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22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Dynamic Modeling for flexible wind turbine by the

Bond Graph method

a. Modeling and simulation of mechanical systems team M2SM, UAE/E28FS, Faculty of

science, Tetuan, morocco
A wind turbine is a complex system, it contains many elements interconnected each other in a way that
can capture and transmit the power flow captured by the rotor to the generator and convert it to
electrical energy. Several elements of this system have a flexible nature, there have been lots of works
on the modeling of flexible wind turbine, that they are based on different method, in this work we
applied a graphical modeling approach called Bond graph, this method is based on the principle of
energy conservation. The objective of this work is to develop a non-linear model that describes the
behavior of wind turbine system taking account of the flexibility of the blades, drivetrain and tour.
Finally we approve we compare the result obtained with bond graph approach with method classical
method of control in order to justify the efficiency of this approach.

Keywords: bond graph, wind turbine, modeling dynamic, flexibility,

energy, non-linear

1 Introduction
The necessity to develop alternative energy resources motivates researchers to develop more profitable
models of wind turbine, more stable and with minimal cost of production, the improvement of the
performances of the systems need the total knowledge of the behavior of the system; this remains a
difficult task due to the complexity of the system. Wind turbines are mechanical systems with
complex structure, several elements have large flexibility as blades, towers and the drivetrain, this
flexibility has a great influence on the behavior of the system, they can set the unwanted vibration and
excites some resonance frequency, it can also create fluctuations in the level of energy, then his
negligence when modeling is not beneficial. We can ever talking of control or optimization of a wind
turbine without mentioning the modeling; its a critical task, the most of researches in this field aim to
found methods more simple and effective model that describes the systems behavior so as precise.
The majority of these works are based on classical methods, In earlier literature, we find [10] and [5]
which is based on the LAGRANG and KAN methods, other works are based on the Finite elements
method that we can find [7],
The works that chosen bond graph as a modeling method of flexible wind turbine are scarce; the
majority of theme nglects the flexibility of several important elements of wind turbine.
In this work we have chosen to apply the bond graph method to modeling a flexible wind turbine, it is
a graphical way of modeling physical systems. All these physical systems have in common the
conservation laws for mass and energy, in 1961, deals with the conservation of energy. This gives a
22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

unied approach to modeling physical systems. Further follows a short introduction to this modeling
tool, more information can be found in [xxx].

2 Bond graph language elements

The bond graphs elements are classified as passive elements, active elements and junction elements.
These elements constitute the bond graph language.
The passive elements:
The elements R, C and I are called passive elements because they transfer the power given to
them as a dissipated energy in heat form (element R) or stocked (element I and C). The power is
given to elements, which impose to repair the direction of the half-arrow of the bond towards these
elements. The connection of the bond and the elements of the bond graph, show the articulation of the
energy exchanges between the different parts of a system, and with its environment. Each element is
associated to a phenomenon.

Figure1: Bond graph passive components

The active elements:

The effort source respectively of flow (Se resp. Sf) is associated to an effort (resp. a flow) imposed to
the system (depend to a couple motor -resp. a rotation velocity imposed by an actuator on a tree
for example).
Sf Sf

Figure 2: Bond graph active components

Components are connected together using two types of junctions: a 0 or common effort junction and a
1 or common flow junction.
The 0 junction has the following properties: all bonds impinging upon it have the same effort variable
and all flows on attached bonds sum to zero. Similarly the 1 junction has the properties: all bonds
impinging upon it have the same flow variable and all effort on attached bonds sum to zero.
To transfer between physical domains the ability to multiply must be included and bond graphs
provide two means of accomplishing this: the Transformer TF and the Gyrator Gy (TF or Gy are
energy conserving).

