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BoeingsCubeSatTestBed1AttitudeDeterminationDesignandOnOrbit

Experience

MichaelTaraba

PrimaryAuthor,FormerEmployeeoftheBoeingCompany

ChristianRayburn;SeniorEmbeddedSoftwareEngineer

AlbertTsuda;SystemsEngineer

CharlesScottMacGillivray;ProgramManager

5301BolsaAve.MCH013B322,HuntingtonBeach,CA92647

christian.g.rayburn@boeing.com

albert.s.tsuda@boeing.com

charles.s.macgillivray@boeing.com

ABSTRACT

TheCubeSatstandardhasprovidedspaceaccesstorapidlyacceleratethematurityofhardwarecomponentsand

software algorithms for extremely small satellites. The Boeing CubeSat TestBed 1 (CSTB1) onorbit experiment,

launched April 17,2007, validated a highly integrated and multifunctional approach for attitudedetermination.

ThispapercoverstheconstraintsanddesignconceptofaCubeSatattitudedeterminationsystemusingmultiple

integrated sensors. The onorbit data collected from five twoaxis commercialofftheshelf MEMS magnetome

ters,andfoursuitesofsunsensorswasprocessedandanalyzedtodeterminetheattitudeofCSTB1.Theattitude

determinationwasverifiedviaanimagefromalowpowerCMOScameraandsolarcellmeasurements.Lastly,this

paperaddresseshowourattitudedeterminationsolutionwasusedtohelprefinevehicleoperations.

CubeSats.TheCSTB1attitudedeterminationapproach

BoeingsCubeSatTestBed1(CSTB1)waslaunchedinto utilizes multifunctional elements and commercialoff

a 750 km sunsynchronous orbit on April 17, 2007 by theshelf electronics as a means of providing course

an ISC Kosmotras Dnepr rocket from the Baikonur attitude knowledge, while addressing the ultralow

CosmodromeinKazakhstan(Reference1).Theprimary size,weightandpowerconstraints.

mission goal of CSTB1 was to accelerate the maturity

of CubeSat related components and subsystems, as Thispaperisstructuredasfollows:

well as accelerate the general infrastructure and

operationsofthisclassofspacecraft. - CubeSatTestBed1GeneralDescription

cost access to space by utilizing rideshare opportuni tifunctionalElements

ties; however, the one kilogram and 10 cm cube

- SimulationResults

definitionshaveintroducednewchallengesinsatellite

design.Mosttypical,flightqualified,satellitehardware - OnOrbitDataAnalysis

are not compatible due to their mass, power and/or

volume requirements; therefore, few attitude sensors - Conclusions

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CUBESATTESTBED1GENERALDESCRIPTION magneticsensorsintegratedintothesidepanelsofthe

satellite.Thegoalwastoprovideenoughsimplesensor

The primary mission goals of CSTB1 were to mature measurements so that a reasonable coarse attitude

andevaluatecommerciallowpowerprocessors,CMOS solution could be derived. Given that four of the six

ultra low power imagers, and associated software sides of the satellite contain at least two axes of

algorithms in the space environment, and to provide attitude information; course attitude information can

validation of using integrated attitude determination beextractedformanyattitudes.Allsensordatacanbe

sensors as part of the multifunctional side panels. directlydownlinkedtothegroundforpostprocessing.

Secondary missions included validation of the mission The remainder of this section addresses the sensor

operationscenterandrapidprototypingprocessesina configuration and attitude determination algorithm

smallteamenvironment. usedonthegroundforpostprocessing.

