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The best preparation for

Writing
Young Kim

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C6ngtyTNHH NHA XUAT BAN t6NG HOP
Nhan Tri Vi~t THANH PH6 HO CHI MINH

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Learners of English may find the IELTS Writing test very challenging as it is a productive skill. In addition,
the two tasks in the test require the candidate to meet not only a wide range of language but also well-
organisation of paragraph and essay structure.

Understanding learners' difficulties, I have tried to work out user-friendly materials to facilitate English
learning, especially helping English learners to improve their writing skill more rapidly and effectively.

Our practical step-by-step guide to test practice as well as important skills presented and explained will
certai nly meet your expectations and bring success to your coming IELTS test.

Young Kim

www nhantriviet.com Preface 5

• Main Parts 8

• Main Features 10

• Effective Methods of Test Preparation 11

• IELTS Overview 12

• The IELTS Writing Test 18

• How to Gain a High Score for Each Writing Task 23

Part 1 Writing Task 1

Chapter 01 Line Graph 29 Chapter 07 Multiple Type (1) Line Graph +
Warm-up Line Graph 87
Practice Test 1 Warm-up
Practice Test 2 Practice Test

Chapter 02 Bar Graph 41 Chapter 08 Multiple Type (2) Bar Graph +
Warm-up Bar Graph 95
Practice Test 1 Warm-up
Practice Test 2 Practice Test

Chapter 03 Pie Chart 53 Chapter 09 Multiple Type (3) Pie Chart +
Warm-up Pie Chart 103
Practice Test 1
Warm-up
Practice Test 2
Practice Test

Chapter 04 Complex Type (1) Line Graph +
Chapter 10 Table 111
Bar Graph 63
Warm-up
Warm-up Practice Test 1
Practice Test Practice Test 2

Chapter 05 Complex Type (2) Line Graph + Chapter 11 Process 123
Pie Chart 71 Warm-up
Warm-up Practice Test 1
Practice Test Practice Test 2

Chapter 06 Complex Type (3) Bar Graph +
Pie Chart 79
Warm -up
Practice Test

6 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.nhantriviet.com

Part 2 Writing Task 2 Chapter 01 Agree or Disagree 137 Chapter 03 To What Extent 171 Warm-up Warm-up Practice Test 1 Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Practice Test 2 Practice Test 3 Practice Test 3 Chapter 02 Advantages and Chapter 04 Your Opinion 189 Disadvantages 153 Warm-up Warm-up Practice Test 1 Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Practice Test 2 Practice Test 3 Practice Test 3 Part 3 Actual Tests Writing Task 1 208 Writing Task 2 222 Test 1 Line Graph Test 1 Agree or Disagree Test 2 Bar Graph Test 2 Advantages and Disadvantages Test 3 Line Graph + Bar Graph Test 3 To What Extent Test 4 Line Graph + Pie Chart Test 4 Your Opinion Test 5 Bar Graph + Pie Chart Test 6 Table Test 7 Process Answers 231 www nhantnviet.Jntents 7 .com C.

nhantriv1et. more than a third 6. Amounio! Y @ There are fewer Y's than X's. break the visual down Into key expressions. four parties: Prosperity.!·P#d@' activity in which some key words.com . and expressions are given for key words to help write your report. the second Progreu. or process. Case 01 Two segments showing simple data Q) The pie chart shows the number of X's and Y's. breakdown of parties in cong ress of Country X 2. @) There are 17 X's and 6 Y's. liberty 3. Main Parts • General introduction introduces a particular task in the IELTS Writing test. the largest Prosperity s. Makeup of Bird Population in the Cascade Mountains in 2005 • Robm a wren •Hawk • Warm-up presents possible essential expressions written in a variety of Warm-up specific tasks. a quarter 7. unaffiliated "' 8 The best preparation 1or IELTS Writing www. Use these phrases . r 1. 36%. graph. When lookin g at any chart. liberty has 14% 9. • Sample question shows a typical Sample Question question given in the IELTS Writing test. Unity. unaffiliated 4. Progress. Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing data in pie charts. a specific task. • Amount ol X ® There are more X's than Y's. Unity and Liberty. less than 20% 8. Unity has 19%. • Step 1 is considered as a brainstorm M'M·M+N§ii.

..greH ol Country X 0..... phrases. There Is atso a coogress people "" •... 1ty... The chart shows four parties. www nhantr1v1et.. Prosperity. Pay attention to words. and Liberty parties.rt.P.com Man Part~ 9 . Progress. '"...t tndl._. 10nW prompts to help~- BrHkdown of PartlH lri Con. sentences from Step 2.Jbertypart.. Progress. parties In the congress of Country X by ties. Read and compare the two model report passages below.. Unity.... using the Informa tion from the en.. Unity. ThoN are the Prosperity.. _.... 3... Try writing a •f90!1 on~· own.... . ·-- Qu..... affiliated with any party. and sentences which are similar or allke.. as well as people who are not congress people. and Liberty There is also a category for unarflllated party.ren. and Liberty parties 3._.. o-- ·-- ·-·-- o-- • Step 3 gives gapped sentences for filling in meaningful phrases and Complete the sentences below. The party present in the of Country X ls the • Step 4 presents a gapped text for fiMMfllli jilliil:fjii forming a complete report or essay.... Those four parties are the Prosper· percent.. of Country X's CCll'9ff$ by dttftnnl 2. Unity. Type A TypeB The pie chart shows the breakdown of The pie chart shows the breakdown of Country X's congress by different par. l'f0¥ided bfiow . Pro. _ W·*M'hdid1#Mi _.1parti.._ • Step 2 provides meaningful phrases and sentences built from key words and expressions from Step 1 .. · ~- bydl1T .....P...Therto!I • Model Answer Two model answers are shown for your reference.

6. Model answers A and B give you an opportunity to read two different versions and see various types of organisation. 2 .nhantriviet. 3 . Some typical IELTS writing tasks are introduced and a step-by-step guide to deal with each of them practically helps you to improve your writing skill. 4. Each chapter is arranged from easier to more complicated information aiming at facilitating you r learning. and structures. Each chapter is presented in the same format coupled with clear and simple explanations. 10 . Each chapter of the book contains a particular writing task type so that they are not repeated or redundant. Main Features 1 . 5.com . ideas.The best preparation for IEL TS Writing www. Some actual tests are given at the back of the book for your further practice.

you ought to copy them down in your notebook and read aloud all these full sentences to enhance your abil ity of writing complete and meaningful sentences.com Effective Methods of Test Preparation . Then. in Step 2. Effective Methods of Test Preparation You should proceed from controlled activities to freer practice by following the steps presented in this book to improve your writing skill in a systematic and effective way. Next. Finally. you should carefully examine how those words and expressions are put in simple phrases and sentences and then read them aloud in order to improve your grammatical range and accuracy. Additionally. it is suggested that you learn this final product by heart so that you can develop your writing ski ll more effectively and efficiently. in Step 1. you should read and memorise all possible expressions to enhance your stock of vocabulary . you should make an attempt to fill in the gapped text whose sentences from step 3 have been joined so that a final version of the essay takes shape. you should look up the meanings of words and expressions that are new to you so as to fam iliarise yourself with useful vocabulary. in Step 4. in Step 3. you had better first think of ideas in gapped sentences and practise fi lling in all the missing words formed from the simple phrases and sentences in step 2. www nhantriviet. Next. and then check them with the answer key at the back of the book. First.11 . After that. in the Warm-up section .

Writing. and increasingly. This is essentially an examination of British English. The IELTS test is designed to assess the English language ability of non-native candidates who want to study in countries where the medium of instruction is English.com . a candidate must select to sit either the Academic IELTS test or the General Training IELTS test. the UK. 12 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. not American English. Reading . New Zealand. In the Listening test. The General Training module is suitable for can- didates who are migrating to English-speaking countries or going to English-speaking countries to complete their secondary education or undertake training programmes. The table below helps you to understand more clearly about the format and timing of the two IELTS modules. 1 Academic Module General Training Module a. the purpose of what is said. the opinions and attitudes of speakers.IELTS Overview What is IELTS? IELTS . This choice must be made when applying to sit the test. It is in four sections with a total of 40 questions in order of increasing difficulty and will last about 30 minutes with an extra 10 minutes at the end for candidates to transfer their answers to the answer sheet. Canada. IELTS Academic module is the preferred test of English for students intending to study in Australia. They then write their answers to a range of 40 questions which test the ability of understanding main ideas and detailed factual informa- tion. and the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations (Cambridge ESOL) through more than 800 locations in over 130 countries. the USA. Listening The Listening test is the same for both the Academic and General Training modules. IELTS is jointly managed by the British Council. which is short for the International English Language Testing System. IELTS Test Format Both the Academic and General Training modules cover all four language skills: Listening. IDP: IELTS Australia. and the ability of following the development of ideas. was introduced in 1989. Depending on each individual plan. n ha ntrivi et. and Speaking . candidates will listen to four recorded texts in the form of monologues and conversations by a variety of voices and native-speaker accents.

This part lasts between four and five minutes. notices. candidates have to mark their answers while doing the test since they have no time to transfer their answers to the answer sheet as they can in the Listening test. and they are expected to write a descriptive report of at least 150 words on the information provided. In Task 2. www. the main difference lies in the contents of the passages. All passages are authentic and taken from books. or guidelines. the Academic and General Training Reading tests are similar in many ways. Writing The Writing test of both the Academic and General Training modules consists of two tasks. The Academic Reading test includes three long passages which range from the descriptive and factual to the discursive and analytical. For the General Training Writing test. Importantly. The Reading test of both modules lasts one hour with three passages and a total of 40 questions and is scored in the same way. Every test is recorded and takes between 11 and 14 minutes to complete. d. advertisements. journals.b. work. Task 1 is always a letter. In Part 3. the examiner will ask the candidate further questions connected to the topic in Part 2. in Task 1. The General Training Reading test includes easier passages taken from books. candidates are given a title based on some graphic or pictorial information. The Speaking test consists of three parts: In Part 1. and candidates are given one hour to complete the test. each candidate is asked to answer general questions about himself /herself and a range of fam iliar topics. which is similar to that of the Academic module. the candidate is given a card which asks him/her to talk about a particular topic. newspapers. c. family. He/She will have one minute to prepare before speaking for up to two minutes. Reading In terms of reading. In Part 2. These have been selected for a non-specialist audience but are recognisably appropriate for anyone entering undergraduate or postgraduate courses or seek- ing professional registration. In addition. candidates are expected to produce an essay of at least 250 words on a given title whose topics are of general interest to and suitable for anyone entering undergradu- ate or postgraduate studies or seeking professional registration. is an essay based on a given title. while Task 2. responses to both tasks must be written in a formal style. This part lasts between 4 and 5 minutes. candidates have to complete two tasks of 150 words and 250 words respectively. magazines. company handbooks. Noticeably.com IELTS OvNv1ew 13 . For the Academic Writing test. or interests. magazines. such as home.nhantriviet. These are materials candidates are likely to encounter on a daily basis in an English-speaking environment. The examiner then asks him/ her one or two follow-up questions on the same topic to fin ish this part of the test. These questions give him/her an opportunity to discuss more abstract issues and ideas. or research papers. newspa- pers. Speaking The Speaking test is the same for both the Academic and General Training modules and aims at assessing candidates' use of spoken English. studies.

after 12 noon on the sec- ond Friday as of the test date if it was on a Saturday). you first have to check and select a test date. Once you have registered .nhantriviet. the test centre will confirm your IELTS test date. with a signed letter giving this person's name and passport/ID number {the person must carry the mentioned ID). 5.com . Send to the intended test centre. passport or ID number. Your IELTS registration will not be confirmed until you have finished all these 5 steps. In Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. and then select the date you took the test.org). time. If you register in person.Actually. then register your personal details. 3. Download an application form. You must complete each step in this process in order. Provide a photocopy of your ID card/passport. Fill out the appl ication form. You will need to enter your candidate number. 2. 3. Provide two recent passport-sized photo~iraphs (taken within 6 months before the date of registra- t ion and remember that you must not wear glasses in your photographs). Enclose two passport-sized photos (taken within 6 months before the date of registration and remember that you must not wear glasses in your photographs).e. You can also authorise someone to collect the form . It is advisable that you use express services so as to avoid late delivery or your documents going missing. IELTS Results Your results can be accessed online 13 days after the written test date (i. If you want your results to be sent automatically to a university or an educational institution. Complete an application form (obtained from the test centres in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City or downloaded from www. you can register at the British Council or IDP Australia. If you want to reg ister by post. To register online. Contact the test centre you plan to sit the test to check the availability of the IELTS test dates of your choice. or by post. the Speaking test is delivered in such a way that does not allow the candidate to rehearse set responses beforehand. in person. The original Test Report Form will be sent to you by post. Make payment in Vietnam Dong only. 4. you can apply online. Enclose a photocopy of your ID card/passport (no notarization required) . and a copy of your passport/ID.ielts. Contact the test centres to check the availability of the IELTS test dates of your choice. you should follow these 5 simple steps: 1. 4. and venue. IELTS Registration To register for an IELTS test. date of birth. 6. Also note that the Speaking test can be taken up to 7 days before or after the test date. you must poi nt out this detail in the corresponding section on your IELTS application form. 2. 5. and last pay by credit card. unless you indicate on the form given to you on the test date that you would like to collect it in person . you can apply by following the steps below: 1. 14 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.

both whole-number and half-band scores.Another original copy will be sent directly to the educational institution of your choice if you have specified this on your application form.5. it is internationally recognised . e.0 or 7. In actual fact. it is rounded to the nearest whole number or half number. All parts of the test and the Overall Band Score can be reported in whole and half bands. Most targeted universities often demand an IELTS score of 6. etc.e. Band 5: Modest user has partial command of the language. some universities or organisations may have their own regulations concerning the period of validity.0.5 . 6. Band 0: Did not attempt the test: No assessable information is provided. Band 4: Limited user's basic competence is limited to familiar situations. so there is no pass or fail in the IELTS test. 6. accurate and fluent with complete understanding. 6.wherever and whenever the test is taken. Candidates are graded on their performance. They may also demand a minimum score in each of the four parts.0. such as 5. Band 1: Non-user essentially has no ability to use the language beyond possibly a few isolated words . using isolated words or short formulae in familiar situations) and has great difficulty in understanding spoken and written English. and Speaking. Since 1 July. Writ- ing. particularly in familiar situations.5. This unique 9-band system measures scores in a consist- ent manner . However. www nhantriviet.com IELTS Overview . 15 . misunderstandings may occur in unfamiliar situations) and handles complex detailed argumentation well. are given for the Speaking and Writing tests. coping with overall meaning in most situations though he/she is likely to make many mistakes and should be able to handle basic com- munication in his/her own field . etc. he/she has frequent problems in understanding and expression and is not able to use complex language. 2007.Listening.0. Reading. If the average score is not a whole number or a half number. i. the IELTS test result is valid for 2 years.g. Band 8: Very good user has fully operational command of the language with only occasional unsys- tematic inaccuracies and inappropriacies (i . 7. Band 3: Extremely limited user conveys and understands only general meaning in very familiar situ- ations and frequent breakdowns in communication occur. The results from the four parts then produce an Overall Band Score. Below is a summary of the IELTS 9-band scale descriptors. 7. Band 9: Expert user has fully operational command of the language: appropriate. Band 6: Competent user has generally effective command of the language despite some inaccura- cies and is able to use and understand fairly complex language. using a band score from 1 to 9 for each part of the test .e.5.e. IELTS Band Scores IELTS is a multi-level exam. Band 2: Intermittent user has no real communication apart from the most basic information (i. Band 7: Good user has operational command of the language though with occasional inaccuracies (there may be inappropriacies and misunderstandings in some situations) and generally handles complex language well and understands detailed reasoning.

You will be asked to place these with other personal belongings outside the test room.nhantriviet. Besides. and Writing tests take 2 hours 40 minutes. • Switch off your mobile phone and any other electronic devices. If you arrive late.A Rough Comparison of Scores among International Tests I ' Preparation for Your IELTS Test You shou ld prepare for your test not only before taking it but also on the test day by following the pieces of advice below. IELTS scores are accepted by over 2. During the week prior to your test: • Check the start time and location of your IELTS test and make sure you know how to get there on time.500 universities and colleges including Ivy League and other top 16 . but you will be allowed to take a drink in a transparent bottle only. Firstly. • Note t hat the Listening. Advantages of IELTS Taking an IELTS test will bring you several advantages. Almost all universities in Australia. you need to know that some test locations now also take a photograph of you on the test day . • Make sure you are well prepared and have something to eat and drink beforehand. If you arrive with the wrong ID. you will not be allowed to take the test. Note that t he address of your IELTS test location may be different to that of the test centre where you booked your test. In the USA. You will not be allowed to take food into the test room. • Make sure you have the right ID with you as the IELTS test location staff will check your identity when you arrive. and the UK accept IELTS. Reading. New Zealand .The bes. Your test centre will let you know if it is going to do this. Canada.this photograph taken by the test centre will appear on your Test Report Form to provide increased identity security. • Read full details of the /EL TS test terms and conditions for important information about your IELTS test day. and there are no breaks between each part of the test.com . preparation for IELTS Writing www. you may not be allowed to take the test. On your test day: • Arrive in good time for your IELTS test. it helps you to open doors to international education and employment all over the globe.

institutions. Secondly. reading. research shows that IELTS motivates test-takers to develop real and well-rounded English rather than learning by rote. Specifically.COrT' IEL~s Overv ew 17 . WWVv r ra 1tr1viet. and the UK. making it a tru ly international test. IELTS uses Australian.life situation as a test can get. all IELTS tests are guaranteed to show your true ability to communicate in Engl ish with all four language skills . international organisations that give it the highest quality control and security procedures. and speaking . Lastly. writing.listening. New Zealand. Especially. North American . This means your understanding of English is improved and valid for real life in an English-speaking country. and British varieties of English. IELTS is also used as proof of your language ability for immigration to Australia. the Speaking test is a face-to-face interview with a certified examiner. which is interactive and as close to a real . More conveniently. Thirdl y.in a way that is relevant to the real world . IELTS is managed by the three reputable. Canada. the test is offered up to four times a month by test centres in more than 130 countries.

The Writing test comes after the Listening and Reading tests . pie chart. or a multiple type (line graph + line graph.The IEL TS Writing Test The Writing test consists of two tasks. candidates are asked to write a short essay of a minimum of 250 words in about 40 minutes. or speculate about future trends. 2. It is more academic and demanding. Task 2 For Task 2. proc13ss). offer a solution to a problem. a complex type (line graph + bar graph . bar graph + bar graph . Candidates are given one hour to complete both Task 1 and Task 2 in about 20 minutes and 40 minutes respectively. pie chart + pie chart). Make sure you know how to manage your time. Candidates have to present and justify their opinion about something. Below is a summary of the IELTS Writing test. The essay is usually a discussion of a subject of general interest. You should spend approximately 20 minutes on Task 1 and approximately 40 minutes on Task 2. "To what extent". "Advantages and disadvantages". table. Some typical question words in this task are: "Agree or disagree". usually for a university lecturer. therefore.com .nhantriviet. Parts Time Types Visual Information Writing Tips 1. bar graph. The task may be in a simple or independent type (line graph. bar graph + pie chart). Writing Test 1. it lasts longer than Task 1. line graph + pie chart. Remember that Task 2 is worth twice as much as Task 1. Task 1 Task 1 asks candidates to write a descriptive report of at least 150 words on some visual information in their own words. and "Your opinion" . Task 2 is not an easy part of the test. 18 The best preparation for IEL ~5 Writing www. express an opinion.

10. while others prefer to study alone. 6. How you prepare for the IELTS test depends on your own situation and preferences. Some like structu red courses. Plan your answers. etc. it is a good idea for you to rely on an expert or a teacher of English to correct your pieces of writing. You will lose marks for mistakes related to these. 9. 12. Write your answers in pen or pencil. Keep to the topic . They include practice material. Do not memorise model answers. Avoid informal language and contractions like can't. various exercises. Highlight or underline key words in the tasks to make sure that you focus on what you have to do. It will certainly be a great challenge for you to study writing on your own as you have no way of receiving feedback on your errors to be able to improve your writing ability effectively.com The IELTS Writing Test 19 . Learn to recognise how long 150 and 250 words look in your handwriting. don 't . 8. Use paragraphs clearly by putting one idea in each paragraph . 14. Ideally. You must write your answers in full. 16. 4 . which are designed to be used for self-study. Do not write about unrelated subjects. Writing Preparation IELTS preparation can take various forms. sample tests . Answers written in note form or in bullet points will lose marks. etc. Examiners are trained to recognise them and your test will be invalid . hints and tips. 11 . You wi ll receive no marks for this . Analyse each task properly and spend some time making notes. You will lose marks if you do not write at least 150 words for Task 1 and at least 250 words for Task 2. www. Spend several minutes re-reading and correcting your answers . You may make notes on the question paper.nhantriv1et. 7. you should refer to a number of books on the market. 3. and punctuation . 13. Do not c opy whole sentences from the question . you will not have time to count during the test. Pay attention to the number of words required for each task. Pay attention to spelling. Some learners like to study with peers. vocabulary learning. it 's. grammar. For writing skill. 2. 15. 5. whereas others prefer to plan their own study schedule. but nothing you write on the question paper will be marked.

com . Task2 20 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www nhantriv1et.Sample Writing Questions Sample Questions 1 Task 1 *The chart has been deleted. Task2 Sample Questions 2 Task 1 * The table has been deleted.

10. the four marking criteria are applied equally . Can I do Task 2 first? Yes. This criterion concerns whether you addressed all parts of the question . you could approximate how many words you have by counting t he number of lines and estimating how many words per line you have written . 8. These four criteria are graded equally. and accurate or not. Grammatical Range and Accuracy: This refers to all aspects of grammar and how well t hey are applied in your writing . Coherence and Cohesion: Coherence refers to your writing being easy to understand. You should use the t ime to check your writing instead. such as the quality of your sentence structure. which is Task Fulfillment. you cannot. Do th e two tasks receive the same weight? No. For each writing task . Frequently asked questions 1. Can I use American English? Yes. This criterion also includes spelling and punctuation . 2. Can I ask the supervisors when I have any questions related to the tasks? No. How are IELTS Writing scores calculated? The exami ner will pay attention to four marking criteria mentioned above. Though marks are not granted or t aken away for poor or messy writing . both American and British English are acceptable. Wh at if I don't write at least 150 or 250 words? You will be given a penalty for your Task Fulfillment. and use of connective devices. but Task 2 is slightly more important than Task 1 in that it receives more weighting. Lexical Resource: This criterion bases on whether your use of vocabulary is appropriate. and cohesion refers to the way it fits together. the examiner should be able to read what you have written without undue difficulty. a minimum of 150 words is needed . 5. 7. paragraphing . 4. How many words should I write? For Task 1. Task 2 receives a higher sc ore. th is is a waste of your time. Except for the first one. Task 1 and Task 2 are both important. you should write at least 250 words. What if my handwriting is not so nice? You should write legibly.Marking Criteria IELTS Writing tests are evaluated based on the following marking criteria: Task Fulfillment: This comprises Task Achievement and Task Response for Task 1 and Task 2 respectively. varied . the other three are the same for both tasks . 9. 3. How are the scores for each criterion calculated? Each criterion is given the same weight.corr' 21 . www nhc r~r VIP . and also whether you fully developed all parts of your answer. 6. If you want. Sho ul d I count how many words I have written? No. In Task 2.

Plan before you write. the questions ask you to do different things in addition to the main question. which will earn you higher marks. There are many ways to be organised .but in the end. or adverse. Writing too many will take too much time. The IELTS examiner will be checking for this. You should write in such a way that the examiner should be able to read what you have written without difficulty. 3. etc. This will make your language come alive. and there is a greater possibility of making mistakes. spend the first few minutes planning your writing.it will cause you to lose marks. 6. Use simple. and guys or gals instead of men or women also fall into the category of slang and should be avoided. but modern writing uses no indent and it is also easier for the examiner to read. use more dramatic. Writing too few is also worse . clear English to get your ideas across in a powerful way. you could write a few more. Experiment with a great variety of outlining and mind-mapping techniques to help you sketch out a plan quickly. Stay away from over-used adjectives such as good or bad. What if I have made mistakes in spelling? Spelling does affect your score. Do not use slang. 7. Read the questions very carefully. logical piece of writing . When writing. Find the correct way to express your thoughts and convey your ideas without resorting to slang. try to avoid careless mistakes in spelling . state what you understand of the questions and what you plan to include in your answer. horrible. This is not the time or place to experiment with new vocabulary or idioms. with no divisions. Write legibly and spell correctly. Should I write the minimum number of words only? If you have time. 5. 9. 14. You will be penalised if you stray off topic. Write clearly. This is where the initial few minutes of planning can help you a great deal. Decide what you are going to say and how you will expand on it. circular. Do not use contractions. terrible. such as excellent. Should I indent the first sentence of each paragraph? It doesn't matter. Instead. . Use rich vocabulary. Divide your writing into paragraphs.com . 12. This is the time to show off the best English you know. In English. You have learned English for many years and this is the time to use what you know. So. 10. in speech or in writing. contractions are used in informal writing. Advice on the test day 1. Not only spelling but your incorrect punctuation will be penalised as well. expressive words. 4. Also. Generally. Write in an organised way. going a little over allows you to cover the task better. 13. Do not repeat major chunks of the question in your answer. Sometimes. you can concentrate on how to write it best. 2.linear. 11. When you have planned in advance. Even though you feel under pressure for time. Do not write more or less words than you need to. and the academ ic tasks demand formal writing . Instead. superb. you had better leave a line between each paragraph. you will end up with a more organised. Be aware that certain expressions such as kids instead of children. 12. etc. It is confusing to be faced with a block of writing. 22 Trie best preparation for IELTS Writing www nhantriviet. and earn you higher marks. 8.11. wonderful. always divide your writing into paragraphs. the final product must be cohesive. When you know what to write. Jot them down and make sure you address all of them in your answer. Choose the more precise word over the more general one. can I leave a line for each paragraph? Yes. Stay on topic .

. www nhantriviet. Your report must be of at least 150 words written in 20.minutes. Below are some sample expressions and sentences that are useful for your introduction. The graph illustrates how . Failure to do so will be penalised. Below are some useful sentences for the description of rising and falling changes in data. Candidates' personal opinion must not be included . . a well-organised body.. As can be seen from the Example 3 It can be seen from the We can see from the chart.. You should not copy words from the task prompt but rephrase and use synonyms instead.com How to Gain a H1g'l Score for Eacr Writ r>q Task 23 . and conclusion. 3. 2. 6. Task 1 1. that . The organisation is of logical paragraphing with an introductory sentence. pie chart presents table I Example 2 According to the As is shown in the chart.. 4. . The information given in a visual format must be presented accurately and coherently. 5. You should never use bullets but write as if you were writing an essay or a letter. chart.How to Gain a High Score for Each Writing Task 1. It is clear from the It is apparent from the 7. The paragraphs should be linked by sentences that are logically connected with one another. and a concluding sentence. The introduction should describe the purpose of the report and say what overall trends can be seen . table. Example 1 chart shows diagram describes that . . The main features given in the graph. or diagram must be reported . body...

www. You do not need to write a conclusion in Task 1. This is a typical Task 1 title..Example 1 increased rapidly jumped suddenly I rose dramatically grew significantly The number of students decreased slowly from A to B Figure dropped sharply between A and B The percentage fell steeply declined steadily fluctuated gradually slightly I Example 2 slow increase slight rise gradual decrease steady drop from A to B There is[was) a in the number of . You need to look at the visual data and think about what tense best describes that particular information.0m . 9. you can restate the general trend. the two most common tenses used are the simple past and simple present tenses.. In Task 1. steep fall between A and B sharp fluctuation dramatic sudden I Example 3 remained increase The number of stable students stayed the same from A to B between A and B little There was hardly any change in the number of students no I Example 4 peaked at150 j a peak The number a high point in January reached the bottom I a low point I 8. If you have time or your writing does not reach the word limit.rt-iartrivi c. and it is good advice not to try too many variations as you are likely to make mistakes that way. It is normal to stick to one tense. basing on what you have written.

but do not copy. do not waste time writing complete sentences). You have no choices here. plan what you are going to write but only for a maximum of about 5 minutes (remember to write notes only. and a conclusion for your essay. write. Task 2 1.. only the question. Typical question words found in Task 2 include: -Nww nhantriv1et. you just need to focus on the sentence "The graph below shows . body para- graphs. you are not given any information. your score will be 'O ' for the writing task. The last few minutes should be spent on revising your answer and correcting any spelling or grammatical mistakes. " so that you can stay on topic. Then.com ~ow to G 31n a H gh Score for E. or comment on ideas or arguments presented. 3. If you do. Write an introduction. Writing Task 1 When reading this title. offer a solution to a problem.. express an opinion." so that you can stay on topic . You may follow this procedure when doing Task 2: preview.. 2. You should always spend a few minutes previewing the essay title so as to really understand the question. Th is is a typical Task 2 title. and check. Always give several examples that can support your view. in Task 2. 2. The remaining sentences are almost similar in any Task 1 titles. Unlike Task 1. you just need to focus on the sentences "Governments should accept ."and "To what extent .dc 'l Wri 1ng is~ 25 . You can take information from the reading content. You should not waste time reading the remain ing sentences. You are often asked to give an opinion.. Writing Task 2 When previewing this title.. Often. you need to write an academic essay on the single title given. plan .. the topic is related to the reading task in some way. For Task 2.

3. (1) Agree or Disagree: Do you agree or d isagree with the above statement? (2) Advantages and Disadvantages: What are the advantages and disadvantages of owning a pet. or comparisons and/or contrasts. 4. Then. 2. (3) To What Extent: To what extent do you agree or disagree?/To what extent do you agree with thi s statement? (4) Your Opinion: What is your op inion on this? Discuss both these views and give your own opin ion . Each of these contains an appropriate connective word to ensure a smooth transition between paragraphs. I . and employ a wide range of structures. ask yourself how these key words relate to the given instruction. Underline those words.. and present perfect tense. 6. 4. Think in English when writing. these just belong to minor mistakes. 3. details. Do not translate word for word from the mother tongue into English. logical inferences. for both the pet owner and society in general?/Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of . causes and effects. Use the written language. 5. Pay attention to the correct use of the definite and indefinite articles. Do not make mistakes on subject-verb agreement. 2. Try to develop every paragraph in a convincing way. However.. not the spoken language. 3. Do not forget -s or -·es endings for the third person singular in the present simple tense. 4. too.com . This may be done through the use of examples. Decide which points will be written as topic sentences to introduce the main idea of each paragraph. present simple tenses. 26 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Reminders 1. Essay Writing Tips 1.nhantriviet. Underline or circle these words. There are also key topic words which point to the most important parts of the question. such as the past. Most task statements or questions have a key instructional word or words telling you what to do. these questions are almost similar whether the word "opinion" exists or not. Employ prepositions correctly. Which do you consider to be the major influence? What factors are important in achieving your goal? What solutions can you suggest? Though there are variations. explanations. Study the essay title carefully. Ensure that your paragraphs are arranged in a logical order. 5. Use common tenses.

.

