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# Design of Wastewater

Networks
Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

((Wastewater Networks
( )
( (Hydraulics

.
( )
.
( )
(
)

( )Pipes
( )Manholes
( )Treatment Plant
.

.1 ( :)Pipes (
)
.
.2 ( :)Manholes .
() .
.3 ( :)Treatment Plant
.
:
.1
( )By gravity
) (Hydrualics
( )
.

( )1
.

## )Page (1 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

( :)1

.1 ( ) Preliminary Study
.2 Network Layout
.3 Hydraulic Analysis and Design
.

( ) Preliminary Study
:

.1 ( )Topographic Study:
( :)Master Plan or Land Use
...
.

## )Page (2 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

( :)Contour Map
(
).
.2 (:)Demographic Study

.
:

( ) 20 30.

:
20
20 (
) 20
20
.

( ) :
2040 2010 2000
2% 2.5% 3%
7,724,000 4,061,000 2,373,000
( :)1

.1 :
:
. (:)Arithmetic Increase Method
:
)Pf = Po (1 + kt
: Pf ( .)t
: Po .
P
. : k = k = constant
t

## )Page (3 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

: t .
( ) 2 .

( :)2 ( )

## . (:)Predicted Curves Method

Curvilinear Method
) )Curvilinear .
:
Pf = Po (1 + k)t
( ) 3 .

## )Page (4 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

:
( )Curvilinear Method
( )Arithmetic Mean Method .

.2 :
.
:
2
( ) 100,000 m
25% .
5% .
70% ( 60% ( )70%
40% ) :
Area Specified for Buildings = 100,000 0.7 = 70,000 m2
Actual Buildings Area = 70,000 0.6 = 42,000 m2
= 5 .
Total area (for all stories) = 42,000 5 = 210,000 m2
= 150 m2
210,000
= # of Flats = 1400 Flat
150
= 7
Person
Population = 1400 Flat 7 = 9800 person or capita
Flat
:
70%

.

( )
= 25 (2040( 2015
8800 = 2007
= 2.5 %
( 510,000 m2
).
(
) :
60,929 m2

## )Page (5 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

178,104 m2
:
( )
.
.1 :
:
Po = 8800 , t = 25 + (2015 2007) = 33 yr , k = 2.5% = 0.025
Pf = Po (1 + k)t = 8800 (1 + 0.025)33 = ,
.2 :
.:
)Area Specified for Buildings = 60,929 m2 (from autocad
Actual Buildings Area = 60,929 0.6 = 36,557.4 m2
= 8 ( ).
Total area (for all stories) = 36,557.4 8 = 292,459.2 m2
= ( 140 m2 )
292,459.2
= # of Flats = 2089 Flat
140
= 7
Population = 2089 7 = 14,623 capita
. :
2
)Area Specified for Buildings = 178,104m (from autocad
Actual Buildings Area = 178,104 0.6 = 106,862.4 m2
= 5 .
Total area (for all stories) = 106,862.4 5 = 534,312 m2
= 150 m2
534,312
= # of Flats = 3562 Flat
150
= 7
Population = 3562 7 = 24,934 capita

## Total population (due to saturation) = 14,623 + 24,934 = ,

:
Final population = Min(19,878 ; 39,557) = ,

## )Page (6 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

:
.1
:
19,878
= PopulationDensity = 0.039 capita/m2
510,000

( ) Manhole
(
).
.2 2007!
( )
( )

( 2007
) 2040 t = 33 2007
.2040 ( ) 2
:

( :)2 2007

.3 Area
:
>>Enter >> aa>>Enter

## )Page (7 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

.
:
Area ( )
.
.3
(
)
.
(
)

.

.
80 120
150 2020
. ( )3
:

( :)3
20 ( (2020
.150 L/C/day :
80%
80% .
( (80%

95% .80%
150 0.8 120 L/C/day :

## )Page (8 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

.4 ()Geotechnical Investigation

.

Network Layout

.

.
( :)Manholes
:
.1 ( ).
.2 ( ).
.3 ( ).
.4 ( ).
.5 ( ).
.6 20 60
60
.
( :)Pipes
( By
)Gravity .
( )4

## )Page (9 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

( :)4

.
( )5 .

( :)5

## )Page (10 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

(:)5
.1
. ( )1
( )14 ( )1
( (14 ()11
( )20 . !

.
.2 ()
( )10
( )35.5 ( )36
( )11
.

