Clean, replace contact tube
Arcing in contact tube
Power circuit fluctuations Check line voltage for fluctuations
Polarity wrong Check polarity, try reversing
Torch overheating Replace with higher amp gun
Kinked electrode wire Remove kinked electrode wire, replace wire spool
Conduit liner dirty or worn Clean, replace conduit liner
Drive rolls jammed Clean drive case, clean electrode wire
Conduit too long Shorten conduit; install push-pull drive

Welding Cables too small Use larger cables


cables Cable connections loose Check, tighten cable connections
overheating Cables too long Use shorter cables

Unstable arc Cable connections loose Check, tighten cable connections


Weld joint area dirty Clean well-joint area

Arc blow Magnetic field in dc causes arc Rearrange or split ground connection
to wander Use brass or copper backup bars
Adjust gun angle so that arc force helps fill undercut
Replace magnetized bench

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Undercutting Current too high Reduce current
Welding speed too high Reduce welding speed
Improper manipulation of gun Change gun angle to fill undercut
Arc length too long Shorten arc length

Excessively Current too high Reduce current


wide bead Welding speed too slow Increase welding speed
Arc length too long Shorten arc length

Incomplete Faulty joint design Check design of root opening, root face dimensions, included
penetration Welding speed too rapid angle
Welding current too low Reduce welding speed
Arc length too long Increase current
Improper welding angle Shorten arc length
Change gun angle
~

Incomplete Faulty joint preparation Check joint preparation


fusion Arc length too long Shorten arc length
Dirty joint Check weld-joint area
~~~

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 199293, p. A18

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 7.5

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEsMGW 9 3 W 8189350 0005078 187 =
TABLE 7-2
GMAW Troubleshooting Guide (Contd)

Trouble Possible Causes How to Correct


Dirty welds Inadequate gas shielding Hold gun nozzle closer to work
Increase gas flow
Decrease gun angle
Check gun and cables for air an water leaks
Shield arc from drafts
Center contact tube in gas nozzle
Check gun nozzle for damage; replace
Dirty electrode wire Keep electrode wire spool covers
Keep unused electrode wire in shipping
containers
Dirty base metal Clean wire as it enters wire drive
Low or empty gas cylinder Clean weld joint area
Change Cylinder

Porous welds Dirty electrode wire See above, D i m Welds


Dirty base metal
See above Inadequate gas shielding See above, Dirty Welds
Dirty welds Improper technique Change angle of gun to improve shielding
Cracked welds Faulty design Check design of root opening face dimensions,
Faulty electrode include angle
Shape of bead Check electrode wire compatibility with base metal
Change welding speed or shielding gas to obtain
Travel speed too fast more convex bead
Improper technique Change gun angle to improve deposition.
Rigidity of joint Revise joint design to reduce rigidity; pre and
postheat weave

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93,p. A l 8

7.6 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEsMGW 73 8187350 0005079 013

TABLE 7-3
GTAW Troubleshooting Guide
~~ ~

Trouble Possible Causes How to Correct


~

Unstable Arc 1. Dirty, contaminated base material 1. Use chemical cleaners, wire brush, or abrasives
to clean base material.
2 . Joint is too narrow 2. Make groove wider; bring electrode closer to the
work; decrease voltage
3. Contaminated electrode 3. Cut off end of electrode tip, dress
4. Electrode diameter too large 4. Use smallest electrode diameter that will handle
required current
5. Arc too long 5. Bring electrode closer to work
Rapid 1 . Inert shielding is inadequate, allowing 1. Clean nozzle; bring nozzle closer to work;
Electrode oxidation of the electrode increase gas flow
Consumption 2. Operating on reverse polarity 2. Change to straight polarity or use larger
electrode
3. Electrode too small for required current 3. Use larger electrode - See chart Electrode
Diameter Vs. Current, p . 22
4. Electrode holder is too hot
4. Change collet; use ground finish electrodes;
5. Electrode contamination check for proper collet contract
5. Remove contaminated section of electrode.
Electrode will continue to degrade as long as
6. Oxidation of electrode during cooling contaminants are present.
6 . Continue gas flow for 10-15 seconds after arc
stops.
Rule: 1 second for each 10 amps
~~

Tungsten 1. Touch starting with electrode 1. Use high-frequency starting device; use a copper
Inclusions striking plate
in Work 2. Electrode melts and alloys with base 2. Reduced current or use larger electrode; use
plate thoriated or zirconiated tungsten electrode (they
run cooler)
3. Fragmentation of electrode by thermal 3. Be sure electrode ends are not cracked,
shock especially when using high currents. Use
embrittled tungsten electrode for clean easy
break

Porosity 1. Gas impurities present: hydrogen, 1. Use welding grade inert gas (99.995 percent
nitrogen, air, water vapor pure), purge all lines before striking arc

2 . Use of old acetylene hose 2. Use first-hand hose only. Acetylene impregnates
hose
3. Gas and water hoses interchanged 3. Never interchange gas and water hoses. Use
hoses of different colors
4. Oil firm on base material 4. Clean base material with a chemical cleaner that
does not dissociate in the arc. Do not weld
while material is wet

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93, p. A24

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 7.7


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
~

SMACNA TITLESMGW 9 3 W 8389350 0005080 835

Chapter 8
ESTIMATING WELDING COSTS

8.1 Cost Determination


8.2 Definitions
8.3 Basic Cost Equations
8.4 Cost Computations
8.5 Other Cost Considerations
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

8.6 Reducing Welding Costs


8.7 Quick Method for Estimating Welding Costs

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 8.1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 93 8189350 0005081 7 7 1 W
8.1 COST DETERMINATION deposition (weld metal deposit) that would result from
one hour of continuous welding with no break in the
In order to accurately predict the costs of a arc.
welding process, it is necessary to take into MACHINE EFFICIENCY - This is the ratio of
consideration all of the factors that relate to the power available for welding to the power provided to
welding operation. The persons making the cost the machine.
analysis must verify the validity of data before OPERATOR FACTOR - This is a percentage
applying it in the cost formula. Cost factors include indicating the actual arc time as compared with the
the following: total hours worked. The operator factor is affected by
* Direct labor costs the position of the weld, the job conditions, the
* Overhead costs amount of time required for changing electrodes,
* Consumables cost chipping slag, cleaning welds, etc. Time studies or
a. Cost of the filler metal (stick electrode or the use of arc time recorders are the only way to
wire) determine a true operator factor. The following
b. Gas costs values are averages determined by a study
c. Flux costs conducted of various welding facilities.
* Power costs (if not included in overhead) SMAW-GTAW - 15% to 30% - use the higher
figure when the job has been set up or when fixtures
8.2 DEFINITIONS are used. Use the lower figure when the work has to
be assembled and tack welded.
LABOR RATE - welder's wages in dollars per GMAW-FCAW - 30% to 60% - the estimator
hour including fringes, payroll taxes and workmen's must determine the approximate Set-up time versus
compensation insurance. the welding time.
OVERHEAD RATE - the cost of all other WELD TRAVEL SPEED (Table 8-1) - represents
operating expenses such as insurance, maintenance, the length of a weld bead which can run in a unit of
depreciation or rental of plant and equipment, taxes, time. This factor depends on several variables such
real estate, plant personnel, etc. as operator skill, welding process equipment
CONSUMABLES - Cost of electrode, wire and capability, weld joint geometry and weld position.
flux, in dollars per pound and gas in dollars per cubic This weld travel speed is established on the basis of
feet. actual timing of previous welding jobs and it is then
DEPOSITION EFFICIENCY - The ratio of weight the basic index for estimating.
of the weld metal divided by the weight of the weld WIRE SPEED (Table 8-1) - this is the rate
electrode consumed. This efficiency varies with the (inches per minute) that wire electrode is fed into the
process. arc and is consumed during welding. Wire speed
SMAW - The deposition efficiency for this data may be acquired in two ways:
* By physically measuring the wire coming out
process varies greatly. The covered electrode has
the highest losses. These losses are made up of the of the end of the torch for a given period of

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
stub end loss, the coating or slag loss and the spatter time.
* By reading the welding current from the
loss. A 2" (51mm) stub from a 12" (305 mm)
electrode has a 17% stub loss and from a 14" (356 power supply machine during welding, then
mm) electrode a 14% stub loss. The coating loss referring to a burn-off chart and finding the
can vary from 10% to 50% of the total electrode inches per minute.
weight. For example, the thin covering of an E 6010 TOTAL WELDING COST -
the aggregate cost of
electrode will be approximately 10% of the total variables associated with welding, each variable
electrode weight while the heavier coating of an E having a representative value which should be
7014 will approach 50%. The best average independently developed or verified by each
deposition efficiency is 65% which includes a nominal contractor.
2" (51mm) stub loss. The GMAW process results in a slightly higher
GMAW - In this process the only loss is spatter material cost but a lower total cost than SMAW, a
and a little oxide scale. This process is 90 to 95% labor intensive process. As the welding speed is
efficient. increased, there is a corresponding decrease in labor
FCAW - The flux core and spatter are lost in this costs.
process. This process is 80 to 85% efficient.
GTAW - The filler wire loss is due to the stub
loss, making it possible to attain an efficiency
approaching 90%.
DEPOSITION RATE (Table 8-1) - the rate at
which weld metal is deposited in a joint per unit of
time. Expressed as pounds per hour, this reflects the

8.2 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEWMGW 33 8383350 0005082 608

TABLE 8-1
Sheet Metal Welding Parameters (U.S.)

Welding Sheet Metal Filler Rod Electric


Process Thickness Diameter Current
Shielding Travel Operator Deposit Electrical
D.C. Gas Row Speed Factor Rate Melt Rate
Gage in. in. Volts Amps Cu. ft./min. idmin. 8 1bs.h. in./min.

