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Bond Graph method

Y. LAKHALa, F.Z. BAGHLIa, L. EL BAKKALIa

science, Tetuan, morocco

Lakhal.yassine.doc@gmail.com

Abstract:

A wind turbine is a complex system, it contains many elements interconnected each other in a way that

can capture and transmit the power flow captured by the rotor to the generator and convert it to

electrical energy. Several elements of this system have a flexible nature, there have been lots of works

on the modeling of flexible wind turbine, that they are based on different method, in this work we

applied a graphical modeling approach called Bond graph, this method is based on the principle of

energy conservation. The objective of this work is to develop a non-linear model that describes the

behavior of wind turbine system taking account of the flexibility of the blades, drivetrain and tour.

Finally we approve we compare the result obtained with bond graph approach with method classical

method of control in order to justify the efficiency of this approach.

energy, non-linear

1 Introduction

The necessity to develop alternative energy resources motivates researchers to develop more profitable

models of wind turbine, more stable and with minimal cost of production, the improvement of the

performances of the systems need the total knowledge of the behavior of the system; this remains a

difficult task due to the complexity of the system. Wind turbines are mechanical systems with

complex structure, several elements have large flexibility as blades, towers and the drivetrain, this

flexibility has a great influence on the behavior of the system, they can set the unwanted vibration and

excites some resonance frequency, it can also create fluctuations in the level of energy, then his

negligence when modeling is not beneficial. We can ever talking of control or optimization of a wind

turbine without mentioning the modeling; its a critical task, the most of researches in this field aim to

found methods more simple and effective model that describes the systems behavior so as precise.

The majority of these works are based on classical methods, In earlier literature, we find [10] and [5]

which is based on the LAGRANG and KAN methods, other works are based on the Finite elements

method that we can find [7],

The works that chosen bond graph as a modeling method of flexible wind turbine are scarce; the

majority of theme nglects the flexibility of several important elements of wind turbine.

In this work we have chosen to apply the bond graph method to modeling a flexible wind turbine, it is

a graphical way of modeling physical systems. All these physical systems have in common the

conservation laws for mass and energy, in 1961, deals with the conservation of energy. This gives a

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

unied approach to modeling physical systems. Further follows a short introduction to this modeling

tool, more information can be found in [xxx].

The bond graphs elements are classified as passive elements, active elements and junction elements.

These elements constitute the bond graph language.

The passive elements:

The elements R, C and I are called passive elements because they transfer the power given to

them as a dissipated energy in heat form (element R) or stocked (element I and C). The power is

given to elements, which impose to repair the direction of the half-arrow of the bond towards these

elements. The connection of the bond and the elements of the bond graph, show the articulation of the

energy exchanges between the different parts of a system, and with its environment. Each element is

associated to a phenomenon.

I C R

The effort source respectively of flow (Se resp. Sf) is associated to an effort (resp. a flow) imposed to

the system (depend to a couple motor -resp. a rotation velocity imposed by an actuator on a tree

for example).

Sf Sf

Junctions:

Components are connected together using two types of junctions: a 0 or common effort junction and a

1 or common flow junction.

The 0 junction has the following properties: all bonds impinging upon it have the same effort variable

and all flows on attached bonds sum to zero. Similarly the 1 junction has the properties: all bonds

impinging upon it have the same flow variable and all effort on attached bonds sum to zero.

To transfer between physical domains the ability to multiply must be included and bond graphs

provide two means of accomplishing this: the Transformer TF and the Gyrator Gy (TF or Gy are

energy conserving).

f2 e2 f2 e2

e1 e1

e3e2 e3e2

0 1

f1 f3 f1 f3

1 2

TF : m 1 2

Gy : r

The causality assignment rules

Bond graphs have a notion of causality, indicating which side of a bond determines the instantaneous

effort and which determines the instantaneous flow. In formulating the dynamic equations that

describe the system, causality defines, for each modeling element, which variable is dependent and

which is independent.

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Table 2 shows the permitted causality permutations for components, junctions and transformers

respectively.

