Introduction

Preeclampsia is a common problem during pregnancy. The condition — sometimes referred to as pregnancy-induced hypertension — is defined by high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Often, preeclampsia causes only modest increases in blood pressure. Left untreated, however, preeclampsia can lead to serious — even fatal — complications for both mother and baby.

Preeclampsia also referred to as toxemia is a condition that pregnant women can get It is marked by high blood pressure accompanied with a high level of protein in the urine Women with preeclampsia will often also have swelling in the feet legs and hands Preeclampsia when present usually appears during the second half of pregnancy generally in the latter part of the second or in the third trimesters although it can occur earlier Eclampsia, a dramatic and often unpredictable complication of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, is characterized by sudden hypertension, proteinuria, edema, and seizures. A relatively rare syndrome, eclampsia complicates approximately 3 in 100 pregnancies, with higher incidence rates in preeclamptic or twin pregnancies,

women of low socioeconomic status or in developing countries, and nulliparous patients younger than 20 years or multiparous patients older than 35 years of age.
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However many medical disorders can occur during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the post delivery time. One of those disorders in pregnancy is eclampsia. Eclampsia is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality and can present during the antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum periods. Late postpartum eclampsia presents as convulsions, with onset occurring at more than 48 hours postpartum.

There is increasing evidence to suggest that patients who develop complications of pregnancy demonstrate 'abnormal adaptation' to the pregnancy process prior to overt signs of the disorder itself. In 1986 Murphy and colleagues1 introduced the concept that the cause(s) of pregnancy-induced hypertension are operating and exerting detectable effects as early as the first trimester. It is recognized, for example, that proteinuric hypertension is associated with raised haemoglobin levels at booking. Furthermore both pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) are

recognised to be associated with abnormal haemostasis. A number of researchers have shown that blood flow and blood viscosity are also abnormal in these conditions and may in turn be related to the histological evidence of placental intravascular changes.