GTAW 20 .O36 1/16 11 75-100 10 18 Varies .50-2.0 Varies


18 .o48 1/16 11 90-120 10 15 Varies .50-2.0 Varies
16 .O60 1/16 12 95-135 10 15 Varies .50-2.0 Varies
14 .O75 3/32 12 135-175 10 14 Varies .50-2.0 Varies
10 .135 118 12 145-205 12 11 Varies .50-2.0 Varies

GMAW 24 .O24 .O30 16 30-50 20 12-20 50-65 1.6 100


22 .O30 ,030 16 40-60 20 16-22 50-65 2.3 140
20 .O36 .O35 17 55-85 20 35-40 50-65 3.0 180
18 .o48 .O35 18 70-100 20 35-40 50-65 3.2 200
16
14
10
,060
.O75
.135
.O35
.O35
.O35
18
19
20
80-110
100-130
120-160
20
20
20
30-35
25-30
15-25
50-65
50-65
50-65
3.6
4.0
4.4
E 280

SMAW 24 .O24 3/32 25 40 20-35 15-30 1.3 12


22 .O30 3/32 25 40 20-35 15-30 1.6 14
20 .O36 3/32 25 50 20-35 15-30 1.9 16
18 .O48 3/32 27 65 15-30 15-30 2.1 18
16 .O60 3/32 27 75 15-30 15-30 2.4 20
14 .O75 3/32 28 100 18-24 15-30 2.7 20
10 ,135 118 29 120 18-22 15-30 3.0 ' 12

CAW 24 .O24 3/16 18 25 8 15-30 Varies Varies


(See 22 .O30 3/16 18 35 8 15-30 Varies Varies
Note 2) 20 .O36 3/16 18 45 10 15-30 Varies Varies
18 .o48 3/16 19 50 10 15-30 Varies Varies
16 .O60 3/16 20 50 12 15-30 Varies Varies
14 .O75 114 20 80 13 15-30 Varies Varies
10 .135 1I4 20 85 15 15-30 Varies Varies

Note 1 Parameters are suitable for square groove butt or fillet welds
Note 2 Bronze cold wire (118" [3.2mm]) used with carbon arc welding
Note 3 Multiply in. per min. by 5 for ft. per hr.

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
8.3
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLEWMGW 93 8189350 0005083 544 =
TABLE 8-1M
Sheet Metal Welding Parameters (Metric)

Welding
Process
Sheet Metai
Thickness
Filler Rod
Diameter I Electric
Current
Shielding Travel Operator Deposit Electrical
D.C. Gas Flow Speed Factor Rate Melt Rate
Gage mm mm Volts Amps Umin. mds % km. mns.
~

GTAW 20 .912 1.6 II 75-100 285 8 Varies 0.23-0.91 Varies


18 1.214 1.6 11 90- 120 285 6 Varies 0.23-0.91 Varies
16 1.519 1.6 12 95-135 285 6 Varies 0.23-0.91 Varies
14 1.897 2.4 12 135-175 285 6 Varies 0.23-0.91 Varies

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
10 3.416 3.2 12 145-205 343 5 Varies 0.23-0.91 Varies

GMAW 24 .607 .80 16 30-50 571 6-9 50-65 0.73 42


22 ,759 .80 16 40-60 57 1 7-9 50-65 1.o4 59
20 ,912 .90 17 55-85 571 15-17 50-65 1.36 76
18 1.214 .90 18 70-100 571 15-17 50-65 1.45 84
16 1.519 .90 18 80-110 57 1 13-15 50-65 1.63 93
14 1.897 .90 19 100-130 57 1 11-13 50-65 1.82 102
10 3.41 6 .90 20 120-160 57 1 I
6-11 I
50-65 2.00 108
~~

SMAW 24 .607 2.4 25 40 _-_ 8-15 15-30 0.59 5


22 .759 2.4 25 40 ___ 8-15 15-30 0.73 6
20 .912 2.4 25 50 -_- 8-15 15-30 0.86 7
18 1.214 2.4 27 65 ___ 6-13 15-30 0.95 8
16 1.519 2.4 27 75 ___ 6-13 15-30 1.o9 8
14 1.897 2.4 28 100 ___ 8-10 15-30 1.23 8
10 3.416 3.2 29 120 ___ 8-9 15-30 1.36 5

CAW 24 ,607 ___ 3 15-30 Varies Varies


(See 22 .759 ___ 3 15-30 Varies Varies
Note 2 20 .912 4.8 _-- 4 15-30 Varies Varies
above) 18 1.214 4.8 ___ 4 15-30 Varies Varies
16 1.519 50 ___ 5 15-30 Varies Varies
14 1.897 80 ___ 6 15-30 Varies Varies
10 3.416 85 ___ 6 15-30 Varies Varies

8.4 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEmMGW 9 3 8 3 8 9 3 5 0 0005081r IBO
TABLE 8-2
Conversion Table Inches Per Pound of Wire

Wire Dia. Alum. Stain-


Bronze Mild less si Copper De-ox.
Mag. Alum. (10) Steel Steel Bronze Nickel Nickel Copper
Decimal Fraction Per 300
cent series
Inches Inches

& 30500 32400 11600 11100


4960

3650
10960
4880

3500
10300

4600
3380
9950
4430

3260
9900
4400

3240
9800
4360

3200

*
I
2790 2750 2580 2490 2480 2450
221o 2170 2040 1970 1980 1940

1160 1140 1070 1040 1030 1020

519 51O
.O1 25 285 279

TABLE 8-2M
Conversion Table Meters Per Kilogram of Wire

Material

Wire Dia. Alum. Stain-


Bronze Mild less si Copper De-ox.
Alum. (10) Steel Steel Bronze Nickel Nickel Copper
Per 300
Inches cent series

I .O20 1 0 . 5 I 1710 1817 I 650 1 622 615


I .O30 I 0.8 I 1255 809 I
I
289 I
I
271 274 258 I 248 I 247 I 244

I .O35 7 0 . 9 I 925 594 I 212 I 204 196 190 183 182 179

I .o40 I 1.0 I 706 455 I 163 1 156 154 145 140 139 137

359 I 128 I 124 122 114 110 111 1o9

85 I I
684 I I
65 64 60 58 58 57

190 I 30 I 29 29
.O 125 3.2 72 46 17 16 16 15 I 14 1 14 I 15

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
8.5
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E t M G W 9 3 m 8189350 0005085 317
SHEET METAL WELDS (SMAWL SHEET METAL WELDS ISMAW)

m
BUTT WELDS FILLET WELDS

Q I 7

FLAT VERTICAL (WELDED DOWN)


FLAT HORIZONTAL VERTICAL
Plate Size 18ga 16ga 14ga 12ga 10ga (WELDED DOWN)
Electrode Name/Class E6013 ~~ ~ ~~ ~

Plate Size 18ga 16ga 14ga 12ga Ioga


Size 3/32 3/32 3/32 118 118
Electrode NameIClass E6013
Position* 0-30' Downhill Size 3/32 3/32 3/32 118 718
Current-Amps
Polarity
40
DC-
70
DC-
80
DC+
120
DC+
135
DC+
Position* 0-30' Downhill *

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Arc Speed-InJMin. ' 24 32 28 22 19 Current-Amps
Polarity
70
AC
105
AC
155
AC
160
AC
210
AC
Lbs. of Elec. of
Weld .O24 .O29 .O26 .O49 .O70 Arc Speed-ln./Min. '$ 15 16 17 16 14
Lbs. of Elec. of
Position* 30-90' Downhill Weld .O45 .O53 .O71 .O79 ,110
Current-Amps 45 75 90 130 150 Position' 30-90' Downhill
Polarity2 DC- DC- DC+ DC+ DC+
Arc Speed-In./ Current-Amps 75 115 165 170 225
Min.' 28 36 30 Polarity AC AC AC AC AC
25 20
Lbs. of Elec. of Arc Speed-In./
Weld .O23 .O28 .O27 .O48 ,073 Min. '$ 16 19 21 20 18
Lbs. of Elec. of
Because design, fabrication, erection and welding variables affect Weld .O42 .O49 .O62 .O70 .lo0
the results obtained in applying this type of information, the
serviceability of a product or structure is the responsibility of this Because design, fabrication, erection and welding variables affect
builderluser. the results obtained in applying this type of information, the
serviceability of a product or structure is the responsibility of this
builderiuser.

FLAT VERTICAL (WELDED DOWN)


FLAT VERTICAL
(WELDED DOWN)
Plate Size 18ga 16ga 14ga 12ga 10ga
~

Electrode Name/Class E6013


Size 3/32 3/32 3/32 118 li8 Plate Size 18ga 16ga 14ga 12ga 10ga
Electrode Name/Class E6013
Position" 0-30' Downhill
Size 3/32 3/32 3/32 1/8 118
Current-Amps 50 80 85 115 140 Position* 0-30- Downhill i
Polarity DC- DC- DC+ DC+ DC+
Arc Speed-In./ Current-Amps 75 115 120 165 120
Min. i 49 46 43 43 40 Polarity AC AC AC AC AC
Lbs. of Elec. of Arc Speed-In./
Weld .O15 .O23 .O26 .O38 .O48 Min. 'j: 17 18 16 16 12
Lbs. of Elec. of
Postion' 30-90' Downhill
Weld .O42 .O55 ,075 .O35 .110
Current-Amps 55 90 95 125 155
Position* 30-90' Downhill
Polarity DC- DC- DC+ DC+ DC+
Arc Speed-In./ Current-Amps 85 125 130 185 180
Min. i 56 53 50 50 46 Polarity * AC AC AC AC AC
Lbs. of Elec. of Arc Speed-In./
Weld .O14 .O23 .O25 .O36 .O47 Min. '$ 21 22 21 21 16
iFor ft. of weld/hr., multiply imlmin. by 5. 100% operating factor. Lbs. of Elec. of
Weld .O38 .O50 .O61 .O69 ,100
AC can be used.