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..0---- 0--- 40 30 20 10 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year --0.. -0 .nhantriviet..com . A Single Line Women Employed Percentage 80 70 60 --0. Double Lines City Population Without Health Insurance Percentage 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 .... WA 30 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.0- 50 .... MA ...Boston ..Sample Questions 1.Seattle..USA 2.

goes up]. @ There is an upward trend in the price. goes up] slowly. go up]. there is a downward trend in the number of items. Case 01 Rising 1 Basic Sentence Patterns CDThe price rises[increases. go down. ® At first. ® The amount is falling[decreasing. goes up] steadily. 1 www nh ntriviet. @ The price ends up higher. Case 03 Falling then rising 1 Basic Sentence Patterns CDThe number of items falls and then rises. goes down]. @ The number of items goes down and then goes up. ® Y: The rate rises[increases.Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing falling and rising changes in line graphs. ® The number of items decreases and then increases. decline]. ® The price is rising[increasing. goes down] at first and then begins to rise [increase. going down]. Case 02 Falling 1 Basic Sentence Patterns CDThe amount falls[decreases. the number of items decreases. go up]. @ There is a downward trend in the amount. Case 04 Describing different degrees of falling or rising x 1 Basic Sentence Patterns CDX: The rate rises[increases. ® The price is climbing upward. goes up] very rapidly. @ In the beginning. 2 Expanded Sentences (steady decrease) CDThe amount continues to fall[decrease. and after a while there is an increase. going up]. 2 Expanded Sentences (first. @ The amount ends up lower. @ There is continuing growth in the price. later) CD The number of items falls[decreases. and then it turns into an upward trend.com Cndp•er 31 . @ Z: The rate rises[increases. ® The amount is descending. 2 Expanded Sentences (steady growth) CDThe price continues to rise[increase.

. Wr t. there was a gentle increase in the rate. Time Structure there is Indefinite article a Adjective Noun Prepositional phrase CD X: A sudden rise • Type A From 1990 to 2005. • Type B Throughout the period.ir Jt o'1 for Ill re. the rate increased steadily. the rate increased dramatically. Time Subject Verb Adverb •Type 8 ex) Starting from 1990 there was a fast rise in the rate.rrantrivit t cc m .n J www. there was a fast rise in the rate. • Type B Until 2005 . Practice Test 1 Women Employed Percentage 80 70 60 ---+--. @ Z: A slow rise • Type A Over the years.. ~ Y: A steady rise • Type A During the period of 1990 to 2005.. the rate increased dramatically. the rate goes up slowly. there was a regular increase in the rate.USA 50 Korea 40 _.2 Expanded Sentences •Type A ex) From 1990 to 2005 . • Type B Starting from 1990._ Afghan istan 30 ~ France 20 • 10 0 1985 1990 1995 Year 2000 2005 32 he b :s+ prep.

All countries.. Korea no decrease 6.' 3.• Korea 20 .-· .. Korea. Afghanistan. Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. -+. 1.. go down in 2005 9. X from 1985 to 2005 Y percentage of women employed • 2. France fal I 1985. break the visual down into key words. and France . except for Afghanistan 11. drop after 1995 8. majority of women employed Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. body.1990 increase until 2005 10. USA. Use these key words to help write your report. or process. France.--. USA.· 30 . USA .lOm Lh J:_. Afghanistan increase 1985-1995 7. graph.(E''" 1 33 .. and conclusion. USA increase 1985-2000 4. drop 2000-2005 5. Afghanistan ~ France 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year WVV\ rrd'1trtviet. 2005>1985. Women Employed Percentage 80 70 60 50 40 -·.

there is a twenty-year with decrease in the of employment for women. all countries except for Afghanistan. 5. USA show a steady increase. there is a to 10 percent in the year 2000. France fall slightly in the first five years . 3. USA and France. Korea. Afghan istan increase from 1985 to 1995 7. 3. Afghanistan's percentage of employed women 7. go down further in 2005 9. Information is the USA. 1995. and France from 1985 to 2005. In Korea. 34 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. 8. from 1985 until 2000 4. substantial drop to about 10 percent in 2000 8. 6. Th is chart the percentage of women in four countries an of twenty years. The United States a increase from 1985 until 2000. 2. Afghanistan . increase continuously until 2005 10. France's percentage of employed women in the five years of the shown then until 2005. 1. majority of women are employed in 2005 Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. ten years from 1985 to 1995. higher percentage of employed women in 2005 than in 1985 11. drop slightly for the year 2005 5. The percentage of women employed then and is for the year 2005. 9. using the information from the graph. 4.com .nhantriviet. however. This goes in 2005 . after 1995. Korea steady twenty-year rise with no decrease 6.

Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. 10. there employment for women . 8. 3. France 0 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year 1. 4. In Korea. Among the countries. Information is shown 1985 to 2005. USA 30 Korea 20 .com Chapter 1 35 . 5. however. the year 2000. all countries have a percentage of employed women in 2005 in 1985 Afghanistan. France's percentage of continuously until 2005. 11.nhantnviet. The percentage of for the year 2005. According to the except for Afghanistan. 6. 2. the USA and France are the ones where the of women are employed in the year 2005. According the chart. Th is goes in 2005. After 1995. www . This chart shows of twenty years. 11. Among the other the year 2005. Percentage Women Employed 80 70 60 50 40 --+. For ten years employed women increases. The United States 1985 until 2000. 9. Provided below are some prompts to help you. 10. Afghanistan 10 --*. 7.

and sentences which are similar or alike. however. Pay attention to words. However. Information is shown for the USA. There were After 1995. In Korea. The rate of women employed in France then 1985 except for Afghanistan . the USA and France are the only ones where the majority of women are employed in the In conclusion. there is a steady twenty-year rise percentage of working women in Korea shows with no decrease in the rate of employment for a steady increase as well. Korea. Afghanistan. Afghani. The data on the rate of women employed in stan's percentage of employed women increases. The percentage of women em. This goes down the rate rose moderately until 1995. The 2005. 2005. Type A Type B This chart shows the percentage of women This chart shows the percentage of women em- employed in four countries over an interval of ployed in four countries over an interval of twenty twenty years. Afghanistan shows a different trend. (175 words) the USA and France are the countries where the majority of women are employed in the year 2005. France's percentage of employed some reason. phrases. between the year of 1985 and 2000. In the case of France. (226 words) www '1'1dntriv et •l "1 . for further in 2005. all countries have a higl1er of approximately 20 percent between 1990 and percentage of employed women in 2005 than in 1995. the rates of working women in all year 2005. there is a substantial drop to about 33 percent of women working in 1985 and about 10 percent in the year 2000. Out of four countries. but with no decrease . which was followed by a swift growth According to the chart. Korea. the rate dropped dramatically from women falls slightly in the first five years of the 1995 to 2000 to 10 percent and it continued to period shown then increases continuously until drop by 2005. countries are higher in 2005 than those in 1985 with an exception of Afghanistan. until it was ployed then drops slightly and is lower for the year followed by a slight decrease by 2005. Among the other stabilized until 2005. and France from 1985 to Afghanistan and France from 1985 to 2005.Model Answer Read and compare the two model reports below. It can be seen in the graph that the percentage The United States shows a steady increase from of working women in the USA went up stead ily 1985 until 2000. countries. For ten years from 1985 to 1995. women. Information is shown for the USA. sudden decrease of around 10 percent from 1985 to 1990. there was a 2005. years.

higher than Seattle's. MA 30 ... Seattle start off the same in 1981 . a tiny bit lower www nh ir•r v1»t. Seattle steeper rise 6. a few years later.. settle at lower level in 2005 10. X from 1981 to 2005 Y percentage of city population wit hout health insurance 2.Boston. 2005 < 1981 Boston. rise again in 1990 7... .Seattle. Boston.Practice Test 2 City Population Without Health Insurance Percentage 60 50 40 . .. break the visual down into key expressions.. Boston fall . decrease until 2005 8.. increase 5. Boston ... quite a bit lower Seattle. 1994.... Use these key words to help write your report.. . or process.. graph. Boston. 1.. Seattle 3.. Seattle go downward until 2005 9. WA 20 10 0 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart.com Cha pt• r ' 37 .. Seattle 1981 . same percentage 4.

. both cities.. 1981: both cities. MA 30 . the percentage goes downward until the year 2005 9. Seattle: initial rise in the percentage of uninsured. City Population Without Health Insurance Percentage 60 50 40 . In 1981... the percentage of people in two different cities without health insurance from 1981 to 2005 2.. The cities shown: Boston and Seattle 3. body and conclusion. both Boston and Seattle had the same percentage of people who were . a few years later. around 1994: Boston's percentage starts decreasing until 2005 8. This line graph the percentage of people in two cities without health from 1981 to 2005. Boston : start falling. over 20% 4...... 2. 1.. just a little over 20%. Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction.. 38 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www nhantriviet. A few years both cities see an increase in that percentage . Seattle: a steeper rise 6. increase in that percentage 5. the same percenta~1e of people who were uninsured...Seattle.. 3. 5... WA 20 10 0 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 1. the percentage of people in both cities without health insurance: start off the same in 1981 10.. and then start rising again around 1990 7.Boston .. However.. Boston's percentage in 2005: quite a bit lower than in 1981 Seattle's percentage: only a tiny bit lower Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. 4. using the information from the graph. The cities are Boston and Seattle.com . Seattle sees a rise.

com Chapter 1 39 . 10. Boston's percentage starts decreasing quite until 2005. . After Seattle's rise in the percentage of the uninsured.. A few years later. Boston's percentage in 2005 only a tiny bit lower.Boston . 7. Provided below are some prompts to help you. the graph shows that percentage downward the year 2005. After Seattle's until the year 2005. 10. 8. 1994. 5. until 2005 . MA 20 . 8. when it is than Seattle's. The percentage of people in both cities health insurance starts off the in 1981 and eventually at a percentage below that level in 2005. The percentage of people below that level in 2005.. WA 10 0 1981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005 1. rise.nhantriviet. 3. just a little over 20%. 7. 2. However.. 9. The cities and Seattle. City Population Without Health Insurance Percentage 60 50 40 30 . in that percentage. 6. www. Boston's percentage of the around the year 1990. Around 1994. 9. Boston's percentage in 2005 is quite a bit than in 1981 Seattle's percentage is only a tiny bit Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. 6. In 1981 . This line graph from 1981 to 2005 .Seattle .. 4. Boston's percentage of the starts soon afterwards but then starts rising again the year 1990.

Model Answer

Read and compare the two model reports below. Pay attention to words, phrases, and sentences
wh ich are similar or alike.

Type A TypeB

This line graph shows the percentage of peo- The line graph shows the percentage of
ple in two different cities without health in- population without health insurance in two
surance from 1981 to 2005. The cities shown American cities, Boston and Seattle, from
are Boston and Seattle. 1981to2005.

In 1981 , both Boston and Seattle had nearly There were about 23% of Bostonians who did
the same percentage of people who were not have any health insurance in 1981. The
uninsured, just a little over 20%. A few years percentage slightly increased for the next 4
later, both cities see an increase in that per- years, and then started decreasing for the fol-
centage. However, Seattle sees a steeper rise. lowing 6 years to 20%. The number then con-
Boston's percentage of the uninsured starts sistently went up until 1994 when it reached J
falling soon afterwards but then starts rising its peak at 35%. However, the percentage
again around the year 1990. Around 1994, started falling again for the next few years to I
when it is higher than Seattle's, Boston's just over 30%. From 1998 to 2005, there was a I
I
percentage starts decreasing quite rapidly significant decrease in the rate of people J
until 2005. After Seattle's initial rise in the without health insurance. In Seattle, the rate of
percentage of the uninsured, the graph shows uninsured people quickly increased by about
I
that percentage goes downward until the year 10% until 1984. The rise slowed down a little I
2005. bit until it reached its peak at 40% by 1989. I
Then the rate started fluctuating many times,
The percentage of people in both cities with-
but mainly continued to drop until it reached
out health insurance starts off the same in
its lowest point at 20% by 2005.
1981 and eventually settles at a percentage
below that level in 2005. Boston's percent- It can be seen that, in general, both Boston
age in 2005 is quite a bit lowerthan in 1981 and Seattle had nearly the same percentage
whereas Seattle's percentage is only a tiny bit of people who were uninsured, just a little
lower. over 20% in 1981. It can also be seen that
(168 words) the number of people who had no health
I
insurance decreased over twenty-five years. ~

It might be due to the fact that the current
living conditions are better than those in the
past.
(223 words)
1

'i
I
~

.
!
www nhantriv Pt on

Sample Question

Students' Weekly Drinking
Percentage
100

BO

60 • More than 8 drinks
D 3-8 drinks

40 3 drinks or fewer

20

Barred College Wasser College Marepeas College New Palzuni University

* One drink equals: one can of beer, one glass of wine , or one shot of liquor

Warm-up
Essential Expressions

Below are useful sentences for describing changes in bar graphs.

Case 01 A steady rise

G) The number of people rises[increases, goes up] each year.
200
® Each year, the number of people is rising[increasing, going up].

2000 2001 2002 2003
Number of people

Case 02 Comparing numbers of working hours

G) X worked more hours than Y.
® X worked the most[greatest] number of hours.
@ Z worked the least[fewest] number of hours.

z

0 4 6 B 10
Number of hours worked

42 ftip b •c,t preparation for IE~ TS Wr t ng www nhantriviet.com

Case 03 Comparing percentages completed
G) X has a higher percentage than Y.
@ X has the highest percentage completed .
@ Z has the lowest percentage completed.
® X completed the most.
@ Z completed the least.
25 50 . 75 100
Percentage Completed

Case 04 Describing increases and decreases
300 G) X increases continually.
,....,
@ Y decreases continually.

-•x
' i''
200
@ X increases while Y decreases.
100
y ® X and Y are the same in 2002 .
® In 2003, X becomes greater than Y.
h h
""-
""'- 2003 ® Y becomes less than X in 2003 .
2000 2001 2002

Case 05 Comparing changes
G) The price of X in 1990 is greater than in 1995.
@ In 1995, the price of Xis less than in 1990 .
• 1990
@ The price of Y increases from 1990 to 1995.
1995
@ From 1990 to 1995, the price of X falls, but the price of Y
rises.
10 20 30 40 50
@ The prices of X and Y go in opposite directions from 1990 to
Price 1995.

Practice Test 1

Private Cars

London e~~~~~~~~=========
tmL...
Beijing ====~iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiili------
e~~~=====~~-
- 1950
= 1960
Tokyo
- 1970

New York Ci ty ~~~~~~=!=iiiiiiiiiiii. ____ -1980
= 1990
-2000

Los Angeles E~~~=====iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiili-----•
0.5 1.5 25 3.5
in millions

wwvv r>l'cl 1triv1et.corr CldP ,•r '2 43

Step 1 Discovering Key Words

When looking at any chart, graph, or process, break the visual down into key expressions. Use these
key words to help write your report.

1. X from 0 to 3.5 million cars
2. Y London , Beijing, Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles

3. the number of private cars over the fifty-year period

4. London rise for thirty years
5. from 1980 to 2000, no rise
6. Beijing start with the fewest number of private cars
7. Tokyo a year-to-year decrease
8. decreased from 1980
9. New York City & Los Angeles increase from the 1950's
10. Los Angeles in 2000, with London, the most number

11. increased over the fifty-year period

12. exception of Tokyo from 1980, more cars at the end of the 20th century than in the mid-
century

Step 2 Planning the Report

Write the introduction, body and conclusion.

Private Cars

1=1--,
Beijing =====:.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliilii------
1950

Tokyo =========~~,.-- =
-
1960
1970

=~~~~~~~==-------
-1980
New York City = 1990
-2000
Los Angeles =~~~!~====-iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii\______
0 0 .5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
in millions

44 '"le bee, rr c paratron for [._TS Wrrt1rg www nhantrrv i>t corn

A. but by the year 2000 had 2. This ch art shows the number of cars in five cities from the 1950 to 2000. Tokyo. 1. Tokyo. In London. New York City and Los Angeles both substantial increases in car from the 1950's. 3. a number of different trends for each city over the fifty-year period 4. L.5 million 7. 9. Of all the cities on the chart. London rose for thirty years and then leveled off 5. the number of cars in 2000 was than the number of cars in 1950. Beij ing. still many more vehicles on the road at the end of the 20th century than there were in the mid-century Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. using the information from the graph. VvW>N l i rnt 1v et om . 10. Beijing. Beijing started w ith the number of private cars in the 1950's.A. New York City and Los Angeles 3. & London in the year 20 00 . the number of private vehicles actually decreased from 1980 8. with the exception of Tokyo from 1980 onward . From 1980 to 2000 there was no rise in the number of private cars . & L. 5. the number of privately owned cars increased substantially over the fifty-year period 11. the cities shown: London. 8. There are a number of trends t hat can be for each city over t he fifty-year 4. 1. N. 2. The cities are London . substantial increases in car ownership from the 1950's 9. In the year 20 00 . New York City and Los Angel es. the number of private vehicles actually from 1980. the most number of private cars out of all the cities 10.Y.C . Tokyo the only city to have seen a year-to-year decrease in private vehicles 7. the number of private cars in five cities from the year 1950 to 2000 2. Tokyo is the only city on the chart to have a year-to-year decrease in private vehicles. 6. Beijing started with the fewest number of private cars in the 1950's 6. Los Angeles and London had the number of private cars out of all the on the chart. the number of private cars for thirty years and then leveled off.

Even with the were in the mid-century. 6. Of all the million private vehicles. Beijing llZ3I 1950 Tokyo = 1960 llllillll 1970 New York City -1980 = 1990 -2000 Los Angeles 0 0. then leveled off. There are a fifty-year period. Tokyo in private vehicles. The chart shows the fifty-year period. The cities shown and Los Angeles. New York City and from the 1950's. This chart shows the number 1950 to 2000. In London . 12.. Though the number of decreased from 1980. 12. 11. 8. 5. 4.com .. 3. there were still many more vehicles on the road at the end of the 20th century than there were in the Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own .5 2 2. 2. From 1980 to of private cars. Provided below are some prompts to help you. Even with the of Tokyo from 1980 onward. 46 Tre bf st P• eparat1on for IELTS Wr1t1'lg www. In the year on the chart .5 3 3. 7. 11. 9. The chart shows that the number of privately cars increased substantially over the period.5 in millions 1. Private Cars London :::L.nhantriviet.5 1. 10.

New York City and Los Angeles. While the number of private- private cars in the 1950's. There are a number of dif. (277 words) WWW rra'1triviet. and dropped to 1. then was followed by a sudden increase most number of private cars out of all the cities from 1. shown are London. ferent trends that can be seen for each city over The number of private cars in London the fifty-year period. there were still many 1990 and 2000. at half a million in 1950.5 million private vehicles. There were only half The chart shows that the number of privately a million private cars in 1950. Los on the chart. From 1980 Beijing had the fewest number of cars to start to 2000 there was no noticeable rise in the with in 1950. Model Answer Read and compare the two model reports below. Beijing started with the fewest number of reached 2. It also shows a quick fifty-year period. Of all the cities on the creased steadily from then on until 2000. between the year of 1950 and 2000. increased from 1.8 million to 2. New York Beijing. number of cars in 1950. New York City. The number shows a gradual rise until the year 2000.50. Los Angeles and London had the 1990.5 number of cars in 2000 was greater than the million in 2000. the number of private the two major cities in the United States. Even with the exception of To- increase from 2 million to 3 million between kyo from 1980 onward. Though the point at 2 million in 1980.COl'1 Chapter L 47 . and Los Angeles. Tokyo.5 million by year 2000. but the number owned cars increased substantially over the reached 3 million by 2000. The city with the least number of private cars is Tokyo. It started off the only city on the chart to have seen a year. The number of private cars has increased tremend- ously in all five cities within 50 years. but by the year 2000 ly owned vehicles in other four cities increases had about 2. Tokyo. the number of private cars rose for to 1980. when it chart. London and Los Angeles are the two cities with (236 words) the most privately owned vehicles.5 million to 3 million from 1950 In London. more vehicles on the road at the end of the 20th century than there were in the mid-century.5 million . New steady increase within those years. The number of cars in Beijing in- number of private cars. Angeles shows a similar trend for the change in the number of vehicles. Pay attention to words. thirty years and then leveled off. Tokyo is over 50 years. It then leveled off from 1980 to 2000. It reached its highest to-year decrease in private vehicles. City and Los Angeles. The cities owned cars in millions in five cities: London. The number York City and Los Angeles both saw substantial of private vehicles in New York City was 1 million increases in car ownership from the 1950's. and sentences which are simi lar or alike. phrases. show a vehicles actually decreased from 1980. Type A TypeB This chart shows the number of private cars in The bar graph shows the number of privately five cities from the year 1950 to 2000. Beijing. In in 19. Tokyo's fluctuated.

golf. snow sports the small percentage in 1985 48 v J tr f r \V t r 'l WVvW . increase in 2000 and 2005 8.Q"' '< ~ Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. from 1985 to 2005 I the percentage of people who enjoyed sports 3.:. golf increase from 1985 to 2005 6. more than doubled from 2000 5. skiing/ snowboarding . 2005 10 0 ._ 30 = 1995 = 2000 20 . X footba ll.~. .Practice Test 2 People Who Said They Regularly Enjoyed Sports 80 70 60 50 " Cl . 1985 c"' 40 '"=' -1990 " c. swimming decrease from 1985 to 1995 7.. 1. baseball Y the percentage of the population 2. Use these key words to help write your report.Lul"' . break the visual down into key expressions. foot ball increase slightly for the first 15 years 4. graph.Jntr1v1et. or process. swimming .

60% in 1985. people who enjoyed baseball went on to enjoy the other sports Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction.'~ -1990 "' [l. about 25% in 2005 12. golf increased steadily from 1985 to 2005 . the people who used to enjoy baseball : went on to enjoy the other sports www nha 1triviet. 30 0 &ililll 1995 =2000 20 -2005 10 0 1. 9. after increasing in 2000 and 2005. baseball decrease in the percentage 11. more than doubled from the year 2000 5. body and conclusion. increasing numbers: all the sports except for baseball 13. 25% of the population enjoyed it in 2005 10. swimming . People Who Said They Regularly Enjoyed Sports 80 70 ~ ~ 'l>o. except for baseball 13. fell to about 25 % in 2005 12. 60% in 1985. ~ <o 60 cf>"'~"' '< 50 "' O> (j~ -1985 c"' 40 ~<:-(/) "'<' . football very slight increases in the number of people for the first 15 years 4. swimming decreased from 1985 to 1995. less than 20% of people enjoyed it 7. information on several sports: football . baseball a substantial decrease in the percentage 11. skiing/snowboarding and baseball 2. the increase slowed during the last five years 6. doubled to 40 % 8. golf. increasing numbers of people: enjoyed all the sports in the chart. snow sports the percentage quite small in 1985 9. increasing numbers of people throughout the 20-year period expressed their interest. increasing numbers throughout the 20-year period 10.com Chap er 7 49 . the percentage of the population : enjoyed each sport regularly over a 20-year period 3.j.

skiing/ snowboarding and baseball. 5.. which saw a drop. The bar graph shows information on sports: football . 2. the percentage to 25 % in 2005. increasing in 2000 and 2005 . though the rate of increase during the fi ve years. .com . The percentage of people who said they liked to swim from 1985 to 1995. that percentage doubled 40 %.Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. 9. 25 % of the population said they enjoyed those snow sports . 50 ~ . it shows what percent of the enjoyed them over a 20-year period . 1. swimming . 12. In 2005 . 3. 13. For the 15 years . baseball is the sport shown on the chart that saw a decrease in the percentage that said they regularly enjoyed it. 10. 4. golf. the people who used to enjoy baseball went on to enjoy the other sports shown on the chart. the percentage of the population who enjoyed them was small in 1985. though . Th e percentage of who said they enjoyed golf increased from 1985 to 2005 . using the information from the bar graph. for baseball.nhantnviet. and in than 20 % of people asked said they regularly enjoyed swimming . 7. snow sports.w best preparation for IELTS Writing www. football saw very increases in the nu mber of people who they regularly it. 6. the percentage of the population who enjoyed football more than from the year 2000 . 11. numbers of people said they enjoyed all the sports in the chart . 8. Increasing numbers of people throughout the 20-year period expressed their in skiing and snowboarding and in 2005 . however. For sport. From 60 % in 1985.

a 20-year period . baseball is regularly enjoyed it. People Who Said They Regularly Enjoyed Sports -1985 . small in 1985. 12. 9. the year 2000. 7. 3. 4. 6. 10. For t he first regu larly enjoyed it. The bar graph and baseball. however. Increasing numbers of those snow sports. 8. 13. www nhartriv1et. From 60% in 25 % in 2005. Finally. In 2005. Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own . For snow sports. 1990 l!ll:I 1995 CJ 2000 -2005 1. Provided below are some prompts to help you. 2. 11. Increasing numbers of a steep drop. After increasing in doubled to 40 % .com Chap•0r 7 51 . The percentage of reg ularly enjoyed swimming . Perhaps t he people who on the chart . The percentage of last five years . For each sport. 5.

but the percentage rose back after 1995. For snow sports. skiing I snow. swimming. The rate fell constantly over the Increasing numbers of people said they enjoyed years. People who said that they enjoyed in 2000 and 2005. It was followed by another throughout the 20-year period expressed their increase of 10 percent by 2005. used to enjoy baseball went on to enjoy the other sports shown in the chart. and decrease in the rate of people who enjoyed golf. it shows regular basis from 1985 to 2005 at intervals what percentage of the population enjoyed them of five years. and the two winter sports showed no decrease during the 20- ' J ) (259 words) I year period. the per. From 60% in 1985. the rate of increase slowed during the last five The number increased steadily from 10 percent years. the rate had quintupled in the percentage that said they regularly enjoyed and reached 25 percent. centage of the population who enjoyed playing gradually increased for 15 years. Pay attention to words. swimming. and sentences which are similar or alike. Type A TypeB The bar graph shows information on several The bar graph shows the percentage of five sports: football. and baseball. There was a steep fall from 1990 to 1995. There was a decline for swimming in the middle. sports. Perhaps the people who J regularly was at 25 percent.' For the first 15 years.I basis in 1985.. the rate started i J 25% of the population said they enjoyed those off the lowest of all the sports. except for baseball. baseball is the only sport just over 5 percent in 1985 and steadily increased shown on the chart that saw a substantial decrease over 20 years. golf. the percentage fell to about ferent trend. skiing and snowboarding. the rate of people who enjoyed baseball J which saw a steep drop. said that they regularly enjoyed football.I -. On the other hand. football.Model Answer Read and compare the two model reports below. As an overall trend. The rate . The percentage of people who said they to just over 40 percent in 2005. skiing or snowboarding.1 52 Tre best pr..co n .parat10'1 fo• IELTS Writing www nhantriviet. Baseball shows a dif- it. regularly over a 20-year period. For each sport. just over 20 percent of the total population I regularly enjoyed it. phrases. though. increases in the number of people who said they In 1985. different sports that people enjoyed on a boarding and baseball. Increasing numbers of people 15 percent by 2000. said they enjoyed playing baseball on a regular . It shows no liked to swim decreased from 1985 to 1995. In 2005. Finally.. baseball started off as the most favored sports but kept going down. ~ By 2005. that percentage swimming were at about 25 percent in 1985. football saw very slight I .J ) ) . and the rate of people The percentage of people who said they enjoyed who enjoyed football reached 60 percent by 2005. l all the sports in the chart. The five sports include football. It doubled to 40%. golf. There were nearly 60 percent who 25% in 2005. growth from 2000 to 2005. the percentage declined for the next 10 years to 15 percent. The rate was at snow sports. ' . As for the winter 1 interest in skiing and snowboarding and in 2005. golf. After increasing 2000 to 2005. It shows a sudden football more than doubled from the year 2000. less than 20% of people asked said however.. the speed of growth slowed down from they regularly enjoyed swimming. golf increased steadily from 1985 to 2005. By 2005. 1n that year. however. and of the population who enjoyed them was quite then it was followed by a sudden increase of j small in 1985. l (324 words) J . though 10 percent said that they enjoyed golf in 1985.

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and Z are shown on this pie chart. 0 Amount of Y @) Y has the second smallest share of the total. 0 AmountofW • Amount of X @ X has the second highest share of the total. . @) The percentage of Y is lower than the percentage of X.Sample Question Makeup of Bird Population in the Cascade Mountains in 2005 • Robin Wren D Bluejay • Hawk Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing data in pie charts. X. ® The percentage of X is higher than the percentage ofY. there is 78 % X and 22 % Y. • Amount of X ® There are more X's than Y's.. Case 01 Two segments showing simple data CD The pie chart shows the number of X's and Y's. @) There are 17 X's and 6 Y's.nhantriviet. ® There are almost twice as many X's as there are Y's. • Amount of Z ® Z has the smallest share of the total.com . Y. ® Among the total. Case 03 Several segments showing simple data CD The amount of W. D AmountofY @ There are fewer Y's than X's. ® X and Y together make up half the total. Case 02 Two segments showing percentages CD The pie chart shows the percentage of X and Y. •x DY @ The percentage of X is greater than the percentage of Y. (j) There are three times as manyY's as there are Z's. ® The percentage of Y is less than the percentage of X. ® W has the greatest share of the total. 54 T'le bl?s• prepa ·at1on for IELTS Wr1t 1 ng www.

unaffiliated 7% wvvw <ihantriv1et. Unity and Liberty. or process. Unity has 19%. four parties: Prosperity. less than 20% 8. break the visual down into key expressions. a quarter 7. Liberty has 14% 9. Y. more than a third 6.com . Use these key words to help write your report. @ The percentage of X is almost twice the percentage ofY. Liberty 3. 36%. DY ll z ® Z has the smallest percentage of the total.Case 04 Several segments showing percentages G) The percentages of W. Practice Test 1 Breakdown of Parties in Congress of Country X D Prosperity Party • Progress Party D Unity Party D Liberty Party • Unaffiliated Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. Unity. unaffiliated 4. t he second Progress. breakdown of parties in congress of Country X 2. X. Progress. the largest Prosperity 5. 1. ow @ X has the second highest percentage of the total. (j) The percentage ofY is almost three times the percentage of Z. and Z are shown on this pie chart. @ W has the highest percentage of the total. graph. 11 x @) Y has the second smallest percentage of the total. ® X and Y together make up half the total.

the party with the second biggest share: the Progress party with nearly a quarter of the total 7. more than a third of all seats 6. Prosperity and any other party I the three other parties: make a majority Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. 36%. the Liberty party only has 14% 9. four parties: Prosperity. Progress. an unaffiliated category: 7% of all congress people do not belong to any party 10.nhantriv1et com . a coalition of Prosperity and any other party or the three other parties together: make a majority 56 The best preparation for IEL TS Writing www. body and conclusion. the largest party: the Prosperity party 5. the Unity party has a larger share at 19%. another category: unaffiliated congress people 4. and Liberty parties 3. no majority 11. Unity. 10. the breakdown of Country X's congress by different parties 2. no party in congress has a majority 11. the Unity party and the Liberty party: less than 20% of all seats in congress 8. Breakdown of Parties in Congress of Country X D Prosperity Party Progress Party D Unity Party D Liberty Party • Unaffiliated 1.

com Chapter 3 57 . At 36 % they more than a third of al l 6. 4. or the three parties together could have a coalit ion of 50 % of seats. Progress Party 0 UnityParty D Liberty Party • Unaffiliated 1. There is also congress people. Breakdown of Parties in Congress of Country X 0 Prosperity Party . and Li berty parties. Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own . 2. The Unity party and the Liberty party both have 20% of in congress. 8.nhantriviet. 3. 3. The Unity party though has a share at 19% whereas the Liberty party only has 14%. 2. Those four parties and Liberty parties . The pie chart by different parties . A of Prosperity and any other party would give them a . Progress. Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. The party the second biggest is the Progress party with nearly a of the total. Provided below are some prompts to help you. No party in congress has a 11. The pie chart shows the of Country X's congress by different parties. Those are the Prosperity. 1. 9. There is also an unaffiliated means 7% of all c ongress people do not belong to 10. using the information from the chart. 7. There is also a for congress people. 5. The party present in the of Country X is the Prosperity party. www. Unity.