( ( ))10
. .
.3

( )
( ) ( )Branch
. ( )1 ( .)7 13
( )8 ()8
( )9 ( )10
( )11 ( )12
( .)13
( )11 ()13
...
(.)5
:

( ).

## )Page (11 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

)(Hydraulic Analysis and Design
).)Microsoft Excel

( )By Gravity
( ) ( Partial
) Flow
( .)Full Flow 5 :

## )Page (12 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

:

) :

( :)8
=D .
=d .
= () 0 360
.

Qp Qf Qp Qf .
d QP VP
( and )
D Qf Vf
QP VP d
( and )
Qf Vf D
QP VP d
( : and )
Qf Vf D
) range (0 360
d 1
) = (1 cos
D 2 2
2/3
VP RP
) (=
Vf Rf
QP AP VP
) (=
Qf Af Vf
RP 360 sin AP sin
= (1 ) , (= )
Rf 2 Af 360 2

## )Page (13 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

## Now, by changing from 1 to 360 we can draw relationships between

QP VP d
( and ) on and on
Qf Vf D
We prepare the following table on Excel Program and then draw the graph.

)Col. (1
1 360
)Col. (2

sin 30
:

)Sin (number

Theta (rad) = radians(Theta in deg. ( :

## )Page (14 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

)Col. (3
d
:
D
d 1 cos
( = (1 )
D 2 2
).
)Col. (4
RP
:
Rf
RP 360 sin
( )sin = (1 )
Rf 2

.
)Col. (5
AP
:
Af
AP sin
(= )
Af 360 2

.
: ( Just Smile )

)Col. (6
VP
:
Vf
VP R 2/3
)= ( P
Vf Rf
)Col. (7
QP
:
Qf
QP AP VP
. (= )
Qf Af Vf

:
QP VP d
( and ) on and on
Qf Vf D

## )Page (15 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

:
:

## )Page (16 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

## Page (17) Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

1.0757

QP

Qf
1.0757 MAX
QP

Qf

( )1.0757
d QP
:
D Qf

## )Page (18 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks
QP
1
Qf
Y X
QP
1 1 ( )
Qf
( ).
QP d
= X = Y
Qf D
d QP

D Qf
.
VP d
( )
Vf D
VP d
= X = Y
Vf D
:
VP d
( ) on and ( ) on
Vf D

VP d
= X
Vf D

## )Page (19 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks
d QP
:
D Qf

## How we can calculate and

From Manning Equation such that this equation deals with full flow and we
can calculate them as following:
1 23 1
Vf = R f S 2
n
0.312 8 1
Qf = D3 S 2
n
n = manning coefficient
D
R f = Hydraulic Radius =
4
S = slope of pipe
D = pipe diameter

## Page (20) Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

:
Design Criteria
d
Initial Guess: = 0.67
D
Slope:
Min = 0.5% , Max = 3%
Velocity:
Min = 0.6 m/s , Max = 3m/s.
Pipes:
Min Diameter = 8 inch
Use UPVC pipes with available diameters ( 8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24)inch
For UPVC pipes >> n (manning coefficient) = 0.009 >> 0.011 (use 0.01)
Thickness of pipes = 3 mm.
Cover:
Minimum cover is depend on the diameter of
the pipe according to the shown table:
Drop Manholes:
If distance between the inlet and the outlet
pipe on the manhole is more than or equal
60cm>> use drop manhole.

## Page (21) Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

( ):

(
) :
.1 ( ):

## )Page (22 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

.2 ( )solid :

.3 ()
:

## )Page (23 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

.4 :

( )
(
) .
( )Branch
( ).
:

0.06
.

( ) :

## )Page (24 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

## Page (25) Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

## Page (26) Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

( )
.
:
Col. (1):
( )
( . :
).
Col. (2):

( ) .
Col. (3):
.
Col. (4):
( )
( :
).
Col. (5):
( )4 :
)Elevationfrom(upper) Elevationto(lower
= )Ground Slope (S
Pipe length
10 ( )-0.0114
.
Col. (6):

( )

( ) ...
( )8 ( )354
.
( )11 ( )9 ( )10
11:
) 739(P9) + 200.8 (P10) + 220(M11) = 1159.8 (P11 Cum.

