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The Building Blocks of Research: 1. The faces and places of Research: When researchers address a problem or answer a question throught disciplined research-regadless of the underlying paradigm-they are doing a study (or an investigastion or research project). Studies with humans involve two sets of people: 1) those who do the research, 2) those who provide the information. 2. The people who provide information to researchers (investigators) in a study are reffered to as subjects, study participants or respondents in quantitative research or study participants or informants in qualitative research; collectively they comprise the sample. Please, see below the box : Key term used in Quantitative and qualitative research:
Person Contributing Information Person undertaking the Study That Which is Being Investigated
Subject. Study Participant Respondent Researcher Investigator. Scientist Concept Contructs Variables Theory, theorical framework. Conceptual framework, conceptual model. Data (numeric value) Relationships (cause-andeffect, functional). Deductive reasoning
Study participants. Informant, key informant Researcher Investigator Phenomena Concepts. Theory Conceptual framework, sensitizing framework. Data (narrative descriptions) Patterns of association Inductive reasoning
System of Organizing Concepts Information Gathered Connections Between Concepts Logical Reasoning Processes
3. Research can be undertaken in a variety of Settings (the specific places where informations is gathered) and in one or more site. Some studies take places in Naturalistic Settings in the field; at the other extreme, some studies are done in highly controlled laboratory settings. The site is overall location for research; researchers sometimes engage and multisite studies. Setting are the more specific places where data collection will occur. Setting for nursing research can range from totally naturalistic environments to formal laboratories. Phenomena, Concepts and Contructs:
4. Researchers investigate concepts and phenomena (or constructs), which are abstraction or mental representations inferred from behavior or characteristics. For example, the terms pain, spiritual, and resilience are all abstractions of particular aspects of human behavior and characteristic. 5. Research may also use the term contruct. As with a concept, a construct refers to an abstraction or mental representation inferred form situations or behaviors. Theories and Conceptual Models: 6. Concepts are the building block of theories, which are systemic explenations of some aspect of the real world. In Quantitaive study, researchers often start with a theory or a conceptual model and using deductitive reasoning, make predictions about how phenomena behave in real world if theory were true. Variables: 7. In Quantitatives studies, concepts are called variables. A variable is a characteristic or quality that takes on different values (i.e., varies from one person or object to another). The dependent (or outcome) variable is the behavior, characteristic, or outcome the researcher is interested in understanding, explaining, predicting, or affecting. The independent variable is the presumed cause of, antecedent to, or influence on the dependent variable. The dependent (or outcome) variable is the behavior, characteristic, or outcome the researcher is interested in understanding, explaining, predicting, or affecting. The independent variable is the presumed cause of, antecedent to, or influence on the dependent variable. Conceptual and Operational Definitions: 8. Two Types of definition are relevantin a study conceptual and operational. A Conceptual definition describes the abstract or theoretical meaning of the concepts being studied. An Operational definition specifies the procedures required to measure a variable. A Conceptual definition describes the abstract or theoretical meaning of the concepts being studied. An Operational definition specifies the procedures required to measure a variable. Data: 9. Data- the informant collected during the course of a study may take the form of narrative information (qualitative data) or numeric value (quantitative data). Relationships: 10. A Relationship is bond or connection (a pattern of association) between two variable. Quantitative researchers examine the relationships between the independent variables and dependent variables. When the independent variable causes or effects the dependent variable, the relationshios is a cause and effect (Causal) relationship. In a functional or associative relationship, variable are related in noncausal way.
Next to Summary Chapter 3 1. A basic distinction in quantitative studies is between Experimental research, in which researchers actively intervene and Nonexperimental (or Observation) researche, in which researchers make observations of existing phenomena without intervening. 2. In Quantitative studies, researchers move from beginning point of a study (the posing of a question) to the end point (the obtaining of an answer) in a reasonably liner sequence o staps that is broadly similar across studies. 3. The Conceptual Phase involves: (1) defining the problem to be studied: Quantitative researchers begin by identifying an interesting, significant research problem dan formulating good research question. (2) Doing a literature review: Quantitative researchers is typically strive to understand what is already know about a topic by undertaking a horough literature review before any data are collected. (3) Engaging in clinical fieldwork for clinic studies: Researchers embarking on a clinical study often benefit from spending time in appropriate clinical settings, discussing the topic with clinicians and health care administrator, and observing current practice. (4) Developing a framework and conceptual definitions: When quantitative research is performed within the context of a conceptual frame-work, the findings may have broader significance and utility. (5) Formulating Hypoteses to be tested: Hypotheses state researchers expectations about relationships among study variables. Hypoteses are predictions of expected outcomes. 4. The Planning Phase entails; (6) Selecting a research design: The research design is overall plan of obtaining anwersa to the questions being studied and for handling various challenges to the worth of the study evidence. (7) Developing intervention protocols if the study is experimental: An Intervention protocol for the study would need to developed, specifying exactly what the intervention will entail (e.g. who would administer it, how frequently and over how long a period of treatment would last, nd so on) and what the alternative condition would be. (8) Spesifying the population: A Population is all individuals or object wuth common, defining characteristic. (9) Developing a sample plan: Reseachers yoicall collect data from a sample, which is a subset of the population. (10) Spesifying methods to measure the research variables; A Variety of quantitative data collection approaches exist; the primary methods are self-report (e.g. interview), observations (e.g. observing childrens behavior), and biophysiologic measurements. (11) Developing strategies to safeguard the rights of subject; Most nursing research involves human subject, although some involve animals. (12) Finalizing the research plan (e.g. coferring with colleagues, pretesting instrument). 5. The Emperical Phase involves; (13) Collecting data: The actual collection of data in quantitative study often proceeds according to a preliminary steps are needed.(14) Preparing data for analysis (e.g. coding data). 6. The Analytic Phase involves; (15) Analyzing data through statistical analysis: Quantitative information is analyzed through statical analyses, which include some simple procedures (e.g. computing an average) as well as complex and sophisticsted methods. (16) interpreting
the result: Interpretation is the process of making sense of study result and examining their implications. The Dissemination Phase entails; (17) Communicating the findings: Another and often final task of research project, therefore, is the preparation of a research report that can be share with others. (18) Efforts to promote the use of the study evidence in nursing practice: Ideally, the concluding step of a high qualility study is to plan for its use in practice settings.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY
Formulating and delimiting the problem. Reviewing the related literature. Undertaking clinical fieldwork. Defining the framework/ developing conceptual definitions. 5. Formulating hypotheses. 6. Selecting a research design 7. Developing intervention protocols. 8. Identifying the population 9. Designing the sampling plan 10. Specifying methods to measure research variables 11. Developing methods to safeguard subjects 12. Finalizing the research plan. 13. Collecting the data 14. Preparing the data analysis 15. Analyzing the data 16. Interpreting the result. 17. Communicating the findings. 18. Utilizing the findings in practice. 1. 2. 3. 4.
PHASE 1: THE CONCEPTS PHASE
PHASE 2: THE SIGN AND PLANNING PHASE
PHASE 3: THE EMPERICAL PHASE PHASE 4: THE ANALYTIC PHASE PHASE 5: THE DESSEMINATION PHASE
y Reference: Denise F. Polit., et.al. (2010). Essentials of Nursing Research, seventh edition, Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.