You are on page 1of 31

HI-504: Irrigation Engineering

Practices
Prof. Dr. Abdul Sattar Shakir
Dr. Noor Muhammad Khan

Course Outline
HI-504: Irrigation Engineering Practices
• Soil-water-plant relationship, methods of estimating crop water
requirements
• Determination of losses in irrigation system
• Methods of surface, sub-surface and sprinkling irrigation, their suitability and
economics in water saving.
• Economics of lined channels. Irrigation efficiencies, Project efficiency,
operation efficiency, and economic efficiency.
• Irrigation distribution network: Planning and design of different components.
Layout of field channels and outlets. Land shaping and leveling.
• Irrigation scheduling: Dynamic Crop response model. Modeling or irrigation
schedules. Warabandi distribution system and its constraints
• Diagnostic analysis of irrigation systems.
• Development Model.
• System perspectives:
– Interdisciplinary approach. Identification of problems. Establishment of
objectives. Allocation of responsibility. Information collection. Development of
work plans and methods.
– Technical social and economic data collection. Data analysis. On-farm water
management practices, physical constraints, socio-economic problems.
Traditional practices.

Lecture Delivery Plan
Week Topic

1 Introduction of subject, Introduction of Irrigation system of Pakistan
2 Planning and design of different components. Layout of field channels and outlets. Land shaping and leveling.

3 Soil-water-plant relationship. Methods of estimating crop water requirements
4 Estimating crop water requirements using Penmann Montieth Eq.
5 Irrigation scheduling: Dynamic Crop response model. Modeling of irrigation schedules.
6 Losses in irrigation system and its determination.
Economics of lined channels.
7 Irrigation distribution network: Planning and design of different components. Layout of field channels and outlets.
Warabandi distribution system and its constraints
8 Land shaping and leveling.

Irrigation efficiencies, Project efficiency, operation efficiency, and economic efficiency.
9 Comparison of surface, sub-surface and sprinkling irrigation, their suitability and economics in water saving

10 Diagnostic analysis of Irrigation systems.
11 Development Model.
12 System perspectives:
13 Interdisciplinary approach. Identification of problems. Establishment of objectives. Allocation of responsibility.
Information collection. Development of work plans and methods.
14 Technical social and economic data collection. Data analysis. On-farm water management practices, physical
constraints, socio-economic problems. Traditional practices.

L. Raghuvanshi (1999) • Irrigation Water management: Principles and Practice by Dilip Kumar Majumdar (2000) • Irrigation Engineering by G. and C. or www.L.S.uidaho.org/docrep/X0490E/X0490E00.pdf ) • Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures by Santosh Kumar Garg (1999) • Irrigation Management.edu/ref-et/fao56.kimberly.htm. by B. Darra.fao. Volume II. Asawa (1993) • Fundamental principles of Irrigation Engineering by VB Priyani (1979) . Reference Material • Crop Evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No 56 by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1998) (available on http://www.