## )Page (27 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

( )20 ( )18 ( )19
...
Col. (7):

( ) :
)Served Population = Area Cum. Population Density (0.06 here
Col. (8):
:
Q avg )= Served Population 150 0.8 (L/day
Served Population 150 103 0.8
= Q avg )(m3 /sec
24 3600
80%
.
Col. (9):
( )Peak Factor :
14
Pf = 1 + )(P: Population in thousands
4 + P
5
Pf = 0.167 )(P: Population in thousands
P
2.5
Pf = 1.5 + ))(Q avg : (L/sec
Q avg

2 .6
Col. (10):
Q Peak = Q avg Pf = Q Partial

Col. (11):
d
= 0.67
D
QP
0.785
Qf
QP d
.
Qf D

## )Page (28 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

Col. (12):
QP QP
= Qf =
Q P 0.785
Qf

Col. (13):
( )5
)0.5%( 0.005 .)3%( 0.03
( )10 0.005
( ) (
) 0.005.
Col. (14):
:
3/8
n Qf
(=D ) )(m
0.312 S
)S = Pipe Slope (from Col. 13
)n = manning coefficient = 0.01 (here
)Q f (from Col. 12

Col. (15):
( )14 :
Dmeter 100
= Dinch
2.54
Col. (16):
8
( )15 8 8
8 2
2 ( (Ceiling
( )16 :
))Dneeded(inch) = Max(8, Ceiling(Dinch , 2

Col. (17):

( )16 :

## )Page (29 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

Dneeded(inch) 2.54
= )Dneeded(meter
100
Col. (18):
Q f
:
0.312 8/3
= Q f,new (Dneeded(meter) ) S1/2
n
Col. (19):
QP
: Q f
Qf

( ) =
Q f new Q f,new

Col. (20):
QP d d QP

Qf D D Qf
( )Regression :

Q
) ( P 1
Qf new
Q d
) ( P ) ( X Y
Qf new D new
d
) (.
D new

## )Page (30 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks
Q
) ( P 1 :
Qf new

( ) .

Col. (21):
d VP
) (
D new Vf
:

d VP
) ( X Y
D new Vf

## )Page (31 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

Col. (22):
( ) Vf :
1 D Q f,new
= Vf = R2/3 S1/2 Where R OR Vf =
n 4 (Dneeded(meter) )2
4
Col. (23):
( )VP :
VP
= VP Vf
Vf

Col. (24):
( :) VP
0.6m/s 3m/s
( )0.6 ( )3 .
Col. (25):

.

.

.
.
:

## )Page (32 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

: 16

## Page (33) Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

## From Col. (1) to Col. (7):

.

Col. (8):
()

() :
8 8
12 1 14
1.2 14 1.3
IF
If (D <=12,1,if(D =14,1.2,1.3)) :

Col. (9):
,
UPVC 3
5
.

Col. (10):

:

()From
:

ILTo

:

## )Page (34 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

)ILTo = ILFrom Y , (Y = S X

( ).

Col. (11):
( )From ( )To
:

!!
12

## )Page (35 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

Col. (12):

( 3% )
( )Cover
) )Min. Cover (
) ) )Min. Cover
) .)Min. Cover ( ) ( )To
) ) Min. Cover
.

## ILFrom Min. Cover

ILTo
( )Min. Cover
0.8 1
.
1 0.2 .
( )modification ( ) :
)If (Excavation To D2t<min.cover,min.cover ( Excavation ToD2t),0
Excavation To D 2t:

.

## )Page (36 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

Col. (13):
(
)12

.
Final Excavation From = Excavation From + Modification
Final Excavation To = Excavation To + Modification

.
Col. (14):
:
New Cover From = Final Excavation From D 2t
New Cover To = Final Excavation To D 2t

Col. (15):
Invert Level :
Final Invert Level From = Ground Level From Final Excavation From + t Final
Invert Level To = Ground Level To Final Excavation To + t

Col. (16):
( )3%

Min. Cover

Min. Cover

( )60cm
.
Drop Manhole (
60).
:

## )Page (37 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

## Branch Drop Manhole

.
Drop Manhole :
)If (ILTo - ILFrom<0.6,No,Yes
:

## )Page (38 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

.1

:

.
.
:

(
) 25
:

## )Page (39 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

:
:
Min. Cover + Min. Diameter +2t =(1+0.2)=1.2 m
8 0.2
1 . ( )1.2+0.25 1.45
60 1.5 2
1 1.5 0.9 0.8
.
.2 ( )Longitudinal Profile

:

## )Page (40 Ahmed S. Al-Agha

Sanitary Engineering Design of Wastewater Networks

Drop Manholes .3
:

Done