*Data as published by Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio $ Faster arc speeds can be obtained with E6010 using DC polarity and
441 17. these currents.
* 45 to 75' downhill position recommended for easy operation and fast
welds.
*Data as published by Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio
441 17.

8.6 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*NGW 9 3 8189350 0005086 253
Sheet Metal Welds (SMAW)

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

CORNER WELDS

VERTICAL 18 TO PERMISSIBLE FOR


(WELDED DOWN) 10 GAUGE 18 & 16 GAUGE

c. About 10% higher currents.


Plate Size 18ga 16ga 14ga 12ga 10ga
d. The following arc speeds:
Electrode Name/Class E6013
Size 3/32 3/32 3/32 118 118 Arc Speed in./min.
Position* 0-30- Downhill Material 18ga 16ga 14ga 12ga 10ga
Current-Amps 45 80 85 110 155 Fillet Welds
Polarity DC- DC- DC- DC- DC+ 0-30' 15 16 17 16 16
Arc Speed-ln./Min. 33 38 38 36 30 30-90' 18 19 21 20 18
Lbs. of Elec. of
Lap Welds
Weld .O20 .O28 .O30 .O43 .O51
~ ~~ ~ 0-30' 17 18 18 16 15
Position* 30-90 Downhill 30-90' 21 22 23 21 18
Current-Amps 50 90 95 120 170 Butt Welds
Polarity DC- DC- DC- DC- DC+ 0-30' 22 30 29 27 25
Arc Speed-In./ 30-90' 26 32 30 29 27
Min. 38 43 43 40 36
Edae Welds - Same as DC
Lbs. of Elec. of
Weld .O18 ,028 .O29 .O44 ,046 Corner Welds - Same as DC
~

* 45' downhill position is recommended for easy welding and fast Because design, fabrication, erection and welding variables affect
speeds. Corner welds on 10 gage steel can be welded 5-7 in.lmin. the results obtained in applying this type of information, the
faster when positioned 75' to 90' downhill rather than 45' to 75' serviceability of a product or structure is the responsibility of this
downhill. builderluser.
1. For ft. of weldlhr. multiply i n h i n . by 5. 100% operating factor.
2. For AC welding use: *Data as published by Lincoln Electric Company, Cleveland, Ohio
a. E6011 in place of E601O or 441 17.
E6013 in place of E6012.
b. The same electrode sizes.

CONVERSIONS

9% -
mrn. -
in. -
rnm. -
intmin mm/s -
inlrnin mm/s -
Ib/ a/m
18 1.311 3/32 2.4 12 5.1 28 11.8 ,010-.o20 15-30
16 1.613 118 3.2 14 5.9 29 12.2 ,020-,030 30-45
14 1.994 15 6.3 30 12.7 ,030-,040 45-60
12 2.753 16 6.8 32 13.5 ,040-,050 60-74
10 3.510 17 7.2 33 14.0 ,050-.O60 74-89
18 7.6 36 15.2 ,060-.O70 89- 104
19 8.0 38 16.1 .070-,080 104-119
20 40 16.9 ,080-.o90 119-134
21 8.5 43 18.2 ,090-.1O0 134-149
22 9.3 46 19.5 ,110-.I10 149-164
23 9.7 49 20.7
I 24
25
10.1
10.6
50
53
21.2
22.4
26 11.0 56 23.7
11.4

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 73 m 8l187350 0005087 L T m
BASIC COST EQUATIONS

= Labor Rate ($/hr)


Direct Labor Cost (per ft.)
Weld Travel Speed (in/min) x Operator Factor x 5*

Overhead Cost (per fi.) -


- Overhead Rate ($/hr)
Weld Travel Speed (idmin) x Operator Factor x 5*

= Weld Metal Deposited (Ibs/fi) x Filler Metal Cost ($/lb)


(3) Filler Metal Cost (per fi.)
Deposition Efficiency (%)

Deposition Rate (Ibdhr)


(4) Where: Weld Metal Deposited =
Weld Travel Speed (in/min) x 5*

Flux Cost ($/lb) x Weld Deposit (Ibs/ft) x Flux Ratio = $/fi

Gas Cost (per fi.) - Gas Cost ($/CUft) x Flow Rate (CUft/hr)
Weld Travel Speed (idmin) x 5*

Power Cost (per ft.) - Volts x amps x power cost/kw hr


Weld Travel Speed (idmin) x Machine Eff. x 5* x 1000

*NOTE: FACTOR OF 5 = 60 min/hr


12 in/ft

8.4 COST COMPUTATIONS

EXAMPLE NO. 1
Process: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Shop Operation
Objective: Determine the cost of 200 ft. of 1/8" carbon steel
fillet weld with the following given data:
Welder Labor Rate 20.00 $/hr
Overhead Hate 56.75 Yo
Power Cost .O4$/kwhr
Operator Factor (GMAW) .65
Electrode Mild Steel Wire .O35 in. diameter .90 $/lb
Carbon Dioxide Gas .O3 $/cufi
Argon .o9 $/cufi
Wire Speed 280 in/min
Wire Diameter .O35
Amperes (dcrp) 140 amps
Volts 20 volts
Weld Travel Speed 18 in/min
Deposition Efficiency (GMAW) .95
Deposition Rate 4.6 Ibs/hr
Machine Efficiency .95
20.00 $ihr
(1) Labor Cost = - .342 $/ft
18 in/min x .65 x 5

S675 x 20.00 - /ft


(2) Overhead Cost = - ,194 $/fi
18 in/min x .65 x 5

8.8 --`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLExMGW 9 3 = 8189350 0005088 026
Filler Metal Cost = .O51 Ib/ft x .90 $/lb - .O48 $/ft
.95

280 in/min x 60 min/hr


= Deposition Rate = 4.6 Ibs/hr
3650 in/lb wire**
** from Table 8-2 - 0.035in & Mild Steel

4.6 Ibs/hr
= Weld Metal Deposited = .O51 Ibs/ft
18 in/min x 5

.O3 $/cuft x 25 cfh


Gas Cost CO, = = .O08 $/fi(least expensive)
18 in/min x 5
or
Gas Cost ARGON = .O9 $/tuft x 20 cfh
=.O2 Ibdft
18 in/min x 5

Power Cost = 140 amps x 20 volts x .O4 $/kwhr


= .O013 $/fi
18 in/min x .95 x 5 x 1000

Sum (1) + (2) + (3) + (5) + (6) - 5933 $/fi


Total Cost of Weld = 200 ft x 5933 = $1 18.66 GMAW TOTAL COST

EXAMPLE NO. 2
Process: Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Objective: Determine the cost of 200 feet of 1/8" carbon
steel weld with the following given data:
Welder Labor Rate 20.00 $/hr
Overhead Rate 56.75 o/'
Power Cost .O45 $/kwhr
Operator Factor (SMAW) .25
Electrode Cost .55 $/lb
1/8" covered electrode (thin coated) 601O
Deposition Efficiency (SMAW) .65%
Weld Travel Speed 18 in/min
Electrode Diameter 1/8 in
Electrode Burn-off data 12 in/min
Amperes (dcrn) 120 amps
Volts 26 volts
Deposition Rate 2.8 Ibs/hr
SMAW would be computed as follows:
(1) Labor Cost = 20.00 $/hr
- .889 $/fi
18 in/min x .25 x 5

56.75% X 20.00 - /fi -


(2) Overhead Cost = - SO4 $/ft
18 in/min x .25 x 5

(3) Filler Metal Cost = .55 $Ib/ft x .O31 Ib/ft - .O26 $/fi
.65

(4) 2.8 Ib/hr -


- .O31 Ib/ft
18 in/min x 60/12

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
8.9
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLExMGW 93 W 8189350 O005089 Tb2 =
120 amps x 26 volts x .O4 $/kwhr
(6) Power Cost = - .O015 $/ft
18 in/min x .95 x 5 x 1000

Sum (1) + (2) + (3) + (6) - 1.4205 $/fi


Total Cost of Weld = 200 ft x 1.4205 = $284.10 SMAW TOTAL COST

8.3M BASIC COST EQUATIONS (metric)

(1) Direct Labor Cost (per m) =


Labor Rate ($/hr)
Weld Travel Speed (mm/sec) x Operator Factor x 3.6*

(2) Overhead Cost (per m)


- Overhead Rate ($/hr)
Weld Travel Speed (mm/sec) x Operator Factor x 3.6*

(3) Filler Metal Cost (per m) =


Weld Metal Deposited (kg/m) x Filler Metal Cost ($1 Kg)
Deposition Efficiency (%)

(4) Where: Weld Metal Deposited= Deposition Rate (Kg/hr)


Weld Travel Speed (mm/sec) x 3.6*

Flux ($/Kg) x Weld Deposit (Kg/m) x Flux Ratio = $l.m

(5) Gas Cost (per m) - Gas Cost ($/I ) x Flow Rate (Vhr)
Weld Travel Speed (imm/sec) x 3.6*

(6) Power Cost (per m) - Volts x amps x power coskw hr


Weld Travel Speed (mm/sec) x Machine Eff. x 3.6* x 1000

*NOTE: FACTOR OF 3.6 = 60 sec i(hr x 60 min/hr) x 1m/l000mm

8.4M COST COMPUTATIONS (metric)

EXAMPLE NO. 1
Process: Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Shop Operation
Objective: Determine the cost of 60.96m of 3.2mm: carbon
steel fillet weld with the following given data:
Welder Labor Rate 20.00 $/hr
Overhead Rate 56.75 %
Power Cost .O4 $/kwhr
Operator Factor (GMAW) .65
Electrode Mild Steel Wire 0.9mm diameter 1.98 $/Kg
Carbon Dioxide Gas 0.899 $/I
Argon 2.547 $/I
Wire Speed 118.4mm/sec
Wire Diameter .09mm
Amperes (dcrp) 140 amps
Volts 20 volts
Weld Travel Speed 7.61mm/sec
Deposition Efficiency (GMAW) .95
Deposition Rate 2.08 Kg/hr
Machine Efficiency .95

8.1 O --`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 W 8 1 8 9 3 5 0 0005090 784 =
20.00 $Ihr
Labor Cost = - 1.12 $/m
7.61 mm/sec x .65 x 3.6

5675 x 20.00
Overhead Cost = - 0.640 $/m
7.61mm/sec x .65 x 3.6

Filler Metal Cost = 0.0759Kg/m x 1.98 $/Kg 0.158 $/m


.95

118.4mm/sec x 3.6
- Deposition Rate = 4.6 Ibs/hr (10.1 Kg/Hr)
204m/kg wire**
** from Table 8-2 - 0.09m & Mild Steel

2.08 kg/hr = Weld Metal Deposited = 0.0759kg/m


7.61 m/sec x 3.6

0.849 $/I x 0.883 Vhr


Gas Cost CO, = = 0.027 $/m (least expensive)
7.61mm/sec x 3.6
or
2.547 $/I x 0.706 I/hr
Gas Cost ARGON = - 0.065 $/m
7.61mm/sec x 3.6

140 amps x 20 volts x .O4 $/kwhr


Power Cost = = O.o043$/m
7.61 mm/sec x .95 x 3.6 x 1O00

Sum (1) + (2) + (3) + (5) + (6) - 0.0043$/m


Total Cost of Weld = 60.96m x 1.9493 = $1 18.82 GMAW TOTAL COST

EXAMPLE NO. 1 (metric)


Process: Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Objective: Determine the cost of 60.96m of 3.2mm carbon
steel weld with the following given data:
Welder Labor Rate 20.00 $Ihr
Overhead Rate 56.75 Yo
Power Cost
Operator Factor (SMAW) .25
Electrode Cost 1.21 $/kg
1/8" covered electrode (thin coated) 601O
Deposition Efficiency (SMAW) .65%
Weld Travel Speed 7.61mm/sec
Electrode Diameter 3.2mm
Electrode Burn-off data 5.07mm/sec
Amperes (dcrn) 120 amps
Volts 26 volts
Deposition Rate 1.27 kg/hr
SMAW would be computed as follows:
(1) Labor Cost =