f2 e2 f2 e2
e1 e1
e3e2 e3e2

0 1
f1 f3 f1 f3

1 2
TF : m 1 2
Gy : r

Figure 3: Illustration of junction

The causality assignment rules
Bond graphs have a notion of causality, indicating which side of a bond determines the instantaneous
effort and which determines the instantaneous flow. In formulating the dynamic equations that
describe the system, causality defines, for each modeling element, which variable is dependent and
which is independent.
22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Table 2 shows the permitted causality permutations for components, junctions and transformers
Table 1 : Causality stroke and Assignments for bond graph
Causal form Causal relation Type
Se e Se Fixed
f Sf Causality

e Resistor
R Conductivity
R e R* f

I 1 Integral
f e dt
I df

C 1 Integral
e f dt
C de
f I
1 2 e1 m * e2 ; f 2 m * f1 Symmetric
TF : m

1 2 e1 f
TF :m e2 ; f1 2
m m Symmetric
1 2
Gy : r
e1 r * f 2 ; e2 r * f1 Antsymmetric
1 2 e1 e
Gy : r f2 ; f2 2
r r Antsymmetric

e2 e3 e1 One effort is
1 2 f1 f 2 f 3 imposed on the
junction 0

f 2 f 3 f1 One flow is
1 2 e1 e2 e3 imposed on the
junction 1

3 Flexible Wind turbine Modeling

3.1 Proposed model description

In this section a flexible model is proposed including the necessary dynamics, this model describes the
flap wise of blades in plan, tower binding and the dynamic of the drivetrain, this last one is considered
as three mass drivetrain, the figure 2 shows the structure of the proposed model .
22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Figure 4: proposed
(Proposed model
model structure
To simplify the modeling of the system, we divided the system model on several sub-models, the
representation of the wind turbine is developed by assembling bond graph represent of the
different elements as shown in the word bond graph figure 2

Msf Aerodynamic Blade Drive Generator
Speed s Train


Figure 5: Word bond graph of flexible Wind turbine

4 Blades model
The proposed model is based on Euler Bernoulli beam model and blade elements momentum BEM,
the global model is built from coupling between aerodynamic model and structural model, the
structure of model is shown in the follows figure.
Wind Speed Forces
Aerodynamic Structural
model Model
(BEM model) (Euler Bernoulli
Rotor speed
Figure 6 : blade model

In this model, we include just the flapwise bending, we neglect the edgewise and torsional vibration of

Figure 7: Blade flapwise deflection

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

4.1 Structural model

Different approach can be user to reformulate the model of flexible beam, in this work we are choose
to use the Bernoulli-Euler method, its designed for the beams with uniform sections and small
deformation, against a wind turbine blade has a flexible structure with large deformation, and has a
different sections dimensions.
For applying this method of blade with large deformation we propose to divide the structure into three
elements, the total deformation of blade is the sum of deformation of sections.

Section 1 Section 2 Section 3

Figure 8: blade structure and sections

A generic bond graph approximation of one dimensional focusing on fundamental aspects, let us
consider the classical example of a beam assuming the Bernoulli hypothesis that rotary inertia and
shear deformation can be neglected (Bernoulli-Euler beam) .Let us also assume that only transversal
forces act on the beam.
The bond graph presented following describe the model of one flexible blade, an integral causality is

Figure 9: structural model of flexible blade

The boundary condition of the blade model is represented by the S f and Se sources. The connection
between the blade and the hub is assumed to be rigid, this means S f = 0. Se1 , Se 2 , and Se3 are the
aerodynamics forces applied on blade, Ci represents the stiffness of each elements of blade, Ri and Ii
represent respectively the damping and the masses of elements.

Equation of motion :
to get the dynamic model of the blade, we have followed the bond graph process, firstly we
determine the equation assisted to each junction and each elements.