7% of all congress people do not belong to There is no majority party. There Prosperity. Unity. The party with of the total. A coalition of of congressional seats. the Liberty party both have less than 20% the third largest party. At 36 % all seats. 8. No party a majority. they can become the would give them a majority. The Unity party.nhantriviet com . or the three majority party. There is There are also about 7% of congressmen also an unaffiliated category. and Liberty parties. the third. Pay attention to words. and Progress party at 24%. Model Answer Read and compa re the two model report passages below. which means who are unaffiliated. is only 5% less of all seats in congress. The Unity party seats in congress. It can be seen that 36% they hold more than a third of all 36% of the congress. Progress. 4. and sentences wh ich are similar or alike. 7. and Liberty is also a category for unaffiliated congress party. (150 words) tion of over 50% of congressional seats. At is the Prosperity party. A largest party. 11 . If the first and any party. Progress. the Liberty party only has 14%. Type A TypeB The pie chart shows the breakdown of The pie chart shows the breakdown of Country X's congress by different parties. The Unity party than the second largest party at 19%. There is also to any party. parties in the congress of Country X by Those four parties are the Prosperity. percent. The Unity party. The largest party the Prosperity party. or the second No party in congress has a majority. the second largest party. (165 words) 58 Th" best preparat10n for IELTS Writing www. is affiliated with the Prosperity share is the Progress party with nearly a party. The largest party present in the congress The biggest party in Country X's congress of Country X is the Prosperity party. The party with the second biggest a third. 5. other parties together could have a coali. The though has a larger share at 19% whereas smallest party is the Liberty party at 14%. The chart shows four parties. 10. Unity. The Unity party only has 14 % . and fourth largest coalition of Prosperity and any other party party come together. ated with any party. 9. 6. The second biggest party is the quarter of the total. as well as people who are not affili- people. phrases. which is more than seats.

18%: partly successful 11 %: uptake failure 7. 18% : mostly successful 5. mostly successful . 13%: completely successful 4. halfway successful. the rest of the group: not completely successful and not a complete failure www rihantriv1et. Use these key words to help write your report. test subjects 2.Practice Test 2 Vaccination Uptake Results for Test Subjects Halfway Successful Completely 40% Successful Partly Successful Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. partly suc- cessful. vaccination: low failure rate at 11 % completely successful rate at 13%: low 8. or process. graph.com C~ap er J 59 . vaccinati on uptake results . 40%: halfway successful . 1. the largest percentage of all groups 6. five categories: completely successful. break the visual down into key expressions. uptake failure 3.

On t he chart . Vaccination Uptake Results for Test Subjects Halfway Successful Completely Successful Partly Su ccessful lr:t"~{T'r. using the information from the chart. mostly successful . it can be seen that 13% of the people who were had a completely successful result. the vaccination: very low failure rate at 11 % the c ompletely successful rate at 13% : low as well 8. IELTS Writing www. partly successful. 18% of the people: mostly successful 5. The pie chart shows the of a vaccination certain groups of people. 40% of the people : only halfway successful .~ 1. t he results of the vaccination among certain groups of people 2. the largest percentage of all groups 6. successful . halfway successful . 2. 18% of the tested people: partly successful 11 % of the test subjects: not effective at all ·- 7.nhant ri viet. five different categories: completely successful . partly . Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. body and conclusion . 60 The best preparation to.. 1. halfway successful . and uptake failure. and uptake failure 3. 3. the rest of the group: not completely successful and not a complete failure Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. mostly successful . 13% of the people: a completely successful result 4..com . The results are into five different : completely successful .

6. www. 18% of the people stated that the was partly successful and 11 % of the test subjects said that it was not effective at 7. As an trend. 2. 18% of the people that the vaccination was mostly 5. The rest of the group stated results that were in between . is the largest percentage of 6. 18% of the was mostly successful. 8. 4. the completely successful rate at 13% is low as well. Provided below are some prompts to help you. On the chart. The rest of a complete failure. and uptake failure. Vaccination Uptake Results for Test Subjects Halfway Successful Completely Successful Partly Successful 1. completely successful result. 4. 5. People who claimed that the vaccination was only successful were 40%. not completely successfu l and not a complete Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. People who claimed of all groups. 18% of the effective at all. even though the vaccination has a very at 11 %. As an overall is low as well. 8.com Chaoter 3 61 .nhantriviet. The results are . 3. The pie chart groups of people. 7.

halfway successful. not completely completely successful. 18% of the vaccination.nhartrvietc. at 13%. the vaccination either fails outright. which is 11%. in each one. Type A TypeB The pie chart shows the results of a vacci. successful vaccinations. vaccination has a very low failure rate at 11 %. the test subjects' vaccination fell somewhere in between. The rest of the group stated failure rate. 18% of the tested people stated that 40%. The other two categories are 11 % of the test subjects said that it was not partly successful vaccinations and mostly effective at all. of all test subjects fall under this the vaccination was partly successful and category. The pie chart displays vaccination uptake nation among certain groups of people. the completely successful rate at 13% It seems that the vaccination has a low is low as well. The vast majority of successful and not a complete failure. even though the the test subjects.om . or On the chart. which is the largest percentage of all was halfway successful. The percentage the people who were vaccinated had a of subjects with a completely successful completely successful result. successful. it can be seen that 13% of is completely successful. The largest vaccination was only halfway successful were category is for subjects whose vaccination 40%. Two-fifths. or groups. 18%.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. There are five The results are divided into five different different categories. People who claimed that the vaccination. For about a quarter of all test subjects. Pay attention to words. and sentences which are sim ilar or alike. and uptake failure. mostly level of success. is greater than the people said that the vaccination was mostly percentage of subjects with a failed successful. results for test subjects. phrases. but also a low rate of being results that were in between. each one a different categories: completely successful. (155 words) (148 words) 62 T'lE' b"St prepd•3t1on for IEUS Wr t ng www. They both have the same exact percentage with nearly a fifth of As an overall trend. partly successful.

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Both graphs show a positive trend .1996. The price and the amount both increase._.42 0.!: ·c: 0..38 .2001- 11 n 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year 0.46 0.com .44 0.1986. Case 01 A rise in both graphs . :::WI 100 <Z) @ @ @ The price and the amount go in the same direction.30 0 1971 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2005 Year Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing data in a line graph combined with a bar graph.1981. 64 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www nhantriviet.40 )( Q) "O 0.1991. The amount increases as the price increases. 0 @ There is a positive correlation between the price and the 2000 2001 2002 2003 amount..!: 500 0 1971- .32 0..Sample Question 2500 2000 I I "' c:: 1500 • Military Spending ~ ii 1000 D Education Spending .36 C3 0.34 0. ' ' 1976.Price • Amount CD Both graphs show an increase.

. @ Although the price of B falls continuously. the price and the amount of B continue to fall. @ Both graphs show a negative trend. the price of A and the amount continue to rise. @ Whereas the price of B falls. the price of A and the amount go up. @ There is a negative correlation between the price and 0 the amount.. 2000 2001 2002 2003 @) Although the amount of A rises continually.corn Chapter 4 65 . Case 03 A rise in the line graph and a fall in the bar graph . Case 05 A fall in the line graph and fluctuations in the bar graph D Amoun t of A . the price and the amount of B go down.Case 02 A fall in both graphs . 200 CV Price B shows a decrease whereas price A and the amount 100 increase. @ The price and the amount both decrease. @ Both the price of A and the amount are negatively 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 correlated with the price of B. @ Whereas the amount of A goes up. @ The amount of A shows an increase whereas the price and 200 the amount of B decrease.. ~ : 1l111 CV The price and the amount go in the same direction.P rice • Amoun t 300 G) Both graphs show different trends. 200 @ The price increases as the amount decreases.. 2000 2001 2002 2003 Case 04 Both a rise and a fall in the line graph and a rise in the bar graph . lL_ CV The price and the amount go in opposite directions.. @ The amount decreases as the price decreases. 100 @ Both the price and the amount of B are negatively correlated with the amount of A.Price B 300 w · A m ount G) The amount and the price of A increase while the price of B decreases..Price • Amount of B CD The amount of B and the price decrease while the amount 300 of A increases.. 2000 2001 2002 2003 @ There is a positive correlation between the price and the amount. 100 @ The amount decreases as the price increases.Pri ce Ill Amou nt G) Both graphs show a decrease. www nhantriviet.P riceA .

the C02 level : rises from 1750 to 1900 4.) 5 D London • Los Angeles 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. the average temperature: only London has records from 1750 6. the rising temperatures of the four cities 3.) 270 250 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year *PPM : parts per million 25 20 Q) ~ 15 ..Practice Test 370 350 :. or process. Use these key words to help write your report.? 330 0.om . the rise of C02 in the atmosphere.(. break the visual down into key expressions. graph. 0. 310 C\I 0 290 (... New York City's records: start from 1800 66 Tre best pre pJr2t O'l for IE L ~.Writing www nhantriv1et.. 1. after 1900: a rise in C02 until 2000 5. Line Graph the parts per million of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (1750-2000) Bar Graph the average temperature of four cities (1750-2000) 2.~ D Seoul ~ 10 D New York City (.

. New York City's records : start fifty years after that 7. 370 25 350 20 ::. body and conclusion.. Los Angeles' records: from 1850 Seoul 's records: from 1900 8. a clear correlation in the past 250 years between the rise in C02 levels in the atmosphere and warmer temperatures for the four cities around the world www nhar>tr viet. 7. one exception : from 1850 to 1900. the C02 level : rises only a minuscule amount from 1750 to 1900 4. t he average temperature: only London having records from 1750 6. after that year: continued to rise 11. 0. a general rise in the average temperature 9. one exception : from 1850 to 1900. 330 . a correlation between the substantial rise of C02 in the atmosphere and the slowly rising temperatures of the four cities 3. the average temperature in four cities: compared to the levels of carbon dioxide (C02) in the atmosphere 2. 310 " !!! 15 C> ~ D Seoul N 8 . a clear correlation in the past 250 years between the rise in C02 levels in the atmosphere and warmer temperatures for the four cities around the world Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. 0. a general rise in the average temperature 9.com . the average temperature in London dropped slightly 10. :g ~ ~ 290 10 II New York City u 270 D London 250 • Los Angeles 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year Year *PPM : parts per million 1. the average temperature in London dropped slightly 10. after that year: a large rise in C02 to the year 2000 5. Average temperatures in Los Angeles: recorded from 1850 Seoul has records from 1900 8. after that year: continued to ri se 11.

4. 1. the data shows only London having from 1750. Even with the exception . The temperature records that do show a in the average temperature. 2. Average temperatures in Los Angeles are from 1850 and Seoul only has records from 1900. the C02 level only a from 1750 to 1900. From a quick the four cities. The charts show the in four cities compared to the levels of carbon dioxide (C02) in the 2. In the chart with the for four cities . 5. From a quick at the charts. www. however.2' 8"' ~ 290 ~ ~ ~ 10 1!11 New York Coty 270 D London 250 • Los Angeles 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Year Year '" PPM: parts per million 1. Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. there to be a clear correlation in the 250 years between the rise in C02 levels in the atmosphere and temperat ures for the four cities around the world . using the information from the chart. 10. it there is a correlation between the rise of C02 in the atmosphere and the rising temperatures of the four cities. though: from 1850 to 1900. 310 " ~ 15 D Seoul . the average temperature in London slightly. 11. there is a rise in C02 to the year 2000. 370 25 350 20 :::. The charts show in the atmosphere. it to rise . Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own.nhantr v1et com . Q. 6. In the first chart. 9. Provided below are some prompts to help you. After that year. After that year.: 330 Q. 3. There is one exception . 8. New York City's records start fifty years 7.

Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. From a quick glance atmosphere of four cities between 1750 and at the charts. Seoul only has records from that. though: from 1850 to 1900. al l four cities continues to rise. Pay attention to words. Even with the that there is a correlation between the rise in exception. Average temperatures in Los Angeles are 1900. In the first 1750 to 1900. The temperature records that do exist show a it must be noted that there is a slight decrease general rise in the average temperature. recorded from 1850 and Seoul only has records It clearly shows that the overall average tem- from 1900. The temperature records the average temperature. After 1900. 10. world in the past 250 years. In the chart records from 1750. 5. In the line graph. tures for the four cities around the world. However. phrases. (191 words) (199 words) www nhar•rivrt>t. there seems to be a clear correlation the level of C02 in the atmosphere and the rise in the past 250 years between the rise in C02 in temperatures for the four cities around the levels in the atmosphere and warmer tempera. the average temperature of average temperature in London dropped slightly. After that it rises dramatically until 2000. There is in the average temperature of London from 1850 one exception. start in 1800. 4. From 1900. After that year. however. and sentences which are similar or alike. New York City's records shows only London having records from 1750. Average temperatures in records from 1900. the to 1900. The bar graph year. After that to rise. Type A TypeB The charts show the average temperature in four The graphs explain the average temperature cities compared to the levels of carbon dioxide and the levels of carbon dioxide (C02) in the (C02) in the atmosphere. there is a large rise in C02 continuing to shows the average temperature for four cities. the four cities. followed by records for Los Angeles New York City's records start fifty years after which starts in 1850. New York City's years after that. It can be assumed After that year. minuscule amount from 1750 to 1900. There is one London dropped slightly. 6. 3. It the year 2000. the C02 level rises only a minimally between 1750 and 1900. peratures of four cities rise over time. 7. the level of C02 increases In the first chart. It seems that the levels of C02 in the between the substantial rise of C02 in the atmosphere and the average temperature are atmosphere and the slowly rising temperatures of correlated. 9. In the chart with the average can be seen that the data shows only London temperature for four cities. the year 2000. it seems there is a correlation 2000. Even with the around the world . the data having records from 1750. it continued to rise.corn C·1dpt •r 4 69 . 11. 8.

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---- _g 10 I- --.P r i ce D Amount of Y CDThe line graph shows the price whereas the pie chart shows the amount. @ When there is a smaller amount of Y than there is X.com . Below are useful sentences for describing data in a line graph combined with a pie chart. the price goes up.nhantriviet.t preparation for IELTS Writing www.Sample Question Average Income per Person "' 25 r------- ~ c og - Cfl m 20 -------------------- >~ 0 co {! ~ 15 c: )( Lyceum ~~ :> c: = Univille --.--- E Collegeburg 5 Scholaslia O'--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--'~~~~~~~--' 1980 1985 1990 1995 Women with College or Postgraduate Degrees in 1980 (in millions) Warm-up Essential Expressions . 72 fhe bec. the price goes up.--.. ® When the amount of X is greater than the amount of Y. Case 01 A rise in the line graph and two segments in the pie chart shown in figures • Am ount of X .--.

.Price D y CDThe line graph shows the price while the pie chart shows the percentage of X and Y..Price A • Amount of X CD When there is more X than there is Y. the price goes down . the price of A .. @ While there are fewer Y than there are X..Price B D Amount of Y increases and the price of B decreases. ~ ® A's price goes up and B's price goes down when Y has a lower percentage than X. ® When X has a larger percentage than Y. the price of A rises and the price of B falls. Practice Test Summer Sports Participants (in millions) D 1988 9 D 1992 • 1996 D 2000 D 2004 www.ntantriviet. @ When Y is less than X. @ The price of A and the price of B go in opposite directions when X has a larger percentage than Y. Case 04 Both a rise and a fall in the line graph and two segments in the pie chart shown in percentages ... Case 03 Both a rise and a fall in the line graph and two segments in the pie chart shown in figures . the price goes down. the prices of A and B are negatively correlated .Pri ce B D y prices of A and B are negatively correlated . ~ ® When the amount of X is greater than the amount of Y.P rice A • x CD When X's percentage is greater than Y's percentage.com Chaptt r 5 73 .Case 02 A fall in the line graph and two segments in the pie chart shown in percentages • x .. the .

a pie chart: the number of people playing summer sports. negatively correlated 11. twice as many people playing summer sports than in 1988 7. a line graph : the number of winter sports participants. after 1992 . 1988-2004. from 1988 to 2004 3. break the visual down into key expressions. rise until 2004 6. body and conclusion. in 2004. a pie chart: a decrease from 1988 to 1992 5.Q E 4 2 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart.com . Number of Winter Sports Participants (in millions) 10 8 ~ 6 . or process. 1. opposite of the trend 8. Summer Sports Participants (in millions) Number of Winter Sports Participants (in millions) 10 rm 1988 8 9 D 1992 ~ 6 • 1996 ~ E4 D 2000 liJ 2004 2 0 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 74 ~he best ~reparation for Ill TS Writing www. n hantriv1et. from 1988 to 2004 4. increase from 1988 to 1992 9. the other falls Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. Use these key words to help write your report. two charts: the number of sports participants during the years the Olympics were held 2. graph. a line graph : winter sports participation. after 1992 . one rises. a fall until 2004 10.

after 1992. These two charts show the number of sports .nl°'artr v1et com Ch ~pte t 75 . seem to be negatively correlated 11. though . 1. fall until 2004. 3. a line graph: the number of winter sports participants. 6. 5. In . a line graph: winter sports participation. two charts: the number of sports participants during the years the Olympics were held 2. almost twice as many people playing summer sports than in 1988 7. than from one Olympic year to the . shows the number of people playing every from 1988 to 2004 . every four years from 1988 to 2004 3. 9. the number of people participating in winter sports from 1988 to 1992. after that only 2 million people 10. rises until 2004 6. www. a pie chart . vice versa Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. whenever one number rises. increases from 1988 to 1992 9. fall until 2004 . the other falls. 8. in that year. a pie chart: a slight decrease. there are twice as many people playing summer sports than there are in 1988. using the information from the chart. after that only 2 million people played winter sports. The data winter sports participation is of the trend from the first chart. a pie chart: the number of people playing summer sports . 1992. opposite of the trend from the first chart 8. in millions. 7. a line graph. covers the same period 4. the number of people participating in summer sports rises 2004. less than a of the number from 1988. covers the same period but shows the number of winter sports 4. 1. The second chart. from 1988 to 1992 5. winter sports and summer sports. The in the pie chart shows that there is a decrease of summer sports participants from 1988 to 1992. during the years the Olympics were 2. 1988-2004. The first chart.

The data in 1988 to 1992. whenever rises. 7. 11. The second chart. 10. rises until 2004. winter sports participants. Rather than decreasing 1988 to 1992. 3. 11. The number of people playing winter sports and summer sports to be correlated. The number of be negatively correlated . 9. 8. Summer Sports Participants (in millions) Number of Winter Sports Participants (in millions) m 1988 0 1992 • 1996 0 2000 1111 2004 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 1. The data showing the first chart . Those number from 1988. 76 Tre bP t prep Jrdt1on 'or IEL TS Wrifr1g www. Throughout the period and vice versa. In that year.nhantr vi et (Om . Provided below are some prompts to help you . 5. 1988 to 2004. 10. After 1992. 4. Throughout the period of 1988-2004. The first chart. 2. Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. though. 6. are in 1988. These two charts Olympics were held . the other falls and versa.

It can be stated that the number of winter sports participants The number of people playing winter sports has decreased three times from 1988 to and summer sports seems to be negatively 2004. Those numbers fall unti l 2004. during sports participants in millions during the the years the Olympics were held. the but shows the number of winter sports number of participants for the summer participants. The data showing winter sports participation is opposite of the tren d from the first chart. and sentences which are similar or ali ke. According to the line graph. phrases. continued to go up until 2004. In that million in 2000. 1988. the number of people participating of summer sports participants was seven in summer sports rises until 2004. Type A TypeB These two charts show the number of The pie chart shows the number of summer sports participants. The number though. sports participants increases. there are almost twice as many people to nine million in 2004.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. It fell back to six million in 1988 to 1992. whenever one number rises. sports was five million which was followed The data in the pie chart shows that there by a sudden fall to two million in 1992. shows the number 2004. covers the same period As you can see from the pie chart. summer has nearly doubled between 1988 and 2004. The second covering the same period. the number of Rather than decreasing from one Olympic winter sports participants started with six year to the next. a pie chart. less than a third of the number from participants in the winter Olympics in 2000. and two million in 2004. After 1992. the other It seems that when the number of summer falls and vice versa. (229 words) Ch pter ~ 77 . 1996 and continued to decrease steadily after that only 2 million people played winter until 2004. The line graph indicates the number of people playing summer sports every of winter sports participants in millions four years from 1988 to 2004. Throughout the period of 1988- 2004. correlated . Pay attention to words. chart. a line graph. It can be stated that playing summer sports than there are in the number of sports participants for the 1988. Then is a slight decrease of summer sports it increased to three million in 1996 and participants from 1988 to 1992. The Olympics which were held between 1988 and first chart. and then it continues to rise year. the number of peop le million in 1988. the number of winte r sports participants decreases and (201 words) vice versa during the years of 1988 to 2004. in millions. There were only three million sports. which was increased to eight participating in winter sports increases from million in 1992.

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3 20 D Italy D Portugal I D Greece • Germany 15 • Austria • Sweden • UK 10 5 0 268 268 0 Reading Matter • Outdoor Activities 0 Culture and Sport D Electrial Goods and Music 588 • Holidays Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing data in a bar graph combined with a pie chart. the number 300 ~D Number of People 0 AmountofY of people rises from 2000 to 2003. 200 ® The number of people goes up continually wh en the amount ofY is less than that of X.Sample Question 25 21. the number of people goes up each year.nhantriviet. 100 @ When the amount of Y is less than the amount of X. 80 . 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 @ The number of people increases constantly when there are fewer Y's than X's. Case 01 A rise in the bar graph and two segments in the pie chart shown in figures Amount of X CDWhen the amount of Xis greater than that of Y.The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.com .

com Ch. A and B are negatively correlated . Case 05 Horizontal double bars in the bar graph and several segments in the pie chart shown in percentages Percentage of People Who Took a Vacation in: Co~ntryt:_ G) The percentage of people going to Country A decreases when W has the greatest percentage of the total. 2000 2001 2002 2003 @ Since the percentage of X is higher than the percentage of Y.:ipter 6 81 . while the percentage of people going to B rises. the percentage 200 of X is greater than the percentage of Y. 0 Amountof Y ® There are fewer Y's than X's because C worked only two hours. and Z 's th an there 2000 2001 2002 2003 are W's when A rises. and C works 0 4 6 8 10 the least when the amount of X is greater than Y. • AmountofZ @ There are fewer X's. Y's. Case 04 Vertical double bars in the bar graph and several segments in the pie chart shown in figures 300 A •s G) The amount of A rises throughout the years while B falls because the amount of W is the 200 Ill AmountofW greatest.Case 02 A rise in the bar graph and two segments in the pie chart shown in percentages G) When the percentage of Y is less than the percentage of X. Number of People llil x 300 DY the number of people goes up. there are more X's than Y's. Case 03 Horizontal single bars in the bar graph and two segments in the pie chart shown in figures Number of Hours Worked 1111 Amount of X G) When A works the most hours. 100 @ The number of people rises each year because Y has a lower percentage than X. B works the second most. D ® A higher percentage of people go to Country B in 1995 Country D when Z has the least percentage. ® When the number of people is increasing. @ The percentage of people who took a vacati on to Coun - try B was lower than to Country A in both years because the percentage of X was more than the percentage of Y. the amount of Xis greater c than the amount of Y. O AmountofX ® There is the least amount of Z wh en B falls 100 O AmountofY continually. @ A works the most. @ When the amount of W and X makes up more than half the total . the price goes up continually.nhantriviet. the percentage of people going to D 1990 • 1995 Country A falls . @ When everyone works 19 hours. www. B • @ When the combined percentage of Y and of Z is less 0 25 50 than half of the total.

: _Q - :s.Q :.Practice Test Monthly Electricity Use in Korea for the Household Sector 12 10 en ~ 8 :.nhantriv1et com . monthly total : decreases from August to October. break the visual down into key expressions. 1. or process. Pie Chart what the seasonal share of annual total electricity use 3.:: 0 en c 6 4 . Bar Graph how much electricity all Korean households use per month 2. Use these key words to help write your report.0 2 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Seasonal Share of Annual Electricity Use for All Sectors in Korea 0 Spring Summer • Winter 0 Fall Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. increases in November and December 82 hE' b 'St prepardtlOn for Ir l rs Writ rg www. graph. monthly electricity use: declines from January to April. increases from June to August 4.

used in summer and winter 12. increases in November and December 5. 5. energy used to cool and heat homes Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. Pie Chart: what percentage of the year's electricity is used each season 3. winter and summer: greater than spring and fall 10. body and conclusion. higher in the winter than in the spring or fall 8. about 70% of all electricity. monthly electricity use for households: declining from January to April. the largest amount: summer 7.com C'h wter c 83 . Monthly Electricity Use in Korea for the Household Sector 12 10 . monthly total decreases until October.gi ~ 8 0 'i! 6 Seasonal Share of Annual Electricity Use for All Sectors in Korea [ Spring • Summer • Winter 0 Fall 1. Bar Graph: how much electricity used each month in Korea by the household sector 2. seasonal differences 9. the rise and fall of the electricity: correlated with the seasons www nhartr v1et. seasonal differences in the amount of electricity used 11. correlated with the seasons 6. rising for the next three months until August 4.

The monthly total then again until October. The bar graph shows electricity use for declining from January to April. 5. and then for the next three months until August. using the information from the chart. 6. about 70% of all is used during the and winter. the greatest amount of electricity used during the summer.nhantriviet com . 10. The monthly totals are also in the winter than they are in the or fall. 12. The chart is a bar graph that shows how much electricity is used each month in Korea by the sector. the monthly totals: higher in the wintm than in the spring or fall 8. 3. 6. much larger than the percentage used in the spring and fall 10. 8. reflective of seasonal differences 9. Even though it shows information for all sectors in Korea. disproportionate share . information for all sectors in Korea. the percentage of electricity used in the and summer is clearly than the percentage used in the spring and fall. 4. over 12 billion kilowatts of energy just during the month of August 7. This share might be attributed to extra energy being used to cool and homes during 84 The best preparation for I ELTS Writ ng www. about 70% of electricity: used during the summer and winter 12. extra energy being used to cool and heat homes during extreme weather Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. The two charts show seasonal in the amount of electricity used. The rise and fall of the electricity used each month is with the seasons . electricity used in the winter and summer. the two charts: seasonal differences in the amount of electricity used 11. 1. 2. after which it in November and December. Over the course of one year. The data shown in the pie chart is also of seasonal 9. The of electricity is used during the summer. the data shown in the pie chart. 11. The second is a pie chart that shows what percentage of the year's is used for all sectors in Korea. with the Korean household sector using over 12 billion kilowatts of energy just the month of August. 7.

The data shown of seasonal differences.. The bar graph months until August. 12. 10. 6. The greatest amount month of August. Monthly Electricity Use in Korea for the Household Sector 12 10 (/) :::: ro 8 !: . The first chart the household sector. The two charts of electricity used. Even though it spring and fall. 7. 8. 11 . Provided below are some prompts to help you. This disproportionate share during extreme weather. Over the cour. www. 5.c 2 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Seasonal Share of Annual Electricity Use for All Sectors in Korea D Spring • Summer •Winter [JJ Fall 1. The monthly total November and December.se summer and winter.Q :. 3.: 6 0 (/) c 4 ~ :. 9. 4. 2.Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. The second is sectors in Korea. The monthly totals spring or fall. n ha ntriviet.com Chapter 6 85 . The rise and with the seasons.

and sentences which are similar or alike. The is a pie chart that shows what percentage pie chart shows the annual electricity use of the year's electricity is used each season in four seasons by percentage. and increases back until August. Even though it shows much more during summer and winter.nhantriv1et corn . the J percentage of electricity used in the winter when people need air conditioning and heating. Spring and fall shows less j during the month of August . In the bar graph. The monthly usage at 16. It is used seasonal differences. about 70 % of all electricity is used during the summer and winter. The lowest usage of total then decreases again until October. while only percentage used in the spring and fall.' ! and summer is clearly much larger than the is used in those two seasons.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. 39. The monthly then rises again. information for all sectors in Korea. Over the course of one year. Nearly 70 percent of electricity . during summer. The data The electricity use in Korea seems to be shown in the pie chart is also reflective of correlated with the seasons. The rise and fall of the kilowatts in August. The second holds over twelve months in kilowatts. The second with the Korean household sector using highest use of electricity is in winter at over 12 billion kilowatts of energy just 29. The greatest amount Korean households use the most electricity of electricity is used during the summer. the monthly electricity The bar graph shows monthly electricity use for households declines from January use for households declining from January to April. Pay attention to words. and then rising for the next The use drops again until October.. (241 words) J I I 86 Tli .75 percent. It can be seen from electricity used each month is correlated the pie chart that all sectors including with the seasons. This disproportionate share might be attributed to extra energy . to April . The highest point is at 12 billion and December. ) being used to cool and heat homes during extreme weather.25 percent and 14. electricity occurs in April at 4 billion after which it increases in November kilowatts.est prepdrat1on for EL TS Writ mg www. phrases. about 30 percent is used during spring and The two charts show clear seasonal fall. differences in the amount of electricity (180 words) used. Type A Type B The first chart is a bar graph that shows The bar graph shows the changes in how much electricity is used each month in monthly electricity use in Korean house- Korea by the household sector. and three months until August. for all sectors in Korea..5 percent.5 percent totals are also higher in the winter than each. they are in the spring or fall.

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40 " "" "" 20 _.) (i. a.Savings Rate ...com ..nhantriviet..National Interest Rate I --------- ~---------------------..... 0 -5 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Housing Statistics for Country X ..------ --------------- 5 Q) Ol c"' Q) (. " "" ------------------------------------ 0 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1991 1993 Year 88 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. ..New Mortgages House Foreclosures 100 80 Q) Ol c"' Q) 60 ~ # Q) a....Sample Question Savings Rate and Interest Rate for Country X ..

@) The price of A and the price of B both increase at first. CD '. @ The price of B falls and then starts to rise while the supply of B rises and then starts to fall. ® The price of A ends up higher than the price of B because the population of Country X is rising. Case 01 A rise in the first graph and a fall in the second graph Price A Price B CD Price A and price B go in opposite directions. item A falls then remains stable. the amount of A continuously goes up and down and the amount of B rises. @) The price of A and the price of B move in opposite directions at first. @ Throughout the time period . Price A Population of The population rises continuously while the price of A rises quickly. ® Rate A ends higher than where it started. @) The amount of A rises and falls around one value while the amount of B rises constantly. the price of B goes up at first and then starts to go down. rate B falls for a while and then also starts rising.' ® The price of A increases very rapidly at first and then stays mostly flat while the supply of A decreases very rapidly at first and then also stays flat. ® Price A rises while price B falls. @) When rate A is rising. item B falls then increases slightly. which decreases at LL~ first and then increases. ® The amount of A vacillates but the amount of B goes up steadily.(' 2 . Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing data in two line graphs. There is a rise in the second graph. whereas rate B ends at the same place. Case 03 A stable trend in the first graph and a rise in the second graph Amountof A Amount of s CD The average amount of A remains the same whereas the amount of B l=LL rises. Case 05 In the first line graph. @) Price B goes down because price A is going up. but rate A only goes up. ® The price of A and B and the supply of A and B are negatively correlated. but then the price of B starts decreasing. Price A . the price of A goes up rapidly. item A rises then remains stable. item B rises then falls. Case 04 In the first line graph. @ Rate B falls and then rises. ® When the population rises steadily.com Chapter I 89 . @ When the population goes up constantly. www. . In the second graph.nhantriviet. item B increases then falls sharply. item A rises. @ Price A increases steadily whereas price B decreases steadily. 1 ---:~· \. I Case 02 A rise in the first graph and a fall then a rise in the second graph Rate A Rate B CD Rate A goes up continuously in contrast to rate B. Supply of A CD The prices of A and B change because of their supply.