Table 1 : Causality stroke and Assignments for bond graph

Causal form Causal relation Type

Se e Se Fixed

f Sf Causality

Sf

R

f

e Resistor

R Conductivity

R e R* f

I 1 Integral

I

f e dt

Derived

I df

eI

dt

C 1 Integral

C

e f dt

Derived

C de

f I

dt

1 2 e1 m * e2 ; f 2 m * f1 Symmetric

TF : m

1 2 e1 f

TF :m e2 ; f1 2

m m Symmetric

1 2

Gy : r

e1 r * f 2 ; e2 r * f1 Antsymmetric

1 2 e1 e

Gy : r f2 ; f2 2

r r Antsymmetric

3

e2 e3 e1 One effort is

1 2 f1 f 2 f 3 imposed on the

0

junction 0

3

f 2 f 3 f1 One flow is

1 2 e1 e2 e3 imposed on the

1

junction 1

3.1 Proposed model description

In this section a flexible model is proposed including the necessary dynamics, this model describes the

flap wise of blades in plan, tower binding and the dynamic of the drivetrain, this last one is considered

as three mass drivetrain, the figure 2 shows the structure of the proposed model .

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Figure 4: proposed

(Proposed model

model structure

structure)

To simplify the modeling of the system, we divided the system model on several sub-models, the

representation of the wind turbine is developed by assembling bond graph represent of the

different elements as shown in the word bond graph figure 2

Asynchrone

Msf Aerodynamic Blade Drive Generator

1

Speed s Train

Tower

4 Blades model

The proposed model is based on Euler Bernoulli beam model and blade elements momentum BEM,

the global model is built from coupling between aerodynamic model and structural model, the

structure of model is shown in the follows figure.

Aerodynamics

Wind Speed Forces

Aerodynamic Structural

model Model

(BEM model) (Euler Bernoulli

Blade

model)

bending

Rotor speed

Figure 6 : blade model

In this model, we include just the flapwise bending, we neglect the edgewise and torsional vibration of

blade.

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Different approach can be user to reformulate the model of flexible beam, in this work we are choose

to use the Bernoulli-Euler method, its designed for the beams with uniform sections and small

deformation, against a wind turbine blade has a flexible structure with large deformation, and has a

different sections dimensions.

For applying this method of blade with large deformation we propose to divide the structure into three

elements, the total deformation of blade is the sum of deformation of sections.

A generic bond graph approximation of one dimensional focusing on fundamental aspects, let us

consider the classical example of a beam assuming the Bernoulli hypothesis that rotary inertia and

shear deformation can be neglected (Bernoulli-Euler beam) .Let us also assume that only transversal

forces act on the beam.

The bond graph presented following describe the model of one flexible blade, an integral causality is

imposed.

The boundary condition of the blade model is represented by the S f and Se sources. The connection

between the blade and the hub is assumed to be rigid, this means S f = 0. Se1 , Se 2 , and Se3 are the

aerodynamics forces applied on blade, Ci represents the stiffness of each elements of blade, Ri and Ii

represent respectively the damping and the masses of elements.

Equation of motion :

to get the dynamic model of the blade, we have followed the bond graph process, firstly we

determine the equation assisted to each junction and each elements.

Junction 1 Elements Junction

f f 2 f3 S f : f1 S f

"1" 1

e1 e2 e3 0 Se1 : e6 Se1

Se 2 : e15 Se 2

Se3 : e19 Se3

f f 5 f 6 f 7 f8 f 9 e R1 f3 e R2 f8 e R3 f13

"1" 4 R1 : 3 R2 : 8 R3 : 13

e6 e4 e5 e7 e8 e9 0 e5 R1 f5 e11 R2 f11 e7 R3 f17

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

"1" 10 I1 : f 7 P7

e15 e10 e11 e12 e13 e14 e15 0 I1

1

I 2 : f12 P12

I2

1

I 3 : f18 P18

I3

f f17 f18 f19 1 1 1

"1" 16 e2 C q2 e9 C q9 e14 C q14

e19 e16 e17 e18 0 1 2 3

C1 : C2 : C3 :

e 1 q e 1 q e 1 q

4 C1 4 10 C2 10 16 C3 16

From equations junctions, we determined the generalized coordinates equations of blades, the states

variable of blade are:

P7 , P12 , P18 , q2 , q4 , q9 , q16 , q14

1 1 1 1

P7 Se1 q4 R1 P7 R2 P q9 q4 q9 (1)

C1 I1 I1 C2

With

1 1 1 1 (2)

P12 Se2 q10 R2 P12 R3 P12 q14

C2 I2 I2 C3

1 1

P18 Se3 q16 R3 P18 (3)

C3 I3

1 (4)

q4 f 4 f 7 P7

I1

q2 f 2 S f (5)

1

q9 f9 f 7 P7

I1 (6)

1

q10 f10 f12 P12

I2 (7)

1

q14 e14 f14 f12 P12

I2 (8)

1

q16 f16 f18 P18

I3 (9)

q4 q9 q10 q14

From the equations related to elements C1, C2 and C3 was: And

From the bond graph model and the precedent junction equations and elements we can formulate a set

of manipulator robot differential equations in the following matrix form:

R1 1 1

0 0 0 0

I1 c1 c2

R R 1 1

0 2 3 0 0 0

p7 I 2 I3 c2 c3 P7 1 0 0

p

12 R3 1 P12 0 1 0

P 0 Se1

p18 0 0

I3

0 0

c3 0 1

18

Se 2

q9 1 q

9 0 0 0

Se 3

q 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

q14 0

14 I1

q16 1 q16 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

I2

1

0 0 0 0 0

I3 (10)

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

The aerodynamic model is used to calculate the aerodynamic loads applied in the structure of the

blades from wind speed and rotational speed of the rotor and the pitch angle of the blades, they are

calculated by using the they are calculated by using the method BEM method [4].

The blade structure is divided in sections. For each section BEM theory is applied, in order to provide

aerodynamic force to the blade structure. Eq. (1) expresses the aerodynamic force Fi applied to the ith

section.

1 1 ai

Fi ( Vw 2 Cli sin i Cdi cos i Ci li )Vw (11)

2 sin i

where Vw represents the wind velocity, the air density, i the wind inow angle expression (2),

Cli and Cdi are the lift and drag dimensionless coefcients function on the angle of attack i , dened as

the angle between the incoming ow stream and the chord line of the airfoil in the i th section.

V 1 a

I tan 1

w i

(12)

r ri 1 ai'

ai Represents the axial tangential induction factor and is calculated from expressions (3) and (4).

1

4 sin 2 i

ai 1 '

C cos C sin

(13)

ii li i di i

1

4 sin 2 i

a 1 '

'

(14)

i (Cli cos i Cdi sin i

i

The parameters of equations are presented graphically in the fig.5

r Rr (1 a ')

Vw (1 a)

Incoming

flow velocity

Wind

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

A MGY (modulated gyrator) element is used to implement Eqs. (2-4), since wind (MSf source) is

transformed into a Se source (aerodynamic force), as shown in figure 7.

the proposed model of drivetrain include three masses, the first one is the low speed shaft inertia noted

J lss , the second is the masses of gear box elements noted J G1 and J G 2 , and J hss is the inertia of the

height speed shaft, in this model we include also the flexibility of each shaft, its expressed by a

coupled spring damper noted respectively ( Bls , K ls ) and ( Bhs , K hs ), Br , Rg and Bg present respectively the

friction coefficients of the rotor, gear box and the generator.

The model bond graph model of proposed model is presented by the following figure

Jlss

Klss JG1

Jg

KHss

ng

Blss

JG2

Br BHss

Bg

Equation of motion

Junction 1 Junction 0 Transformer Elements Junction

f f 2 f3 f 4 e e e 1

"1" 1 "0" 4 5 6 e13 n e12

e1 e2 e3 e4 0 f 4 f5 f 6 0 g Ta : e1 Se1

" TF : ng " " Se ":

f 1

f Tem : e21 Se 2

12 ng 13

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

f f 7 f8 e e e 1

"1" 5 "0" 10 12 12 J ss : f 2 Jss P2

e5 e7 e8 0 f10 f11 f12 0

J :f 1 P

G1 9 J 9

G1

" I ":