Irrigation canal lining (New edition. 1982 (C** E* F S*) Ref: http://www. Effective rainfall. Crop water requirements (rev. Yield response to water. Localized irrigation. 1971 (E* F* S*) 28. Corrosion and encrustation in water wells. Small hydraulic structures . Salinity seminar. 1973 (E* F* 35. 1976 (E* F* S*) 9. 1971 (E* F* S*) 27. 1. Bucharest. 1973 (E* F* S*) 37. 1 Water quality for agriculture. 1 Irrigation practice and water management.a new approach in water S*) economy. Deterministic models in hydrology. Water laws in Moslem countries . 1972 (E* F*) 32. 1980 (E*) 19. 1973 (E* F* S*) 33. 1975 (E* F* 5. No. Automated irrigation. Self-help wells. 1971 (E* F*) 26/2. available in E.Vol. Farm water management seminar. Baghdad. Water and the environment. Water for agriculture . Drainage of heavy soils. 1973 (E* F*) 34.Vol.fao. Man's influence on the hydrological cycle. 1971 (E* F* S*) S*) 6. Mathematical models in hydrology. 1974 (C* E* F* S*) 3. 1972 (E* F*) 30. 1979 (C* E F S) 15. Granada. Manila 1972 (E*) 31. 1) 25. 1976 (E* F* S*) 10. Village irrigation programmes . 1976 (E* F* 7. Irrigation and drainage papers by FAO IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE PAPERS 1 Irrigation practice and water management. 1984 23. 1975 (E* F* 4. Drainage testing. 2. Drainage design factors. Damascus. 1973 (E*) S*) 22. operation and maintenance of 20/2. Groundwater seminar. 1978 (E F) irrigation schemes. Groundwater models. 1982 (C E* F* S*) F*) 40. Rev. 1979 (E*) 14. 1. Water quality for agriculture.stm#aglwbu . Planning methodology seminar. Drainage machinery. Agro-meteorological field stations.org/Ag/agl/public. Lysimeters. Arid zone hydrology. Groundwater pollution. 1978 (E*) 38. 1974 (E*) (E* F* S*) 2. 1971 (Ar* E* F* 21. Mechanized sprinkler irrigation. Organization. F 24. Drainage materials. Water laws in Moslem countries . 1971 (E* F* S*) 29. Integrated farm water management. 1971 (E* F) S*) 8.Vol. Drainage of salty soils.index. Trickle irrigation. 1977. 2.) 1977 (C* E F and S in the FAO Land and Water Development S) Series. 1973 (E/F/S*) 1 Rev. Small hydraulic structures . 1971 (E*) 26/1. Water use seminar. 1980 16. 1977 (E*) 12. 1973 (E* 39. 1973 (C* E* F* S*) (E*) 17. 1972 (E* F* S*) 29. 1980 (Ar* C E* F S*) 18. 1985 (C* E* F* S*) 11. Simulation methods in water development. Design criteria for basin irrigation systems. 1980 (Ar C E F S) 20/1.Vol. 1979 (C* E* S) 13. 1982 (C E* F S*) S*) 36.

The use of saline waters for crop production. Lucha contra la contaminación agrícola de los recursos hídricos. 2001. 2002 (E) Ref: http://www.org/Ag/agl/public. Control of water pollution from agriculture. 1986 (E F) 44. Environmental impact assessment of irrigation and drainage projects. Agricultural drainage water management in arid and semi-arid areas.Directives.1995 (E) 54. CROPWAT .2000 (E) 60.a computer program for irrigation planning and management. Environmental management for vector control in rice fields. Materials for subsurface land drainage systems. Design and optimization of irrigation distribution networks. Guidelines for designing and evaluating surface irrigation systems. 1993 (E) 50. Le pompage éolien. Irrigation and drainage papers by FAO 41. 1989 (E*) 46.Directrices. Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. 1992 (E F* S*) 47. 1993 (F) 51. 1988 (E F) 45. Crues et apports. Prospects for the drainage of clay soils. Transfer of irrigation management services: guidelines.fao. Water lifting devices. Consultation on irrigation in Africa. Soil salinity assessment: methods and interpretation of electrical conductivity measurements. (E F S) 59. 1992 (E*) 48. Performance analysis of on-demand pressurized irrigation systems. 1986 (E F) 43.stm#aglwbu . Transferencia de la gestión des riego . 2000 (E) 61. 1999 (E) 58. 1996 (F) 55. Reforming water resources policy. 2001 (E F S) 58. CLIMWAT for CROPWAT. 1997 (E* S) 56. Transfert des Services de Gestion de l 'Irrigation . 1993 (E) 49. 1995 (E) 52. 1998 (E) 57. 1995 (E) 53. 1984 (E* F* S*) 42. 1999 (E F S) 58. 1996 (E* S) 55. Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements.

Rainfed Agriculture vs. Introduction • Definition of Irrigation “Artificial application of water on an agricultural land for the assured growth of plant life” (Priyani 1979). Irrigated Agriculture? Why Irrigation? .

worldometers.info/population/ .88792 Billion Ref: http://www. WHY IRRIGATION? Population Explosion (Global Scenario) Population is increasing very fast 1-12-2010 Estimated Population = 6.

WHY IRRIGATION? (Contd.) Problem with less developed countries The increase is more severe for less developed countries ..

HOW the raised population is being taken care off? . How food requirements are being fulfilled • Is food demand being fulfilled by More CROPPED AREA? • During 1910-1995 in the World – Population raised by 251% – Cropped area per capita reduced by 50% Yet World is fulfilling the food and fiber needs of 6-7 billion of population.