.India 40 France 20 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart.0 ----.-0.. break the visual down into key expressions.0 80 o~-=-C. .. -+. the first line graph percentage of population that eats more than three servings of meat per day 2.India 40 France 20 • ----.-0.USA .0 o ~~o ~ ---~-----~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Percentage of Population that Eats More than 3 Servings of Vegetables per Day 100 ----.0 ------0 ----.Practice Test Percentage of Population that Eats More than 3 Servings of Meat per Day 100 80 60 -+.----.USA _. 1.----· '"I. graph.----.. or process.-0 ----.__ -- 60 --~-..:::. the second line graph percentage of population that eats more than three servings of vegetables every day www...nhantriviet corn .-0. Use these key words to help write your report...0..

COm Craptu 1 91 . more than 90 % in 2000 13.-o. India . the first line graph percentage of population that eats more than three servings of meat per day 2. 1950's: more than 80 percent of Americans. by 2000: fallen to about 20 percent 6. France: people who ate vegetables increased 11. 3 servings of meat by 2000: rose to about 70 percent 8. 80 percent in 1950.0.. 3 servings of vegetables 5..0. India's numbers: the least amount of change 12. France and India: less change 9.-----0----. body and conclusion. the United States: negatively correlated 14. 1950's: about 30 percent of Americans. .. 1950's: about 30 percent of the United States population consumed more than three servings of meat per day 8. the second line graph percentage of population that eats more than three servings of vegetables every day 3.- 60 --USA 60 --USA .. France saw a rise in the number of people who ate more than three servings of meat WWW rrantriviet. vegetables.<>.-----c:_ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1. 3. by 2000. meat consumption: opposite direction 7. 1950's: more than 80 percent of Americans ate more than three servings of vegetables per day 5.India 40 France 40 France 20 20 o -...-0 -. fallen to about 20 percent 6. the most dramatic changes: the United States 4.. hardly change in India Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. the most dramatic changes : the United States 4.---<>. France: meat. France and India saw much less change in their eating habits 9.-0 --_:_ . a rise 10. Percentage of Population that Eats More than Percentage of Population that Eats More than 3 Servings of Meat per Day 3 Servings of Vegetables per Day 100 100 -. meat consumption went in the opposite direction 7. some change in France.----o 80 80 =~--.---o----.

By 2000.nhantriviet. not above 10 percent. 12. to the United States. that number had to 20 percent. more than 80 percent of Americans more than three servings of vegetables per day. but by 2000 the percentage rose to about 70 percent. people who ate more than three servings of vegetables per day: from 80 percent in 1950 to more than 90% in the year 2000 hich summarise(s) the global trends sliown 13. There was some change in France and India's numbers changed at all. using the information from the chart. where eating meat and eating vegetables might be negatively 14. 10. people who ate more than three servings of meat per day. 11. In the 1950's. The first line graph the percentage of the population that eats than three servings of meat day for three countries from 1950 to 2000. 8. From 1950 the percentage of people who ate more than three servings of meat per day went 10 percent and the percentage of people who ate more than three servings of vegetables per day from 80 percent in 1950 and increased to more than 90% in the year 2000. 92 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www . The of people in France who ate vegetables also increased over the same time. F. France: the number of people who ate more vegetables also increased slightly 11.rance and India much change in their eating 9. 4. India's numbers hardly change at all Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. eating meat and eating vegetables negatively correlated 14. 13. 1.com . India's numbers show the amount of change. 10. France a rise in the number of people who ate more than three servings of meat per day: from 20% in 1950 to 45% in 2000. went in the direction. from 1950. The most changes seen on the line graphs are for the United States. some incremental change in France. The second line graph the same time and countries. Meat . but shows the percentage of the popu lation that eats more than three servings of vegetables day. India's numbers: the least amount of change 12. 2. on the hand. 5. 3. About 30 percent of the United States population more than three servings of meat per day in the 1950's. the most change: the United States. 6. 7. The data show the change in the United States.

India's numbers of change. vegetables per day. Meat consumption .<> . The first line 1950 to 2000. 2.-_-_<>- _-_-_-_--_ o_ 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1. 4. 8._--_-_-_ -0_-_-~ . The second line vegetables every day.. 5. The number of the same time. By 2000.India ---~· 40 France 40 -+. www . France saw a 45% in 2000. Percentage of Population that Eats More than Percentage of Population that Eats More than 3 Servings of Meat per Day 3 Servings of Vegetables per Day 100 100 80 60 --USA . Compared to the their eating habits. 10.-0. 7. There was some changed at all. 12. Provided below are some prompts to help you. 14.France 20 20 .. From 1950 onward in the year 2000.com Chapter 7 93 . The data show be negatively correlated . 13.-_o_ . Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. o ~~o--_------~°'------_ . In the 1950's.India . that to about 20 percent: 6. 9.USA . The most dramatic the United States.. on the opposite direction. About 30 percent about 70 percent. 3. n ha ntrivi et.. 11.

the percentage of people who ate more than There were about 65 percent of French people three servings of vegetables per day went from 80 percent in 1950 and increased slightly to who took more than three servings of vegetables per day in 1950. The rate only went up by five . percent.com . 20 percent of population consumed at of people who ate more than three servings of least 3 servings of meat every day in 1950. of Americans consumed over 3 servings of meat cent. Eating meat and vegetables vegetables might be negatively correlated. age of population that eats more than three The number of people in France who ate more servings of vegetables over the 50 years went up ·. than 3 servings of vegetables every day in 1950. France and India show minimal changes. The time period and countries. went per day in 1950. from 1950 to 2000. There may be negatively correlated. and went who ate more than three servings of meat per up to just over 10 percent by 2000.. phrases. The data show the most change occurring in The graphs show that the most change occurred the United States. of vegetables per day in the same countries of the same year.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. In the 1950's.-reparat1cn for •FL TS Wr t ng www. but shows the percent. Type A TypeB The first line graph shows the percentage of the The first line graph shows the percentage of the population that eats more than three servings population that eats more than three servings of meat per day for three countries from 19 5 0 of meat per day in three countries: the United to 2000. The percent- day: from 20% in 1950 to about 45% in 2000. The most dramatic changes seen on the line graphs are for the United States. countries show slight increases for both eating India's numbers hardly changed at all. The percentage of popu- saw much less change in their eating habits. In the case of India. India and France. where eating meat and eating in the United States. lation that eats more than 3 servings of meat per . By its over the 50 years. India's numbers show the least amount France shows sma ll changes for both categories of change. Meat consumption. From 1950 onward the percentage as well. but by 2000 the percentage rose to about 70 but the rate dropped to 20 percent in 2000. meat and vegetables. second line graph describes the percentage of age of the population that eats more than three the population that eats more than three servings servings of vegetables every day. Pay attention to words. The second line graph covers the same States. over 80 percent of Americans ate more three servings of meat per day in the 1950's. and sentences which are similar or alike. The other two was some incremental change in France and _. vegetables also increased slightly over the same from around 80 percent to 90. the United States more than 80 percent of Americans ate more shows the most significant changes in eating hab- than three servings of vegetables per day. France saw a rise in the number of people day started at nearly 2 percent in 1950. While more than 20 percent 2000. the rates for both categories Compared to the United States. In United States population consumed more than contrast. on the other hand. About 30 percent of the sumed more than 3 servings per day in 2000. which meat per day never went above 10 percent and more than doubled to 45 percent by 2000.. that number had fallen to about 20 per. time. According to the two graphs. percent by the year 2000.nhar'trviet. (296 words) (304 words) 94 ~'1r Les• r. more than 90% in the year 2000. 70 percent of Americans con- in the opposite direction.

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Sample Question

International Education Assessment Results in 1999
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Warm-up
Essential Expressions

Below are useful sentences for describing data in two bar graphs.

Case 01 A steady rise shown in figures in the first bar graph and a slow rise shown in percentages
in the second bar graph

300 ~
200
100 ~
75

50
100
25
D NumberofA D Percentage of B
0 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2000 2001 2002 2003

96 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.nhantriviet.com

CD Both the number of A and the percentage of B end up higher in 2003.
@ The number of A continues to go up despite a drop in the percentage of B in 2001 .
@ The number of A goes up constantly while there is also an upward trend in the percentage of B.
@ Except for the slight drop in 2001 , the percentage of B is largely correlated with the number of A.
® The number of A rises continuously whereas the percentage of B drops for one year and then
continues to rise.

Case 02 Both vertical bars in the first bar graph and horizontal bars in the second bar graph shown
in figures

:::~
100

0
•• 0 Number of A
X
E :. D'"m~""~
: .
Worked per Day

2000 2001 2002 2003 0 2 4 6 8 10

CD Even though Z works only two hours per day, the number of A rises constantly.
@ The number of A rises steadily when X, Y, and Z work 19 hours per day combined .
@ When X works the most number of hours per day, the number of A rises for three years.
@ The number of A never drops from 2001 to 2003 despite the fact that Y and Z work less than X.
® When X works the most number of hours, Y works the second most, and Z the least, the number of A
increases from 2001 to 2003.

Case 03 Horizontal bars shown in percentages in the first bar graph and also horizontal bars shown
in figures in the second bar graph

0 Number of Hours Worked

0 2 4 6 8 10

CD Workers A, B, and C work a total of 21 hours combined.
@ A works the least amount of hours and has the least per cent completed.
@ Although B works the most number of hours, B only has the second most per cent completed.
@ C has the greatest per cent completed, despite the fact that C works only the second most number
of hours.
® The number of hours worked does not correspond exactly with the per cent completed for all workers.

Case 04 Item X rises rapidly and item Y falls steeply in the first bar graph and A rises slowly in the
second bar graph.

: :Ill •x 1~:~
50
100
DY 2: • • D Percentage of A
0
2000 200 1 2002 2003 2000 2001 2002 2003

CD When the percentage of A goes down in 2001, the rise in X and the fall in Y accelerate.
@ The change in the percentage of A affects the change in X and Y throughout the years 2001-2003 .
@ The percentage of A and the amount of X both end up higher in 2003 , whereas the amount ofY ends
lower.
@ Y starts to decrease faster and X starts to increase faster in 2001 , the one year the percentage of A
goes down.
® From the year 2000 to the year 2001, X rises very rapidly and afterwards goes up steadily whereas Y
falls very steeply and afterwards goes down slowly.

www.nhantriviet.com Chapter 8 - 97

Case 05 A comparison of two measurements in both horizontal bar graphs

D 1990 • 1995 0 1990 • 1995

Co~ntryE Co~ntryE
Country Country
y y

0 25
(%going there)
50
(number of hotels)
0 50 100 150

G) In countryY, the increase in the number of hotels correlates with the rise in the percentage of people
who go there.
® The number of hotels in country Y and the percentage of people taking a vacation there double from
1990 to 1995.
@ Even though the number of hotels goes up in country X, the percentage of people who take a
vacation there decreases.
@) An increase in the number of hotels in a country does not mean there is an increase in the percentage
of people who take a vacation there.
® The number of hotels in both countries goes up from 1990 to 1995, but only Country Y saw an
increase in the percentage of people who take a vacation there.

Practice Test

Top 12 Nations in Military Spending GDP {Gross Domestic Product)
in 2005 {US dollar) Growth in 2005

United States China
China Russia

Russia India

United Kingdom Saudi Arabia

Japan South Korea

France United States

Germany Australia

India United Kingdom

Saudi Arabia Japan

South Korea France

Italy Germany

Italy
Australia

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 8
Percent
in billions

98 The best prep::irat1on for IELTS Writing www.nhantriviet.com

Step 1 Discovering Key Words

When looking at any chart, graph, or process, break the visual down into key expressions. Use these
key words to help write your report.

1. two different statistics, 12 countries
2. the first bar graph: the top 12 nations in military spending for 2005
3. the second bar graph: 12 countries' GDP growth for 2005

4. the first bar graph: very striking
5. the United States: more than US$400 billion
the rest: below US$100 billion
6. the second bar graph: more balanced
7. China: the highest growth, ten percent
8. the rest: smaller rate

9. no correlation

10. China: 2nd for military spending , 1st for GDP growth
Russia: 3rd for military spending, 2nd for GDP growth
11. other countries: no such a relationship

Step 2 Planning the Report

Write the introduction, body and conclusion.

Top 12 Nations in Military Spending GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
in 2005 (US dollar) Growth in 2005

United States China
China Russia
Russia India
United Kingdom Saudi Arabia
Japan South Korea
France United States
Germany Australia
India United Kingdom

Saudi Arabia Japan

South Korea France
Italy Germany

Australia Italy

0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 8 10
in billions Percent

www nhartr v1et.com Cr l'ller !:: 99

1. two different statistics for the same group of countries
2. the first bar graph: the top twelve nations in the world according to military spending in the
year 2005
3. the second bar graph: the gross domestic product growth

4. the first bar graph: one country that clearly stands out from rest
5. the United States: more than US$400 billion in 2005
the next eleven countries: below US$100 billion
6. the next bar graph: more balanced
7. China: the highest growth rate, GDP grows by almost ten percent in 2005
8. each country: a slightly smaller rate of growth

9. no obvious correlation between military spending and GDP growth
10. China and Russia: numbers two and three for military spending, numbers one and two for
GDP growth
11. for other countries : relationship between the two numbers doesn't exist

Step 3 Finalising the Report

Complete the sentences below, using the information from the chart.

1. These charts show two for the
of countries .
2. The first bar graph shows the nations in the
world to military spending in the year 2005 .
3. The second bar graph shows the domestic product growth for those
same twelve nations in the same year.

4. The first bar graph is very because there is one country that clearly
out from rest.
5. The United States more than US$400 billion in 2005
the next eleven countries are well below US$100 billion.
6. The next bar graph is more
7. China clearly had the highest rate among those twelve countries,
its GDP by almost ten percent in 2005.
8. Going the rankings, each country thereafter has a
smaller rate of growth.

100 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.nhantriviet.com

each country thereafter 9. . . 10. The second bar graph shows in the same year. for military spending in 2005 and are numbers one and two for GDP 11. www nhantriviet. China and Russia are numbers two and three. The United States . exist. Italy Germany Australia Italy 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 8 10 in billions Percent 1.. China clearly growing . 6. Provided below are some prompts to help you. For other countries however. The next 7. such a between the two numbers does not seem to Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. 11. 2. The first bar graph shows the top twelve nations in the world in the year 2005. 8. The first bar graph . There does not seem to be an obvious between military and GDP growth. For other countries however. 3. Top 12 Nations in Military Spending GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in 2005 (US dollar) Growth in 2005 United States ' China China Russia Russia India I United Kingdom Saudi Arabia Japan South Korea I France United States Germany Australia India United Kingdom Saudi Arabia Japan South Korea France . 9. 4.com Chapter 8 101 . These charts show countries. 5. China and Russia and are .. There does not 10.

The United States spent more over 400 billion dollars in 2005. Going almost 10%. respectively.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. and sentences which are similar or alike. (203 words) I 102 fre bP<t pr"p1rat10'1 for IEL TS Writing www. Type A Type B These charts show two different statistics The first bar graph shows the top twelve for the same group of countries. China and Russia are numbers two out from the rest of the countries in military and three. for military spending spendi ng. growing its the most growth among all countries with GDP by almost ten percent in 2005. billion. There does not seem to be an obvious cor- As an overall trend. They spent from the rest. However.5%. The second graph shows the gross domestic China clearly had the highest growth rate product (GDP) growth in 2005.com . are Russia and India. world according to military spending in the The second graph is also a bar graph which year 2005. is any correlation between military spending such a relationship between the two num- and GDP growth. Italy ranks last at 1. phrases. ranking in 2nd and 3rd in military spending. The next bar graph is more balanced. (186 words) also rank the 1st and 2nd in GDP growth. The first bar nations in military spending in 2005. The country that shows the down the rankings. The first graph shows that the United States The first bar graph is very striking because spent the most money for the military there is one country that clearly stands out among the top twelve countries. bers does not seem to exist. the second graph is more balanced in 2005 and are numbers one and two for than the first one. Pay attention to words. while the first graph relation between military spending and GDP shows that only the United States stands growth. It is greater than US$400 billion in 2005 whereas the than the amount the other eleven countries next eleven countries are well below US$100 spent all together that year. China shows among those twelve countries. For other countries however. It does not seem that there GDP growth.nl'antriviet. same twelve nations in the same year. each country thereafter second and the third most growth in GDP has a slightly smaller rate of growth. China and Russia. The second bar graph shows the shows the gross domestic product growth in gross domestic product growth for those 2005 for those twelve countries. The graph shows the top twelve nations in the records are indicated in billions of US dollars.

I • .. ..

® The amount of Y goes from 6 in the year 1950 to 19 in the year • Amount of X • Amount of X 2000 . but by 2000 there are more Y's than there are X's. @ The amount of X decreases by more than half over fifty years.com . the percentage of Y is much lower than in 1950. 104 . whereas the percentage of X goes from less than one-third in 1950 to more than three- fourths in 2000. the percentage of X rises substantially. 1950 2000 CD From 1950 to 2000 . •x DY •x DY ® ® The percentage of Y goes from 69% in 1950 to 22 % in 2000. Case 01 X accounts for a large segment and Y accounts for a small segment in the first pie chart and vice versa in the second pie chart. @ The percentage of Y decreases quite a bit from 1950 to 2000. Case 02 X accounts for a small segment and Y accounts for a large segment in the first pie chart and vice versa in the second pie chart. D Amount of Y D Amount of Y ® There are more X's than there are Y's in 1950. @) Over fifty years. the amount of Y goes up. @ The percentage of X is substantially higher in the year 2000 than in the year 1950.nhantriviet. the amount of Y triples. 1950 2000 CD The amount of X goes down from 1950 to 2000.The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. @ From 1950 to 2000.Sample Question Makeup of Bird Population Makeup of Bird Population in t he Cascade Mountains in 1990 in the Cascade Mountains in 2005 II Robin • Robin ~ 37% • Wren • Wren D Bluejay D Bluejay D Hawk D Hawk Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing data in two pie charts. The percentage ofY drops from more than two-thirds in 1950 to more than one-fifth in 2000. @) In 2000.

the amount of X is exactly the same. the percentage of Z is twice that of Country B. @ In Country A. X. and Z are somewhat similar between Country A and Country B. X. Y. Practice Test Age Structure for the National Population of Country X 1950 2000 2050 older than 65 D under 20 D 20 to 40 • 41to65 www nhar'triviet. •w •x •w •x @) Country B's percentage of Xis less than half the percentage of X in Country A. DY DY ® The percentages of W. Case 04 More than three various segments are shown in the first pie chart and the percentages of these segments change significantly in the second pie chart.Case 03 More than three various segments are shown in the first pie chart and the amounts of these segments change slightly in the second pie chart. ® The amounts of W. 0 Amount of Y 0 Amount of Y @ In Country A. ® The amount of W in Country A is slightly less than the amount of W in Country B. @ In Country A and Country B. ® The percentage of Y in Country B is more than four times greater than in Country A. Y and Z are quite different between Country A and Country B. Country A Country B CD The amount of W is slightly different in Country A and Country B. the amount of Y is slightly higher than the amount 0 Amount of Z 0 Amount of Z of Yin Country B. Country A 3 Country B CD The percentage of W in Country A is seven times greater than in Country B.com Chapter 9 105 . •Amount of W • Amount of W @) The amount of Z in Country B is three times the amount of Z in • Amount of X • Amount of X Country A.

. the first pie chart: 53% of the population . Age Structure for the National Population of Country X 1950 2000 2050 older than 65 D under 20 D 20 to 40 • 41 to65 1.. 14%.. 2050. between 20 and 40. based on different age groups 4. !'l'v-. 11r ltL S Wr1t1'lq www nhdntriviet CCJrr' .J ' 1. the second pie chart: under 20 . 34%.Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. increase L13.. decrease. 20-40. The record for the year 2050 is estimated 3. four categories. 41-65 11. under 20 ... :'. . break the visual down into key expressions. body and conclusion. great change 9.~ .. the third pie chart: projection for 2050. between the ages of 20 and 40 at 27% 106 He be t prrp rdt o.. two younger groups. four categories. the first pie chart: 53%.. . or process.. in 1950 4. the age structure for Country X in three different years 2. between the ages of 20 and 40 . the age structure 2. 28 % 7. under 20 in 1950 5. the second biggest population . the two older generations. _. 23%.. 13%. over 65. 18%. 33%. Use these key words to help write your report. different age groups --n ·~ 3. graph. 41-65 8.. 35%. three pie charts : 1950. younger than 20 12. related to falling birthrates Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction.. over 65 10. 7% 6.. 27 % 5. 41-65.. 2000.

2. •1•1 13. two younger age groups: predicted to fall . and younger than 20 . a great change in the population ratio 10. 12. related to falling birthrates . another 33% : people who are 41 to 65 12. it shows that 53% of the of the country was 20 in 1950. 23% of the population was people the ages of 41 and 65. the ratio of younger generation: lower t han the two previous years. 14. 7. happening throughout the world Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. 6. while the ratio for the two younger age groups is to . The for the year 2050 is 3. 10. fol lowed by 28% of people between 20 and 40 in 2000 8. the third pie chart: the projection for the year of 2050. two older generations: likely to increase 14. the one for the two older generations is likely to increase tremendously. 6. respectively. 35%: people who are over 65 11. the second pie chart: about 34% of people under 20. estimated to be 18% and 14% for people 20 to 40. . The of the population consisted of people who were 41 to 65 at 13%. largest of all age groups. 33 % will be people who are 41 to 65. There are categories which are on different groups. 35% will be people who are . to be 18% and 14% for people 20 to 40..nhartrviet.. and the was 65. www. and younger than 20. The second pie chart shows that there were about 34% of people who were 20. and 2050. and 65 at 7%. 5.. The ratio of younger generations will be the two years. respectively 13. the rest were older than 65 9. over 65 at 7% 7. Asan trend . It might be to falling which are happening the world. 2000. The second population was people between the ages of 20 and 40 at 27%. using the information from the chart. 1. 8. 11. The for the year 2050 shows a great in the population ratio. 4. 9. 23% of the population: people between the ages of 41 and 65. 28% of people between 20 and 40 in 2000.com . On the first pie chart . These three pie charts show the for Country X in different years: 1950 . the rest of the population: people who were 41 to 65 at 13%.

The ratio of younger generations . 5. and 2050. respectively. These three pie charts 1950. There are 4. Age Structure for the National Population of Country X 1950 2000 2050 older than 65 D under 20 D 20 to 40 • 41to65 1. best preparation for IELTS Wr ting www. 2. it in 1950. while the one for the two older generations 14. On t he first pie chart.Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own.nhantriviet. 12. 13. The is estimated. 35% will be 11. Another 33% . 8. The second pie chart followed by in 2000. estimated to be . As an overall trend . It might be 108 ThE. 2000. The projection for the year 2050 10. 3. The rest of the population 7. The second biggest population 6. Provided below are some prompts to help you.. 23% of the population 9.com .

about 34% of people who were under 20. (279 words) www '"l'"idnt'IV et com . The percentage between the ages of 41 and 65. It might be related The projection for the population in 2050 to falling birthrates which are happening reveals a very different age structure from throughout the world. The rest of the population consisted of who are 41 to 65 years old and those older people who were 41 to 65 at 13%. changes. basically the same. The record for years : 1950. people under 20 (248 words) go from being the largest age group to the smallest and people over 65 go from being the smallest age group to the largest. The largest age groups As an overall trend. Type A TypeB These three pie charts show the age Three pie charts show the age structure of structure for Country X in three different Country X's population during three different years: 1950. Another 33% will be people who are The third pie chart is a projection of the age 41 to 65. 35% will and 8 percentage points. 1950. and sentences wh ich are similar or ali ke. make up about two-thirds of the population . between 41 and 65 years and older than 65. in that year. Both age groups. phrases. be people who are over 65. Those under 20 are not the majority anymore. 2000. ca tegories which are based on different age The four categories the population is divided groups. 20 to 40-year-olds also 40. there is quite a bit of change. those 27%. the one for the two older generations is likely to increase tremendously. see The projection for the year 2050 shows a substantial increases of 10 percentage points great change in the population ratio. On the first pie chart. The next biggest in 1950. There are four 2050 is based on a projection into the future. Under 20"s are now only about 14% estimated to be 18% and 14% for people 20 to of the population. respectively. and over than 65. and the rest of people between 20 and 40 years old is was older than 65. two younger age groups is predicted to fall. The next two age groups. up into are based on age. respectively. make up only 20% of the population 65 at 7%. Pay attention to words. and younger than 20. The pie chart for the year 2050 is estimated . 2000. while the ratio for the are now those over 41. it shows that 53% of In 1950. largest of all age groups. Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. and 2050. and 2050. The ratio of younger generations structure in 2050 and also shows significant wi ll be lower than the two previous years. The second pie chart shows that there were Fifty years later. with 27% of the people between the ages of 20 and 40 at population . see a significant drop of 10 percentage points from 2000 to 2050. The second biggest population was group is 20 to 40 years old. 23% of the population was people population in the year 2000. Over that time period. which combined. followed by 28% of people between 20 and and make up only about a third of the 40 in 2000. the majority of the population of th e population of the country was under 20 Country X is under 20.

.· •. ' • 110 . .

.

.000 in income can buy more cars in general. ® From 2000 to 2005. the percentage of women owning a cell phone is less than the percentage of men owning a cell phone . Case 02 Specific figures of two categories in the years 1990 and 2005 Average Number of Cars per Household in Los Angeles Less than More than $40. ® In 2000. ® Both types of households see an increase in the average number of cars from 1990 to 2005.000 income CDHouseholds with more than $40.000 in income have an average of less than one car in 1990.. Case 01 Two different categories in the years 2000 and 2005 Percentage of People Who Owned a Cell Phone . almost two-thirds do. 112 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. @ The percentage of men and women owning a cell phone is nearly the same in 2005. but by 2005. n ha ntnviet.000 income $40. ® In 2005 . the percentage of men owning a cell phone increases by 11 %.com . the majority of women do not own a cell phone. @ In 2000. the percentage of men owning a cell phone is only slightly higher than the percentage of women owning one.Sample Question Labor Statistics for the USA 1985 1995 2005 I Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing data in a table. @ Households with less than $40. Men Women CDA higher percentage of men than women own a cell phone in 2000.

@ China and South Korea have relatively better business environment ratings than France. @) The iNac computer towers and the Xerox machines are the only items with special instructions..IHM"' I:• :. ® Aeronflux chairs are the largest quantity of items ordered .i. 10 .1:m.@) For poorer households. and keyboards have no special instructions. but they are the most expensive per item.mo Item Description Mi. @ The chairs. ® The least expensive items are the ergonomic keyboards. Case 04 Five items in an invoice Order Invoice for Company X 1n. ® The average number of cars in richer households increases from just over two in 1990 to about three in 2005.2 in 2005.8 in 1990 to 1. the average number of cars only goes from 0.g. CD The table shows an order invoice for Company X. ® The business environment seems to be the best in the USA and South Korea.. Case 03 Specific figures of four categories in developing and developed countries Business Environment Ratings Given by a Business Magazine (Out of 10: 1 . which also have the cheapest shipping and handling cost. ® The USA has the third lowest rating among the four countries in public benefits.being the best) CD France has the lowest rating in the ease of starting a business.CO'Tl Sr.being the worst. ® The average number of cars for households with more than $40. desks. WWW '1hdntriv et..JtEr lJ 113 .000 in income is almost three times the average of poorer households. @) The developing countries and the USA have a poor rating in public benefits. ® The business environment ratings do not seem to depend on whether or not a country is developed. ® Xerox machines are the smallest quantity of items ordered.

Practice Test 1

Average Percentages of Household Income Spent on Food

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Step 1 Discovering Key Words

When looking at any chart, graph, or process, break the visual down into key expressions. Use these
key words to help write your report.

'~
'"

1. household income spent on food from 1950 to 2000
2. five specific countries : France, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and the United States

3. all countries: lower in 2000 than in 1950
4. Japan and the United States: a continual decrease
5. France and Korea: rose from 1950 to 1960
6. the percentage decreases until the year 2000
7. Mexico: goes down until the year 1990 I goes up in the year 2000
8. Korea: 37.1 % , the year 1960
9. the United States: 6.2 % in 2000
:.LL.

10. almost all countries: decrease

r.i..:il:l
11. the sole exception - Mexico

12. in Mexico, the percentage seems to be rising

www.nhJntr v1et cc,rn

Step 2 Planning the Report

Write the introduction, body and conclusion .

Average Percentages of Household Income Spent on Food

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

1. household income spent on food, at ten-year intervals, from 1950 to 2000
2. five specific countries: France, Japan , Korea, Mexico, and the United States

3. income spent on food: lower in 2000 than in 1950
4. Japan and the United States: a continual decrease, at every ten-year interval
5. France and Korea: an initial increase from 1950 to 1960
6. income spent on food: decrease until the year 2000
7. Mexico: goes down until the year 1990, goes up in the year 2000
8. Korea: the highest value of 37.1 % during the year 1960
9. t he United States: lowest value at 6.2%, in the year 2000

10. almost all countries: a steady decrease in income spent on food
11 . the sole exception is Mexico
12. the percentage seems to be rising

Step 3 Finalising the Report

Complete the sentences below, using the information from the chart.

1. This table shows the percentages of income spent
on at ten-year from 1950 to 2000.
2. Information is about specific countries: France ,
Japan, Korea, Mexico, and the United States.

3. For all countries , the of income spent on food is
in 2000 than it is in 1950.

L .iµ r 0 115

4. Only two countries, though, show a continual at every ten-year
: Japan and the United States.
5. France and show an initial from 1950 to 1960.
6. Then , in all the following years, the percentage of spent on food
until the year 2000 .
7. For Mexico, the percentage continued to down until the year 1990, but
then went up in the year 2000 .
8. Among all the listed in the table, Korea has the
value of 37.1 % during the year 1960.
9. In the year 2000, the United States has the value at 6 .2% among all
those shown .

10. Almost all countries shown in the table show a steady in the percentage of
income spent on
11. The sole is Mexico.
12. Even though the for the year 2000 is than in the year 1950,
the percentage to be ,a seen from the
year 1990 onward.

Step 4 Write Your Own

Try writing a report on your own. Provided below are some prompts to help you.