Table 2 : Equation associated to junctions

Junction 1 Elements Junction
f f 2 f3 S f : f1 S f
"1" 1
e1 e2 e3 0 Se1 : e6 Se1
Se 2 : e15 Se 2
Se3 : e19 Se3
f f 5 f 6 f 7 f8 f 9 e R1 f3 e R2 f8 e R3 f13
"1" 4 R1 : 3 R2 : 8 R3 : 13
e6 e4 e5 e7 e8 e9 0 e5 R1 f5 e11 R2 f11 e7 R3 f17
22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

f f11 f12 f13 f14 f15 1

"1" 10 I1 : f 7 P7
e15 e10 e11 e12 e13 e14 e15 0 I1
I 2 : f12 P12
I 3 : f18 P18
f f17 f18 f19 1 1 1
"1" 16 e2 C q2 e9 C q9 e14 C q14
e19 e16 e17 e18 0 1 2 3
C1 : C2 : C3 :
e 1 q e 1 q e 1 q
4 C1 4 10 C2 10 16 C3 16

From equations junctions, we determined the generalized coordinates equations of blades, the states
variable of blade are:
P7 , P12 , P18 , q2 , q4 , q9 , q16 , q14
1 1 1 1
P7 Se1 q4 R1 P7 R2 P q9 q4 q9 (1)
C1 I1 I1 C2
1 1 1 1 (2)
P12 Se2 q10 R2 P12 R3 P12 q14
C2 I2 I2 C3
1 1
P18 Se3 q16 R3 P18 (3)
C3 I3
1 (4)
q4 f 4 f 7 P7
q2 f 2 S f (5)
q9 f9 f 7 P7
I1 (6)
q10 f10 f12 P12
I2 (7)
q14 e14 f14 f12 P12
I2 (8)
q16 f16 f18 P18
I3 (9)

q4 q9 q10 q14
From the equations related to elements C1, C2 and C3 was: And
From the bond graph model and the precedent junction equations and elements we can formulate a set
of manipulator robot differential equations in the following matrix form:
R1 1 1
0 0 0 0
I1 c1 c2
R R 1 1
0 2 3 0 0 0
p7 I 2 I3 c2 c3 P7 1 0 0
12 R3 1 P12 0 1 0
P 0 Se1
p18 0 0
0 0
c3 0 1

Se 2
q9 1 q
9 0 0 0
Se 3
q 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
q14 0
14 I1
q16 1 q16 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
I3 (10)
22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

4.2 Aerodynamic model

The aerodynamic model is used to calculate the aerodynamic loads applied in the structure of the
blades from wind speed and rotational speed of the rotor and the pitch angle of the blades, they are
calculated by using the they are calculated by using the method BEM method [4].
The blade structure is divided in sections. For each section BEM theory is applied, in order to provide
aerodynamic force to the blade structure. Eq. (1) expresses the aerodynamic force Fi applied to the ith
1 1 ai
Fi ( Vw 2 Cli sin i Cdi cos i Ci li )Vw (11)
2 sin i
where Vw represents the wind velocity, the air density, i the wind inow angle expression (2),
Cli and Cdi are the lift and drag dimensionless coefcients function on the angle of attack i , dened as
the angle between the incoming ow stream and the chord line of the airfoil in the i th section.
V 1 a
I tan 1
w i
r ri 1 ai'

ai Represents the axial tangential induction factor and is calculated from expressions (3) and (4).
4 sin 2 i
ai 1 '
C cos C sin
ii li i di i
4 sin 2 i
a 1 '
i (Cli cos i Cdi sin i

The parameters of equations are presented graphically in the fig.5

r Rr (1 a ')

Vw (1 a)

flow velocity

Figure 10 : airfoil section of blade


Pitch angle Rotor speed

Figure 11 : bond graph of aerodynamic model

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

A MGY (modulated gyrator) element is used to implement Eqs. (2-4), since wind (MSf source) is
transformed into a Se source (aerodynamic force), as shown in figure 7.