CSTB1 conforms to the CubeSat standard for a single CSTB1CoordinateFrames

1U CubeSat. CSTB1 consists of eight basic functional

subsystems: 1) Command and Data Handling, 2) ThecoordinateframedefinitioninFigure2isprovided

AttitudeDeterminationandControl,3)Telemetryand to give a reference when discussing the configuration

Command 4) Electrical Power System, 5) Structure, 6) of the attitude sensors later in this section. The side

Mechanisms, 7) Thermal management, and 8) Bus panels,labeledP0throughP5,aretheexposedsidesof

Flight Software. Many of these functional subsystems CSTB1, and each panel normal corresponds to a body

are physically integrated together as multifunctional axis. Panel 5 (+Z axis) is the payload panel, and the

elements. For example, the attitude determination visiblecolorcameraisalignedwithitspanelnormal.

sensorsandsolarcellsareintegratedonasidepanel,

PCB boards, which also act as structural elements for

CSTB1.IntegrationoftheCSTB1elementsintoa10cm

cubeisshowninFigure1.

Figure2:CSTB1Coordinateframedefinitions

SunSensorSuites

surement of the sun vector in body coordinates, and

arelocatedonsidepanels,P1,P2,P3andP4.Eachsun

sensor suite consists of four COTS photodiodes inte

gratedontothemultifunctionalsidepanel,seeFigure

Figure1:CSTB1subsystemelementintegration 3. Each of the four photodiodes is canted 45 degrees

SIMPLE ATTITUDE DETERMINATION AS PART OF from the normal of the side panel board and rotated

MULTIFUNCTIONALELEMENTS 90degreesapartrelativetoeachothertoprovide2pi

steradian coverage. Their placement on the board is

The attitude determination concept for CSTB1 con selectedtominimizeinterfacefromthesolarcellsand

sisted of four sun sensor suites and five twoaxis structureofthesatellite.

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(1)

1.0

1.0

(2)

1.0 (3)

Figure3:SunSensorSuiteintegratedtoSidePanel

Opposingphotodiodepairshaveoverlappingresponse

curves,seeFigure4,andthisallowsadifferenceover

sumsmethodtodefinethelocationofthesuninthat

(4)

axis(Reference3).Forexample,assumeapanelwhose

normal is the Z axis, photodiodes 1 & 2 oppose each

1.0

other(intheXZplane)andphotodiodes3&4oppose

eachother(intheYZplane),thesunvectorcanthen 1.0

be defined by equation 1. On CSTB1 each sun sensor

suitehasadifferentnormalvectorwhichcorresponds (5)

toabodyaxis;thevectorcomputationsareuniquefor

eachsuiteandaredefinedinequation2through5.

TwoAxisMagneticFieldSensor

type twoaxis magnetic field sensor. The performance

characteristics for the magnetic field sensor are listed

in Table 1. Table 2 lists the measured axes for each

panelfromthemagneticfieldsensors.

Table1:MagnetoresistiveChipCharacteristics

NoiseDensity nV/rtHz 50

Resolution MicroGauss 120

Orthogonality Degrees 0.01

Sensitivity mV/V/Gauss 1.0

Figure4:PhotodiodeResponsetoSunAngle

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Table2:MagneticFieldinBodyAxesMeasuredby AttitudeDeterminationAlgorithm

EachSidePanel

Theattitudedeterminationalgorithmwasusedtohelp

SidePanel MeasuredBodyAxes correlatevehicleattitudebyusingthesunandmagnet

+X ic field sensor readings downloaded from CSTB1 with

P0

+Z images taken from the onboard visible camera. This

Y algorithmstaticallycomputeseachattitudequaternion

P1

+Z estimatebasedontheavailabledataatthattimestep.

X The attitude quaternion estimate computations are

P2

+Z basedontheTRIADalgorithm(Reference4),areview

Y belowisprovidedforreference.

P3

X

The computation of the attitude matrix using TRIAD

Y

P4 requires two reference frame unit vectors, and

Z

(in this case Earth Center Inertial is used), and the

Thedatafromeachpanelisaveragedtogethertoform

the body frame. The attitude matrix, , rotates a

asinglemagneticfieldsensormeasurementproviding

vectordefinedintheECIreferenceframetothebody

threeaxesofinformation,seeequation6.

reference frame and therefore must satisfy equations

7a&7b.