Average Percentages of Household Income Spent on Food

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

1. This table shows spent on
from 1950 to 2000. 2. Information is : France,
Japan, Korea, Mexico, and the United States.

3. For all countries, the percentage of in 2000
4. Only two countries, though, show a : Japan
and the United States. 5. France and Korea show from 1950 to 1960.
6. Then , in all the following years, the percentage of until the
year 2000. 7. For Mexico, the percentage until the year 1990, but then
. 8. Among all in the table, Korea has
of 37.1 % during the year 1960 . 9. In the year 2000,
at 6.2% among all those shown .

116 ~hE' best preparation for ElTS Wr t rg www.nhantr iv1et.cor

10. shown in the table in the percentage of
11 . is Mexico. 12. Even though
in the year 1950, the percentage from the
year 1990 onward.

Model Answer

Read and compare the two model report passages below. Pay attention to words, phrases, and
sentences which are similar or alike.

Type A TypeB

This table shows the average percentage of This table illustrates the average percent-
household income spent on food at ten-year age of household income spent on food
intervals from 1950 to 2000. Informtion is in five countries: France, Japan, Korea ,
given about five specific countries: France, Mexico, and the United States of America ,
Japan, Korea, Mexico, and the United between 1950 and 2000 at ten-year
States. intervals. It can be seen that the average
percentage of household income spent on
For all countries, the percentage of income
food has decreased in all five countries
spent on food is lower in 2000 than it is
from 1950 to 2000.
in 1950. Only two countries, though , show
a continual decrease at every ten-year Japan and the United States show a con-
interval : Japan and the United States. tinual decrease at every ten-year interval ,
France and Korea show an initial increase wh ile France and Korea show an increase
from 1950 to 1960. Then , in all the follow- from 1950 to 1960, followed by a decrease
ing years , the percentage of income spent until the year 2000. In the case of Mexico,
on food decreases until the year 2000. For the percentage keeps going down until
Mexico, the percentage continued to go 1990, which is followed by an increase in
down until the year 1990, but then went 2000. It can be noted that the average
up in the year 2000. Among all the figures percentage of Korea is at its peak at 37.1%
listed in the table, Korea has the highest in 1960. On the other hand , the average
value of 37.1% during the year 1960. In the percentage of the United States reached
yea r 2000, the United States has the low- its lowest point at 6.2% in 2000.
est value at 6.2% among all those shown.
Almost all countries shown in the table
Almost all countries shown in the table show a steady decrease in the percentage
show a steady decrease in the percentage of income spent on food . The sole excep-
of income spent on food. The sole excep- tion is Mexico. Even though the figure for
tion is Mexico. Even though the figure for the year 2000 is lower than in the year
the year 2000 is lower than in the year 1950, the percentage seems to be rising
1950, the percentage seems to be rising, a from 1990 to 2000.
trend seen from the year 1990 onward. (194 words)
(208 words)

www r>fia.itriviet.corn ~rioter lJ 117

Practice Test 2

Ranking of What Tourists Look for in Accommodation

Females Males

Step 1 Discovering Key Words

When looking at any chart, graph, or process, break the visual down into key expressions. Use these
key words to help write your report.

1. importance of accommodation: price, location, service, cleanliness, amenities
2. female (18-29 I over 30), male (18-29 I over 30)
3. rating: 1-10: importance of quality

4. price: important to younger people , regardless of sex
5. for location , the other way around
6. older people value the location
7. women of all ages : good service is important
8. men of all ages do not rate good service as high
9. males over 30 & females: the importance of cleanliness, males under 30 rated cleanliness lower
10. for amenities, males under 30 , the lowest ranking

11 . differences between male and female and between ages

l 12. some agreement: a few accommodation qualities

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118 r cill > r It T
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good service is rated very important by women of all ages 8. for amenities. older people value location more than younger people 7. what is important to tourists when they choose accommodation 2. there was some agreement wwv. when they look for accommodation 12. the other way around 6. r Id 1triv1et. everyone else rated it highly 11. clear differences between male and female and between ages.cufY' • 1p• ·c 119 . price: more important to younger people . Ranking of What Tourists Look for in Accommodation Females Males • • ! t 1. ten : the qual ity is extremely im portant 3. the lowest ranking. rate them from one through ten I one: the quality is not important. males over thirty and females regardless of age expressed the importance of cleanliness. for location. men of all ages do not rate this quality as high 9. separated into different categories : male and female. regardless of sex 5. a few accommodation qualities.Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. body and conclusion. males under thirty rated cleanliness much lower 10. different age groups for both sexes 4. males under thirty.

regardless of sex. where there was some Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. 5. when they look for 12. Good service is very important by of all ages. Ranking of What Tourists Look for in Accommodation Females Males 120 It l c.. seems to be important to younger people.J' (''l to IE r ~ Wr t nq www .Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. it seems to be the other way around. regardless of . Older people seem to the location of their accommodation more than people. Provided below are some prompts to help you. All males over thirty and all females. There are some clear between male and tourists and between tourists of different ages. 11. and then into different groups for both 4. Men of all ages do not this quality as 9. l . 7. 6. For . using the information from the chart. and a ten that the is extremely 3. where under the age of thirty gave that quality the ranking on the table. The tourists' average are into different male and female. with a one meaning that the quality is not important. The table displays what are important to when they choose 2. though.nhantriviet. This was also the case for . expressed the importance of .. 8. 1. but else it highly. There are also accommodation qualities.com . but males under rated cleanliness much 10. The survey asked a variety of tourists to them from one through ten. pre. From the ratings.

www . From the ratings. Men of all ages 9. There are also accommodation qualities. 1. This was also the case for amenities. where there was some agreement. There are some clear differences . 7. Older people . 12. All males over thirty and all females. The table displays 2. Good quality service is ages. 5. The tourists' average ratings are separated into different categories : 4. though. The survey asked 3. 6. 8.nhantriviet.com Chdpter 1C 121 . 10. . regardless of age. 11. For location.

under the age of 30 gave that quality much where males under the age of thirty gave lower ranking. Male tourists This was also the case for amenities. of all ages. price seems to be more By observing the table. The table illustrates the ranking of what portant to tourists when they choose ac.nhantriviet com ) . expressed for it. There are also accom- modation qualities. Good quality accommodation as much as older travelers service is rated very important by women do.) . with a one meaning that the quality quality service. two different groups: male and female. and sentences wh ich are similar or alike. tourists value the most in accommoda- commodation. For location. it can be said J important to younger people. location. for both sexes. From the ratings. with ten being the most important The tourists' average ratings are separated factor. J is not at all important. quality as high. . and amenities. where there was some agreement. The survey asked a variety tion. Tourists were asked about criteria for of tourists to rate them from one through accommodation like price. Pay attention to words. J . Female travelers of all ages and the importance of cleanliness. phrases. younger value the location of their accommodation travelers do not value the location of their more than younger people. and then into different age groups for then into different age groups: age 18-29 both sexes.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. good ten . ) J 122 r'lf bes preparation for ELTS Writing www. regardless of age. cleanliness is very important. The results are first divided into into different categories: male and female. it seems to be the more important to younger travelers of other way around. Men of all ages do not rate this women of all ages rate it very important J . Older people seem to both sexes. though. On the other hand. cleanliness. to ten. J i (216 words) J I ) J . and over 30. In the case of good quality service. regardless that the price of their accommodation is of sex. but everyone else rated it highly. when they look for accommodation. but males male travelers over 30 say that they think under thirty rated cleanliness much lower. table. 4 ' Type A Type B The table displays what qualities are im. where young males rated it low. and a ten meaning and were asked to rate the value from one that the quality is extremely important. All males over thirty and while men do not seem to care too much J all females. This was also the case for that quality the lowest ranking on the amenities. (185 words) There are some clear differences between male and female tourists and between tourists of different ages.

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Warm-up Essential Expressions Below are useful sentences for describing a process. yak.. Add Salt Salt added to preserve curds and add flavor. any mammal: or fungus) cow. added to the milk. Press Curds Cutting the Curds Curds are pressed Cutting solid curds to remove all liquid and to remove liquid whey. Coagulation (Separation) Starter culture separates Raw Milk Adding Starter Culture the milk into curds and Start with raw milk from Starter culture (bacteria whey (solids and liquid). goat. Ripening Cheese stored in a special place to develop the flavor and texture. @ The second step is kneading the dough.nhantriviet. to give cheese final shape. How to Make Bread ·. sheep. camel .Sample Question ___.com . etc. Case 01 A simple process in a consecutive order .. Mix Ingredients Knead Dough Bake Dough in Oven J CDThis flow chart shows how to make bread. 124 Tre beet preparation for IELTS Writing www. ® The first step is to mix the ingredients.

® There are three steps in this process. ® Money goes from businesses and the government to households and the workforce. ® The volcano continues to change as it goes through each step in the process. ® Th is money takes the form of salaries and social programs. ® Magma pressure from below causes ash . and lava to erupt. @ Money goes from households and the workforce to businesses and the government. Case 02 A simple process in a circular order The Flow of Money Direction of Money Flow --+ Consumption and Taxes Households and Workforce Businesses and Government Salaries and Social Program CD This chart shows the flow of money. www nhantriv1et. ® Layers of ash and lava continue to make the volcano grow. @) Th is money comes from consumption and taxes. @ Magma from underground comes to the surface and makes a small volcano. ® This flow of money is circular.@) The last step requires baking the dough in an oven. ® A powerful eruption creates a crater and also makes the volcano smaller.com Chapter 11 125 . ® Th is process is linear. gas. Case 03 A complicated visual process The volcano continues to grow Magma pressure from below causes an eruption side vent magma magma Magma erupts from underground to the surface A powerful eruption creates a crater crater CDThis chart shows how a volcano forms and erupts.

.__j Lubricant...-------=. ® If the batter hits the ball and makes it to home plate.-. t com . the team scores one and the next batter goes up.••1. ® There are four situations which lead to the next batter going up and then ..--------1 if batter gets to another base Team scores one run if batter makes it to home plate Batter runs bases if there are one or two outs T earns switch places if there are three outs Batter attempts to hit if batter misses 3 times Batter is out if batter hits balls and it is not caught CD This diagram shows step by step how one inning of baseball is played.Case 04 A process in the form of a diagram How an Inning is Played in Baseball . @ If the batter misses the ball three times.. the pitcher throws the ball again..... @ The flow chart shows how one inning goes on to the next inning.::-::::!:.. afterwards. Wax. Practice Test 1 1so·c ~ Automotive and Aviation Gasoline ----. L_ ( Cracking (Chemical Processing)) 3oo·c I J --+ Kerosene 1 _ Lighter Products ~°'-' ~FuelOil ~ L_ Heavier Products 1. @ If there are three outs in an inning.~::. he is out. the teams switch places .. Asphalt Steam Furnace (heats oil to 600°C) Distillation (separation by cooling) Finished Products 126 fhe be~t prPparat1on for IELTS Writi'"lg www nhdn•riv1t..

fuel oil : separated at 370°C 10. heat to 600°C ---> distillation or separating www . 150' C Lighter Products l Heavier Products Steam Fu rnace Lit1•••1. 1. graph. the first step: heating the oil . two main steps in getting fi nished products from crude oil 12. Use these key words to help write your report.com Chapter 11 127 . diesel: separated at 300°C. different steps 3. kerosene: distilled at 200°C 7. heat to 600°C. Wax . residue(lubricant.rha'ltriviet. separation by cooling 5. Asphalt (heats oil to 600' C) Distillation (separation by cooling) Finished Products 1.. aviation and automotive gasoline: separated at 150°C 6.~E:=:J Lubricant. distillation 4. how crude oi l is refined 2. the lightest products: extra chemical processing Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. wax and asphalt): separated at 400°C 11. body and conclusion. the second step: distillation or separation 13. a summary of oil refining 2. or process. heavier finished product: separated at higher temparature 9. break the visual down into key expressions. Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. c racking or chemical processing 8. crude oil : from storage into a steam furnace 3.

wax and asphalt): separated at 400°C 11. diesel : separated at 300°C . 3. cooling ___. 5. Those products also go through more 'cracking . 128 The be . wax and asphalt. The next product is kerosene. or separation . using the information from the chart. 6. which is then followed by distillation . Diesel is separated at 300°C and is separated at 370°C. into different products depending on the 13. the diagram. residue(lubricant. In the first step. heavier fin ished product: separated at higher temperatures 9. which is separated at 400°C.nhantr1v1et com . which is at 200°C. 9. fuel oil : at 370°C 10. or separating process. During the distillation process . two main steps in getting finished products from crude oil 12. 11. 12. 4. 7. the first step: heating the oil I the second step : distillation or separation 13. separates products 5. The first step is heating the oil. there are two main steps in getting products from crude oil. 4. and includes products like . kerosene: distilled at 200°C 7. cooling different products. aviation and automotive gasoline: separated at 150°C 6. cracking or chemical processing 8.t prPparat1on for IELTS Writing www. The diagram shows a summary of how crude oil is into different 2. The lightest products also go through extra processing to a finished product. 10. which is at a temperature of 150°C. The lightest finished product shown in the diagram is and automotive gasoline. The steam furnace the oil 600°C where it then goes through the . the crude oil from into a furnace.' or processing. 8. is the . Heavier finished products are at higher temperatures . 1. The residue. the lightest products : extra chemical processing to become a finished product Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below.

13.129 .. L_ (Cracking (Chemical Processing)) ~"""'"' Lighter Products ~D""' ·~ - .. 4. cooling .-~~ Fuel Oil 1 Heavier Products Steam Furnace (heats oil to 600°C) Distillation (separation by cooling) Finished Products 1.Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. The steam furnace where it then . In the first step. Provided below are some prompts to help you. Diesel is and at 370°C. During the .com Chaple 11 . Heavier finished products are 9. 2. the crude oil furnace. The residue. 150°C ~ Automotive and Aviation Gasoline ----. The lightest finished product shown in the diagram . or separating process. Those products also 8. there are . 12. The lightest products also www. 10..'lhantriviet. According to the diagram. which is the heaviest.. 5. 3.. The next lightest product is 7. which is then depending on the temperature. The diagram shows a summary of how different products. which is 6.. and includes 11. The first step .

product. it shows that the lightest product go through more "cracking . which is which is separated at 400°C. which is distilled at 200°C. and sentences which are similar or alike. The next product to be According to the diagram . and includes products like lubricant. The steam furnace heats the oil to The first process is heating the oil. and fuel oil is separated at 370°C. which is separated at a temperature products with different temperatures . wax and asphalt. Lastly. which is the second heaviest product. Those products also In the diagram. Diesel is separated at 300°C process called cracking. of 150°C. There are two the crude oil goes from storage into a steam main steps to make petroleum useful in our lives. is the heaviest. Type A Type B The diagram shows a summary of how crude oil The diagram shows a summary of crude oil is refined into different products. The third lightest product." or chemical pro. The next lightest product is kerosene. or separation . Pay attention to words. cooling separates the oil to 600°C . Then it is 600°C where it then goes through the distillation. or separation. In the first step. which is cessing . The residue . is diesel which is separated at a temperature of 300°C. is used to make then followed by distillation.The best prep=irat on for IELTS Writing www. followed by a distillation. (186 words) 130 . separated at a temperature of 150°C.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below. The first step is heating the oil. process . phrases. The lightest finished product the distillation. Heavier finished products are separated at high. or the third heaviest which is separated at 400°C. furnace . The second lightest product is kerosene distilled at 200°C . refined into five different products . The oil is shown in the diagram is aviation and automotive cooled and separated into 5 different kinds of gasoline. waxes. into different products depending on the (175 words) temperature . lubricants. oil. Then the heated oil is sent to different products. the residue . The lightest products also go through extra chemical processing to become a finished product. The diagram shows that the steam furnace heats During the distillation process.com .nhantriviet. steps in getting finished products from crude is fuel oil cooled at 370°C . there are two main produced . or separating process . and asphalt . These two products go through a chemical er temperatures . or separation process. is automotive and aviation gasoline.

appropriate committee. a conference committee made up a bill. it and Senate. graph.Practice Test 2 _. which Representatives If the compromise bill to the appropriate is assigned to the If the compromise bill passes passes in both House committee.com Chapter 11 131 . Use these key words to help write your report. I • Law Step 1 Discovering Key Words When looking at any chart. which is assigned to is assigned to the . it is sent ! ! is sent to the President. If two-thirds of the House I I and Senate override the veto. members of the House or the Senate introduce a bill www rha'ltriviet. process of how a bill becomes a law in the U. the House of Representatives. which is voted on again by the full + + House and Senate. 2. Full House Full Senate ! ! The full House debates The full Senate debates the bill and any other the bill and any other President amendments to that bill. in both House and Senate. the Senate 5. which is assigned introduces a bill._ How a Bill Becomes a Law House of Senate Conference Committee Representatives Senate member If there are differences between the House and Senate House member introduces introduces a bill. or process. the steps in each part are largely the same 6. which versions of a bill. The President can also veto the bill.. to the President. it becomes law. appropriate committee. break the visual down into key expressions. several procedures in Congress 3.--+ of members from the House and Senate works out a the appropriate committee. 1. compromise bill. the bill becomes law. the bill: two different paths 4. When the President signs the bill. Committee Work House member introduces Committee Work Senate member + House of + Senate a bill. amendments to that bill.S.

both parts of Congress approve the bill _. can veto it 13. the bill is sent back to Congress 10. 132 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. the President signs the bill -> becomes a law 12. the Senate and House have the power to override that veto (more than two-thirds needed) 14. This flow chart the simplified of how a becomes a law in the United States of America. Congress approves the bill _. House or Senate 8. the President 11. There are several different that take in Congress before the bill is sent to the President to be signed into law. Senate and House have the power to override that veto +. this bill must go through a committee _. the bill travels along two different paths 4. in that case. 1. 2. 2.com . the President can sign the bill --> it becomes a law 12. it does not pass 13. the steps in each part are largely the same 6. 1. this bill: a committee _. a majority in both the Senate and the House approve _. using the information from the chart. body and conclusion. he can veto it _. the bill becomes a law Step 3 Finalising the Report Complete the sentences below. the bill becomes a law Step 2 Planning the Report Write the introduction. a conference committee 9.S. the final version of the bill is sent back to Congress 10. a conference committee where any differences in the bill are talked about 9. process of how a bill becomes a law in the U. members of the House or the Senate introduce a bill 7. in that case .nhantriviet. one: through the House of Representatives I the other: through the Senate 5. the full House or Senate can vote on it 8. a majority in both the Senate and the House approve _. 7. the bill is sent to the President 11. more than two-thirds of both 14. several procedures in Congress before the bill is sent to the President to be signed into law 3.

9. www nhartr v1et. 7. For of the time. have the power to that veto if more than of both vote to override the President. This bill must a committee first before the full House or Senate can on it. The steps that take place in each part . there is a conference committee where any in the bill are talked about. 14. 10. 6. meaning it does not 13. the bill travels along two different 4. the bill becomes a law. Now. If both parts of Congress approve the bill . . Now. 7. The Senate and House. 8. ' I"~··' ~·Li:t . have the power to override that veto if more than two-thirds of both vote to override the President. are largely the same . of the or the Senate can a bill that they want to become a law.com C ldpter 11 133 . however. In that as well . the bill becomes a law. 9. the bill travels along two different paths. Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing a report on your own. One is through . This flow chart . the President can sign the which becomes a for the whole country. 10. If parts of Congress the bill . 6. Provided below are some prompts to help you. 5. 4. If the President doesn't like the bill. There are several different procedures 3. 3. If a majority in both the Senate and the House 11 . . One is the House of Representatives and the other is through the 5. The version of the bill is then sent back to both parts of the Congress to be on again . 13. 14. The steps that take in each part. 12. Members of the House or the Senate . If the President doesn't like the bill . 8.. The final version of the bill is . the President can sign the bill which becomes a law for the whole country. For most of the time. 2. . 12. though . . the bill is sent to t he 11. If a in both the Senate and the House . In that case as well . This bill must go through a committee . . 1. The Senate and House. however. he can it.

. the full House debates want to become a law. he or she signs the bill to override that veto if more than two-thirds make it a law. Pay attention to words. meaning it does not pass. \ a compromise version of the bill. They work on . If the compromised bill then needs to be voted on President doesn't like the bill. I the House approve. The l House of Representatives and the other is committee votes to decide whether the throug h the Senate. there introduces it to the Senate. the '. is through the House of Representatives. differences in the bill are talked about . The President. The When the bill is debated among the full final version of the bill is then sent back to Senate. 1 For most of the time . } and the Senate. phrases. senators decide on any amend- both parts of the Congress to be voted on ments to that bill. can veto it. Type A TypeB This flow chart shows the simplified process The flow chart represents different ways of how a bill becomes a law in the United a bill becomes a law in the United States States of America. The vetoed bill that case as well . If both an appropriate committee. j Senate can introduce a bill that they During this process.Model Answer Read and compare the two model report passages below.. There are several Congress. Members of the House or the is debated in front of the full House. the President can sign the bill which conference committee. When the bill finally reaches and House. gets sent back to the House and the Senate (243 words) where it can be voted on again. are largely killed. it is examined by the ) Now. The steps that take bill should be sent to the full House or be place in each part. through a committee first before the full The other part is when a bill is assigned to House or Senate can vote on it. have the power to the President. In signing the bill. a Senate member parts of Congress approve the bill . If a majority in both the Senate and -. The committee is a conference committee where any votes to send it to the full Senate or kill it.I bill finally becomes law. again. Congress before the bill is sent to the One of the parts in making a bill into a law President to be signed into law.\ (262 words) J J 134 www nhantriviet CO'n . though. . the bill travels along A House member introduces a bill that is 'J two different paths. the bill is sent to the After a bill passes through the House President. and sentences which are similar or alike. One is through the assigned to an appropriate committee. the bill becomes a law. The bill that passes this inspection the same. instead of of both vote to override the President. however. This bill must go amendments to the bill. he can veto again by each part in order for it to reach it. The ( becomes a law for the whole country. If the T House and Senate override the veto. The Senate the President. There are two parts for a bill to different procedures that take place in become a law in the United States.

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Introduction Your opinion I do not agree (with the statement that everyone should have and use mobile phones in their lives). Argument They threaten to destroy the entire population and the whole environment. Third reason Also .com . Case 01 Showing disagreement Question : Everyone should have and should use mobile phones in their daily lives. Introduction Your opi nion I agree that nuclear weapons need to be restricted because they are so dangerous. n ha ntriviet. Second reason Sometimes. the use of cell phones bothers other people. Counter-argument Cell phones are good for certain types of busy people. Body First reason Cell phones can be useful . but not for everyone. Conclusion Restating your opinion Concluding Case 02 Showing agreement Question : The manufacturing of nuclear weapons needs to be restricted .Sample Question Warm-up Brainstorming Below are some typical outlines for some specific essay titles. Argument People do not always have to be available to talk at every moment in their lives. some phones are too expensive. 138 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.

.Use examples from your own experience to support your answer. old people: more experienced I lived through many situations . Key expressions .agree I disagree Task . Brain- storm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. Practice Test 1 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay. young people: synthesize ideas from a wide variety of sources . Concluding To conclude. Conclusion Restating your opinion It is obvious that nuclear weapons should be restricted. Second reason When they are used. . Third reason This radiation lasts for thousands and thousands of years. Topic . the use of nuclear weapons is completely immoral.Some people claim that young people are more creative than older people in business or in the workplace. old people: know better which ideas are good or bad . affecting the health of everyone in the world . analyse the question. Supporting argument As long as nuclear weapons exist. old people: save the company from wasted effort www nhantriv1et com Chapter 1 139 . they throw large amounts of radioactive fallout into the atmosphere. Body First reason First of all. they threaten all countries . young people: open to new ideas . paying careful attention to what is asked.Make a statement on whether you agree or disagree that young people are more creative than older people in business or in the workplace. I think that all countries should get rid of their nukes.

turn a certain age.nhantriviet. Introduction to the topic 1. not less capable than younger people 4. company lets workers rise to full potential 17. 60 years old has several good working years 3. surfing the Internet. bad to waste time and money on ideas that do not work 14. when people turn a certain age. young person knows a different perspective 11.com .Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. and have lived through many different situations 13. and concluding paragraphs. using the information given. young people and old people. older people. forced to leave the company Background information and thesis statement 2. for example. they are often or asked to the where they work. read an article about business in Africa 9. experienced person knows better which ideas have good potential 15. l 1. 140 ThE' best preparation for IELTS Writing www. that experience saves the company from wasted effort Restating your opinion 16. contribute to the well-being of a business Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. older person might not be interested in such an article 10. young people are open to new ideas 7. In Vietnam . young people are desired for a job 6. have worked for more years . more experienced 12. young people and older people have strengths and weaknesses Arguments 5. body. older people . synt hesize ideas from a wide variety of sources 8.

5. An older person might not be in such an article or may never even it. or are less than people. 9. 1. The young person now knows a different that might him and his company in the 11. young people and old people can both to the strength of a Step 4 Write Your Own Try w riting an essay on your own. and have through many different 13. A smart company lets workers to their full 17. 2. 6. Young people are often because they seem www. 16. There is a that older people are less in their work. they are often where . It is good to have many different and new . 3. Even someone who has ahead of them. They have for more years . In Vietnam . 4. l 5. but it is bad to time and money on that do not work. Young people are often desired for a because they seem to a "fresher" in life. 14. a young person surfing the Internet an article about business in Africa . There is a stereotype that older people or .com Ct'apler 1 141 . 8. but they are more 12. I think that both have in their creative processes. 7. 4. That experience can the company from effort. when people . someone who is 60 years old has several good working years ahead of them . An older. 2. I think that people and older people both have and in their creati ve processes. Older people are not usually open young people to new ideas. This their creative process because they can synthesize ideas from a wide variety of sources. Even though they are in different ways. Provided below are some prompts to help you.r>hartriv1et. 10. 3. more person knows better which ideas have good and which ideas are dead ends. 15. For example. People who are young are more to new ideas and to new ways of doing business.

Young people are often desired for a job because they seem to have a 'fresher' perspective in life. 17. They have . they are often forced or asked to leave the company where they work. 6.com . . but it is that do not work . People who are young are more open to new ideas and to new ways of doing business. 12. For example. Even though they are creative in different ways.·11-\antrivet. more experienced person knows better which ideas have good potential and which ideas are dead ends. People who are young are and . An older. An older person might or 10. It is good . I think that young people and older people both have strengths and weak- nesses in their creative processes. Even though . when people turn a certain age. but they are more experienced. young people and old people can Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. 14. more experienced person knows . There is a stereotype that older people are less capable in their work. but it is bad to waste time and money on ideas that do not work. Older people are not . An older. 13. 7. That experience 16. 8. and have lived through many different situations. For example . Type A In Vietnam. 9. or are less creative than younger people. 15. a young person surfing the Internet reads an article about business networking in Africa. They have worked for more years. It is good to have many different and new ideas. This helps because they can . Pay attention to arguments for or against and sentence structures. Older people are not usua lly as open as young people to new ideas. young people and old people can both contribute to the strength of a business. This helps their creative process because they can synthesize ideas from a wide variety of sources. Even someone who is 60 years old has several good working years ahead of them. and have . a young person in Africa. That experience can save the company from wasted effort. The young person now knows a different perspective that might help him and his company in the future. The young person now that might help 11. A smart company lets . (290 words) 142 rhe best pr£pardt1or for IEL rs W-1tirg www. An older person might not be interested in such an article or may never even encounter it. A smart company lets workers ri se to their full potential. but they .

and it is the duty of our society to help work- ers rise to their full potential. as people get older. This makes them seem less creative than younger people. it is often believed by many people that older people are much less creative than young people in business or in the workplace. or are absent many times due to 'sickness'. they become more afraid to take on risk due to their burden of responsibilities. such as a family to take care of or a house to pay a mortgage on. including the newest technology and useful skills. Most of them are also responsible because they have to support their family and have economic responsibilities. which allows them to be up to date in many aspects. young people and old people can contribute their best to society. Nevertheless. In addition. young people are thought to be a lot less responsible and reliable because they do not have many responsiJ:>ilities in life. However. Young people are favored by many companies these days because of their ability to deal with the newest technology. They are known to have more wisdom because they have solved more problems in life. To sum up. have a lot of knowledge about work that they have built since they were younger. most young people are well experienced in computers and other gadgets. Older people. Moreover. everyone is different in certain aspects. which makes them quite unreliCllble. older people are usually slower in receiving and adopting new information. This weird idea has been causing society to lose good and experienced workers just because they are older than the average. They are also generally open-minded in life and are more likely to adopt new ideas.143 . TypeB In current society. (340 words) Practice Test 2 www n!'>a itnviet. By working together. Both young and old people contribute to their society in different ways. which helps them to have neces- sary skills in using software or hardware to produce creative work. and they might not be up to any challenges. on the other hand.COIT' Chaptt:"r ' . Some of them are often late for work.

broad perspective . and concluding paragraphs. well-paying jobs need a university degree 3. body. practical skills or vocational education is not best way to prepare students for future job markets.agree I disagree Task . '1hdntnv1et.Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay.Some argue that university courses should focus exclusively on practical learning and vocational training rather than a liberal arts education . a broad perspective 4. Introduction to the topic 1. national economies are open to the global market. disagree with focusing on practical learning 6. .a good liberal arts education helps students to make better business decisions Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. engineers and computer scientists can benefit from some liberal arts education 144 fhe best orepdration for IELTS Writing www.the liberal arts education is critical thinking process . Key expressions . . in engineering and computer science. increasing competition Background information and thesis statement 2.Make a statement on whether you agree or disagree that university courses should focus exclusively on practical learning and vocational training rather than a liberal arts education . vocational training is required 7. Topic . paying careful attention to what is asked . Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. analyse the question.Use examples from your own experience to support your answer.corr . Arguments 5.

Vocational training is still in today's world. Focusing only on practical .it is best not to take extreme positions 16.disagree with focusing only on one type of education 15. 6. A arts education is not just about "theories. one must at least a university 3. National economies are more .11hantriv1et. In order to excel in today's economy. vocational training is 7. www . Even to be just a candidate for any well. Details/facts/examples to support your arguments 8. what the "liberal arts" is 10." it is about critical processes." politically or economically I it is not about art 11. 11 . In fields like engineering and computer science. so even engineers and computer scientists can from some liberal arts education . 1. People often what a broad education 9." it is about critical thinking processes 12.com C'haptpr 1 145 . technology or markets change faster and faster 13.need to provide a wide range of skills Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. it's not "li beral . liberal arts is not just about "theories. " politically or nor is it about art. or vocational education. using the information given. a good liberal arts education helps to make better business decision Restating your opinion 14. 8.one philosophy of education might suit them better than the other 17. what a broad education means 9. where people need very skills. job. exposing them to global market forces and increasing from abroad. 5. is not the best way to students for job markets. but I totally with the statement that universities should on ly on practical learning. That kind of education is "liberal. 10. Those kinds of businesses are to wider market forces in the world. one has to have a broad 4. however. The name" arts" is a misnomer. 2.

