• Has a unique culture • Seen as an ‘isolated, mystical land’ • 1950 – Chinese communist forces invaded as they were ‘liberating

the country from … theocratic rule’ – caused destruction • 1951 - Set up the Seventeen Point Agreement – Chinese did not keep to this • 1959 – Dalai Lama went into exile – wanted to avoid violence and more murders • 1966 – the Red Guards forced people to study Mao’s teachings • Deaths: 1 million • Monasteries destroyed: 2000 • 1976 – Mao died and the onslaught eased

• The Dalai Lama

• Went into exile to save the population and prevent more killings • To represent and protect the Buddhists in Tibet • Invaded Tibet • Forced the people in Tibet to study Mao’s teachings • Tortured and harassed many nuns and monks

• The departure of the Dalai Lama caused Mao and the Red Guards to take over Tibet • Thousands of deaths and torturing • Lost original culture

• Chinese communist forces • Mao and the Red Guards


• Catholic vs. Protestant conflicts in

the past –1625 - Catholics owned 79% of the land, 1750 – Protestants owned 95% of the land, Post-War – Catholics had more of a say due to links with Britain and labour gov.

• Sean Lemass (ROI PM) and Terence O’Neill (NI PM) • The IRA

• Had a meeting, the first of the two Irish heads of Government in 40 years • Tried to bomb the loyalist paramilitary leaders

• This lead to the start of the ‘Troubles’ • This lead to a failed attack, where one bomber died, the other one arrested for 9 murders • The agreement supposedly brought peace between NI and the ROI • Discrimination lead to police harassment, exclusion form public service appointments, not allowed to have political representatives in parliament • Introduced further and higher education for the children, this meant they would learn new things and not tolerate the discrimination from the Protestants

• The ‘Troubles’ – started with a meeting between NI Prime Minister (Terence O’Neill) and Republic of Ireland PM (Sean Lemass)

• This caused violence in 1966

Northern Ireland

following the 50th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme and the Easter Rising

• Margaret Thatcher (UK PM) and Garret Fitzgerald (Irish PM) • Protestants • Catholics

• Signed the Anglo-Irish Agreement

• Shankill Road bombings –

23/10/1993 – done by the Provisional IRA – resulted in 10 deaths, including the bomber – loyalist paramilitary leaders were supposed to be meeting where it took place

• Owned most of the land from 1750 – postwar, discriminated against the Catholics

• Celebrate their culture and historical events e.g. St Patricks Day • There is a peace line that separates the Protestant Shankill area and the Catholic Falls Road • 1985 – Anglo-Irish Agreement signed by Margaret Thatcher and Garret Fitzgerald – confirming that NI would be independent of the ROI as long as this is what the majority wanted

• British post-war labour government

• Supported the Catholics in NI

• SW France and N Spain • Mountainous and coastal landscape • Has a distinctive culture: architecture, sports, festivals, language (Euskara) • Call for independence through protests and acts of terrorism by Eta (a separatist organisation)

• ETA – Euskadi Ta Azkatasuna


• Spanish government • Basque government

• Want to be separate from the rest of Spain and France, have been suspected of being behind bomb attacks in 2002 • Have had peace talks with ETA

The group have got weaker, Spanish government: ‘ETA has never been so weak’

• Eta have now agreed a ceasefire

• They will have a better future as they will have • Set up a number of youth learnt skills such as activities to enhance their dance and music possibilities

• ‘Tourism in Bhutan is seen not only as a revenue and employment generator but also as a means of strengthening the country’s cultural and natural heritage’ • The Bhutanese culture is one of the most preserved and wellguarded culture in the world • Government has said that all Bhutanese must wear national dress in public

• Bhutanese tourist board

• Bhutan Government

• To not allow tourism to dominate and ruin the culture • Put in place strategies including: Tours have to be booked through Bhutanese tour operators and led by a trained Bhutanese guide The amount of tourists visas issued each year is limited Not all parts of the country are open to tourists (e.g. some temples and monasteries) • To protect the culture • Have said that the locals have to wear national dress in public • Drukpa are seen by the tourists – Nepalese resented this

• The core culture has been kept and not ruined by tourism • The prices are expensive and only attract richer people – therefore they cater for them so the culture has changed a little bit


• This protects and promotes their culture, and shows it off to tourists

• Drukpa population (majority) – Buddhist • Nepalese population (minority) - Hindu

• The emigration of the Nepalese is a human cost that has resulted from the protection

• Became an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in 1988 • Became the countries first UNESCO European and Global Geopark in 2003

• Farmers and local people

• To preserve the area, they will influence how the tourists behave as they follow the respect that the locals show for the area • Preserve the Geopark • Look after and preserve the diverse wildlife in the area

• Tourists now respect the area and leave it tidy

• UNESCO (Geopark) • RSPB

North Pennines

• It was the founding member of the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network • There are now 33 across Europe

• The Geopark and AONB status promotes the area to tourism • They hold events such as the Northern Rocks Festival, which helps tourists to discover the geological site and secrets of the North Pennines • Green tourism has lead to the setting up of the Green Tourism Business Scheme (GTBS), which reduce their impact on the environment wherever possible, there is an award scheme to identify these businesses

• Local County Councils

• Promote green tourism and the preservation of the area

• Natural England • English Heritage

Peak District National Park

• Northern England • Popular place for tourists to visit, especially in the summer • Became a National Park in 1951 – the first in Britain • It is home to many Sites of Special Scientific Interest, e.g. Houndkirk Moor • Cultural landscapes include: • Chatsworth House and Gardens • Heights of Abraham (cable car and attractions, inc. caves)