3

(7a)

3 (6) (7b)

4 columnvectors,whicharethereferencesetofvectors

given in equations 8 and the measurement set of

Prior to the launch of CSTB1, the magnetic field sen vectorsgiveninequations9.

sors were calibrated to the Earths magnetic field.

(8a)

These sensors were calibrated individually and at the

vehicle systems level. In order to compute the offset

| |

(8b)

resulting from integration into the vehicle, magnetic

fieldmeasurementsweretakenintwoorientationsfor

each panel. Since the largest component of the mag | |

(8c)

netic field at the location of the test was in a vertical

direction, the measurements were taken about this (9a)

axis. Ideally, the measurements should produce the

samemagnitudesincewearetakingmeasurementsof | |

(9b)

the same field in the opposite directions. The differ

ences in magnitudes were then evaluated to derive | |

(9c)

sensor offsets and incorporated into the sensor con

versions calculations. These sensor conversions were Theattitudematrixisdefinedinequation10.

applied prior to executing the attitude determination

processingontheground. (10)

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Sincethissolutionisnotsymmetricinindices1and2, The attitude determination uses the optimized TRIAD

part of the second measurement vector is discarded, algorithm when the sun vector is valid. Two attitude

making the attitude estimated more heavily weighted matrices are computed, one using the magnetic field

on the first measurement vector. To increase the vectormeasurementasthesourceforthefirstvector,

accuracy of the attitude estimation matrix, the TRIAD , and the other using the sun vector measurement

solution was augmented with the optimized TRIAD asthefirstvector, .Theattitudematrixisthenfully

method presented in Reference 5. The optimized computed using information from both attitude

TRIAD method computes two attitude matrices: the matrices according to equation 11. The standard of

first, ,usesthemagnetometerasthefirstmeasure deviation ratios used are, 0.6and

ment vector, and the second, , uses the sun vector

0.4, when a sun vector measurement consists of 4

as the first measurement vector. The two attitude

valid photodiodes. For cases when the sun vector

estimates are combined based on their respective

measurement consists of less than 4 photodiodes

standardofdeviations, and ,giveninequation11.

measurements, then the attitude matrix, , is set to

.

(11)

The 4th part of the attitude determination processing

The attitude determination algorithm is broken into 4 was created because the satellite does not have 4pi

parts: 1) magnetic field sensor processing, 2) sun steradian coverage with sun sensors during eclipse

sensorprocessing,3)TRIADwithvalidsunandmagnet periodsandwillresultinperiodsofinvalidsunvector

ic field measurements and 4) attitude determination measurements.Inthesecases,theattitudedetermina

withonlymagneticfieldmeasurements. tion method uses only the valid magnetic field vector

measurement. This is done by computing the angular

The magnetic field sensor processing is the simplest

rotation between the current magnetic field mea

sectionwhichonlycomputesthemagneticfieldvector

surement and the previous magnetic field measure

based on the sensor readings using equation 6. The

mentinequation12.

sunsensorprocessingsectioncomputesthesunvector

foreachsidepanel(P1throughP4)usingequations2 cos (12)

5.Givenfoursunvectors,asetofdeterministicrulesis

usedtodeterminewhichsunvectoristhemostaccu Next, the direction of the magnetic field rotation is

rateandwillbeusedforattitudedetermination.1)The computedinequation13.

side panel with the greatest number of photodiodes

above the minimum threshold is selected as the sun (13)

vector.2)Ifthesidepanelwiththegreatestnumberof

photodiodesonlyhas1activephotodiodethenthesun The delta quaternion to the current attitude estimate

vector is set to invalid. 3) If none of the photodiodes isthencomputedinequation14.

areactivethesunvectorissettoinvalid.

sin 2

A 4th part of the attitude determination was created

(14)

because the satellite has an eclipse period and does cos 2

nothave4pisteradiancoveragewiththesunsensors.