14 6 ~'"JP bes• preparaticn for !:"LTS Wr1•1rg www. we need to the widest range of skills to today's students. Vocational training is . People often . A liberal arts education is not . 14. 12. That kind of education is or economically. Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. we need to to today's students. Focusing only or vocational education. Different people have where one philosophy of education might 17. 16. it is best not . 16. I with the notion that society should only on one type of higher education. Those kinds of businesses are in the world . In order to excel one has to . I disagree that society should 15. In a world or markets a person who can and appropriately will 13. As with . about art . Provided below are some prompts to help you. A good liberal arts education helps students to better business decisions. 9. it is best not to extreme positions. exposing and from abroad . In a world where technology or markets are faster and faster. 7. As with most in life. 15. 1. 10." it is about .nhantrviet. With life becoming increasingly . 14. so even engineers and computer scientists can 8. Different people have skill sets where one philosophy of education might them better than the 17. however. In and computer science. A good liberal arts education better business decisions. With life becoming . 3. National economies are . 12. 11. 4. vocational training is required. not just technical problems. 6. 2. 13.com . where people . but I totally that universities should only . is not the best way to 5. Even to be just one must . The name "liberal arts" is a misnomer. technical problems. a person who can change and to it appropriately will help their company get ahead.

so even engineers and computer scien- tists can benefit from some liberal arts education. exposing them to global market forces and increasing competition from abroad. but I totally disagree with the statemert that universities should only focus on practical learning. In a world where tech- nology or markets are changing faster and faster. A good liberal arts education helps students to make better business decisions. However these days. we need to provide the widest range of skills to today's student~. Even to be just a candidate for any well-paying job. In fields like engineering and computer science. The learner can develop expertise in a particular group of tech- niques rather than spending time on learning theories that they might not find useful in their daily lives. Type A l National economies are becoming more open. Those kinds of businesses are exposed to wider market forces in the world. I disagree with the notion that society should focus only on one type of higher education. Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. For instance. or vocational education. liberal arts education helps students to develop general intellectual capacities. one has to have a broad pe spective. The advantage pt such education is that a person can start obtaining essential expertise for their future career early. Some c~im that universities should focus on practical learning and vocational training so that our young ge eration can build up necessary skills for their upcoming jobs." it is about critical thinking processes.com 147 . funeral services. The job market is more competitive than ever. this kind of education was needed only when a person wanted to have a job which specialized in something such as welding or an auto mechanics. In order to excel in today's market economy. is not the best way to prepare stjdents for future job markets. f1s with most situations in life. it is best not to take extreme positions. Vocational training is still necessary in today's world.nhartrtviet. not just solve technical problems. Most of the subjects taught in today's schools fall under the traditional term of higher education . (2f3 words) TypeB Nowadays." politically or economically. Pay attention to arguments for or again st and sentence structures. however. a person starts learning math by adding and subtracting and learns how to solvei more www . vocational training is required. A li~eral arts education is not just about "theories. With life becpming increasingly unpredictable. and even retail. Focusing only on practical skills. Practical learning and vocational training help students develop necessary skills when they go into the real world and start working. nor is it about art. one must have at least a university degree. That kind of education is neither "liberal. In contrast. there are many jobs that require different skills because there are many more different kinds of jobs compared to the past. The name "liberal arts" is a misnomer. In the past. where people need very specialized skills. a person who can recognize change an~ react to it appropriately will help their company get ahead. People often misunderstand what a broad education means. the ~i elds of careers have broadened to cosmetics. Different people have different skill sets where one philosophy of education might suit them better than the other.

Key expressions .a master 's degree or doctorate: different kinds of opportunities . One learns how to read and literature from different countries.com . In conclusion. . (325 words) Practice Test 3 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay. Liberal arts allow people to become smarter so that they can continue to proceed to higher education in graduate school or prepare for well-paying jobs.agree I disagree Task .a specialized knowledge : advantage over others 148 1f best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Brain- storm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. .Use examples from your own experience to support your answer. complicated math problems later. analyse the question. I believe that providing practical and vocational knowledge is very important. Although everyone in school needs liberal arts education for their future career.nhantriviet. get paid more . How- ever.People with a master 's degree or a doctorate (PhD) sometimes have trouble finding a job because they are often seen as "overqualified. paying careful attention to what is asked.a higher education __. general knowledge is a must for a person to further their career whether it is in specialized fields or office jobs.Make a statement on whether you agree or disagree that it is a waste of money to pursue anything more than a bachelor's degree. it is a waste of money to pursue anyth ing more than a bachelor's degree. Topic ." Therefore. general intellectual knowledge is also very important in a person's life because one cannot become successful in a career if one does not have basic knowledge.

the reason why a candidate is deemed "overqualified ": a problem regarding the aRplicant 's salary Details/facts/examples to support your arguments 9. have good employment opportunities elsewhere Restating your opinion 17. going to university enhances prospects 3. Introduction to the topic and background information 1. and concluding paragraphs.com Chapt" 1 149 . a salary based on qualifications and background 7. takes a lot of hard work to get a master's degree or a doctorate 18. a master's degree or doctorate opens up opportunities 12. specialized knowledge: advantage over others 14. a person with a higher education get paid more 8. Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. pursuing an advanced degree. many companies and institutions recognize th is effort 19. Vietnam: jobs for those with master's degrees and doctorates are scarce 10. education equips one with the skills 2. body.nhdrtriviet. disagree with the statement that it is a waste of money to pursue anything more than a bachelor's degree Arguments 6. the academic discipline and the personal contacts help them to be successful 15. an advanced degree gives more options www. pursuing a master's degree or a doctorate Thesis statement 5. not a waste of money 11. desire to continue education 4. a level of specialization not possible for undergraduates 13. countries seek to attract those with advanced degrees 16.

Education people with the skills they need to survive in life.nhantriviet CO'l1 . 14. A person with a higher education generally more. Even if they eventually end up working in a unrelated to their degree. That specific kind of situation. I the statement that it is a waste of money to anything more than a 6. Some people to continue their formal education the undergraduate career.Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. than being a of money. 12. In a world where are more . A degree or doctorate can open up different kinds of for those able to them. though. a person is often paid a based on his or her and background. In some countries. where appropriate jobs for those with master's and doctorates are scarce. Many companies and institutions this effort. Many people dream of going to university to their social and business prospects. 4. does not pursuing an advanced degree a of 11. It a lot of hard work to get a master's degree or a doctorate. - 17. 3. using the information given. countries often to attract with advanced degrees. Even if it's to a job in one's own country. 18. an advanced degree people more in their life. the academic discipline that is learned and the personal contacts made during the whole process help them to be 15. 150 Tht best preparation for IELTS Writing www. In the working world . This is often the reason a candidate is "over- qualified . 2. like Vietnam." there might be a regarding the applicant's 9. 16. they can have good employment elsewhere. 5. 7. The whole process involves a level of not possible for 13. 19. This specialized knowledge a person an over other applicants in the job market. 1. 8. Those with the means and the can a master's degree or a doctorate. people will sometimes omit their higher educational 10.

Some people desire to continu their formal education beyond the undergraduate career. where appropriate jobs for are scarce. Even if they eventually in a field . a person his or her qualifications and background . countries often w ith advanced degrees. they can 17. Education equips they need to .nhantriviet. This is often the reason . Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. 2. 3.com Chaptr. 7. 10. In some countries. That specific kind of situation . I that it is a waste of money to 6. 12. I disagree with the statement that it is a waste of oney to pursue anything more than a bachelor's degree. Those with the means and the desire c n pursue a master's degree or a doctorate. Many people dream of to un iversity to enha nce th eir social and busi ness prospects. Even if it 's in one 's own country. pursuing an advanced degree 11.15 1 . A master's degree or doctorate can for th ose . 13. 15. 9. Many companies and institutions . Type A Education equips people wit h the skills they need to survive in life. Those with can or a doctorate.Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. 19. though . like Vietnam . 5. people w ill sometimes . 4. In a world where . Many people university their social and . In t he working world. 1. www. 16. Provided below are some prompts to help you. This specialized knowledge other appl icants in the job market. A person generally gets paid more. It takes a lot of hard work or a doctorate. 18." there regarding . being a waste of money.r 1 . 14. Some people their formal education . the academ ic discipline during the whole process . 8. Pay attention to arguments for or against and sentence structures. The whole process not possible . an apvanced deg ree in their life.

A person with a higher education generally gets paid more. This is often the reason why a candidate is deemed "overqualified. (273 words) ii . To sum up. there are many people who further their education with a master's or a doctorate degree nowadays. In some countries.. In the working world. They usually get higher positions in a company because they are capable of handling more difficult and challenging situations. People pursue further education mainly to become more knowledgeable or become an expert in the field they want to work for. This has been a serious problem especially in Vietnam because there are not many jobs available. In a world where borders are more open. people will sometimes purposely omit their higher educational degrees. like Vietnam. the academic discipline that is learned and the personal contacts made during the whole process help them to be successful. However. They are generally considered 'smarter' because they have learned more in their extended studies. they can have good employment opportunities ) l elsewhere. where appropriate jobs for those with master's degrees and doctorates are scarce. I think that education often helps people achieve higher goals in their jobs and in their life in general.J ( TypeB . ' J t The problem is that they are not guaranteed to get a job they want. It takes a lot of hard work to get a master's degree or a doctorate. There are many advantages and disadvantages of pursuing more education. the reason they face such problems is not because of their further education. J (319 words) I ." there might be a problem regarding the applicant's salary. though. J " 152 lt bt:'st veoar 3•1on for F TS Writ rg www nhantriv1etco1T' . When they apply for a job that requires simpler knowledge. they are often seen as 'overqualified' for the job and get turned down.J As ed ucation standards continue to rise. This special ized knowledge gives a person an advantage over other applicants in the job market. further education allows people to aim for higher living standards. Some people claim that it is a waste of money to pursue anything more than a bachelor's degree.• themselves. Society needs to come up with a solution to broaden the job market instead of discouraging people from improving . countries often seek to attract those with advanced degrees. The whole process involves a level of specialization not possible for undergraduates. Even if they eventually end up working in a field unrelated to their degree. the higher salary they receive. That specific kind of situation. a person is often paid a salary based on his or her qualifications and back- ground. Rather than being a waste of money. The higher position they get. they struggle to get a job they want. does not make pursuing an advanced degree a waste of money. an advanced degree gives people more options in their life. A master's degree or doctorate can open up different kinds of opportunities for those able to acquire them. It is rather because of the inability of the job market in Vietnam to absorb those elites. It is unfortunate that after investing such a large amount of money in their education. Even if it's hard to find a job in one's own country. Many companies and institutions recognize this effort.

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What are the advantages and disadvantages? Introduction Introducing the topic There are some advantages and disadvantages of having a major fast food chain in the area. Concluding In conclusion.com .The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Second disadvantage Other more traditional eating establishments might not appreciate a fast food chain restaurant. not for people's health.Sample Question Warm-up Brainstorming Below are some typical outlines for some specific essay titles. First disadvantage One disadvantage is that eating too much junk food is bad for one's health .nhantriviet. people should balance their food intake. Thesis statement It might be good for the economy. no matter what restaurants there are. Case 01 Presenting one side Question: A franchise of a major fast food chain wants to open a branch in your area. Thesis statement People have to weigh both the good things and bad things that come from plastic surgery. 154 . Second advantage People enjoy food that is popular. Body First advantage One advantage of a franchise is that it can bring more employment and investment into an area. Conclusion Restating the topic Depending on the local economy. the chain might be good or bad . Case 02 Presenting both sides Question: What are the advantages and disadvantages of plastic surgery? Introduction Introducing the topic Plastic surgery has both advantages and disadvantages.

Imagine this situation: the city you live in wants to build a "Las Vegas" style casino in the area.com Chapter p 155 . paying careful attention to what is asked. + --- ---j---- Conclusion Restating the topic To conclude. Key expressions .Make a statement on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposal. .Use examples from your own experience to support your answer.advantages and disadvantages Task .bring money ---+ helps the local economy www. regardless of the risk. First disadvantage Plastic surgery has some disadvantages.provide employment I ex) Indian casinos in the United States . Concluding It is everyone's right to choose having such procedures. Topic .nhantr1viet. analyse the question. thus. Second advantage Another advantage of plastic surgery is that people can have more confidence. They think the gambling and the entertainment will bring more tourists and money and . Second disadvantage Another disadvantage is that it is often expensive. people need to think very carefully before having surgery. Body First advantage Having plastic surgery can make people feel better about themselves . . help the local economy. + Practice Test 1 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay. Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. including the risk of a botched job. Advantages .

Disadvantages . provide jobs to people. money can provide services or can reduce taxes 10. pollution and noise 17. taxing casinos -+ bring lots of money to local governments 9. Introduction to the topic and general facts about it 1. money from new taxes on gambling -+ improving traffic and police 16. ex) Indian casinos in the United States 11. gambling profitable.restaurants and tourist shops . helping people with gambling addictions 20. raises standards of living 4. the chance to win money 7. controversial business: gambling Thesis statement 5.people lose money gambling . not good for the local economy if people lose all their money gambling 21.help the economy 13. and concluding paragraphs. bring money to impoverished areas 12. local jurisdictions want new business 2.more traffic and more crime . casinos bring money to local businesses . jackpot attracts many people 8.com . body.. provides employment and brings money 3. pollution and noise . more tourists more traffic and more crime 15. I would tacitly support the casino if I were in that situation 19._ c. whether or not it is worth the trouble to build a casino Your opinion and balanced consideration 18.• prE''1dra•1011 for IEl TS Wr ting www nhantriv1et.need to be careful building a new casino Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. disadvantages towns and cities have faced 14.f"' b. Casinos : advantages & disadvantages Advantages and disadvantages 6. need to be careful if they decide to build a new casino 156 T .

It is not good for the local economy if people all their money gambling. ~-----· 6. There are several towns and cities have faced when they casinos. Casinos have both and for the areas that them . 14. This money can be used to more services or other taxes. Gambling can be very 'so casinos can bri g lots of money to local governments. 9. The of a big jackpot attracts many people to 8. Local jurisdictions often want to new 2. Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. I would want some of that new money to be spent on people with gambling addictions as well. which further help the 13. People often enjoy the chance to win large amounts of 7. 19. Money that is from new on gambling businesses also has to be spent on improving traffic and on more police. 15. 20. though. Indian casinos in the United States have much more 11. www nhdrtr Vlt't. 18. This . 4. ______. One kind of business is 5. This can standards of for everyone. More tourists mean more and crime. does not the pollution anc noise of throngs of coming to town to hit the "big one. 10." 17. 21.. 16. They employment for the local population and money to the local economy. I think I would tacitly the casino if I in that situation. Casinos also bring more money to other local ' like restaurants ar d tourist shops. Local residents have to weigh carefully whether or not it is the trouble to a casino. I I 1. The local government would have to be very if they decided to build a new casino. They provide jobs to the people of the tribe and bring money to historically 12. 3.c om Chapter 2 157 . using the information given.

One controversial kind of business is gambling . Gambling can . 15. Provided below are some prompts to help you.nhantriviet. Casinos also to other .com . Local residents carefully whether or not it is a casino. The lure of a big jackpot to casinos. This can raise standards of living for everyone. does and noise of throngs of the "big one. Gambling can be very profitable. 11. Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. like restaurants and tourist shops. 14. It is not if people gambling . People often enjoy having the chance to win large amounts of money. 20. There are towns and cities when casinos. Pay attention to effective ways of presenting advantages and disadvantages and sentence structures. They provide employment for the local population and bring money to the local economy. I think I would the casino if I . They for the local population and the local economy. Type A Local jurisdictions often want to attract new businesses. 7. The local government would if they a new casino. They jobs and to historically . This can for everyone. More tourists mean . This money can more services or ." 17. which further 13. 3. 1. One is gambling . so taxing casinos can to . 8. I would want some of that on gambling addictions as well. Money that on gambling businesses also traffic infrastructure and on . 12. 19. 21. Casinos for the areas that 6. Local jurisdictions often want to . though. 18. This spending. 5. Casinos have both advantages and disadvantages for the areas that build them. 2. so taxing casinos can bring 158 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Indian casinos in the United States have .Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. 9. 10. however. 4. The lure of a big jackpot attracts many people to casinos. People often to win . 16.

Gambling is not a wise way to earn m hney. More tourists mean more traffic and more crime . This money can be used to provide more servicet or reduce other taxes. there are disadvantages of having such facilities in one·s city.tant some of that new money to be spent on helping people with gambling addictions as v ell. In addition. It is not good for the local economy if people lose all their money gambling . This will help foreign currency flow into the city and help the economy grow stronger. however. Indian casinos in the United States have become much more common . When a casino is built in a city. Th is will lower education standards in the city. If my city was to build one. Another advantage is having many tourists. There are many advantages and disadvantages when it comes to building a casino ir a city. Building a ca sino can boost the local economy. not by gambling . Casinos also bring more money to other local businesses. However. This will help the economy of the area develop. However. I think I would tacitly support the casino if I were in that imaginary situation.com Chabter 2 . Money that is raised from new taxE son gambling businesses also has to be spent on improving traffic infrastructure and on hiring more police. especially from foreign countries. which further help the economy. lots of money to local governments. water. The local government would have to be very careful if they decided to build a new casino. developing the city will cause environme ntal and cultural destruction. They provide jobs to the people of the tribe and bring money to historically impoverisl ed areas. like restaurants anc tourist shops.. This spending. electricity. though. One of the advantages of building a casino in a city is that it will allow many job oppo tunities for the locals. the city will be able o have better roads. when a casino is considered as a soi rce of cash.. young adul s might be diverted from schools and further education and will pursue an easier way to ear1n money. (b75 words) www nhantriviet. The casino will need people for managers. hether or not it is worth the trouble to build a casino. Local residents have to weigh carefully v. Furthermore. There are several disadvantages towns and cities have faced when they build casinos. it must be carefully thought through because there are disadvantages as we las advantages that come with gambling. I would 1r. (299 words) TypeB There are many business opportunities that help the economy of a city grow strong. allowing the citizens to have a higher standard of living. The one that citizens are mostly concerned about is education. Money should be earned with the hard and diligent work of citizens. and telecommunications due to the growth. does not reduce the pollution and noise of thron~ s of tourists coming to town to hit the "'big one .159 . I would oppose it because I believe that there are many rho re serious problems with a casino than benefits.

Make a statement on advantages and disadvantages of owning a pet.com . birds . like dogs. paying careful attention to what is asked. analyse the question. cats .People all over the world enjoy keeping different kinds of pets.pets can't give advice in a time of need . Topic .might spend too much on pets Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. . body.Use examples from your own experience to support your answer. fish and reptiles.. for both the pet owner and society in general.advantages and disadvantages Task . Advantages .emotional companionsh ip . Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. and concluding paragraphs. 160 fre best pr-eparatron for IELTS Writing www. Key expressions . When asked to write an essay.Practice Test 2 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming .nhantrrviet.satisfaction from his or her animal Disadvantages ..

Introduction to the topic and general facts about it 1. people want to feel like they are needed. pets need a lot of attention 10.161 . responsible and caring pet owners benefit themselves and society Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. 1. a pet can fill that role • 9. emotional companionship 7. some disadvantages in owning a pet 21. humans and animals will continue to live together for the foreseeable future 20. pet animals: living creatures 11. might spend too much to take care of his or her animal 18. it does not benefit the economy to spend money on frivolous goods Your opinion and balanced consideration 19. These days. people raised animals for food 3. advantages and disadvantages of owning a pet Advantages 5. advantages of owning a pet 6. people animals for or to help o the farm . Humans and have been living together for thousands of year . www 11n mtriv1et com Ch pter 2 . people own pet animals Thesis statement 4. the modern world is a busy place -+ hard to find that companionship 8. in the past. people mostly pet animals. humans & animals: living together for thousands of years 2. a pet owner can get satisfaction from his or her animal 12. pets can't give advice about one's life problems 15. 3. it costs money to buy pet food 17. person is happier because he or she owns a pet -+ society becomes better Disadvantages 13. In the past. using the information given. it is best for people to have contact with other human beings 14. these days. There are advantages and of a pet for bot1 the owner and society. like a d cats. 2. 4. own ing a pet is also a luxury 16.

A pet. A pet can be . then society becomes 13. people mostly . 18. 3. It money to special pet and pet accessories. 11. 12. If that person is happier because he or she a pet. 21. Pet animals are living that playtime. There are several of a pet. 4. In the past.nhantriviet. and it is best for people to have some sort of with other human beings. There are several . The modern world is a very . though. 19. 1. so it might be hard . people or to help on the farm. 2. though . 8.com .The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. 7. There are for both the owner and society. These days. Humans like to have companionship. responsible and pet owners benefit themselves and Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. 6. The modern world is a very busy place. can that role. There are a few in a pet. People want to like they are and pets need a lot of 10. 16. 9. 6. Humans and animals have for thousands of years. Generally. Humans are social . 17. 14. can 162 . It does not the economy or society to spend money on frivolous goods and services. even though it cannot . 5. 5. a pet is also a luxury. It is for a pet owner to too much to take care of his or her animal. A pet. Humans like to . water and food. 7. so it might to find that companionship from other people. even though . Provided below are some prompts to help you. A pet owner can get from his or her animal. 8. but they can't give about one's life problems or give one in a time of 15. Humans and animals will continue to live together for the foreseeable 20. like dogs and cats.

It is possible for a pet owner to spend too much to take Cc re of his or her animal. 14. but about one's life problems or give one support . 10.com Cha1 ter 2 163 . responsible and caring pet owners b1'nefit themselves and society. water and food. people mostly own pet animals. even though it cannot talk. Humans and animals will for the foreseea le future. It costs and pet accessories. though. 17. but they can't give advice about one's life t>roblems or give one support in a time of need. then society as a whole becomes bette1 Humans are social creatures. There are advantages and disadvantages of owning a pet for both the owner. and it is best with other human beings. People want to feel lik1 they are needed and pets need a lot of attention. though. though. 20. like dogs and cats. There are a few disadvantages in owning a pet. It does not benefit the economy or society to spend money on frivolous gpods and services. 19. nd society. Humans and animals will continue to live together for the foreseeable future. A pet owner can get satisfaction from taking care of his or her animal. It costs money to bWy special pet food and pet accessories. A pet. f that person is happier because he or she owns a pet. Type A Humans and animals have been living together for thousands of years. Pet animals are living creatures that require pl ytime. Generally. There are several advantages of owning a pet. A pet own can get his or her animal. pet owners and society. 18. There are in . It is po sible his or her animal. Humans like to have emotional companic nship. In the past. (: 84 words) www. 15. Owning a pet is also a luxury. can fill that role. The modern world is a very busy place. 9. A pet can be beneficial. Generally. 21 . 11. is also a luxury. If that person is a pet. Pay attention to effective ways of prerenting advantages and disadvantages and sentence structures. People want to and pets . These days. 12. and it is best for people to have some sort of contact with other human beings. so it might be hard to find that companionship rom other people. Humans are . though . peo~ le raised animals for food or to help on the farm. p animals are that require . It does not to spend and services. Model Answer Read and com pare the two model essays below.nhantriviet. 16. A pet can be beneficial. then society as a whole 13.

An irresponsible pet owner is not only bad for the pet but also bad for the entire society. their feces need to be picked up and thrown away by their owners. though. I am a pet lover myself. they are capable of showing affection and care to their owners. pets can support us emotionally. though.com . That is when pets come in. Many TV documentaries on pets show horrible owners causing pain and suf- fering by abusing or not taking care of their pets. despite the fact that there is a better pet-friendly environment. Finally. There is a saying that human beings are lonely animals. it can create unpleasant experiences for many people. (413 words) Practice Test 3 164 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. there are definitely both advan- tages and disadvantages of owning a pet. people not only raise dogs or cats for pets but also raise exotic animals such as iguanas and snakes. given up to animal shelters and later humanely put to death. We can also learn responsibility. On the other hand. especially neighbors. finding the right name for it. Many pets are abandoned. I have always loved dogs and cats. Pet owners are more knowledgeable in present-day society. If not. there are many people who own a pet. TypeB In today's society. However. Being a pet owner is very emotional: the first time you see a puppy. People have emotions and we all need to share with one another. Nowadays. Irresponsible pet ownership also makes neighborhoods dirty. all the emotions that were mentioned above are inseparable with something called responsibility. which can b~ disadvantageous sometimes. People can have good companionship from them. bathing and taking it to the vet are all memorable events. getting it home. it is not possible to give or get attention from other people. Only people willing to take responsi- bility for another living creature should be a pet owner. Pets have been good friends to people for decades. Sometimes. If someone is not able to have that much responsibility. Pet ownership comes with respon - sibility. it is better for the person not to own a pet. Owning a pet can teach us many good things. and pet-friendly facilities in our neighborhood make everything much more convenient. They are also smart creatures that understand commands and even the feelings of their owners sometimes. Even though they are not able to express their feelings verbally. When pets are taken out for a walk. We can learn how to love and care.nhantriviet. and have owned quite a few of them since I was little.

body.make calls anywhere . tremendous changes in communications technology 2.Make a statement on the advantages and disadvantages of modern communication technology. expensive and unreliable 3. extra services and accessories 4.people very dependent on cell phones . Others say that they contribute to m dern ills like "hurry sickness. Topic .Some people feel that our lives are more comfortable now because of new comm~nication technology such as cellular phones and e-mails. Internet changed communications 5. analyse the question.advantages and disadvantages Task . They do not think faster comm nication has improved our lives.Use examples from your own experience to support your answer.hurry sickness Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory.Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay. Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. paying careful attention to what is asked. old cellular phones: bulky. Introduction to the topic and general facts about it 1. Advantages . e-mail and instant messaging allow people to communicate conveniently Thesis statement 6.com .nhantriviet. and concluding paragraphs. advantages and disadvantages www ." where everyone feels too rushed.no phone makes people feel insecure or vulnerable . . modern cell phones: small. affordable.useful in emergencies Disadvantages . these changes. Key expressions .

com . Advantages 7. hurry sickness Your opinion and balanced consideration 18. in the past. get information with a call or text message Disadvantages 13. technology also has a downside 14. useful in emergencies 11. 2. Old cellular phones used to be . 4. telephone calls made over landlines 8. need to examine them as a society I be aware of their negative effects Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. communications technology has changed people's lives 19. can make it easier to plan outings 12. 5. These changes. have both advantages and 166 T 'e best prepc1r~t O'"l for llLTS Wr. The past ten years have tremendous in communications technology.nhantriviet . if not in their home.ting www. people feel insecure or vulnerable 16. E-mail and instant messaging people to communicate across great distances quite conveniently and at little 6. expensive and unreliable. though. using the information given. 3. without them. and come with extra services and accessories. 1. they had to go to another house. can make calls anywhere 10. pressure to respond right away or else risk offending the other person 17. people very dependent on cell phones 15. The Internet has also greatly communications. Modern cell phones are . relatively more affordable. business or pay telephone in order to make a call 9.

Modern cell p ones are small . 5. . With cell phones. In the past. 2. One can become very on cell phones. This is very in situations. If a person was in their . Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own.com Ch p e• 7 167 . expensive and unreliable. There is that communications technology has people's lives. This to "hurry sickness. Cell phones also it to plan outings with frien ~s. 4. While there are many to cellular phones and the Internet. they had to . The Internet has also . 13. The past ten years have in communications te hnology. though . have 7. Provided below are some prompts to help you. 1. These changes. we can anywhere there is ervice. Rather than detailed before . " the through everything. 10. It is common to people who have left their phone at say that they feel insecure or even vulnerable. business or pay telephone in order to a 9. and be of their effects as well. 6.a friend can get on what is happening with a call or text messqige. 7. we need to them as a society. business or pay telephone www rha'1triviet. 18. In the past. 16. 8. Text messaging and instant messaging create pressure to or else risk the other person. telephone calls could only . telephone calls could only be made over I 8. and extra services and ac essories. 3. Old cellular phones . 14. 19. they had o go to another . 12. If a person wrs . 17. That same communication also has a downside. E-mail and instant quite conveniently and at I ttle cost. 11. 15.

This "hurry sickness. and be aware of their negative effects as well. There is no question that communications technology has changed people's lives. It is common to hear people who have left their phone at home say that they feel insecure or even vulnerable. One can become very . Rather than making detailed plans before gathering . relatively more affordable. If a person was not in their home. One can become very dependent on cell phones. These changes. Text messaging and instant messaging create pressure to respond right away or else risk offending the other person. they had to go to another house. 9. 10. we need to examine them as a society. Pay attention to effective ways of presenting ad- vantages and disadvantages and sentence structures. 15. 12. have both advantages and disadvantages. Rather t han before gathering . It is who have say that they feel . a friend can get information on what is happening with a call or text message. In the past. There is commun ications technology has 19." the feeling that one has to rush through everything. we need to as a society. 11. Whi le to cellular phones and the Internet. E-mail and instant messaging allow people to communicate across great distances quite conveniently and at little cost. Type A The past ten years have seen tremendous changes in communications technology. Modern cell phones are small." the feel ing that one 18. 14. The Internet has also greatly changed communications. That same communication technology also has a downside. and come with extra services and accessories. 17. business or pay te lephone in order to make a call. Th is is very . we can make calls anywhere there is service. and be as wel l. a friend can with a call or text message. 13. Old cellular phones used to be bulky. Wit h cell phones. With cell phones . Text messagi ng and instant messaging right away or else . Cell phones also make it easier to plan outings with friends . expensive and unreliable. While there are many benefits to cellular phones and the Internet . This is very useful in emergency situations. we can there is service. 16. This contributes to "hurry sickness. Cell phones also make w ith frien ds. That same com munication technology also . telephone calls could only be made over landlines. though . Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. (263 words) 168 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. .nhantriv1et com .

In conclusion. After all. We will have even more advanced gadgets in the near future. In order to take the full advantage of them. and mobile games. and when it rings. They can also be used to take care of business much faster because users are no limited by time or distance. (2 )6 words) www. there are some downsides. However. Being able to use e-mails and messengers on the Internet has made our lives convenient. It is much easier to communicate with our loved ones now. People nowadays are too dependent on commun cation tools. Some of them do not bother setting their phone on vibrat~. people come before technology. Talking on the cellular phones re ally loudly also makes others uneasy. it can be quite bothersome for others. TypeB Communication technology has developed tremendously over the last few decades. MP3 player. For example. These communication devices have also saved many lives in en ergency situations. Th re are cellular phones with many functions such as a built-in camera. Having a cellular phone can make someone nervous. One of the advantages of modern communication technology is that it has made our lives easier by providing fast connections between people. Many of us appreciate the convenience that modern communication offers. Furthermore. Cellular phones and e-mail are used by many people every day we rldwide. They believe that communication technology causes modern ills such as hu ry sickness. about 98 percent of public transport usi rs carry a cellular phone with them. but some think otherwise.nhantriviet.com 169 . There are certainly advantages and disadvantages in using modern commun cation technology. I believe that the technological development of communication tools must not be stopped in any way. we must handle the advancements wisely and ser sibly so that it affects human life in a positive way. cellular phor es can bother people around the user.

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Concluding Therefore. I would support it. so there must be a really good purpose for them . Second controlling idea Also. To w hat extent would you agree with such an initiative? Introduction Introduction to the topic Any sort of tax increase has to be carefully examined. rather than from the national government. First controlling idea First. Supporting sentence I would be more supportive of such an initiative if it gave more local control over schools. Conclusion Restating your idea Tax increases are a burden .The best preparation for IELTS Writing www.nhantriviet. 172 . Showing your personal If the tax increase was not too high and was done fairly. . I want my children to go to well-funded schools.Sample Question Warm-up Brainstorming Below are some typical outlines for some specific essay titles..com . viewpoint Body ·. Case 01 Showing total agreement Question: The local government wants to raise property taxes to increase funding for schools. I would only support one if it was effective and if it improved the schools my children went to.. it is better to get local funding for schools. Supporting sentence The education my children get now will help them later in life.