1

J G 2 f14 P14

J G2

J g : f 22 1 P22

Jg

f f f15 e e e 1

"1" 13 14 "0" 15 16 17 J ss : f 2 Jss P2

e13 e14 e15 0 f15 f16 f17 0

J :f 1 P

G1 9 J 9

G1

" I ":

1

J G 2 f14 P14

JG2

J g : f 22 1 P22

Jg

f f18 f19 Br : e3 Br f3

"1" 16 B :e B f

e16 e18 e19 0 g 20 g 20

" R ": Bls : e8 R1 f8

B :e R f

hs 18 2 18

Rg : e11 Rg f 11

f f 20 f 21 f 22 1

"1" 17 kls : e7 k q7

e17 e20 e21 e22 0 ls

" C ":

k : e 1

q

hs 19 khs 19

f f9 f10

"1" 6

e6 e9 e10 0

We proceed in the same process, and we find the states variables that are presented by the following

equation.

B Bls 1 kls

P2 Ta r P2 q7 P9 (15)

J ls C1 J G1

1 B B Bg Bg

P9 q7 ls P2 ls P9 P9 P14 (16)

C1 J ls J G1 J G1 ng J G 2

R2 R 1 Bg

P22 ( P14 2 P22 q19 ) Tem P22 (17)

JG2 Jg C2 Jg

Rg Rg 1 R

q14 P9 P14 q19 2 P22 (18)

ng J G1 ng J G 2 C2 Jg

1 R

q7 P14 2 P9 (19)

J ls J G1

1 1

q12 P14 P22 (20)

J JG 2 Jg

Hence the state equation is:

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Br R1 R1 1

J JG1

0 0

c1

0

ls

R1 R1 R9 Rg 1

0 0

p2 J ls JG1 ng J G 2 c1 P2 1 0

p

9

R2 Bg R2 1 P9 0 1

0 0 0

p22 Jg JG2 c2 P22 0 0 Ta

P14 Rg R2 Rg R2 1 P14 0 0 Tem

q 0 0

ng 2 J G 2 c2 q7 0 0

7 n g J G1 Jg JG2

q19 1 1 q19 0 0

0 0 0 0

J ls J G1

1 1

0 0 0 0

Jg JG2

(21)

6 Tower motion model

It is assumed that the tower movement does not inuence the mechanical system; it only affects its

input

7 assemblage model

The individual models presented in previous sections are assembled as shown in figure 15.

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

8 Conclusion

In this work, a model of a flexible wind turbine is built by using the bond graph method; we

introduced in this model the flexibility of blades, shafts, and the tower we finally got a complete

model that describes the behavior of wholes the essential elements of the system and less difficult than

other methods, in the future work we will analyze the behavior of de system and we will compare it

with a classical method to show the efficiency of this method.

References

[1] Tore Bakka and Hamid Reza, Bond graph modeling and simulation of wind turbine systems,

Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 27 (6) (2013) 1843~1852

[2]Fatima Zahra Baghli, Larbi El bakkali, Modeling and Analysis of the Dynamic Performance of a

Robot Manipulator driving by an Electrical Actuator Using Bond Graph Methodology, International

Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:14 No:04

[3]Wolfgang Borutzky, Bond Graph Methodology, Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

[4]Y. Lakhal, Baghli F, L. El Bakkali, Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Flexible Wind Turbine

for a Multi-objectives Control. International Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical and Computer

Technology; Vol. 4(10), Jan, 2014, Special Number, pp. 1063-1083, ISSN; 2305-0543

[5] Alan D. Wright, Modern control design for flexible wind turbine, Technical Report National

renewable, energy laboratorycolorado.USA.

[6] Y. Lakhal, Baghli F, L. El Bakkali, Fuzzy Logic control strategy for maximum power point

tracking for horizontal axis wind turbine, Volume 19C, 2015, Pages 599-606

[7] R. Oulad Ben Zarouala,C. Vivas, J. A. Acosta, and L. El Bakkali, On Singular Perturbations of

Flexible and Variable-Speed Wind Turbines International Journal of Aerospace Engineering Volume

2012

[8] Anders Ahlstrom, Aeroelastic Simulation of Wind Turbine Dynamics, April 2005,Doctoral

Thesis from Royal Institute of Technology Department of Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

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