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1: Discuss the development of Environmental Aesthetics as the
field of study?

Environmental aesthetics is one of the three or four new areas of aesthetics
that have been developed in the second half of the twentieth century. And, although it
has emerged as a major field of study only recently, and considers the aesthetic
appreciation of human as well as natural environments, it has roots in earlier traditions
concerning the aesthetic experience of nature. Eighteenth-century landscape aesthetics
together with notions such as the sublime and the picturesque have exercised
considerable influence on its development (see Nature, aesthetic appreciation of).
Nonetheless, there are important differences in emphasis between eighteenth-century
landscape aesthetics and current environmental aesthetics, differences that stem in part
from the fact that after reaching its climax at the end of that century, the former went into
gradual decline and by the twentieth century was almost totally eclipsed by the
philosophy of art. Thus, to some extent environmental aesthetics had to be fashioned
anew in the second half of the twentieth century.

The twentieth-century development of environmental aesthetics was strongly influenced
by two factors, one theoretical and one practical. The former was the exclusive focus of
twentieth-century philosophical aesthetics on art; and the latter was the public concern
for ’the aesthetic quality of the environment’ that emerged in the second half of that
century. Both factors helped, first, to broaden the scope of environmental aesthetics
beyond that of earlier landscape aesthetics, which concentrated primarily on sublime
and picturesque scenery, and, second, to set the central philosophical issue of
environmental aesthetics. The scope of environmental aesthetics was broadened by the
exclusive focus of philosophical aesthetics on art, since this, de facto, excluded from
mainstream aesthetics everything else, leaving it to environmental aesthetics. The
scope was broadened by the public concern for the state of the environment, since this
concern was not simply for preserving natural scenery, but also about the aesthetic
condition of the everyday human environment. Thereby, the central philosophical issue
of environmental aesthetics was set in large measure by the apparently dramatic
contrast between that which had become the focus of public concern, the everyday

as well. shaped almost entirely by human direction for human purposes. littered streets. it encompasses the perceptual experience of meanings. However. familiarity and contrast. architecture. but environmental aesthetics is only now emerging as a discipline in its own right. from which it usually has no distinct boundaries and with which it has a reciprocal relation. is more than a matter of urban beauty. as well as from the arts. it is nevertheless an integral part of the geography of its region. air pollution. And as the preeminent cultural environment. The natural world has long held aesthetic attraction. and theories. Explain its significance in the context of Urban Planning and Design in Pakistan. utility lines. traditions. the city's social and historical dimensions are inseparable from its sensory ones. trite. Further. urban aesthetics must also include a consideration of negative aesthetic values: the obstruction of perceptual interest by noise pollution. Urban aesthetics focuses on a special landscape. For environmental aesthetics does not stand apart from other kinds of research. Aesthetic value here. the built environment. It draws from philosophy. made from materials obtained or derived from the natural world and embodying the same perceptual elements as other environments. and environmental design. The city is rather a particular environment. scholars have begun in earnest to develop the field from scattered beginnings that predate the current environmental movement. we do not have to oppose the city aesthetically to the countryside or to wilderness. psychology. but designed and controlled by human agency. and the destruction of traditional neighborhoods. an aesthetic critique should be . strident signage. In the last two decades. dull. then. or oppressive building designs. a common tendency. with distinctive concepts. Indeed.environment – and that which had become the sole focus of philosophical aesthetics – works of art. Urban aesthetics deals with the same perceptual factors that are part of all environmental experience. anthropology. although the city is a distinctively human environment. Moreover. literary theory and criticism. cultural geography. issues.

assisting in having compact cities and adding a new dimension to land use development through what is known as transit-oriented development. In this. therefore. which are mostly dependent on fossil fuels and also contribute to urban sprawl. such dynamics are also used to define a city as a resilient city. most importantly. self-sustaining urban localities are designed around public transit stations. where the dividends of growth are being shared equitably among all sectors of society. compact cities promoting vertical growth have been found to be more energy-efficient and environment-friendly. public mass transit systems. It is not a sprawling city. To incorporate aesthetic considerations into urban planning is to place the city in the service of the values and goals that we associate with the full meaning of civilization. A smart city is one where every effort is made to discourage private vehicles. As far the environmental aesthetics in the context of urban planning and design in Pakistan is concerned an infinite steps should be taken by the Government to realize the real urban planning of cities and bring the natural beauty of surroundings. The same thought process is applied to designed smart neighbourhoods and buildings that can even be rated for their ‘smartness’ by evaluating them against smart growth standards. where communities bond. A smart city has certain characteristics. facilitating environment-friendly modes of transportation and with public spaces designed to promote interaction between people from diverse socio-economic backgrounds. such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating system developed by the US Green Building Council. Since buildings have been found to . Sometimes. Instead. merely technology-driven spaces but also spaces that are inclusive. environment and equity. Each planning’s must be according to their standards/codes. where growth and development is not taking place at the expense of the environment and.a key factor in evaluating a city's character and its success. Whereas the Smart cities are those that are economically prosperous. bicycles and walking are preferred. Such cities are not. These are the three Es of sustainability — economy.

Pakistan will be predominantly urban.6 per cent of its population living in urban areas and 12 cities housing over a million people each. The sooner we develop a smart city growth strategy and plan. with 45. Pakistan is rapidly urbanizing. . the better.generate around 40 per cent of urban greenhouse gases emissions. It is estimated that by 2030. the concept of designing ‘green’ buildings is getting much momentum.