Supporting sentence Also. Supporting sentence The situation has to be studied in order to see what problems ight happen.Case 02 Showing agreement with reservation Question: Your company wants to change the computers over to another kind of operating system. Practice Test 1 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay. we always need to look for new ways to improve our co puter system. Conclusion Restating your idea Sometimes changing the computer system is not good if it is to expensive. offices and other indoor spaces. bars. unpredicted problems occur when change Body First controlling idea If a new operating system is cheaper and more productive in th long run.com . People argue secondhand smoke i dangerous and that such laws protect public health. Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. Second controlling idea The change to a new operating system might be too expensive ecause of all the computers we have. Topic . we viewpoint should change. Concluding Therefore. analyse the question. clubs. I support the change.There are movements all over the world to prohibit smoking from buildings such as estaurants. www. r> ha n triviet. To what extent do you agree with this? Introduction Showing your personal I think if the operating system is better than the one we have n . I would only want to have a new operating system i it works better than the current one . Stating your reservation Sometimes though. paying careful attention to wha is asked.

exposing them to cancer causing smoke --> is not fair. those particles find their way into non-smoker's lungs 11.smoking bans help people quit Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory.nhantriviet con . ban smoking from indoor public spaces --> successful in some places 2. special ventilated areas in the workplace for smokers --> inadequate 10. body. . they should be implemented worldwide Arguments against smoking 4. the smoke travels through the air I is breathed in by other people who choose not to smoke 8. restaurants and workplaces Thesis statement 3.Use examples from your own experience to support your answer. damage from cigarettes is not limited to smokers themselves 7. Introduction to the topic 1. agree very strongly with such measures. clubs . no longer able to smoke in bars.To what extent do you agree with this statement? Task . Key expressions .Make a statement on prohibiting smoking from all buildings because people argue secondhand smoke is dangerous and such laws protect public health. people take jobs in restaurants or the hospitality industry in order to survive 12. and concluding paragraphs. "smoking " and "non-smoking " areas in a restaurant do nothing to prevent other customers from second-hand smoke 9.not fair to expose workers to unhealthy smoke Measures . irrefutable evidence to support this 6. smoking kills 5.cigarettes are a terrible addiction . does not make economic sense 14. more expensive than the amount of business lost because a restaurant is smoke-free 174 The be t rF paration for IELTS Writing www. Bad effects of smoking and passive smoking .smoking kills I causes cancer I secondhand smoke . some not as flexible as others in choosing a place to work 13. cost of employees getting disease.

nor does it make economic 14. Exposing them to cancer causing from others is neither . clubs. using the information given. 8. People will no longer be able to smoke in bars . Restating the issue and giving some final thoughts 15. encourage smokers to reduce. governments should discourage smoking as much as ossible 19. Even special ventilated areas in the workplace for smokers are since smoke to people's hair and clothing. for example. limiting the number of places can help people to quit Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. The of employees getting or other diseases is far more than the amount of bus ness lost because a restaurant is smoke-free. bars and clubs: common places 16. the movement to smoking from all indoor publi spaces has been 2. 9.com Cha )\er 3 175 . The smoke through the air and is in by other people who choose not to smoke . or stop smoking 18. www nhd'ltriviet. 1. I agree very with such measures and think they should be worldwide. In England. The division between "smoking" and " " areas in a restaurant. Many people take jobs in the restaurant or hospitality industry in order to 12. There is irrefutable from decades of research to this. Unfortunately. a signal to smokers that their habits are dirty and offensive 17. the damage from cigarettes is not to smokers I 7. does nothing to other customers from car inogenic smoke. Once a smoker that area. They might not be as as others in a place work. 13. cigarettes: a terrible addiction . restaurants. 4. Smoking 5. 10. restaurants and 3. those particles still find their way nto other non-smoker's 11. 6.

I with such measures and think worldwide. Once a smoker .nhantriviet. 15. 3. 19. The cost of employees getting cancer or other diseases is than the minuscule amount of business lost because a restaurant is 15. Smoking bans there are a signal to that their are dirty and offensive. for example. 6. 17. 1. The division areas in a restaurant. There is from decades th is. Unfortunately. Smoking . Smoking bans there are a that their 17. Cigarettes are a terrible and it is the duty of the to smoking as much as possible. 18. bars and clubs are common for friends and to meet. clubs. The smoke and is by other people . restaurants and workplaces . bars and clubs are for friends and 16. of places where can help 176 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Restaurants. Provided below are some prompts to help you . 16. 5. or maybe even stop.com . 10. 18. does from inhaling carcinogenic . In England . Even special ventilated areas in the workplace since smoke and clothing . 19. the movement to from all indoor public spaces 2. 4. 9. 13. Exposing them from others is neither 14. Cigarettes are a and it is the duty of the as much as possible. smoking. Th is will smokers to . the damage from cigarettes is not 7. the number of places where a smoker can light up can help people to Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. This will encourage . 8. Restaurants. those particles still into other non-smoker's lungs. smoking . Many people in the restaurant or hospitality industry 12. People will in bars. 11. They might not be in to work. or maybe even stop.

The division between "smo ing" and "non-smoking" areas in a restaurant. Unfor unately. Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. those particles still find their way into other non-smokers' lungs. All of these chemicals and others like benzene. There is irrefutable evidence from decades of research to support this. if not worse. Pay attention to effective ways of pre enting arguments for and against and sentence structures. This will encourage s okers to reduce. Even special ventilated areas in the workplace f r smokers are inadequate since smoke sticks to people's hair and clothing. but also harms other peo le. Many people take jobs in the restaurant or hospitality industry in order to survive. Type B Banning smoking in public places has been a controversial issue in the United States overt e last few years. The cost of employees getting cancer or ther diseases is far more expensive than the minuscule amount of business lost because a resta rant is smoke-free. People will no longer be able to smoke in bars. ethano l. Once a smoker leaves that area. smoking not only harms the person who smokes. Restaurants. clubs. Cigarettes are a terrible addiction and it is the du y of the government to discourage smoking as much as possible. bars and clubs are common places for friends and acquaintances to meet. such as nicotine. Type A In England. and respiratory infections. as well as pubs. for example. heart isease. nor does it make economic sense. What is worse. Exposing them to cancer causing smoke f om others is neither fair. and car- bon monoxide. I strongly believe that it is very wise to protect nonsmokers. smoking. Smoking causes many types of disease such as lung cancer. restaurants and workplaces. Everyone is aware of the fact that smoking tobacco products is harmful due to the ingredi nts that they contain. the damage from cigarettes is not limited to smokers themselves. vJJv\v ~ d t l\/IE't. does nothing to prevent other customer from inhaling carcinogen ic second-hand smoke. Fifteen states prohibit smoking in almost al l public places including workplaces. restau- rants.000 different chemicals. or maybe even stop. The smoke travels throu h the air and is breathed in by other people who choose not to smoke. They mi ht not be as flexible as others in choosing a place to work. Many studies show that secondhand smoking is as harmfu l as smoking itself. When person smokes in public places. Limiting the number of places w smoker can light up can help people to quit. non-smokers are left with no choice but to inhale hazardous che icals. Tobacco smoke produces nearly 4.lorn C'lap ' l 177 . and ammonia are xtremely harmful or carcinogenic. t r. the movement to ban smoking from all indoor public spaces has been success ul. Smoking kills. Sm king bans there are a signal to smokers that their habits are dirty and offensive. I agree very str ngly with such measures and think they should be implemented worldwide.

everyone else also has the right to live in a safe environment where they can lead healthy lives. .many goods like plastics. chemicals and food products will involve "bio-processing. paying careful attention to what is asked. Many children who are exposed to secondhand smoke suffer fro m illnesses such as respiratory tract infections and even sudden infant death syndrome. b) improve food crops and food animals and c) make our lives more comfortable.The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. In conclusion. smoking is so bad that the person smoking is destroying not only their own health.a weapon to fight aging .000 heart disease deaths in adult nonsmokers each year in the United States alone. genetic engineering and stem cell research should all be used to: a) improve the human body and mind. Topic . People who choose to smoke have the right to make that decision." 178 .com . Key expressions . Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. but also the health of others. Therefore. medicines. Human cloning .Use examples from your own experience to support your answer. analyse the question. Arguments .nhantriviet. smoking should be banned in public places to protect other individuals. However. genetic engineering and stem cell research . It is especially harmful to young children as well.400 lung cancer deaths and 46.To what extent do you agree or disagree? Task .Biotechnology is becom ing more and more advanced these days.Make a statement on human cloning . (279 words) Practice Test 2 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay. Secondhand smoke causes nearly 3.can choose the best genes .

"bio-factories" 13. will involve "bio-processing " 12. genetic research helps parents choose the best genes for their child 9. discoveries used by humans for good or evil 3. minimizing side effects and maximizing therap 14. obviating the need for immunosuppressant dr Restating the issue and giving some final thoughts 15. weapon to fight the ravages of aging 8. give their children the best chance in life from the very start 11 . there will be no clones 7. science is not perfect Thesis statement 4. like plastics .lift restricti ons on biomedical research . money to universities for research. need to be cautious about advancements in biotechnology. future production of many goods. organs for transplant will be bio-produced in hospitals with a patient's own geneti eliminating any chance of rejection . medicines.com Cha iter 3 179 . scientific process. . not be able to choose exactly how smart or good-looking a child will be 10. body. human cloning is not practical 6. Introduction to the topic 1. to primary schools 17. medicines produced for individuals. need to give much fr edom to researchers and scientists Arguments 5. techniques in human cloning ___. need to encourage oung children from the beginning to become scientists and researchers www nhd'1triviet. need to lift all restrictions on biomedical research 16.encourage children to become scientists Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. in the future.give money to universities and primary schools . chemicals and food pro ucts. high-quality research depends on the growth of new talent ___. neither good nor evil 2. and concluding paragraphs. tailored organisms like bacteria ---> genetically engineered ___.

like plastics. Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. The made by science. we should be very about advancements in but still give as much as possible to and scientists. high -quality research depends on the growth of new talent. parents will be sure they are giving their children the best in life the very 11. 13. research can also help parents the best for their child. 14. in the movies. Given that. 3. though. 17. 5. but also to primary schools. Future of many goods. In the future . The government needs to lift all restrictions on research. The techn iques used in human . might give us new to fight the ravages of 8.. there wil l be no arm ies of 7. medicines. Continuous. Science is not because people are not perfect. 16. Human cloning as portrayed in science is not practical. parents will probably not be able to exactly smart or good -looking a child will be. is good nor evil.t p1 l'parat o i for IELTS Wr t. produced this way will be made for each specific minimizing and therapeutic value.co ri . and we need to young children from the to scientists and researchers . Specially tailored . are by humans for good or evil. Organs for w ill also be in hospitals with a patient 's own material ." 12. 1. 10. chemicals and food products . 180 Tre bpc. 4. will be genetically to be "bio-factories" that goods cheaply and efficiently. The process . w ill "bio-processing. Money should be given not only to universities for .nq www. however. 9. any chance of rejection by the body and the need for immunosuppressant drugs. in and of itself. 6. like bacteria.'liiantriv1et. 2. 15. using the information given. Inst ead .

though. Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own . In the future. might give us new weapons t fight the www rihantr. 2. " 12. 15.com C'"lclf •r 3 181 . Organs for transplant will also be bio. 14. however. like plastics. might to fight . 10. 8. in and of itself. 16. is . there will be n armies of clones. 7. is neither good nor evil. are . The scientific process . we should be in biotechnology. 1. Genetic research can also for their child. 13. In the future . med ici nes. Unlike in the movies. high-quality research . The discoveries made by s ience. 9. we should be very cautious about advancements in biotechnology but still give as much freedom as possible to researchers and scientists. however. the e will be . Pay attention to effective ways of pre enting arguments for and against and sentence structures. wil l "bio. Human cloning as portrayed . 4. chemicals and food roducts. though. Provided below are some prompts to help you. Instead . The techniques used in human cloning. are used by humans for good or evil.processing. Science is not perfect because people them elves are not perfect. but also . Medicines produced this way will be and maximizing therapeutic value . roduced in hospitals with a patient's own genetic material . 6. Type A The scientific process. The discoveries ade by science. The government on biomed ical research. but still give as and sci 5. The techniques used in human cloning. Mon y should be given . C ntinuous. 3. parents will be in life 11. Given that. Human cloning as portrayed in science fiction is not practical. will be be "bio-factories" that and fficiently. like bacteri . in and of itself.v1et. Specially tailored organisms . and we need to from the beginning to Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. Future . Given that. Science is not perfect becaus . 17. parents will probably exactly how . by the body and immunosuppressant drugs.

like bacteria. It is also much easier and cheaper to reproduce in a natural way. However. We must ask ourselves if it is really ethical to clone animals or humans. This means a lot to mankind because dogs are physiologically similar to humans. and scientists might be able to find cures for diseases. Humans should not create living things through cloning because tampering with Mother Nature is not natural. will be genetically engineered to be "bio-factories" that produce goods cheaply and efficiently.nhantriviet. Future production of many goods. Fresher and healthier vegetables might be provided at our dining table due to the hard work of scientists. ravages of aging. Biotechnology allows people to pursue a better life in terms of living conditions and medical treatments. Instead. Even some scientists argue against cloning based on principle. There are various arguments against all types of cloning. The idea of cloned meat on my dining table is quite creepy.com . (281 words) TypeB We are very fortunate to be living in a world with advanced science. Genetic research can also help parents choose the best genes for their child." Specially tai lored organisms. eliminat- ing any chance of rejection by the body and obviating the need for immunosuppressant drugs. Not everyone may agree with me. Besides. will involve "bio-processing. this is controversial. The government needs to lift all restrictions on biomedical research. parents will be sure they are giving their ch ildren the best chance in life from the very start. From the scientific point of view. Organs for transplant will also be bio-produced in hospitals with a patient's own genetic material. Unlike in the movies. cloned animals do not live as long as naturally reproduced animals. Continuous. especially human cloning. which range from scientific issues to religious objections. but also to primary schools . Seok and his science team at Seoul National University succeeded in cloning a dog. but I feel very strongly against cloning because of my beliefs. chemicals and food products. (253 words) 182 fh' best . Genetically engineered food sounded like a dream just two decades ago but now people might consume genetically engineered products without even noticing it. and we need to encourage young children from the beginning to become scientists and researchers . cloning takes too much effort and money to produce successful results. People might also object to cloning for religious reasons. high-quality research depends on the growth of new talent. Dr. Money should be given not only to universities for research. like plastics. Hwang W.lrepdrdt1on ~or IELTS Writing www. minimizing side effects and maximizing therapeutic value. parents will probably not be able to choose exactly how smart or good-looking a child will be. Medicines produced this way will be made for each specific individual. medicines.

language barrier: communication .Make a statement on immigration to other countries. reading written material. They claim this is the best way to advance their careers and their lives. analyse the question. and concluding paragraphs. filling out forms .Practice Test 3 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay.Use examples from your own experience to support your answer. to ork and to study.not the best idea for everyone Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. body. Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay.d iscrimination: treated differently Reasons for immigration . paying careful attention to what i asked. Immigrants' challenges .offer many opportunities .com Cra . Key expressions . help their careers and their social life Conclusion .To what extent do you agree with this? Task .becoming part of an international network ___. www nhantriviet.More and more people these days choose to immigrate to other countries to live. Topic . .tu l 183 .

if a person does not learn the foreign language. students are exposed to new ideas and ways of doing business 17. not the best option for everyone Immigrants' challenges 6. living in a different country presents many challenges. going abroad can open up many doors in education and business Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. the best universities. most people choose to live and work in the country where they were born 2.. the greatest challenge: language barrier 7. one of the most homogenous countries in the world 12. J 184 l L c. people who cannot overcome new challenges might become depressed or pessimistic Reasons for immigration 14. discrimination can also be a problem 11. more and more people choose to immigrate to other countries 3. life will be harder for them 10. using the information given.i www 1•1.. other people move to a foreign country to start a new life Thesis statement 5. young people study abroad to experience another culture 4.. treated differently based on their "Asian" appearance 13. going abroad offers many opportunities 15. basic communication with other people can be frustrating 8. take advantage of economic opportunities. hard work: help children to succeed in their new home Restating the issue and giving some final thoughts 20. rr • l. Vietnam .J I l '1 f (' r I Wr r r.1ntr111 et co. not the best idea for everyone 21. . work hard successful 19. some people: might not have the language ability or work ethic to succeed in a country not of their birth 22.. moving to a foreign country. Introduction to the topic 1. reading written material and filling out forms can be difficult 9. part of an international network: help their careers and their social life 18. located in several different countries 16. for those who are strong .

More and more people. 12. now choose to to other for a variety of 3.rorn 185 . 7. 5. 4. People who cannot these new challenges might become depress d or too 14. 19. The best universities in the world are in several 16. especially where they a different I nguage. This hard work also helps the children and generations to in their new home. For those who are strong enough . going offers many 15. When Vietnamese people go . Basic with other people can be . 10. 2. Some people do not have the language or work to succeed in a country not of their birth. in the world choose to live and wor in the country where they were born. presents many and is not the best option for 6. Students are to new ideas and ways of doing when they study 17. Discrim ination can also be a 11. On the other hand. The greatest of living abroad is t he b rrier. Vietnam is one of the most countries in the world. going can up many doors in education and business. 18. fluent speaker is 8. especi lly if the native. though . life will be much harder for them . Young people who want to another culture study for a few years. 20. 22. Living in a different country. though. They also become part of an international that can help the r and their social life. If a person who does not learn the quickly. Other people to a country to a new life. Reading written material and filling out forms can be withou • 9. A family that takes of economic and w rks hard can become very successfu l. WVV\tv rrd 1trtviet. they might be to 1 discover the many ways they are differently based on their "Asian" 13. Moving to a country is not the idea for 21. 1.

They . If a person who emigrates 10.nhantriviet. Some people . going abroad can open up many doors in education and business. More and more people. People who cannot overcome these new challenges might become 14. 2. The best universities in the world . 18. The greatest challenge of living abroad is . When Vietnamese people go abroad. Other people move to a foreign country to start a new Life . 9. 5. 15. 1. On the other hand. 13. 3. 21. Young people 4. Moving to a foreign country is . can become very successful. More and more people. Pay attention to effective ways of presenting arguments for and against and sentence structures. though. . 17. Type A Most people in th.com . Vietnam is . 6.e world choose to Live and work in the country where they were born. Discrimination can also be a problem . Young people who want to experience another culture study abroad for a few years. presents many challenges and is not the best option for everyone. especially where they speak a different Language. 22. 7. Other people . 20. now choose to immigrate . Provided below are some prompts to help you. 16. 19. 12. 11. . Living in a different country. Reading written material and filling out forms can be difficult without help. now choose to immigrate to other countries for a variety of reasons . Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. Most people in the world choose to live and work in the country where they were born. 186 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. Living in a different country. This hard work also helps the children and future generations to succeed in their new home. Students are exposed to new ideas and ways of doing business when they study abroad . though . Basic commun ication 8.

going abroad can open up many doors in education and busir ess. though. The greatest challenge of living abroad is the language barrier. there are more and more people immigrating to other countries. Whatever the reason is. When Vietnamese people go abroad. I myself have lived abroad in many di1 erent countries for many years. A majo ity of those who immigrate are seeking a better life. The first generation of immigrants face huge disadvantages. After staying in foreign countries as "international students". also pffer better environment for children. going abroad offers many opportunities. For those who are strong enough. There are more opportunities to get a better paying job with better bene~its . On the other hand. Developed countries. f. which c rn cause financial losses. www nhantriv1et. Those who stay abroad to study for 13 short period of time take advantage of the developed countries· advanced education oppor unities. Going abroad to developed countries opens up many doors to anyone who sets goals and works hard. This hard work also help$ the children and future generations to succeed in their new home. Some people do not ha e the language ability or work ethic to succeed in a country not of their birth." and sometimes ev1 n face discrimination. which includes better education systems. but I strongly believe that living abroad is not the best way for everyone. A family that takes advantage of ecor omic opportunities and works hard can become very successful. Students are exposed to new ideas and wa 1 s of doing business when they study abroad. not everyone succeeds in living abroad. Employers provide much better working conditions and the pay is usually much bett1 r compared to one's own country. The best universities in tie world are located in several different countries. However. they might be shocked to discover the many ways the1 are treated differently based on their "Asian" appearance. Discri'nination can also be a problem. Some people do not adjust well int J the host society for different reasons: the cultural differences as well as the language barrier . They also become part of an international nietwork that can help their careers and their social life.com 8ha1 ter 3 187 . Vietnam is one of the most homogenous countries in the wor d. People who cannot overcome hese new challenges might become depressed or too pessimistic. especially if the native. they are more likely to get a better job when they go back. Basic communication with other people can be frustrating. better school facilities. many immigrants always live as the "minority. (227 words) TypeB These days. Due to those reasons. the common factor here is th2 t they are all seeking more opportunities. life will be much harder for them. fluent speaker is impatient. If a person who emigrates does not learn the foreign language quickly. and better laws to protect young ones. Moving to a foreign country is not the best idea for everyone. like America or England. eading written material and filling out forms can be difficult without help.

> I j ' I ) I Immigrating to a foreign country to live. going abroad is not the best way for them to achieve better things in life.J j 188 TJ-ie best preparat10'1 for IELTS Writing www. . J If someone goes abroad with absurd ideas. J J (327 words) I . In order to get the best out of going abroad.com .j J I J J ) ' •' . one must learn to adapt to differences between two J ) cultures. J. Although everyone is different in their own ways. if he or she is not willing to accept ) new things. they will be left with unprofitable results ..nl"iantr1viet. to work or to study is not as easy as everyone thinks. I .

.

Second argument Online gaming can be another source of entertainment. 190 The best p'"eparat on for IELTS Writing www. Case 01 Your opinion on online gaming Question : What is your opinion on the increase in online gaming? Introduction Introduction to the I think online gaming can be fun but if it is done too much .Sample Question Warm-up Brainstorming Below are some typical outlines for some specific essay titles. kids need to play with others in order to develop their minds. Body First argument Children need to balance between playing outside and playing on the computer. Giving some final Parents need to make sure their kids don't become addicted to online thoughts gaming. Reason Like watching TV. Conclusion Restating your idea In the end . What do you think? Introduction Showing your personal I think that restricting Internet use in such a way would be terrible for the viewpoint economy. information Thesis statement People can become addicted and lose interest in the real world.com . Case 02 Your opinion on limiting Internet access speeds Question : The government wants to limit Internet access speeds based on what a user pays. Reason Kids might lose vital social skills if they don 't interact with others . it can be topic and background dangerous.nhantriviet. playing computer games too much can be detrimental.

meaning everyone as equal I access to the Internet. Body First argument "against"] Otherwise.000. are building the International Space Sta ion .Use examples from your own experience to support your answer. thoughts Practice Test 1 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay. Conclusion Restating your idea The government should encourage a free market regarding Intern t access. Key expressions . www r ha'ltriviet. Eventually. Reason It will cost businesses more money to get the same kind of lnte net access speeds they have now. analyse the question. Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay. General argument There needs to be a policy of net neutrality. Some people a gue that money for the whole space programme would be better spent on social programmes or ax cuts. the Internet will cease to be a source of business in ovation . mainly the USA and Russia.com Chap L'r 4 191 . paying careful attention to what i asked. The total cost for the project is estimated to be about US$130.000. Giving some final Everyone has a right to the free and unrestricted flow of inform ion.What is your opinion? Task . Topic . Second argument People without access to the faster speeds will be unable to pu chase "against" Reason l services and goods as easily. .Many countries. not having net neutrality will divide the Internet into t o unequal access areas.Express an opinion about money for the space programme.000.

astronauts on the moon ---> inspiring 2. planets and the sun 8. technology in rocket systems is the same technology for missiles 10.money for manned mission ___. dangerous to encourage countries to have their own space programmes 9. money for all manned space missions should be diverted into other social programmes or tax cuts 18. sending human beings into outer space ---> complicated and expensive 6.space programme : expensive . already have sent probes to study our own Earth. tax cuts Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. Negative and positive points of the space programmes . space technology provides new goods for the civilian sector 14. shows how creative and ingenious people are Thesis statement 3. manned exploration of space ---> not useful 5.unmanned mission . helps us know our surroundings Restating the issue and giving some final thoughts 16. exploring the solar system helps us understand our place 15. careful about how much money we spend on the space programme Negative and positive points of the space programmes 4. China will research "space" technology when they are improving their nuclear missile and military capabilities 11. seeing Earth from space. satellites: the communication and security benefits 17.m . Introduction to the topic and background information 1.space technology provides new goods for the civilian sector I helps us understand our planet Solutions . unmanned missions should be led by international organisations 12. social programmes. some benefits from funding space programmes 13. everything can be done better with unmanned probes and vehicles 7. body. it is a waste of money to send humans into space 192 T [ l t r ·~ r t ) r IE L . and concluding paragraphs. wr1t1 ig WWW nhd r Id t u:.

They show how and ingenious our cientists and engineers are. and expensive. using the information given. 18. However. to send human beings into oute 6. The same technology used in rocket systems is the same exact technology for missiles.Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below.com Chap e · 4 . It is very . Even though human beings will never live on any other planets or ever to other stars. Maintaining and satellites into space are because of the and security benefits they bring. 4. I think we should be very . 193 . or of on t e moon. about how much money e spend on the space programme. We have already probes to our o n Earth. It is a of money to humans into pace. exploration of space is not very 5. 15. 14. like China. it is important to our surroundings. 13. it is also dangerous to encourage co have their own space programmes. 9. 17. 8. I think money for all space missions should b into other programmes or tax cuts . when they are actually their nuclear missile and military 11. are very 2. Research into space · has new g ods for the civilian sector. Unmanned missions to outer space should be led and by organisations and not national governments. 10. faraway and even the sun. www rhantriviet. will often "space" technolo y. 1. Images of the Earth from . Everything done by in space can be done better with probes and vehicles. 7. 16. 12. Exploring our own helps us our place in the universe. . Emerging powers. 3. though. There are some from space prog ammes.

Everything done by humans in space can be done better with unmanned probes and vehicles. They show . 8.Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. 12. and expensive. 3. 1. Manned exploration of space is . We have already sent probes to study our own Earth.com . I think we should 4. 5. They show how creative and ingenious our planet's scientists and engineers are. 17. faraway planets and even the sun. or of astronauts on the moon. We have already sent probes to study our own Earth. Images of the Earth from space. to send human beings into outer space. In general. are very inspiring. Type A Images of the Earth from space. It is .The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. 15. though. Manned exploration of space is not very useful. 6. I think money for all manned space missions should Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. Maintaining and launching satellites into space are beneficial because of the communica- tion and security benefits they bring. There are some benefits . Everything done by humans in space can . It is very complicated. faraway planets and even the sun. Research into . Provided below are some prompts to help you. by international organisations and not national governments. Exploring our own solar system helps . The same technology used in rocket systems is 10. when they are actually improving their nuclear missile and military capabilities. about how much money we spend on the space programme. Even though human 16. 14. 2. are very inspiring.nhantriviet. it is 9. Pay attention to effective ways of presenting arguments for and against and sentence structures. I think we should be very careful. . 194 . 13. However. 7. 11. or of astronauts on the moon.

Research into space technc logy has provided new goods for the civilian sector. and making the world a better place for everyone. However. This will help mankind to cure diseases. astronauts who are aboard can monitor changes that occur in the ozone layer and in the atmosphere to better understand what is happening to our planet. when they are ac ually improving their nuclear missile and military capabilities. Despite of all the advantages that the station might bring us. The same technology used in rocket systems is the same exact technology used for m ssiles. but that's not the exact trutt. we should carefully examine whether it is worth investing such a large sum of money v hen we have more urgent issues to solve such as helping less fortunate people. This great amount of money is at risk of being wasted if it can be used in better ways. The project might seem worth every bit. there are some benefits and opportunities from the station. Some people claim that the money for the pr )ject could be spent on better things such as social programmes or tax cuts . I think money for all manned space missions should be diverted into other social programmes or tax cuts. which has brought tremendous benefits to mankind. Howeve . Scientists believe that a special kind of protein cells grow bigger and purer in orbit ti an it might on Earth. In general. will often research "space" technology.lpter 4 195 . In conclusion. After all. Unmanned missions to explo e outer space should be led and funded by international organisations and not national gover iments. The amount of money that has been and will be spent on this projec is ex- tremely large. like China.com Chl. it is important to know our surroundings.nhantriviet. Emerging powers. NASA and other space agencies are most likely to abandon it if it malfunctions. Maintaining and launching satellites into space are beneficial because of the com mun cation and security benefits they bring. The International Space Station Project has been a controversial issue d 1e to the cost of building and maintaining it. That is why buil ling the International Space Station has been a controversial issue. It is a waste of money ti send humans into space. there are some factors that we must consider. In addition. It t as allowed us to explore the unknown world of space. but we must make right decisions on how to pay for the cost. One of the main benefits of the International Space Station will be medical advancerhent. (2 0 words) TypeB The development of technology in science has made many things possible for us. providing b?tter education. There are some benefits from funding space programmes. Even though human beings will never live on ar y other planets or ever travel to other stars. I believe that the International Space Station has brought us many benefits. 1325 words) www. it is also dangerous to encourage countries to have their own space progra 'nmes. the money i provided by all hard working citizens. Exploring our own solar system helps 1~s understand our place in the universe.

prosper Arguments against funding schools .government provides money __. body.balance between government-funded education and private schools Step 2 Planning the Essay Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory. . paying careful attention to what is asked. and concluding paragraphs. Key expressions . Some believe that the government should provide education to its citizens at no cost. Topic . Arguments for funding schools .Education is one of the basic necessities of life.Use examples from your own experience to support your answer.specialised education innovative __. more people get an education . 196 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Others say that government funding and oversight of schools is detrimental to education. Brain- storm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay.nhantriviet com . analyse the question.Do you believe that the government should be involved in education? Task .Practice Test 2 Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming When asked to write an essay.Make a statement on the government's involvement in eduction . inefficiency harms students Solutions .regulation __.

local control ---> schools work best 15. school gives basic knowledge and skills . government provides money for tuition ---> people can get a specialised education 10. seek alternatives to those public scho Is 19. regulati on makes schools inefficient 14. people want the government to provide education for all its citizens Thesis statement 5. if parents dissatisfied with the curriculum ___. 2. the more people go to school. private schools where there is less government control 20. Introduction to the topic 1. www. using the information given. Going to school not only gives people basic and skills. or else have their money taken away 13. 1. discourages them from learning education ---> affects the economy Restating the issue and giving some final thoughts 17. advantages and disadvantages to this approach Arguments for funding schools 6. friends ---> a network where people can support and help each other socially and in usiness 4. succumb to government regulation. where people meet most of their friends 3. home school. the more money they can make 9. balance between government-funded education and private schools Step 3 Finalising the Essay Complete the sentences below. education: innovative ---> helps the country prosper and compete in the global econ my Arguments against funding schools 11 . inefficiency harms students 16. government gives money to schools ---> more people get an education 7. im portant in developing countries 8.com Chap er 4 197 . There is no that education gives people a to succeed in life. if governments fund schools ---> provide education to many people 18. education: chance to succeed in life 2.nhantriviet. providing money ---> controlling the school 12. it s also where people meet most of their in life.

3. These friends a network where people can and
help each other socially and in business.
4. Since education is so , people want the government to
education for all its
5. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this approach.