20.00 $ihr
- 2.92 $/m
7.61mm/sec x .25 x 3.6
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(2) Overhead Cost = 56.75% x 20.00 $Ihr


- 1.657 $/m
7.61/mm/sec x .25 x 3.6

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 8.1 1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 93 = 8389350 0005093 b30 =
(3) Filler Metal Cost = 1.21 $/kg x 0.0464 kg/m
= 0.086 $/m
.65

1.27 kg/hr
-
- 0.0464 kg/m
7.61mm/sec x 3.6

(6) Power Cost = 120 amps x 26 volts x .O4 $/kwhr


- .O005 $/m
7.61mm/sec x .95 x 3.6 x 1000

- 1.4205 $/ft

Total Cost of Weld = 60.96m x 4.668 = $284.50 SMAW TOTAL COST

These equations provide the manager/estimator Shop welding is generally more productive and
with the basic tools to calculate cost, however, in less expensive than field welding. Vertical or
some cases, the configuration of the weld will require overhead welding positions are considerably more
that the area of the weld be calculated in order to costly than flat position welding and shop welding in
determine the cost of the filler metal. the flat position can usually be accomplished.
The amount of electrode required for a particular The estimator must be aware of the cost of weld
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

joint is based on the weight of deposited metal per inspection, certification and/or testing. Even if others
unit length of weld. This is found by computing the are responsible for these activities they could delay
cross-sectional area of the joint in square inches job progress and result in a cost to the contractor.
multiplied by the length to equal the volume of the
deposited metal. This volumetric value can be 8.6 REDUCING WELDING COSTS
converted to weight by multiplying by the metal To reduce welding costs, a cost analysis should be
density. This weight must be divided by the made in three specific areas:
deposition efficiency to determine the amount of Weld Design:
electrode required. Manufacturers of welding filler * Reduce the number of weld joints
metals have tables where this information is *
Reduce the weld cross-sectional area
available. Standard weld shapes can be found from *
Provide accessibility for all welds
a manufacturers chart. * Select readily weldable materials
The cross-sectional area of a weld varies as the * Utility intermittent fillet welds
square of the weld size. The larger the weld size the *
Select a joint design which will require little
greater the cost; therefore, excess filler metal preparation; simple corners or fillet are the
represents wasted money. least expensive.
Weld Procedure:
8.5 OTHER COST CONSIDERATIONS
Written procedures are recommended for all
Although cost comparisons will show the economic jobs.
benefits of the welding operations, there are other Select proper method of application for
factors included in the overall cost of the finished efficient operator factor. Use semi-automatic
product. and automatic welding where possible to take
Weld preparation in excess of normal fit-up must advantage of a higher operator factor and
also be included in the overall cost of the weld. deposition rate.
Certain unusual conditions require temporary internal Reduce electrode stub loss.
bracing and close alignment of the parts to produce Select the weld process with the maximum
a good weld without distortion and burn-through. deposition rate. For SMAW, the correct
Part weld treatment must be given consideration in amperage setting is important to achieve
weld preparation costs. Post-weld treatment consists maximum deposition rate. For GMAW, the
of labor and equipment for such operations as wire feed rate is determined by the welding
grinding, polishing, heat treatment, shot blasting and conditions for an effective speed.
possibly straightening. Cleaning and coating the joint Manufacturing
with protective materials is yet another cost Parts tbe welded must be cut and formed
consideration. accurately to insure optimum fit-up and
Fire welding is generally more expensive than reduce distortion.
shop welding. Field conditions vary greatly: weather, Surface to be welded must be free of grease,
temperature, local codes, accessibility, and scale and other contaminants.
interferences all have a major effect on productivity. Use designs that minimize edge preparation.

8.12 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * N G W 93 8389350 O005092 557 =
* Avoid overwelding by maintaining specified 1) and the operating factor is 15%. The labor plus
weld sizes, shapes and lengths. This is a overhead rate is $35.00 per hour.
common manufacturing oversight.
* Utilize subassemblies which minimize shop Estimated Cost per
handling and field welding. Foot of Weld = 35*00 = 2.59 $/fi
* In the SMAW process, the electrode should be 90 x 0.15
burned to a 2" (51mm) stub to avoid electrode The welding engineer studies the job and considers
waste. increasing the operating factor to 25% by changes in
* Maintain and service equipment, power source fixture and material handling. Therefore, the . . .
and cables regularly. Consult manufacturer's Estimated Cost per
service manuals for proper service direction. Foot of Weld = 35.00 = 1.56 $/ft
~

* Maintain good housekeeping in welding areas, 90 x 0.25


.e. welding cables should be coiled and
properly supported; exhaust systems should There is some question that an operating factor of
function properly and area should be clear of 25% can be achieved with a stick electrode.
debris and idle tools. Therefore, a semi-automatic process such as gas
*
Keep weld reinforcements within specification metal arc (GMAW) is considered with an estimated
requirements. Excessive reinforcement operating factor of 50%
represents a waste of weld material and labor.
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Minimize weld spatter to reduce filler metal loss Estimated Cost per
and weld cleanup. Weld spatter may Foot of Weld = 35.00 = 0.78 $/ft
approximate 30% of electrode cost. 90 x 0.50
* Keep post weld cleaning and finishing to a
The method of determining welding costs can be
minimum. Good operator skills can reduce
calculated quickly. The engineer can evaluate
cleaning and grinding.
savings in the cost of welding against the capital
expenditure necessary to change the present
8.7 QUICK METHOD FOR ESTIMATING WELD equipment or to buy new equipment. The cost data
COSTS calculated above should be used for comparison only.
Estimators, designers, shop foreman, and others After deciding which process is to be seriously
tend to be apprehensive about the task of cost considered, careful and complete cost analysis can
estimation because of the many factors that must be be made.
taken into account and the possibility for errors. Also,
the mathematical formulas that have been developed Metric Example
look forbidding, even though they only involve simple
The above example using the data given:
arithmetic processes. Groove butt or fill weld 3mm
Situations that require an accurate analysis of
Material 3.51 Omm
welding costs would require considering methods as Welding speed (Table 8-1M) 27.3m/hr
described in chapter 8.3 and 8.4 of this text. Some Operating factor 15%
situations do not require the accuracy of a careful
Labor and overhead rate 35.00 $/hr
cost analysis. For example, preliminary estimates
would be satisfactory for comparing two similar Estimated Cost per
welding processes doing the same job or the same Meter of Weld = 35.00 $Ihr = 8.55 $/m
welding process with different conditions of material 27.3m/hr x 0.15
handling, fixturing, or positioning. A quick method for
comparison purposes is to disregard the cost of Estimated Cost per
Meter of Weld = 35.00 $1'' = 5.13 $/m
consumables and calculate the costs only on the
labor and overhead, arc speed and operating factor 27.3m/hr x 0.25
using the equation
Estimated Cost per
(1) CL = CR Meter of Weld = 35.00 $Ihr = 2.56 $/m
(S)(OF) 27.3m/hr x 0.50
where:
CL - estimated cost per foot of weld ($/fi)
S - welding speed (feetlhr) or in./min x 5
OF - operating factor (YO)
CR - hourly labor and overhead rate ($/hr)
For example, a particutar application is making a
1/8 inch square groove butt or fillet weld with 1O gage
material. Welding speed is 90 feet per hour (Table 8-

The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition 8.13


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLExMGW 9 3 m B L B 3 5 0 0005093 493 m

Chapter 9
TRAINING

9.1 Importance of Training


9.2 Resources for Training
9.3 Training for Qualifications
9.4 Requalification Requirements
9.5 References
9.6 Supplemental Training

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 9.1


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
9.1 IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
-.-. _...