• Peak District National Park Authority

• Local Councils

• Help to care for listed buildings, preserve characteristic buildings, protect wildlife and bring back native woodlands • By law they have to: to conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage of the area and promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the parks' special qualities by the public • Look after and manage the residents in the area • Deal with different schemes, such as buses and building regulations

• The Park is protected and well maintained for tourists to see • The cultural landscape, including the biodiversity, is unchanged

• The areas are well protected • They have control over what goes on in the area, they can make sure the regulations of the National Park status are followed • Ensures that tourists follow the examples shown • The land is protected and the landscape is not changed • Tourists will respect the area when they visit and know how to have a sustainable visit

• Local people/ Farmers • Look after and respect the land • Can limit the amount of footpath erosion on their land by not allowing walkers to cross the land • Provide information on the area, e.g. things to do, places to go and how to be a ‘green tourist’

• VisitPeakDistrict.c om

• Tin and copper mining • Became a World Heritage Site in 2006

• Cornish Mining World Heritage Trust

Cornwall Mining

• Based on landscape and culture • Cornwall and Devon county councils • UNESCO • National Trust

• ‘to promote the Cornish Mining World Heritage Site as a distinctive, evolving, living pattern of landscapes, encouraging visitors to explore and learn about the physical, social and cultural aspects of the Cornish and west Devon mining heritage’ • They put the bid in place for the status and protect the area • Allocated and manage the WHS • Own different heritage sites across the counties, e.g. estates and moors

• People respect the area when they visit and learn about the history and culture

• The area received the bid and it has helped to promote the area • They ensure that the are is protected under the status • Encourage tourists to visit and enjoy the area

• Poor area • High unemployment • Newham – average salary = £20,000/yr


• Organise the Games • Built a construction college near the site • Built office buildings • Relocated some residents – gave compensation £8500 – some don’t think it was enough • To improve education, training and infrastructure • Create a ‘green lung’ in London, along the River Lea • Help to relocate residents

• • • •

Changing culture Trains locals Provides a legacy Attracts investment and businesses

East London – Stratford and Newham

• Changing culture due to Games • Young and diverse population • Derelict buildings • Polluted • High rise flats • Cheap affordable housing

• Newham Borough Council • Mayor of London • Lea Valley Authority • Clays Lane Housing Trust

• Changed the culture as the house prices are increasing and will increase further, attract different people to the area

• Attract investment and biodiversity • People have housing but it is still changing the culture and people don’t want to go • Change the culture so that the young people want to go out to work Possible future outcomes: • New sports facilities • 40,000 new homes • 50,000 new jobs

• Streets of Hope • Improve the aspirations of young people

• 7% Sikh community • 87% white British • Celebrate St George’s Day and Vasaikhi festival: • Sikh festival – 13th April – come from all over the world to Gravesend Gurdwara • Historic riverside

• Gravesham Borough Council


• They have implemented a ‘Cultural Strategy’ to preserve and promote the cultural points of Gravesend, e.g. the Gurdwara, riverside and Gravesend Old Town Hall • Asda have a ‘World Food Aisle’ and sell an Asian clothing range • Have built a Gurdwara in the centre of town

• Promotion of Gravesend and the area to tourists etc., promotion of cultural diversity in the area

• Asda, Gravesend

• Sikh community

• The ethnic minorities feel accepted in the community and it promotes the other cultures in the area • Other people can recognise their culture – people travel from around the country to visit the Gurdwara to celebrate their festivals

Culture: • Bangladeshi community • Famous for curries Landscape: • Indian Bengal style archway at either end

• Tower Hamlets Council • Transport for London

• Have representatives of the Bangladeshi community on the council • Building an East London line, with a station at Shoreditch High Street right on Brick Lane’s doorstep

• Allows the views of them to be heard • Increased tourism in the area, easy access to other parts of London e.g. for workers

Brick Lane

• Own language (Urdu) on signs • Mainly restaurants and shops – BanglaCity Supermarket • Banks have glocalised – own language – Sonali Bank (Bangladeshi bank)

Culture: • Chinese • Celebrated – Chinese New Year Landscape: • Buildings – shops, supermarkets, restaurants

• City of Westminster council • Chinatownlondon.o rg

• Management, protection and promotion of the Chinese culture • To promote the culture in Chinatown and advertise different events • Invest in different areas and rent/let shops out to companies, they control the diversity of the area • Run community activities, represent their views and interests and promote the Chinese culture and traditions • Keep in contact with the Chinese community – looks after them

• Promotion and increased tourism • People visit the area and increase income • A diverse mix of businesses are set up in the area and it encourages cultural diversity • Support the Chinese culture in London, provide a range of services

• Shaftesbury PLC


• Gateway – celebrating you’re in a Chinese part of London • Chinese HSBC – employees, writing, glocalising • Signs in Mandarin

• London Chinese Community Centre – www.ccc.org.uk

• Chinese Liaison Officers

• Provide a feeling of safety and welcome the Chinese

Culture: • Predominantly white British

City of Westminster council Harrods


• To conserve the Victorian buildings through the conservation area • Sell expensive items

• People visit the area for its history • Attract tourists to the area, especially those who are slightly richer

• •

Proud Middle  upper class

Landscape: • Shops – not many high street shops – Harrods • Middle  upper class people

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