5 Drive train model

the proposed model of drivetrain include three masses, the first one is the low speed shaft inertia noted
J lss , the second is the masses of gear box elements noted J G1 and J G 2 , and J hss is the inertia of the
height speed shaft, in this model we include also the flexibility of each shaft, its expressed by a
coupled spring damper noted respectively ( Bls , K ls ) and ( Bhs , K hs ), Br , Rg and Bg present respectively the
friction coefficients of the rotor, gear box and the generator.
The model bond graph model of proposed model is presented by the following figure

Klss JG1

Br BHss

Figure 12: model of drivetrain

Figure 13: bond graph model of drivetrain

Equation of motion

Table 3: Equation associated to junctions

Junction 1 Junction 0 Transformer Elements Junction
f f 2 f3 f 4 e e e 1
"1" 1 "0" 4 5 6 e13 n e12
e1 e2 e3 e4 0 f 4 f5 f 6 0 g Ta : e1 Se1
" TF : ng " " Se ":
f 1
f Tem : e21 Se 2
12 ng 13

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

f f 7 f8 e e e 1
"1" 5 "0" 10 12 12 J ss : f 2 Jss P2
e5 e7 e8 0 f10 f11 f12 0
J :f 1 P
G1 9 J 9
" I ":
J G 2 f14 P14
J G2

J g : f 22 1 P22
f f f15 e e e 1
"1" 13 14 "0" 15 16 17 J ss : f 2 Jss P2
e13 e14 e15 0 f15 f16 f17 0
J :f 1 P
G1 9 J 9
" I ":
J G 2 f14 P14

J g : f 22 1 P22
f f18 f19 Br : e3 Br f3
"1" 16 B :e B f
e16 e18 e19 0 g 20 g 20

" R ": Bls : e8 R1 f8
B :e R f
hs 18 2 18

Rg : e11 Rg f 11
f f 20 f 21 f 22 1
"1" 17 kls : e7 k q7
e17 e20 e21 e22 0 ls
" C ":
k : e 1
hs 19 khs 19
f f9 f10
"1" 6
e6 e9 e10 0

Expressions of variables stats equations:

We proceed in the same process, and we find the states variables that are presented by the following
B Bls 1 kls
P2 Ta r P2 q7 P9 (15)
J ls C1 J G1
1 B B Bg Bg
P9 q7 ls P2 ls P9 P9 P14 (16)
C1 J ls J G1 J G1 ng J G 2
R2 R 1 Bg
P22 ( P14 2 P22 q19 ) Tem P22 (17)
JG2 Jg C2 Jg
Rg Rg 1 R
q14 P9 P14 q19 2 P22 (18)
ng J G1 ng J G 2 C2 Jg
1 R
q7 P14 2 P9 (19)
J ls J G1
1 1
q12 P14 P22 (20)
J JG 2 Jg
Hence the state equation is:
22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

Br R1 R1 1
0 0
R1 R1 R9 Rg 1
0 0
p2 J ls JG1 ng J G 2 c1 P2 1 0
R2 Bg R2 1 P9 0 1
0 0 0
p22 Jg JG2 c2 P22 0 0 Ta

P14 Rg R2 Rg R2 1 P14 0 0 Tem
q 0 0
ng 2 J G 2 c2 q7 0 0
7 n g J G1 Jg JG2

q19 1 1 q19 0 0
0 0 0 0
J ls J G1

1 1
0 0 0 0
Jg JG2
6 Tower motion model
It is assumed that the tower movement does not inuence the mechanical system; it only affects its

Figure 14: bond graph model of tower

7 assemblage model
The individual models presented in previous sections are assembled as shown in figure 15.

Figure 15: assemblage bond graphs of wind turbine

22me Congrs Franais de Mcanique Lyon, 24 au 28 Aot 2015

8 Conclusion
In this work, a model of a flexible wind turbine is built by using the bond graph method; we
introduced in this model the flexibility of blades, shafts, and the tower we finally got a complete
model that describes the behavior of wholes the essential elements of the system and less difficult than
other methods, in the future work we will analyze the behavior of de system and we will compare it
with a classical method to show the efficiency of this method.

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