LI1ACNA TITLExMGW 93
committing any time or money to it.
8389350 0005094 3 2 T =
The contractor is urged to develop and rely on a
Welder training is the most important ingredient in local facility for basic training needs. Where a local
the whole recipe for making a weld. Just having a facility does not exist, it is recommended that the
welding machine will not assure a good weld. The contractor group set up a training program using
machine has to be set and running right. Just having group funding rather than proceeding independently.
an electrode to weld with will not assure a good weld. Programs would logically be targeted for those
It must match the metal to be welded, be dry and free individuals who are already participating in industry
of other contaminants, etc. Too many people think apprentice training or journeyman levels of
that welding is easy, and anyone can weld. This is involvement.
true, but there is a big difference between making a The National Training Fund has assisted in the
weld and making a good, sound, high quality weld. establishment of welder training programs in many
This difference is welder training. areas of the United States. The NTF programs
Welders should receive formal training to assure include training or journeyman levels of involvement.
good quality welding and achieve high productivity. Where the need for training of welders or welder
It is unlikely that satisfactory skills can be developed instructors is insufficient to make a commitment to a
experimentally or in a self-taught approach to permanent program, special arrangements can be
welding. This does not mean that experience is not made with the National Training Fund, with regional
a vital element. A person of average intelligence and colleges vocational schools or universities having the
mechanical aptitude can be taught to make a basic required capabilities, with consultants who specialize
weld in a few hours. Proficiency, however, will in such activities or with major suppliers who have
develop only after exposure to qualified instruction formal training programs at their facilities. Where
and months of practice. It is important that welders basic welding skills are already possessed by welders
receive instructions from individuals who have both and the need arises for new skills, concentrated
the ability to teach and the ability to weld. courses are available at training centers operated by
Many employers are unwilling to invest in the such companies as Hobart, Lincoln, Linde, Airco, etc.
training of their employees. If the employer chooses A comprehensive welder training program will
to spend the time, the effort and the money to normally involve several hundred hours of schooling
provide proper training for their welders, then the and it may involve several thousand dollars of cost
result will be high quality products, good productivity per student. Training sessions for a particular
and a better bottom line. If the contractor chooses not process and a particular material may range from
to provide the right kind of training, the result will forty to one hundred fifty hours of instruction.
definitely be more rework, more rejects, low
productivity, poor reputation and higher costs. The 9.3 TRAINING FOR QUALIFICATION
employer will pay the bill one way or the other. The
importance of good welder training cannot be Frequently, project specifications will require
overemphasized. An employer can have the best qualification of welders. These specifications may
equipment and facilities available: and the best reference codes or standards that vary in qualification
material and welding procedures. But, if the welder requirements, by the amount and type of inspection
does not know how to weld correctly, then the of weldments, by the amount of record keeping
employer's entire investment is virtually useless. required and by the timeliness of qualification or
When an employer looks at his investment in requalification of welder skills. It should not be
facilities, tools and equipment, the investment in good presumed that a welder who passes a qualification
welder training is an extremely small price to pay in test will maintain the same level of proficiency for
comparison. A price, by the way, that will be extended periods of time.
recovered many times over. Separate qualifications are normally required for
the different categories of sheet metal welding, plate
9.2 RESOURCES FOR TRAINING welding, structural welding, pressure vessel welding,
There are numerous ways to get this training. An etc. Qualification in one category does not mean that
employer can set up an "in house" program which is an individual is qualified in another category. The
designed for a particular operation. Employees special requirements of each must be examined and
might be used as instructors, or outside consultants understood to assure that welders are properly
might be hired to teach the processes and techniques trained in the skills of the project documents and the
for a company's needs. There are also many good contractors' objectives.
technical schools available that can teach a "canned"
course or they can design a course for your specific
needs. Not all technical schools are created equal.
It is recommended that a good, thorough check be
made of a program and its reputation before

9.2 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLExMGW 9 3 m BLB9350 0005095 266 m
9.4 REQUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS In summary, each contractor should prepare a set
of interview and test requirements. The interview .
The science and technology of welding are should ask questions about equipment, material,
continually changing; advances in technology and electrodes and shielding gases. The test should
production capability will necessitate that welders and cover only specific processes, materials and positions
instructors be trained in new welding procedures. that will ordinarily be used and the test should be
The frequency and variety of welding are factors that prepared in advance.
influence a welders proficiency.
The importance of having reliable written 9.7 WELDER CERTIFICATION
procedures has been stressed in Section 6.
Provisions within the standards and specifications The number one goal of the Welding Advice,
published by the American Welding Society and other Instruction and Testing (WAIT) Van is to help produce
organizations change frequently. Moreover, federal, person hours by moving throughout its assigned
state and local safety regulations are frequently region as needed by contractors, local unions or
revised. These significantly affect welding processes JATCs. The Van is operated by National Training
and procedures and affect the cost of welding. Fund (NTF) American Welding Society (AWS)
THE CON TRACTOR MUST MAIN TAIN Certified Welding Inspectors (CWls) who are trained
AWARENESS OF INDUSTRY PROGRESS AND to write and qualify procedures, certify welders to
EXAMINE THE NEED FOR RETRAINING AND applicable codes and when necessary, teach specific
REQUALIFICATION OF WELDERS ON A welding techniques. The NTFs CWls will be
REGULAR BASIS. available to work with local instructors of apprentices
and journeypersons to test and certify their welding
9.5 REFERENCES classes when schedules allow.
A NTF Inspector will assist in interpreting welding
The contractor is referred to all other sections of codes and specifications, determine the method of
this guide for greater perception of training needs. testing and then perform the applicable test. Testing
The bibliography lists certain organizations that may can be done in contractors shop, local training
have the resources for training desired. The National centers or if necessary on the job site. The NTFs
Training Fund program relies significantly on the use WAIT mobile testing laboratory is an AWS approved
of audio/visual training aids. A partial list of their testing facility which allows the NTF the opportunity
resources is presented in this manual. If a local of offering the AWS National Certification to the sheet
contractor group wishes to use a training program metal industry.
that departs from the NTF program, a university Some of the many codes are the AWSs D1.l, and
program or one available from a manufacturer- D9.1; ASME and the National Certification. Lengths
affiliated school, it may submit an outline of their of testing varies per code, for example: D1.1,3/8 inch
program to the SMACNA Welding Committee for (10mm) plate, 8 hours per person; D9.1, 2 hours:
comment. ASME, 8 hours; and the National Certification, 3/8
inch (lomm) plate, 8 hours.
9.6 SUPPLEMENTAL TRAINING When the NTFs CWI has completed and
processed all required paper work for welder
The sheet metal contractor should not be expected certification through the NTF Office, then certifications
to provide welder training on company time. Local are issued. The renewal of certifications is the
union labor agreements require that sheet metal responsibility of the individual or contractor. The NTF
workers capable of performing the work be provided. does not accept the responsibility to provide the
Local training programs should be fulfilling all of the means for the continuation and maintenance of these
training requirements for the skills needed. If there is certifications; however, the NTF tries to keep
a problem in this area, it is suggested that it be certifications from expiring. When it means
discussed with the local SMACNA chapter training immediate employment for a job already in progress
committee to assure that the required training will be or helping a contractor secure work for sheet metal
administered. It is also suggested that the contractor workers, the NTF will work to expedite the welder
encourage welders to practice on weekends and certification.
evenings and that they be invited to try new Contractors, local unions and JATCs should
processes and new techniques. The increase in skill contact the NTF as soon as the need for an NTFs
would be beneficial for both the employer and the CWI arises. The services are funded by hourly
employee. contributions to the NTF, but exclude the cost of
consumables needed to practice and perform the
actual testing.

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 9.3


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLExMGW 93 8189350 000509b I T 2 m

Chapter 10
HIRING WELDERS

10.1 Hiring Qualified Welders


10.2 Welder Testing

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
10.1
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A T I T L E w M G W 93 W 8189350 0005097 039 W

10.1 HIRING QUALIFIED WELDERS TEN POINT CHECK LIST FOR


HIRING WELDERS
The importance of having qualified welders cannot
be overemphasized. Weld quality is of equal 1. IDENTIFY EXPERIENCE REQUIRED FOR
importance to cost considerations outlined in Section EMPLOYMENT.
8. Some work in the sheet metal industry requires
only seal welds capable of preventing air or water 2. CLARIFY THE WELD QUALITY REQUIRED IN
leakage, however, welds that have a structural TERMS OF USE OF SPECIFIC PROCEDURES
purpose are also frequently required. The failure of AND INSPECTIONS.
a critical weld can cause major damage and,
consequently, a great expense. It is essential that
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3. REQUIRE COMPETENT WELDERS FROM THE


welders employed by the contractor be capable of LOCAL UNION LABOR POOL.
making the type of welds required for fabrication and
erection whether such welds are regulated by codes 4. HIRE ONLY WELDERS WITH SUITABLE
and engineering design details or are for other less QUALIFICATIONS.
demanding purposes.
When hiring a welder be sure to specify the 5. CHECK PREVIOUS QUALIFICATIONS AND
welding processes that will be used and the skills WORK RECORD.
required.
6. CONSIDER USING YOUR OWN PRE-
10.2 WELDER TESTING QUALIFICATION TEST, ONE THAT IS BRIEF,
SIMPLE AND DESIGNED FOR YOUR SPECIFIC
It is recommended that when hiring a welder a NEEDS.
performance test be prepared and administered. This
test should involve the processes, material and 7. WHEN GIVING A QUALIFICATION TEST,
positions that will be used in the fabrication or PREPARE THE FACILITY, MATERIALS,
erection of the contractors products. Do not waste MACHINERY AND PROCEDURES I N
time testing for skills that are not needed. For ADVANCE.
example, if only gas metal arc welding (GMAW) on
mild steel is being done, it would be a waste of time, 8. ARRANGE AFTER-HOURS TRAINING FOR
energy and expense to test the welder on a gas DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIAL SKILLS
tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process on aluminum. NEEDED.