.152 km3) • Which lead to an increased Irrigated Area by 435% which is an increase of 50% in Irrigated Area per capita Which lead to increased food protections. Increased population and Irrigation (Continued) This was solved by: • An increase in reservoir’s storage capacity by 116 times (from 114 km3 to 13.

1910 80 8 60 6 40 4 20 2 0 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 .Increase in Storage Capacity and Irrigated area in the World 120 Global Reservoir Storage (1910=1) 12 Global Irrigated Land (1910 =1) 100 10 Reservoir Storage (1910=1) Irrigated Area w.r.t.

HOW the raised population of USA is being taken care off? . Irrigated area in USA • During 1910-1995 in USA – Population raised 184% – Cropped area per capita reduced by 70% – Cropped area reduced by 7% Yet USA is largest manipulator of World’s corn market (largest exporter of corns).

Which lead to Increased food protection . Irrigated area in USA (continued) One major factor is • An increased reservoir’s storage capacity in USA by 90 times (from 37km3 to 3.335 km3) Which lead to • An increased Irrigated area by 353%.

1910 70 7 60 6 50 5 40 4 30 3 20 2 10 1 0 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 .Increase in Storage Capacity and Irrigated area in USA 100 US Reservoir Storage (1910=1) 10 90 US Irrigated Land (1910 =1) 9 8 Reservoir Storage w.t.r.r. 1910 80 Irrigated Area w.t.

Scarce WATER: Water Stress: withdrawal-to-availability ratio Severe Water Stress Growth of demand and competition .

per capita per year freshwater availability Fresh water is a limited resource .

) To mitigate effects of water shortage Reliable Irrigation is necessary Drought Temporal and spatial variability of water .WHY IRRIGATION? (Contd.

WATER USE FOR IRRIGATION NEED TO BE RATIONALIZED Current IRRIGATION WITHDRAWLS ARE not sustainable High-Income Global Low and Medium Countries Income Countries 11% 8% 8% 30% 10% 23% 69% 59% 82% Agricultural Use Domestic Use Variation in Sectoral water demand Industrial Use .

Forecast of Demands by sectors Sectoral demands increasing and new demands emerging such as for environmental and river maintenance .

.

.

Soil-water-plant relationship. methods of estimating crop water requirements • Soil as a porous media • Provides – Physical support – Nutrients and – Water • Water (or moisture) in Soil – Hygroscopic Moisture – Capillary Moisture – Gravitational (or free) Moisture .

c. Moisture Contents • Oven dry soil = zero moisture • Air dry soil = Hygroscopic moisture • Wilting Coefficient The moisture content (%) in soil above which the water is available for the plant for growth.c. m. > (Hyg.c. above which the water will start flowing under gravity.5 then water is available to plant • Max. Capillary Capacity: The m. If m. .)x1.

5 13 11.1 13.1 3.5 42 Priyani. p-275 . Coefficient Capillary Capacity Capacity (%) (%) Capacity (%) (Voids) % (%) 1 2 3 4 5=4-3 6 Coarse 1 1.5 20 3. Available Total Soil pic m.c.6 38 Clay 13.4 18 4. Important Moisture Contents Type of Hygrosco Wilting Max.3 14 10.5 33 Sand Fine Sand 2.2 16.7 34 Loam 9. 1979.

Moisture (%) Capillary moisture Wilting point (or Coeff.) Air dry soil Hygroscopic moisture 0 (%) Oven dry soil . Capillary Cap. Soil Water Saturation point Gravitational moisture Max.

Ans: 120cm . the base period is 120 days. Definitions • Crop Period (days.000)=Delta (m) Or ∆ = 864 B/D centimeters Find Delta of a crop if its duty is 864 hectares/cumecs on a field. Total quantity in units of depth) • Water Allowance: Discharge in cusecs required to irrigate 1. • Duty (of water. “D”): Area (hectares) irrigated by a unit discharge (may be cumecs) provided over whole base period (B days) In SI Units: 1*(B*86400) / (Dx10. First watering to last watering) • Delta (“∆”.000 acres land. Sowing to Harvesting) • Base Period (“B days”.

. Gram (Channa). Vegetables (potato. onions. Millet (Bajra). etc. Sorghum (Jawar). Crops • Kharif (April-Sep) – Rice.March) – Wheat. Cotton • Rabi (Oct. Barlay (Jau) • Other – Sugercane (Prennial).) .