Therefore, at times, the attitude estimate will not be The delta quaternion estimate is combined with the

computable with the standard TRIAD algorithm. This previous estimate to compute the current attitude

willbediscussedlater. estimateinequation15.

(15)

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However, this solution is not accurate as it will be examined in the simulation. For each scenario pro

missinginformationinoneaxisandwillbesusceptible videdinTable3,thesatelliterotatesaboutavectorat

to significant attitude drift. For the intended purpose varying tumble rates with correlating sun vector

ofCSTB1,thissolutionwillsuffice. measurementunavailability.

SIMULATIONRESULTS Table3:CSTB1AttitudeDeterminationSimulations

Case

tion algorithms were simulated using MATLAB. The [deg/sec] lability

simulationincludedkeyelementsnecessarytovalidate 1 0.5 0

the attitude determination: orbital and spacecraft 2 0.5 30

dynamics models, a magnetic field model,math mod 3 0.5 75

els of the magnetic field, and sun sensors including 4 0.25 0

noisetermsandmisalignments. 5 0.25 30

6 0.25 75

Multiplesimulationcaseswereevaluatedtodetermine

7 0.1 0

an average expected performance of the attitude

8 0.1 30

determination algorithm based on CSTB1s configura

9 0.1 75

tion. Nine specific scenarios of performance were

10

Case 1

Case 4

5

Case 7

0

4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500

Attitude Determination Error for 0.5 Deg/sec Tumble Rate

50 Case 1

Attitude Error [degrees]

Case 2

Case 3

0

4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500

Attitude Determination Error for 0.25 Deg/sec Tumble Rate

50 Case 4

Case 5

Case 6

0

4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500

Attitude Determination Error for 0.1 Deg/sec Tumble Rate

50 Case 7

Case 8

Case 9

0

4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500

Time [seconds]

Figure5:SimulationAttitudeErrorforEvaluatedCases

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ThesimulationresultsshowninFigure5demonstrate side panel X sensor and side panel Z sensor,

thevaryingaccuracyandsensitivityofthealgorithmto which were not used in the attitude determination.

sensor characteristics and satellite tumble rates. The Theinformationalsoindicatesthatthevehicleattitude

attitudeaccuracyisimpactedbytwoelements:invalid isoscillatingrelativetothemagneticfieldoftheEarth.

sun vector measurements and satellite tumble rate. It is suspected that the significant magnetic moment

The attitude accuracy is less than five degrees during createdbythewavedipoleantennahadalignedwith

periods of continuously valid sun vector measure theearthsmagneticfieldandthesatellitewasoscillat

ments. The increasing magnitude of the tumble rate ing about it. The fact that the satellite had a strong

increasesthemagnitudeoftheattitudeerrorwhenthe momentthatalignedwiththemagneticfield,allowed

tumble rate causes outages in the sun vector mea operation of CSTB1 to coarsely predict where the

surement. payload panel would be facing for operations of the

visiblecamera.

ONORBITDATAANALYSIS

4

x 10 Magnetic Field Sensor Measurements [nTelsa]

CSTB1waslaunchonApril17,2007intoa745kmsun 4

sulted in over one million various sensor data points 2

representsa90minutesnapshotofoneorbitofCSTB1 0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

Time, [sec]

quicklywhenexposedtothesun.Asaresult,muchof Figure7:CalibratedMagnetometerMeasurements

the valuable angular data that can be extracted from

thesunvectorwaslost. The attitude determination algorithm was run against

the flight data over the 90minute period shown in

1

PD 1

PD 2

Figure8.