The test should be brief, simple and concise. It
should confirm the welders knowledge of the 9. ENCOURAGE WELDERS TO EXPERIMENT
equipment and materials used, and if necessary, WITH AND PRACTICE ON NEW EQUIPMENT,
knowledge of electrodes and shielding gases. The PROCESSES AND TECHNIQUES.
materials, machines and test area should be
prepared in advance of the test. If position welding 1o. ADVISE THE LOCAL TRAINING PROGRAM
is required, some type of holder or support for the ADMINISTRATOR IF YOUR NEEDS ARE NOT
test specimen must be provided. MET.
Testing should include butt and fillet welds in at
least two positions on the thinnest material to be
welded. See Figure 10-1.
When possible, obtain the qualification records of
the welder being considered. The contractor is
cautioned that hiring welders who are overskilled for
a particular type of work may result in poor
productivity. For example, the welder with previous
experience primarily on projects involving code
welding on nuclear power plants may spend more
time than is necessary on welds for commercial work.

10.2 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLE*MGW 9 3 8 1 8 9 3 5 0 0005098 T75

Recommended Welder Qualification Tests

Process: SMAW

GMAW

GTAW

FCAW

Test Welds: 12 in. (305mm) long minimum - thickness required

No. passes: One

Material: Carbon Steel

Galvanized Steel

Aluminum

Stainless Steel

POSITION
Number of Welds H Vd O
Butt Weld Test #i Shop Shop, Field Field

Test #2 Shop Shop, Field Field

Fillet Weld* Test #i Shop Shop, Field Field

Test #2 Shop Shop, Field Field

Note: 1. Test only for skills needed!

* Indicate corner joint, tee joint or lap joint for fillet welds

Figure 10-1
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 10.3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA T I T L E * V G W 93 8389350 0005099 903
Chapter 11
GLOSSARY
WELDING TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Check index for terms not listed here.

Backstep sequence. Welding sequence in which weld-


Adhesive bonding. A joining process that uses a liquid based increments are deposited in the direction opposite
adhesive between faying surfaces; the adhesive to the progress of the weld joint.
solidifies to form a bond. Back weld. A weld deposited at the back of a single-
Air-carbon-arc cutting. An arc process that cuts metal by groove weld.
melting it by the heat of an electric arc between an Bare electrode. A consumable electrode, used in arc
electrode and the base metal. A blast of air removes welding, consisting of metal wire without coating.
the molten metal. Base metal. The metal to be welded, brazed, soldered, or
Arc blow. Deflection of an arc from its normal path by cut.
magnetic forces. Bevel. An angle-edge preparation.
Arc cutting. A process that cuts metal by melting it by Bond coat. In thermal spraying, a preliminary or prime
the heat of an arc between an electrode and the base coat of material which improves adherence of the
metal. thermal-spray deposit.
Arc gouging. Arc cutting procedure used to form a Bond line. Junction between filler and base material;
groove or bevel. between sprayed deposits and substrate; between base
Arc length. The distance from the end of the electrode materials when joining in autogenous.
to the point of arc contact with the workpiece surface. Boxing. Continuation of a fillet weld around a corner of
Arc strike. An inadvertent change in the contour of the a member as an extension of a major weld.
finished weld or adjacent base material resulting from Brazing. Joining using a filler that melts above 840F
heat generated by the passage of electrical energy (449C) and below the solidus of the materials being
between the surface of the finished weld or base joined. Material surfaces fit closely, so that filler flows
material and a current source, such as welding by capillary action.
electrodes or magnetic-particular-inspectionprods. Braze welding. Welding with a filler metal that melts
Arc voltage. The difference in potential across the above 840F (449C) and below the solidus of the base
welding arc. metal. The filler does not flow by capillary action; gap is

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Arc welding. A welding process that fuses material by too wide.
heating it with an electric arc. Buttering. Deposition of weld metal on the joint groove
As-welded. The condition of a weld or weldment after face to provide a transition layer for subsequent layers
welding, before chemical, thermal, or mechanical of weld metal.
treatment. Butt joint. A joint between two members lying in the
Atomization. In thermal spraying, the division of molten same plane.
material at the end of the feed stock, wire or rod, into
fine particles. Car pass. In pipeline welding, final pass of a weld joint.
Autogenous weld. A fusion weld made without filler Carrier gas. In thermal spraying, the gas used to carry
metal. powdered materials from the powder feeder or hopper to
Automatic welding. Welding with equipment that the gun.
performs without constant observation and adjustment of Chain intermittent fillet welding. Two lines of
the controls by an operator. intermittent fillet welding on a joint. The fillet-weld
segments in one line are opposite to those in the other
Back gouging. Removal of base and weld metal from the line.
back side of a partially welded joint to assure a clean Cladding. A layer of material 0.04 in. (1.02mm) or
base for subsequent welding. thicker applied to the base material to improve corrosion
Backhand welding. A welding technique in which the or wear resistance of the part.
torch is tilted in a direction opposite to the direction of Coating. A layer of material 0.04 in. (1.02mm) or less
the weld travel. applied to improve lubrication or resistance to corrosion,
Backing. Material placed over the weld-joint root to high-temperature scaling, or wear.
support molten weld metal. Coating density. In thermal spraying, the ratio of density
Backing ring. Backing in the form of a ring; generally of a thermally sprayed coating to the density of the raw
used for pipe welding. material used for the coating.
Backing strip. Backing in the form of strip; generally used Complete penetration. Weld metal completely fills the
for plate welding. groove and is fused to the base metal through the entire
joint thickness.

Reprinted from Welding and Fabrication Data Book 19993 pg. A8

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 11.1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEUMGW 9 3 8389350 0005100 453 =
Terms and Definitions

Cover glass. Clear glass used in goggles, hand shields, Electric-arc spraying. A thermal-spraying process using
and helmets to shield the filter glass from spatter. an electric arc between two consumable electrodes to
Covered electrode. A filler-metal electrode, used in heat a coating material. Compressed gas atomizes and
shielded-metal-arc welding, consisting of a metal-core propels the material to the base material.
wire with a covering. The covering contains elements Electrode welding. A rod or wire which comprises part of
and compounds that protect the weld puddle from the the welding circuit-the arc strikes from the tip. An
atmosphere, improve the properties of the weld metal, electrode can melt, becoming part of the weld pool, or
and stabilize the arc. remain solid, as does the tungsten electrode in gas-
Crater. In arc welding, a depression at the end of a weld tungsten-arc welding.
bead. Electrogas welding. A vertical-travel gas-metal-arc-
Crater crack. A crack in the crater of a weld bead. welding process that uses molding dams to confine the
molten weld metal in the vertical joint.
Defect. Discontinuities or undesirable geometry that Electro-beam welding. A welding process that fuses
makes a part unacceptable. metals with the heat from a concentrated beam of high-
Deposit. Filler metal added during a welding operation. velocity electrons impinging upon the joint. Welding can
Deposition efficiency. In arc welding, the ratio of take place in a high to medium vacuum (10 to 50 torr),
deposited-metal weight to weight of filler metal or at atmospheric pressure (non-vacuum).
consumed, exclusive of stubs. In thermal spraying, the Electroslag welding. A vertical-travel welding process
ratio of the weight deposit to the weight of the material that uses electrical-resistance heat from a molten slag to
sprayed. melt and fuse filler metal and joint surfaces. The slag
Deposition rate. Speed at which filler metal is added to shields the weld-metal surface.
a joint or deposited on a surface. Explosion welding. Controlled detonation across the top
Depth of fusion. The distance that fusion extends into of one workpiece produces a solid-state bond to another
the base metal from the surface melted during welding. workpiece.
Detonation flame spraying. A thermal spraying process Face of weld. The surface of a weld, made by an arc- or
in which a controlled explosion of a mixture of fuel gas gas-welding process, on the side from which welding
and oxygen melts and propels powdered coating was done.
material to the workpiece.
Diffusion welding. A solid-state welding process that
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

produces coalescence of the welding surface by


applications of heat and pressure.
Dilution. The amount of fused base metal that has mixed
with filler metal in the weld. Expressed in percent.
Direct arc. A welding arc between electrode tip and
work.
Direct current electrode negative (dcen). Welding with
direct current, the arc striking from the negative
electrode to a positive workpiece.
Direct current electrode positive (dcep). The reverse of Faying surface. The surface of a member that contacts
dcen-the arc strikes from the negative workpiece to a another member to which it is to be joined.
positive electrode. Ferrite number. An arbitrary, standardized number that
Discontinuity. An interruption in the typical structure of expresses the amount of ferrite in an austenitic-
a weldment, not necessarily a defect. stainless-steel weld.
Double ending. Welding together, in the shop, two Filler metal. Metal added when making a welded, brazed,
lengths of pipe, usually performed in the flat position or soldered joint.
where pipe ends meet while rotating the pipe lengths. Fillet weld. A weld of approximately triangular cross
See Horizontal rolled position. section joining two surfaces approximately at right
Double-welded butt joint. A butt joint welded from both angles to each other in a lap, T, or corner joint.
sides. Filler plate. A transparent plate tinted to varying
Downhill welding. In pipe welding, welding proceeds darknesses for use in goggles, helmets, and hand
from top to bottom of the circumferential joint. Pipe is shields to exclude harmful radiation from eyes while
not rotated. welding.
Drop-through. Sagging or surface irregularity, usually Flame spraying. A thermal-spraying process using an
encountered when brazing or welding near the freezing oxyfuel-gas flame as the source of heat for melting the
point of the base metal. coating material.
Flash. Material expelled from a weld joint to solidify
Edge preparation. Surface preparation on the edge of a around the weld.
member for welding.

