Multiplying Multiply tops Multiply bottoms Dividing Turn 2ND fraction OVER and MULTIPLY Adding/Subtracting • Get bottom lines the same •Multiply tops by the same nº as bottoms •Add/subtract BUT only if bottoms are the same

Differences in a Sequence
Same Differences Nth term = dn + (a-d) d = difference, a = first term

4 Transformations

Changing – Vector of TranslationDifferences translation a + (n-1)d + ½(n-1)(n-2)C Enlargement – Scale factor

a = first term, d = first difference, – Centre of C= change between one difference and Enlargement the next Rotation – Angle turned – Direction (clockwise etc.) – Centre of rotation

Reflection – Mirror line

Interior/Exterior Angles
Interior 180º - Exterior Angle Exterior 360º Nº of sides

Triangle Numbers
Nth Term = ½n (n+1)

Areas, Volumes and Surface Areas
Area of a: Trapezium ½ Shapes New Similar (a+b)h
a Length Scale Factor b Old Length

Parallelogram Base x height (vertical)

Sector Angle x area of full circle 360º Length of Arc Histograms Angle x circumference 360º Frequency Density = Frequency Volume of a Pyramid 1/3 Class Width x height x base area Surface Area of a: Cylinder 2∏rh x 2∏r² Cone ∏rl + ∏r²

2∏r² 2∏rh