0.9

PD 3

PD 4 1

0.8

Normalized Sun Sensor Measurements

q1

0.8 q2

0.7 q3

q4

0.6

0.6

0.4

Quaternion [unitless]

0.5 0.2

0.4 0

-0.2

Eclipse

0.3

-0.4

0.2

-0.6

0.1

-0.8

0 -1

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

Time, [sec] Time, [sec]

Figure6:NormalizedSunSensorSuitemeasurements Figure8:ComputedAttitudedeterminationQuater

fromPanel1 nion

The magnetic field sensors measurements in Figure 7 The image in Figure 9 was scheduled and captured

are the calibrated measurement values. Two of the from CSTB1 and was used as a source to validate the

field measurements provided incorrect readings, the attitude determination estimate. The image clearly

Rayburn 7 23rdAnnualAIAA/USU

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shows several significant Earth landmarks, which

include lakes, the Himalayan mountain range and

MountEverest.Inordertodeterminewhichlandmarks

are in the image and the accuracy of the attitude

determination solution, we computed where the

camerawaspointedatthetimetheimagewastaken.

The latitude and longitude of the subsatellite point

(46.9N, 94.5E) and the unit vector of the Z axis ac

quired from the attitude determination are used to

determinethelatitudeandlongitudeoftheimage.The

computed angle between the Z axis and nadir is 16.7

degrees which results in a latitude and longitude for

the image of 33.4 degrees North latitude and 81.8

degrees East longitude. The USGS Global Visualization

Viewer(Reference6)wasusedtoidentifythelakeand

mountain range landmarks from a LandSat 7 image

from April 2007, as shown in Figure 10. The green

outline in the LandSat 7 imagery represents the area

imagedbyCSTB1.Thelandmarkslocatedat29degrees

Figure10:USGSComparisonImage,Greenoutline

Northlatitudeand85.6degreesEastlongitudearealso

representstheCSTB1Image,Redoutlinesarethe

outlined in the image for clarity. Based on the image correspondingidentifyinglandmarks

latitude and longitude from the USGS, the pointing

angle off nadir was determined to be 18.9 degrees. CONCLUSIONS

This demonstrated a 2.2 degree error in the attitude

This paper demonstrated how simple, highly inte

determinationsolutionfromCSTB1.

grated, commercialofftheshelf components can be

used for CubeSat attitude determination. The opti

mized TRIAD algorithm implemented on the ground

usedthesunsensorsuitesandmagneticfieldsensors

datatodeterminethesatelliteattitudeandverifythe

location of an earth image taken by CSTB1s camera.

The magnetic field sensors proved to be the most

usefulofallthesensorsbecauseoftheirhighavailabili

ty. Attitude estimates derived for CSTB1 sensor data

was used to determine the impact of the magnetic

dipolecreatedbyCSTB1antenna.Thisallowedground

operatorstocoarselypredictthepointingdirectionof

the onboard camera and schedule collections of

imageryoverareasofinterest.

Figure9:ImagecapturedbyLowPowerImageron17

June2007(redoutlinesarekeylandmarksidentified BoeingsCSTB1CubeSathassuccessfullycompletedall

onthecomparisonimage) primary and numerous secondary mission objectives,

andhasprovidedextremelyusefuldatathroughoutits

20+monthsonorbit.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Theauthorswouldliketothankallthevariouspeople

who contributed to the success of CSTB1. Specifically,

we would like to thank Arthur Frank Cooper, Chris

Day, Dan Minear, Phil Reid, Thanh Tang, and Doug

Yarbroughforalltheirdedicationthistoproject.

REFERENCES

http://cubesat.atl.calpoly.edu/pages/missions/d

neprlaunch2.php

http://cubesat.atl.calpoly.edu/media/CDS_rev1

1.pdf

Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed. Microcosm Press,

October1999.

4. Shuster,M.D.andS.D.Oh,ThreeAxisAttitude

DeterminationfromVectorObservations.AIAA

JournalGuidanceandControl,Vol.4,No.1,Jan

uaryFebruary1981,pp.7077.

5. Itzhack,B.Y.andR.R.Harman,OptimizedTRIAD

algorithm for attitude determination.

AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Conference, San Di

ego,CA,July1996.pp.422427.

http://glovis.usgs.gov

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