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93, pg. A8-A9

11.2 The Manager's Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
~
SMACNA TITLEJMGW 93 W 8389350 0005l101 39T
Terms and Definitions

Flash welding. A resistance-welding process that joins IHardfacing. Surfacing applied to a workpiece to reduce
the entire area of abutting surfaces by heat from wear.
resistance to current flow across the surfaces and by lHeat-affected zone. The portion of the base metal
pressure applied after heating is complete. adjacent to the weld that has not melted, but whose
Flat position. Welding performed from the upper side of mechanical properties or microstructure have been
the joint. The weld face is horizontal. altered by heat from welding or cutting.
Flux. Material used to prevent, dissolve, or ease removal Horizontal fixed position. (ASME 5-G) In pipe welding,
of oxides and other undesirable substances. the position of a pipe joint in which the axis of the pipe
Flux-cored-arc welding. A process that welds by heating is horizontal and the pipe is not rotated during welding.
with an electric arc between a continuous tubular filler- Horizontal position. Welding position in which the weld
metal electrode (wire) and the work. Flux within the axis is horizontal and the face of the weld is vertical;
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

electrode provides shielding, called self-shielded, FCAW- ASME-2-G in pipe welding.


SS. Additional shielding may be used, called gas- Horizontal rolled position. (ASME-1-G) In pipe welding,
shielded, FCAW-OS. performed in the flat position by rotating the pipe.
Forehand welding. A welding technique in which the Hot pass. In pipe welding, the second pass, which goes
electrode is tilted in the direction of weld travel. over the stringer bead.
Friction welding. A solid-state welding process that joins
materials by heat from sliding motion betweenthe faying Inadequate joint penetration. Joint penetration less than
surfaces. specified.
Fused spray deposit. A self-fluxing thermal-spray deposit Inclined position. (ASME 6-G)In pipe welding, the pipe
which is heated to fusing temperature (1,800-2,OOOF) angles 45 degrees to the horizontal and remains
(982-1204C) to bond it with itself and with the substrate. stationary.
Self-fluxing alloys wet the substrate without the addition Incomplete fusion. Lack of complete melting together of
of a fluxing agent. filler metal and base metal, or of base metal only in the
Fusion. Melting together of filler and base metal or of case of autogenous welds.
base metal only. Indirect arc. A welding arc between two electrodes.
Interpass temperature. In multipass welding, the lowest
Gas-metal-arc cutting. A process that cuts metal by temperature of the deposited weld metal before the next
melting with an electric arc between a consumable pass is started.
electrode and the work. Shielding is by gas, gas Ionization potential. The voltage required to ionize
mixture, or gas and flux. (remove an electron from or add an electron to a
Gas-metal-arc welding. A process that welds by heating material). In welding, the ionization potential of elements
with an electric arc between a continuous consumable in the arc affects arc stability and the ease of arc
electrode wire and the work. Shielding is by gas, a gas initiation.
mixture, or a mixture of a gas and a flux. Also called
mig welding Joint. The junction where two or more members are to
Gas-tungsten-arc cutting. A process that cuts by melting be joined or have been jointed.
with an electric arc betweena non-consumable tungsten Joint efficiency. Ratio of joint strength to base-metal
electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained from an strength.
inert gas or gas mixture. Joint penetration. The minimum depth to which a groove
Gas-tungsten-arc welding. A process that welds by or fillet weld extends from its face into a joint, excluding
heating with an electric arc between a non-consumable reinforcement.
tungsten electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained Joint root. That portion of the joint, a line or an area,
from an inert gas or gas mixture. Filler metal, when where members approach closest to each other.
used, is added manually or automatically to the puddle.
Also called tig welding. Kerf. Width of a cut.
Gas welding. A process that welds by heating with a gas Keyholing. Welding technique in which a concentrated
flame with or without filler-metal addition and applied heat source completely penetrates the workpiece,
pressure. forming a hole that fills in as the heat source progresses.
Groove weld. A weld made in the groove between two Common in laser- and electron-beam welding.
members. Standard types: square groove, single V,
single bevel, single U, single J, double V, double bevel, Lap joint. A joint between two overlapping members in
double U, double J. parallel planes.
Gun. General term for electrode-holding device in the Laser-beamcutting. A process that severs materials with
gas-metal-arc, electron-beam, and resistance-welding the heat from a concentrated coherent light beam
processes; also used in soldering and thermal spraying. impinging upon the workpiece.

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93, pg. A8 - A9

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 11.3


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 1 8 9 3 5 0 0005102 226
Terms and Definitions

Laser-beam welding. A welding process that fuses Oxyfuel cutting. Process that cuts by oxidizing the base
materials with the heat from a concentrated coherent metal at high temperatures. Combustion of fuel gas and
light beam impinging upon the members to be joined. oxygen maintains the temperature.
Leg of fillet weld. The distance from the root of the joint Oxyfuel welding. Process that welds by oxidizing the
to the toe of the fillet weld. base metal at high temperatures. Combustion of fuel
Liquidus. Lowest temperature at which a metal or alloy gas and oxygen maintains the temperature.
is completely liquid. Oxygen cutting. Use of oxygen jets to cut parts at high
Load current. Current flow from a power source during temperatures, well above the oxidation temperature of
welding. the metal or alloy.
Load voltage. Voltage between output terminals of a
power source during welding. Peening. Working a metal by impact blows.
Local preheating. Preheating a specific portion of a Penetration. Depth of melting, measured from the
workpiece. original surface of the base metal.

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Plasma-arc cutting. Cutting by means of a hot
Machine welding. Welding with equipment that performs (50,000 F+) (27760 C+) arc, formed by ionizing, with an
under observation and control of a welding operator. electric current, orifice (plasma) gas constricted by a
Manual welding. Welding performed by hand. small-diameter nozzle.
Mask. A device for protecting nearby surfaces from the Plasma-arc welding. Welding by means of a hot arc,
effects of abrasive blasting or from coating adherence. formed by ionizing a stream of gas constricted by a
Mechanical bond. The adherence of a thermal-spray small-diameter nozzle.
deposit to a roughened surface by particle interlocking. Plasma spraying. A thermal-spraying process in which a
Mechanized welding. Welding with equipment set up for nontransferred arc is the source of heat for melting and
a specific limited task. Requires some observation by a propelling the coating material to the workpiece.
welding operator. Piping porosity. Pinholes in a plane passing through the
Melt-through. Visible reinforcement produced on the root of a weld and normal to the weld surface.
opposite side of a joint welded from one side. Plug weld. A circular weld made through a hole in one
Mig welding. See gas-metal-arc welding. member of a lap or T-joint, joining that member to
another.
Neutral flame. A gas flame that is neither oxidizing nor Porosity. Gas pockets or voids in metal.
reducing. Positioned weld. A weld made in a joint that has been
Nontransferred arc. In plasma-arc welding and cutting rotated in space to make welding easier-for example,
and plasma-spraysurfacing, an arc established between rotating a pipe joint under a welding head such that
the electrode and the constricting nozzle. The welding always occurs in the flat position.
workpiece is not in the electrical circuit. Postheating. Application of heat to a weld or weldment
after a welding or cutting operation, often for stress
Open-circuit voltage. The voltage between the output relief.
terminals of the welding machine when no current is Preheating. Application of heat to the base metal before
flowing in the welding circuit. welding or cutting.
Orifice gas. In plasma-arc welding and cutting, the gas Procedurequalification. Demonstrationthat a weld made
that surrounds the electrode in the torch; it ionizes to by a specific procedure can meet given standards.
from the plasma.
Output slope. The relationship between output voltage Reducing flame. A gas flame that has a reducing effect
and current from a power supply as current or voltage (excess fuel).
changes. Reinforcement. Weld metal on the weld face in excess
Overhead positions. Position in which welding is of the metal necessary for the specified weld size.
performed from the underside of the joint; ASME 4-G in Residual stress. Stress remaining in a structure or
pipe welding. member as a result of thermal or mechanical treatment
Overlap. Protrusion of weld metal beyond the bond line or both.
at the weld root or toe. Reverse polarity. Direct-current arc welding in which the
Oxidizing flame. A gas flame that has an oxidizing effect electrode is the positive pole of the welding arc. See
(excess oxygen). direct current electrode positive, the preferred term.
Root crack. A crack at the root of a weld.

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93, pg. A8-A9

11.4 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*MGW 93 8189350 0005103 162
Terms and Definitions

Root of joint. The portion of a joint to be welded where Stickout. Length of electrode wire between the end of a
the members approach closest to each other. welding gun or head and the arc.
Root opening. The distance between the members to be Straight polarity. Direct-current arc welding where the
joined at the root of the weld. work is the positive pole. See direct current electrode
Root of weld. The points, as shown in cross section, at negative, the preferred term.
which the bottom of the weld intersects the base-metal Stress relief cracking. Cracking of metal in the weld
surface. metal or heat-affected zone during postweld heat
treatment or high temperature service.
Seal coat. Material applied to close the pores of a Stress relieving. Thermal or mechanical (peening or
thermal-spray deposit. vibration) treatment of a workpiece after welding to lower
Self-fluxing alloys. See fused spray deposit. the induced stress. For steel weldments, thermal
Semiautomatic welding. Arc welding with equipment treatment entails heating of a part or all of the structure
that controls the filler-metal feed. Welding travel is to below the critical temperature, the temperature at
manually controlled. which austenite starts to form in the microstructure,
Shielded-metal-arc welding. A process that welds by followed by slow cooling. Weldments of aluminum,
heat from an electric arc between a covered metal magnesium, nickel, titanium, molybdenum and tungsten,
electrode and the work. Shielding comes from and their alloys, may also require stress relief.
decomposition of the electrode covering. The filler metal Stringer bead. A weld bead made without transverse
is obtained from the electrode. Also called stick welding oscillation.