40 12=10+11 Total Cropped Area 22.27 5 Forest Land 4. Govt.10 8=6-7 Cultivated Area 22.47 3 Not Available for Cultivation 24. Statistics Division. 2005. . Federal Bureau of Statistics.61 2 Area Reported 59.48 Ref: Pakistan Statistical Year Book.04 6=4-5 Arable Land 31.08 11 Area Sown more than Once 6.05 10=8-9 Net Area Sown 16.20 4=2-3 Agricultural Land 35. Type Million Hactares 1 Geographical Area 79.23 7 Culturable Waste 9.13 9 Current Fallows 6.Land use of Pakistan (2003-04) Area No. of Pakistan (FPS-381/1200).

Govt.6 2959.2 1155.1 349.83 Bajra (millet) 508.3 2.5 98.2 1102.2 417. of Pakistan (FPS- 381/1200).7 944 941.1 964.5 938.5 406.1 2927.1 938 5.6 2. Statistics Division.240 Cotton 558 601 506 528 512 641 624 579 622 572 574 Rice 1622 1835 1912 1870 1928 2050 2021 1836 2013 1970 1.6 962.34 Rice 2124.1 2317.6 935. hactare).6 2989. Yield of Important Crops in Pakistan (Kg/hactare) Average Major Crops 1994-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 2000-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 1994-2004 Wheat 2081 2018 2053 2238 2169 2490 2325 2262 2388 2373 2.1 8354.3 2423.8 8376.022 6.7 357.2 59 65.8 960.7 932.6 417. Federal Bureau of Statistics.8 2997.219 51.40 Gram 1064.906 Sugarcane 47000 44000 50000 48000 46000 45000 48000 47000 47000 50000 47.08Mill Major Crop 1994-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 99-00 2000-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 1994-2004 ion Ha) Wheat 8169.6 1074. 2005.4 353.714 Bajra (millet) 449 397 481 459 460 497 511 519 542 508 482 Jowar (Sorghum) 601 610 593 593 595 617 618 620 599 607 605 Oil Seeds(sunflower) 1253 1270 1307 1317 1302 1311 1163 1174 1199 1403 1.1 110 258 110 0.9 8216.7 927.270 Ref: Pakistan Statistical Year Book.6 2515.200 Gram 525 607 540 696 648 581 439 388 701 622 575 Maize 1482 1602 1607 1627 1730 1718 1741 1768 1857 2003 1.6 8229.3 382.5 1.9 8463 8180.2 98.1 1009.7 1099.2 2460.7 2922.9 971. Crops. Total cropped area= 22.3 86.5 1056.8 2251.6 2161. Statistics Division.3 1.8 369.48 million hactare %age of Total Area Sown Average (16.6 390.11 Cotton 2652.6 338. of Pakistan (FPS-381/1200).3 3148.8 8057.8 2793.8 905 933.9 963 982.35 Maize 889.9 1100.9 460 462.4 2376.4 144.6 2114. Area and Yield in Pakistan Cropped Area Under various crops (000.3 415 2. 2005.5 375 2.029 6.297 14.8 302.5 313 389.8 999.2 961.8 2983.6 357.3 539.69 Ref: Pakistan Statistical Year Book.949 18. Federal Bureau of Statistics.5 3115.5 8033.5 8109. Govt.33 Oil Seeds(sunflower) 68. .1 342.2 8.2 2225.5 1118.5 947.29 Sugarcane 1009 963.3 1076.1 114.58 Jowar (Sorghum) 438.

100-120 15-30 150-200 (Jawar) Millet (Bajra) July Oct.-Nov. Salient details of some crops Crop Sowing Harvesting Crop Yield Delta (mm) duration (100 Kg /ha) (days) Rice June-July Oct.-Nov. Asawa. 100-125 15-30 150-200 Sorghum June-July Oct. April-May 125-150 20-40 300-400 Sugercane Oct. 120-160 20-40 1500-2000.-Oct. 90-110 15-30 150-200 Cotton April-May Nov. Feb-March Water?? 1200* Ref. 1200* Maize June-July Sep.-Jan. and Oct. 150-180 2-5 (with 500-700 seeds) Wheat Nov-Dec. 1993 /p25 * Other . -Nov.-Nov.-April 300-325 8000-10000 Virtual 1500-2000.