Shielding gas. Protective gas used to shield weld pools Submerged-arc welding. A process that welds with the
from atmosphericcontaminationwhile welding proceeds. heat produced by an electric arc between a bare metal
Single-minded butt joint. A butt joint welded from one electrode and the work. A blanket of granular fusible
side only. flux shields the weld.
Size of weld. Substrate. Any material upon which a thermal-spray
Groove weld-Depth of bevel plus the root penetration. deposit is applied.
Fillet weld-For equal-leg fillet welds, the leg length of Surfacing. Position of filler metal on a metal surface to
the largest isosceles triangle which can be inscribed obtain desired properties or dimensions.
within the fillet-weld cross section. For unequal-legfillet
welds, the leg lengths of the largest right triangle that Tack weld. A short weld made to hold parts of a
can be inscribed in the weld cross section. weldment in proper alignment until the final welds are
Slag inclusions. Nonmetallic solid material in weld metal made. Usually made in a series.
or between weld metal and base metal. Thermal spraying. A group of processes in which finely
Slot weld. A weld made in an elongated hole in one divided metallic or nonmetallicmaterials are deposited in
member of a lap or T joint joining that member to the a molten or semi-molten condition to form a coating.
surface of the other member exposed through the hole. Thermal-spray gun. A device for heating, feeding, and
Slugging. Addition of a separate piece of material to a directing the flow of a thermal spraying material.
joint before or during welding (an unsound practice). Throat of weld. Shortest distance from the root of a fillet
Soldering. Welding using a filler metal with a liquidus weld to its face.
less than 840 F (449 C), below the solidus of the base Tig welding. See gas-tungsten-arc welding.
metal. T-joint. A joint between two members at a right angle to
Solidus. Highest temperature at which a metal or alloy is each other.
completely solid. Toe crack. A crack in the base metal at the toe of the
Spatter. In arc and gas welding, metal particles expelled weld.
during welding that do not form part of the weld. Toe of weld. The junction between the face of a weld
Specific gravity. Ratio of weight of a volume of a and the base metal.
material to the weight of the same volume of water. Torch. In gas-tungsten-arc welding the device that grips
Dimensionless. the tungsten electrode. In plasma-arc welding and
Specific heat. The amount of heat required to raise the cutting, the nozzle from which orifice gas emanates.
temperature of a unit of weight of a material one degree. Transferred arc. In plasma-arc welding, an arc between
Expressed in Btu/lb-F. the electrode and the workpiece.
Stick welding. See shielded-metal-arc welding. Tungsten electrode. A non-filler-metal electrode used in
gas-tungsten-arc welding consisting of a tungsten wire.

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93 pg. A10

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
11.5
Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEaMGW 93 W 8189350 0005104 O T 9
Terms and Definitions

Underbead crack. A crack in the heat-affected zone, not Weldability. The capacity of a metal to be welded under
reaching the surface of the base metal. imposed conditions into a specific structure and to
Undercut. A groove melted into the base metal adjacent perform satisfactorily in the intended service.
to the toe or root of a weld, unfilled by weld metal. Weld axis. A line through the length of a weld,
Underfill. A depression on the face of the weld or root perpendicular to its cross section.
surface extending below the surface of the adjacent Weld metal. The portion of a weld which has melted
base metal. during welding.
Uphill welding. In pipe welding, indicates that welding Welder. One who performs a manual- or semiautomatic-
proceeds from bottom to top of the circumferential joint. welding operation.
Pipe is not rotated. Welder qualification. Demonstration of a welders ability
Upset. Deformation from the application of pressure in to produce welds that meet prescribed standards.
welding. Welding operator. One who operates machine- or
Vertical position. semiautomatic-weldingequipment.
Pipe welding-Position in which the axis of the pipe is Welding sequence. The order of making the welds in a
vertical and the welding progresses horizontally. weldment.
(ASME 2-G). Welding technique. The details of a welding operation
Plate welding-The place is vertical, and the welding that are controlled by the welder or welding operator.
progresses upward or downward. (ASME 3-G). Work cable. An electrical lead that connects the
workpiece to the welding-power supply to complete the
Weave bead. Weld bead made with transverse electrical welding circuit.
oscillation.
Weld. A local melting together of metal in which melting
is produced by heating with or without the application of
pressure, and with or without the use of filler metal. The
filler metal has a melting point approximately the same
as that of the base metal.
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Reprinted from Welding and Fabricating Data Book 1992/93pg. A10

11.6 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLE*NGW 9 3 W 8189350 0005L05 T35 W

Chapter 12
INDEX

A i
alloys, 2.23 equipment inspection, 7.3
aluminum, 2.22, 2.29, 5.10 booms, 3.7 interpretation, vii
A.W.S., 5.10, 6.2 carbon arc, 2.3
amperage, 3.3 flux.cored, 2.1O J
A.I.S.I., 5.10 gas metal arc, 2.8 joints,
A.N.S.I., 4.4 gas tungsten arc, 2.6 basic, 5.11
A.S.M.E., 5.10 miscellaneous, 3.10 butt, 5.12
plasma arc, 2.12 corner, 5.14
B positioner, 3.9 types, 5.4
brazing, 2.3 safety, 3.10 joint design, vi, 5.2
seam, 3.8
C shielded metal arc, 2.4 M
cables, 3.4, 3.5, 4.2 submerged arc, 2.13 magnesium, 2.2
certification, 9.3 tables, 3.9 management, 4.1
codes, 6.2, 6.3 torches, 3.7 material,
committee, iv, 1.1 turning rolls, 3.8 coating, 6.3
copper, 2.23 estimating, requirements, 6.3
costs, 8.1, see estimating considerations, 8.12 metal, 6.3
current, cost, 8.2, 8.12
alternating, 2.5 definitions, 8.2 N
welding, 2.17, 6.4 equations, 8.8 national training fund, 1.1
- cylinders, 4.4 examples, 8.8 noise, 4.3
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

parameter, 8.3 nontransferred. 2.1 2


- D quick method, 8.13
definition, 8.2, 11.1 extinguisher, 4.3 0
design, 5.2 overloading, 2.7
D1.3, 6.2 F O.S.H.A., 4.3
D9.1, 6.2 feeders, 3.5
filler metals, 2.23 P
E fillet, 5.5 power,
edge, 5.4 intermittent, 5.6 ac, 3.2
electricity, conversion, 3.2
generator, 3.2 G dc, 3.2
inductance, 3.3 gas, 2.2, sources, 3.2
inverters, 3.2 compressed, 4.3 processes, v, 2.2
NEMA, 3.3 shielding, 2.2, 6.3 carbon arc, 2.2, 2.3
rectifier, 3.2 gun flux.cored arc, 2.2, 2.9
shock, 4.2 position, 2.1 1 gas metal arc, 2.2, 2.8
sources, 3.2 spool, 3.7 gas tungsten arc, 2.2, 2.6
transformer, 3.2 glossary, 11.1 heliarc, 2.5
electrode, groove, 5.4 plasma arc, 2.11, 7.2
flux.cored, 2.24, 2.25 submerged arc, 2.13
grinding, 2.7 H tig, 2.5
ovens, 3.9 hazard, 4.5 shielded metal arc, 2.2, 2.4
stainless steel, 2.15, 2.27 heliarc, 2.5 proprietary products, vii
suggested, 2.23 history, 6.2 plug, 5.7
- tungsten, 2.5 hiring, 10.2
type, 2.2, 2.14

The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition 12.1


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
S M A C N A TITLEnMGW 9 3 m 8189350 0005LOb 971 m
Q v
--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
quality, supervisor, 4.2 voltage, 3.2
considerations, 7.2 symbols,
testing, 10.2 edge.flange, 5.8 w
fillet, 5.5 weld,
R groove, 5.4 strength, 5.4
radiation, 4.2 intermittent, 5.6 welders,
references, v, 4.4, 5.10, 9.3 plug, 5.7 hiring, 10.2
types, 5.3, 5.12, 5.12 seam, 3.8
S T welding,
safety, terms, 11.1 amperage, 3.3
air contamination, 4.2 testing, 10.2 cable, 3.4
control, 4.5 tig, 2.5 copper, 2.3, 3.5
equipment, 3.1 O titanium, 2.23 current, 6.3
explosion, 4.3 torches, see equipment distortion, 5.2
fire, 4.3 training, equipment, 3.2
flammable, 4.3 importance, 9.2 inspection, 7.3
fumes, 4.2 N.T.F., 9.3 jigging, 5.2
gases, 4.3 programs, 6.3 machine, 3.6
heat, 4.3 qualification, 9.3 performance, 6.3
N.F.P.A., 4.4 requalification, 9.3 position, 5.3, 5.10, 6.3
N.T.F., 4.4 resources, 9.2 procedure, 6.3, 6.5
noise, 4.3 transfer, productivity, 6.3
procedures, 4.4 globular, 2.8 qualification, 6.3
references, v pulsed spray, 2.8 quality, 7.2, 6.2
shock, 4.2 short circuit, 2.8, 2.19 repeatability, 6.2
SMACNA, 4.4 spray, 2.8, 2.19 specification, 6.7
shielding gas, 2.16 training, vi, 9.2 stick, 2.4
specifications, 6.2 transferred, 2.12 symbols, 5.2
standards, 6.2 troubleshooting, 7.5 terms, 11.1
steel tungsten, test, 6.9, 6.9, 10.2
carbon, 2.18, 2.20, 2.26, pointers, 2.7 iypes, 5.2
2.27 variables, 6.3
galvanized, 2.26 wire, 2.7
stainless, 2.18, 2.21, 2.27,
2.28

12.2 The Managers Guide for Welding Second Edition


Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT
SMACNA TITLEUMGW 73 8389350 0005107 808 H

--`,,`,``,``,``,``,,,,`,``,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SHEET METAL AND AIR CONDITIONING CONTRACTORS


NATIONAL ASSOCIATION, INC.

Copyright SMACNA
Provided by IHS under license with SMACNA Licensee=Army Hdqrtrs/7838506107
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/30/2006 00:56:33 MDT