6. When the government gives money to schools , more people are able to get an

7. This is especially in poor and countries .
8. The more people go to school , the more money they can , raising
living for everyone.
9. When the government money for university
a greater of people can get a education.
10. Citizens need that kind of to be innovative and that
helps the country prosper and in the global economy.
11. However, when the government money, this means they also
the school.
12. The school must to government or else
have their money away.
13. This regulation makes schools
14. Schools best when there is local , rather
control from an educational bureaucracy far away.
15. This inefficiency students.
16. It might discourage them from or seeking more education , which
the economy as a

17. can provide to many people if they
schools.
18. People sometimes seek to those schools though .
19. Parents with the curriculum there can school their
kids or send them to private schools, where there is less government
20. There should be a between government-funded education and
schools.

Step 4 Write Your Own

Try writing an essay on your own. Provided below are some prompts to help you.

198 fh~ best prAparat1on for IELTS Writing www.nhantriviet.com

1. There is no doubt that ed ucation gives . 2. Going to
school not only
. 3. These friends form
. 4. Since education is
. 5. There are both advantages a d disad-
vantages to this approach .

6. When t he government gives money to schools,
7. Th is is especially important in . 8. The more peo le go to
school , t he more 9. When
the government provides money
. 10. Cit izens need

11. However, when the govern ment provides money, this means they
12. The school must
13. This regulation makes schools . 14.
, rather than control from an educational bureaucracy far away.
15. This inefficiency harms students. 16. It might

17. Governments can . 18. People s metimes
. 19. Parents dissatisfi ed w ith the urriculu m
there can home school their ki ds or send them to private schools,
. 20. There should be a balance between

Model Answer

Read and compare the two model essays below. Pay attention to effective ways of pre enting
arguments for and against and sentence structures.

Type A
There is no doubt that education gives people a chance to succeed in life. Going to scho I not only
gives people basic knowledge and skills, it is also where people meet most of their friend in life.
These friends form a network where people can support and help each other socially an in busi-
ness. Since education is so important, people want the government to provide education or all its
citizens. There are both advantages and disadvantages to this approach .

When the government gives money to schools , more people are able to get an education This is
especially important in poor and developing countries . The more people go to school, th more
money they can make, raising living standards for everyone. When the government provi es money
for university tuition , a greater number of people can get a specialised education. Citizen need that
kind of education to be innovative and that innovation helps the country prosper and co pete in the
global economy.

However, when the government provides money, this means they also control the school. The
school must succumb to government regulation or else have their money taken away. Thi

www.nhantriviet.com Cha ter 4 199

regulation makes schools inefficient. Schools work best when there is local control, rather than
control from an educational bureaucracy far away. This inefficiency harms students. It might
discourage them from learning or seeking more education, which affects the economy as a whole .

Governments can provide education to many people if they fund schools. People sometimes seek
alternatives to those public schools though. Parents dissatisfied with the curriculum there can
home school their kids or send them to private schools, where there is less government control.
There should be a balance between government-funded education and private schools.

(284 words)

TypeB
Education is certainly one of the most important necessities of life. Without it, people cannot do
their best in life. The whole of society benefits when everyone is educated to at least a minimum
standard. In this sense, the government is obligated to provide education as a free and universal
public good . There are some valid arguments against government involvement in education, though .
Different positions have to be examined in order to determine what is best for the next generation of
students.

Educating a populace is very expensive. The physical infrastructure necessary for education, such
as the school buildings themselves, electricity, water, sanitation, and transport links, is all to ensure
the best quality education . Many schools in developing countries lack one or all of them, making
education a difficult and arduous task and not conducive to good learning. The government has
the power to raise money and direct it to creating the infrastructure required for sustained learning.
Government money also needs to be used for buying supplies, such as desks and books, and
for paying teacher's salaries. It would be difficult for a local entity to raise money on its own for all
those requirements .

On the other hand, local school districts might have their own standards regarding education. If they
accept money from the government, they might be forced to educate their children in ways that are
distasteful to them. There are only a limited number of sources that can give large and continuous
amounts of money. Those sources include religious organisations and private corporations. That
money also comes with many restrictions , however, which may affect the quality of education.

In the end, it might be best for the government to fund schools. In an ideal world, a government will
represent all the people it serves . However, the government should not place onerous restrictions on
schools and teachers.

(309 words)

200 Tre best fYE'pard!IO'l for IELTS Writing www nhantriviet.com

Practice Test 3

Step 1 Analysing the Question & Brainstorming

When asked to write an essay, analyse the question, paying careful attention to what i asked.
Brainstorm some key words and phrases and use them to help you write your essay.

Topic
- Sometimes a country feels like they must choose between protecting the environ ent and
encouraging economic development.
Key expressions
- What is your opin ion on the matter?
Task
- Make a statement on the choice between protecting the environment and encoura ing eco-
nomic development.
- Use examples from your own experience to support your answer.

Introduction
- when governments develop the economy, there are a number of choices
- seems like a choice between economy and environment
Body
- governments, important actors in economic development
- health of people and environment: important for economy
Conclusion
- health is wealth
- potential to create new business and wealth through hard work

Step 2 Planning the Essay

Plan out your essay by outlining the introductory, body, and concluding paragraphs.

www nhantriviet.com Cha ter· 4 201

Introduction to the topic
1. industrialised countries : high standards of living
2. developing countries desire to have such a life
3. faced with a number of choices
4. developing the economy vs . preserving the environment
Thesis statement
5. not always black and white

Arguments
6. governments: important actors in a developing economy
7. provide start- up money, give approval for new factories
8. approval process: a source of conflict
9. for example : a hydroelectric dam vs. a clean river, clean air, healthy people
10. jobs and electricity vs. health of the environment
Justifications
11. sick people cannot work
12. a person without access to clean air, water, and food -. less productive
13. prist ine nature areas : important for the mental health of workers
14. in an undeveloped economy, the health of the labor force : important assets
15. not usually stark
16. ways to min imise the environmental impact of dams and factories
17. find ing creative solutions to provide energy or employment, finding money from organisations
wi lling to fund such projects

Restating the issue and giving some final thoughts
18. "Health is wealth"
19. developing countries : have the potential to create new business opportunities and wealth
through hard work
20. true development can happen -. healthy bodies and environment

Step 3 Finalising the Essay

Complete the sentences below, using the information given.

1. Industrialised countries are throughout the world for their high
of living.
2. The citizens of countries are to this lifestyle
through television and movies and often desire to such a life for
and thei r families .

202 He best p eparat ori for IELTS Writing www.nhantriv1et.com

www nhdntriviet. "Health is wealth . 9. but their populations still have the to create new business op ortunities and through hard 20. but also give for new factories. the government can ways to the environmental of dams and factories . however. they are with a number of 4. This can only though. and food is less 13. For example. They may not have as much money and education as cou tries. are not always so and 6. 19. When governments try to a nation's economy. Clearly. Someti mes it seems they have to between the economy and preserving the 5. if a government wants to a hydroelectric dam t provide more power. they can find m ney from willing to fund such projects." is especially for d veloping economies. 18. In an economy where the population is . and of the population . This process is often a of conflict. is absolutely to a growing economy. 8. or is undereducated. they can also find solutions to provide energy or for their population and . and other infrastructure. These governments provide money. most im portantly. Also. but the government should that the health of the environment. if their bodies and t heir environment are Step 4 Write Your Own Try writing an essay on your own. Provided below are some prompts to help you. Such decisions. the health of the labor is one of the count 's most important 15. 7. the government needs to jobs and electricity to people's living standards. Access to pristine nature areas is also for the mental health o especially in rural 14. 3. or the pproval of a factory might pollute the air and people. power pl nts. With its resources. In a globalised world . 17. 10.com Chap 0r 4 203 . 11. water. The examples above are not actually so 16. Governments are very actors in a ec nomy. they might a pristine ri ver or lake habitat. a person without to clean air. The . 12. people cannot work.

4. Sometimes it seems .com . Sometimes it seems they have to choose between developing the economy and preserving the environment. 19. a person without . Industrialised countries are 2. 5. When governments try to develop a nation's economy. Such decisions. The citizens of developing countries are exposed to this lifestyle through television and movies and often desire to have such a life for themselves and their families. 16. Access to pristine nature areas is . 9. The examples stated above are not actually so stark . . 8. however.nhantriviet. are not always so black and white . Governments are very important actors in a developing economy. Type A Industrialised countries are envied throughout the world for their high standards of living. if a government wants to approve a hydroelectric dam to provide more power. The citizens of developing countries are 3. 1. Also. are not always so black and white. When governments try to develop a nation's economy. 12. power plants. In a globalised world . 14. however. This approval process is often a source of conflict. . Such decisions. The saying . if their bodies and their environment are healthy. they might destroy 204 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. They may 20. For example. they are faced with a number of choices." is especially true for developing economies. In an undeveloped economy 15. Model Answer Read and compare the two model essays below. Clearly. and other infrastructure. . With its resources. 17. but also give approval for new factories. they can also find creative solutions to 18. "Health is wealth . the government can . 7. Pay attention to effective ways of presenting arguments for and against and sentence structures. These governments not only provide . 13. 6. These governments not only provide start-up money. Sick people cannot work. 10. Governments are . the government needs to 11. This approval process is .

This can only happen though. but their populations still ave the potential to create new business opportunities and wealth through hard work.com . water. therefore it means more pollution which leads to global warming . With its resources. they can find money from organisations willing to fund such pr ~ects. Clearly. Soon. Slowly. but surely. but the government should understand that the health of the environment and of the population. The main advantage of encouraging economic development is that. especially in rural areas. if their bodies and their environment are healthy. the Earth Nill no longer be inhabitable. or the approval of a factory might pollute the air and icken people. the governm nt can find ways to minimise the environmental impact of dams and factories. the health of the labor force is one of the country's most important a sets. such actions are extremely hazardous to our natural environment. which means there are m :ire jobs available for them as well. and we must ~ rotect it. Developing new cities offers advantages such as provic ing more businesses in the area for the convenience of citizens. "Health is wealth . the government deforests mountains to make new cities. However." is especially true for developing economies. and food is less productive. is absolutely essential to a growing economy. (2fi4 words) www rha'1triv1et. a pristine river or lake habitat. To sum up. which ruins the ecosystem. a person without access to clean air. there will be more housing. They may ot have as much money and education as industrialised countries. As a result. We can benefit from both. Sick people cannot work. a country must be careful when making a decision between protecting the environ- ment and encouraging economic development . alth< ugh we must be careful when we make a decision. In an undeveloped economy where the population is small. most importantly. they can also find creative solutions to provide energy or employment for their popula ion and . The Earth is the only place humans live. (3 4 words) TypeB Sometimes the government of a country faces a difficult decision between protecting he environment and encouraging economic development. Also. o is undereducated. but people will also be affected. we will suffer from the effects of global warming. When the ecosystem is greatly disturbed . The best way is to preserve as much n ::iture as possible by building environmentally friendly cities where people and animals can coexist without harming one another. The examples stated above are not actually so stark. the government needs to provide jobs and electricity to improve peopl 's living standards. Access to pristine nature areas is also important for the mental health of orkers. The saying . Deforesttttion takes away habitats for many animals. I ewer forests means more cities. The housing situation has been a very difficult task to deal with because of the diffen nee between the land available and the population. not only do animals suffer or die. In a globalised world.

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increases 7. rapidly 8. drops. initial. further 9. 11. cities ones where the majority of women are 11. when it is higher than Seattle's. different. in both cities without health insurance starts 3. same. slightly. 10. over. only. from 1985 to 1995. fifty-year 12. seen 8. down . is quite a bit lower than in 1981 whereas 5. increases. is a steady twenty-year rise with no decrease Seattle's percentage is in the rate of 6. shown are Boston 3. of employed women in 2005 than in 1985 private. than. ownership 10. uninsured. fewest . shown. shown 3. shows. steady 4. employed. about. interval 2. except. steady. shows the percentage of people in two different cities without health insurance 1. noticeable 6. higher. without. year 2. falls . until 9. women employed then drops slightly and is a percentage lower 10. Though . shows. the percentage of women employed in four 8. private. continuously 4. exception. insurance 2. first. 3. rise. whereas. no. about 8. lower Practice Test 1 1.Part I Task 1 Skills for Practice Test 2 Report Writing and Practice 1. to. Korea. the USA and France are the only decreased 9. period . Boston's percentage starts decreasing quite rapidly 1. countries. Seattle sees a steeper majority 6. both cities see an increase 10. After. Afghanistan. percentage of people who were uninsured sl ightly. chart. rate 6. shown 3.nhantriviet. owned. saw. mid-century employed in 232 The best preparation for IELTS Writing www. Afghanistan's percentage of 7. different. for the USA. for 11.com .45 continuously 1. other. there is a substantial drop to about 10 percent Chapter 2 Bar Graph in 8. shows a steady increase from off the same in 1981 and eventually settles at 4. lower 5. vehicles 7. goes. both Boston and Seattle had nearly the same substantial. shows. uninsured 4. seen . most. rose 5. higher. and France downward from 9. greater. lower. steeper 6. nearly. Around. around 7. employed women falls slightly in the first five years of the period shown then increases Step 3 lfilnalising the Report p. uninsured starts falling soon afterwards but then starts rising again 7. later 5. initial rise in the percentage of the uninsured . 5. falling . for 2. For. all countries have a higher percentage period 4. countries over an interval the graph shows that percentage goes 2. Chapter 1 Line Graph settles 10. down further Practice Test 1 9. drop.

than .51 1. there were still many more vehicles on the road at Chapter 3 Pie Chart the end of the 20th century than there Practice Test 7 Practice Test 2 Step 3 'i=fnalising the Report · p. Unity. used to enjoy baseball went on to njoy the number of private cars out of all the cities other sports shown 11 . that perce age and 8. cities on the chart. steep 13. cars in 2000 was greater than the number of substantial decrease in the percent ge that cars in 1950. share. 2000 there was no noticeable rise in the number them was quite 6. is the only city on the chart to have seen a population said they enjoyed year-to-year decrease 10. said. 2000 and 2005. enjoyed 4. people. 25% of he 7. the percentage of the population who enjoyed playing football more than doubled from www rha'ltriviet. Progress.com Ans•vus 233 . which s 10. that the number of privately owned cars increased substantially over 12. though. 1. substantial 11. larger 5. present in the congress of Country is 2. people who said they liked to swim decreased 3. 5. 3. ot that. shows the breakdown of Country X' congress 2. they hold more than a third of 3. only. expressed their interest in skiing an but by the year 2000 had about 2. 15 years. people throughout the 20-year peri d fewest number of private cars in the 1950's. Los Angeles and London had the most 13. less than each city over the 20% of people asked said they 4. the second biggest share is the Pro ress party the number of people who said they with nearly a quarter 4. it shows what percent of the population enjoyed them regularly over 5. quarter 7.5 snowboarding and in 2005. are the Prosperity. people said they enjoyed all the sp rts in the car ownership chart. skiing/snowboarding 4. the number of private cars rose for thirty years 7. majority. swimming. majority 11. 10. exception of Tokyo from 1980 onward.5o unaffiliated 4. h 1. New York City 6. congress 5. first . the percentage of the population w o enjoyed 5. Increasing . a I. less. 2000. seats slight. After. slowed.Write Your Own · . to 8. and in that year. last 6.-· ·" p. quite congressional 9. the only sport shown on the chart t at saw a 8. 1985. except. year. each. For. Perhaps Step 4 . football saw very slight increases in 6. population . W~ite Yo·u~~ 0 Step 4 '. Los Angeles both saw substantial increases in 12.-. coalition . are London. regularly 3. playing. Finally. largest. doubled 8. about 12. 6. Tokyo. fell. Beijing. of private cars in five cities from the year increase slowed during the 2. though he rate of 1. people who said they enjoyed golf i creased steadily from 1985 to 2005. several 2. except for baseball . a category for unaffiliated golf . less 7. interest 10. the percentage fell to about 9. shows information on several sports: football. with. number of different trends that can be seen for from 1985 to 1995. steadily. decreased . the number of private vehicles said they actually 11. Beijing started with the 9.

year. divided. successful. that 7. groups 6. that the vaccination was only halfway success- ful were 40%. it can be seen that 13% of the people who were vaccinated had a 7. it seems there is a whi ch. dropped 10. which means 7% of all congress people do not belong 10. slowly 3. glance at the charts. exception. shows the results of a vaccination among certain 4. substantial.60 1. and the Liberty party both have less than 20% Chapter 4 Complex Type (1) of all Line Graph + Bar Graph 8. in congress has 1. halfway however. continuing 5. vaccination . large. said. failure. tested people stated that the vaccination was partly successful and 11 % of the test subjects 10. past. failure J correlation between the substantial rise of C02 in the atmosphere and the slowly rising temperatures of 111+. mostly successful . or the three other parties amount 4. seems. the data shows only London having successful . divided into five different categories: completely 5. all . trend. Prosperity and any other party would give seems. with the average temperature for four cities . categories pared to the levels of carbon dioxide (C02) 3. minuscule. temperature. there seems to be a clear correla- 7. 11. exception. overall . them a majority. r 011" . general . not completely successful and not 234 WWW rrd'ltrivie . warmer Practice Test 2 Step 3 Finalising the Report p. average. there is a large rise in C02 continuing to 2. rises . glance.. it continued said that it was not 11. after. though : from 1850 to 1900. recorded 8. atmosphere 2. average. partly successful 6. people said that the vaccination 8. though has a larger share at 19% whereas the Liberty party Practice Test 9. low. results . records 6. even though the vaccination has a tion in the past 250 years between the rise in C02 levels in the atmosphere and warmer L very low failure rate at 11 %. the average temperature in 6. tested . that do exist show a general rise in 5. an unaffiliated category. the average temperature in four cities com- 1. halfway. 7. exist. the C02 level rises only a minuscule amount from 1. the group stated results that were in between . Los Angeles are recorded from 1850 and Seoul only has 4. which is the largest percentage 9. successful 5. records start fifty 3. among 2. all 7. together could have a coalition of over 50 % temperature. chart.1 3. continued 11. vaccinated 4. 2. rise 9. rate 8. the completely successful rate at 13% temperatures for the four cities 8.

third 10. reflective. electricity. winter. decreasing. the 11 . shows monthly electricity use for h useholds 4. first. vice 11. much. clear. increases 9. after that only 2 million 9. covers the same period but year's electricity is used each seas . diffe nces number. 9. next. with trend from the Korean household sector usin over 12 8. After. summer. show clear seasonal differences i the amount 11. whenever one number rises. Chapter 5 Complex Type (2) Chapter 6 Complex Typ (3) Line Graph + Pie Chart Bar Graph + Pie hart Practice Test Practice Test Step 3 '' Emill!sing ·the Report p. electricity. data. disproport onate. until 6. participants. season years 3. 3. a pie chart that shows what perce of the 3. opposite increases 5. Rather. winter sports participation is opposite of the 6. a pie chart. n for all shows the number of 3. summer 12. the number billion kilowatts of energy just duri g the of people participating in winter sports 7. heat.>m A'l VI"' 235 . numbers fall until 2004. deer ases. each. of one year. 8. about 70% of all elec ricity is used other falls during the 12. then decreases again until Octobe after which sports it increases in 6. in millions. amount. seem. higher. during the years the 1. in the pie chart is also reflective 9. correlated 6. is a bar graph that shows how mu 2. households. of 1988-2004. are also higher in the winter than t increases from 8. from one Olympic year to the next. monthly. the people played winter sports. spring 8. slight 5. :· 1. a line graph . weather Step 4 Write Your Own 1. the number of people participating in summer 4. held 2. during 7. year. Those. 1s . 1. that. show the number of sports participants. four. extreme. sports. differences numbers. negatively 11 . of electricity is used during the su mer. people playing winter sports and summer percentage used in the sports seems to 10. the pie chart shows that there is a slight declining from January to April. showing. greatest. one. an then rising decrease of summer sports participants from for the next three 5. less than a third percentage of electricity used in t e winter of the and summer is clearly much large than the 10. might be attributed to extra energ being used to cool and heat homes wwvv '1'1 rnt<iv et c. household 2. shows the number of people is used each month in Korea by playing summer sports every four years from 2. rising 4.. there are almost twice as many people playing 5. shows information for all sectors i Korea. fall of the electricity used each mo th is summer sports than there correlated 7. larger 10. participants 4. almost 7.

changes seen on the line graphs are for below US$100 billion 4. more than 80 percent of Americans ate more 6. show the least amount 12. Compared. people in France who ate more vegetables does not seem to also increased slightly over 11 . dramatic 4. but shows the percentage of the popula- tion that eats more than three servings of 5. slightly 9. slightly 13.nhantrviet. same. per 2. where eating meat and eating vegetables might 14. period . incremental . rise in the number of people who ate more military spending in 2005 I numbers one and than three servings of meat per day: from 20% two for GDP growth in 1950 to about 11. had the highest growth rate among those 5. about 8. is very striking because there is one country 2. number had fallen twelve countries. spending 10. number. 100 1. correlated 14. down . two different statistics for the same group of 2. saw.92 Step 3 ~ lising the Report p. saw. statistics. least 12.inalising the Report p. exist never. incremental change in France and India's num- bers hardly 236 H:. Going down the rankings I has a slightly more than three servings of meat per day in smaller rate of growth the 1950's. shows.. but by 2000 the percentage rose to 9. slightly 11. more. most. other. according to military spending 1. the percentage of people who ate more than three servings of meat per day never went above 10 percent and the percentage of people who ate more than three servings of vegetables per day went from 80 percent in 1950 and increased slightly to more than 90% 13. are numbers two and three. top. United States. ate 5. twelve. 3. bar graph is more balanced than three servings of 7. Chapter 7 Multiple Type (1) Chapter 8 Multiple Type (2) Line Graph + Line Graph Bar Graph + Bar Graph Practice Test Practice Test Step 3 F. respectively. balanced 7. such a relationship between the two numbers 10. consumption. spent more than US$400 billion in 2005 whereas the next eleven countries are well 3. striking . went in percent in 2005 7. group 2. occurring. growth 11 . the gross domestic product growth for those that eats more than three servings of meat per same twelve nations day for three countries from 4. 1. correlation . growing 8. graph shows the percentage of the population 3. less. different. 10. hardly . gross 4. relationship . habits 9. covers.com . I its GDP by almost ten 6. of the United States population consumed 8. respectively. per 1. for 9. more. the most change occurring in the United States. about according 3. 6. consumed whereas 6. France and India saw much less military spending and GDP growth change in 10. test i:-reparat1or 'er IH TS Wr1t1ng www. went. opposite 7. above. the other hand . onward. fallen. seem to be an obvious correlation between 8. stands 5. graph covers the same time period and coun- that clearly stands out from the rest tries. growth. spent.

the figure for the year 2000 is low r than I 9. cleanl ness. at. more 5. three 2. average. than. tourists. qu Iity. important 3. increase 6. highest 9. people who are older than 65 . fou r. 8. 11.com An wers 237 . meaning. 10. estimated 13. will be people who are 41 to 65 Practice Test 2 12. 14. rated . largest of all age groups 11. birthrates . show the age structure for Country X in three I food at ten-year intervals different years 2. record for the year 2050 3. food 11. sexes price. than . structure. lowest. Korea. continual decrease at every ten-ye r interval 4. Another 12. rate. de rease. Th e sole exception and the rest was over 65 12. change 8. over 7. go 8. age. household. males. the ratio for the two younger age groups is pre. consisted of people who were 41 to 65 at 13%. population . lower 4. exception 12. followed . high 9. rest . overall. lowest 10. big gest 6. decrea s 7. decrea e. rate. fall rising . qualities. 13. over 9. veryone. throughout 1. older. amenities. trend ~ rel ated . 3. thirty. continued to go down I went up i the year 27% 2000 6. quality. ag e. income spent on food is lower I th n it is in 3. given about five specific countries 2. previous. was people between the ages of 41 and 65. 65 11. value. Chapter 9 Multiple Type (3) Chapter 10 Table Pie Chart + Pie Chart Practice Test Practice Test 1 1. shows a great change in the population ratio seem be rising . income spent on food decreases 5. location 6. the United States has the lowest alue 7. given . by 5. under five 3. Almost all countries I show a stea y decrease 20 and 40 I income spent on food 8. was people between the ages of 20 and 40 at 7. rated 11 . sh ows that 53% of the population of the 5. the average percentages of house old income 1. r ings . the figu res listed I the highest val e and over 65 at 7% 9. th roughout the world lower 10. between . figures. acco modation 12. differences. income. under. re lated to falling birthrates which are happening women 8. shows that there were about 34% of people who were under 20 I 28% of people between 10. younger 7. predicted. four categories which are based on different 1950 age groups 4. all. accommodation 2. based. food . female. percentage. lowe seems . an initial increase country was under 20 6. age. agreement WWW nra'ltrlVlet. categories. figure . interval 5. wi ll be lower than the two previous years I 18% an d 14% for people 20 to 40 . rest . age 4. lower. dicted to fall I is likely to increase tremendously separated . a trend seen 10. estimated 1. and younger than 20 1. projection . intervals 2. record.

bill. then sent back to both parts of the Congress 3. oil 10. heats . can introduce a bill that they want to become 13. approve. distillation process I separates different 12. there is a conference committee where any 1. shows. process . approve. chemical 8. price seems to be more important to younger 11. temperature 6. but males under thirty rated cleanliness much lower Practice Test 2 10. first before the full House or Senate can vote on it 8. voted Chapter 11 Progress l10. that take place in Congress before the bill is sent to the President to be signed into law 1. go through extra chemical processing to 7. expressed the importance of cleanliness. chemical. regardless of sex from crude oil 5. with a one meaning that the qual. seem to value the location of their accommo. two-thirds 14. Members. male and female . crude oil is refined into differences in the bill are talked about 2. he can veto it. approve. is aviation and automotive gasoline I separated at a temperature of 150°C 1. storage. separated 9. through. rated very important by women of all become a finished product 8. President 11. goes from storage into a steam 9. into different products dation more than younger people 13. separates 5. which is distilled at 200°C 2. goes. is separated at 400°C I products like lubricant. two main steps in getting finished products people. kerosene. and then into different age 10. between male and female tourists and between 3. meaning it does not pass products 238 neb c.l t 0 I fo IE l ~) Writt'lll www r>rdntriv1et. finished 12. steam 4. House. separated at 300°C I fuel oil is separated 3. go through more 'cracking . According . accommodation vote 8.' or chemical through ten. through the Senate separated 6. lubricant 5. separation. place tourists of different ages. introduce 7. is heating the oil I followed by distillation. where males under the age of thirty gave that quality the lowest ranking on the table. heaviest. when they look for 6. but everyone else rated it highly 1. lightest. what qualities are important to tourists when they choose accommodation 6. final.t p 'J:-.com . the bill is sent to the President 4. it seems to be the other way around 12. pass 13. Step 4 Write Your Own 5. do not rate this quality as high 9. fuel . place 11. shows the simplified process of how a bill Practice Test 1 becomes a law in the United States of America 2. distillation 4. a variety of tourists to rate them from one 7. distilled 7. refined . or 6. law 12. aviation. Senate 5. though. groups for both sexes wax and asphalt 4. procedures. through . paths 4. differences 9. case --. the House of Representatives and the other is 3. to. become a law 7. both. veto. most. ~- 1. processing ity is not at all important. bill 2. heats the oil to 600°C I goes through the to be voted on again distillation 10. separated at higher temperatures that the quality is extremely important 9. go . are largely the same 11. majority. products 2. override. and a ten meaning 8. to.

viet. helps students to make I not jus solve 12. neither. fo rced . 6.com A1 SW re. 1. 239 . prepare. lived . open . can save the company from waste effort 16. required 7. neither " liberal . young . creative. still necessary in today 's world I isagree w ith 6. necessary. helps 8. workers rise to their full potential 17. on practical skills I prepare stude ts for future 5. knows a different perspective I him and his company in the fut ure 12. differ nt. usually as open as young peopl e to new ideas their company get ahead I are more experienced 13. disagree. experienced 12. as. potential 17. capable. misunderstand .nhcrtr. a candidate for any well -paying j b I have at 3. rise.Part II Task 2 Essay 13. thinking 2. reads. as. ideas economical ly 11 . interested . weaknesses 5. to have many different and new id as I bad to waste time and money on ideas Writing Skills and 14. market . th eir creative process I synth esize ideas from a skills wide variety of sources 7. perspective. fields like engineering I need ve specialized 7. have. are less capable in th eir work I are less least a university degree creative than younger people 3. business other 17. focus 15. where technology I are changing faster and faster I recognize change I react to it I help 11 . job. changing . s ills. focus 9. wasted recogn ize. they are creative in different ways both Chapter 1 Agree or Disagree contribute to the strength of a bus ness Practice Tes t 1 Practice Test 2 1. exposed to wider market forces I benefit from 8. situ ations 13. is 60 years old I several good working years 2. take 16. surfing the Internet reads an article about busi . young people and older people I strengths and perspective weaknesses 4. contribute. liberal 1 O. suit. potential 15. 8. waste. becoming . liberal . some liberal arts education ness networking 8. better which ideas have good pote t ial and Practice whi ch ideas are dead ends 15. 14. p ying . have. not be interested in such an artic le I may never 10. enefit futu re 11. just about "theories I critical thin ing processes 10. company 2. Even 3." politically I nor i it even encounter it 11 . competition 2. 16. leave. provide • Step 4 Write :Vour • 1. specialized . networking future 5. desired for a job I to have a 'fresher' perspec . make. situations. open 7. creative . job markets tive in life 5. stren gths. misunderstand what a broad edu ation means 9. stereo- type. tu rn a certain age I forced or asked to leave 1. unpredictable. hel p. more open to new ideas I to new ways of doing the statement I focus on practica learning busi ness 6. react 13. perspective 4. worked for more years I lived through many different situations www. 6. experienced . perspective degree 3. means 9. disagree. younger 4. worked . ideas. in today's market economy I hav a broad 4. exposed . encounter 10. solve 14. save. becoming more open I them to gl bal market the company I they work forces I increasing competition 2.

raised . purposely. why. most situations in life I to take extreme that is learned and the personal contacts positions made I help them to be successful 16. takes 18. is often paid a salary based on 5. disadvantages. support. controversial kind of business 6. disadvantages. seek. build 6. worth . lure. attracts many people purposely omit their higher educational degrees 8. provide. gets. provide employment I bring money to 5. gives. degrees 10. pursue. opportunities. 14. degree 6. qualifications 7. businesses 2. equips 2. desire. be used to provide I reduce other taxes to acquire them 1 0. however 14. involves a level of specialization I for under- 11. were. people with the skills I survive in life tourists 17. disagree with the statement I pursue anything 3. become. businesses. borders are more open I seek to attract those other 16. helping 20. deemed. gives. spending . make.com . problem. gambling 5. dream of going to I to enhance I business imaginary 19. 1. open up different kinds of opportunities I able 9. 17. paid 8. why a candidate is deemed "overqualified I 6. options casinos 8. reduce . more 15. hiring 16. money 7. attract new businesses degree 2. different skill sets I suit them better than the 15. disagree. profitable. to get a master's degree -.-------- 18. those with master's degrees and doctorates I 7. does not make I a waste of money governments 11. provide I to the people of the tribe I bring graduates money I impoverished areas 240 rre bf> St pr 'P r 2t10 I for I ELTS Writing www. raise . reduce 10. Rather. 1. field. successful 15. enjoy having the chance I large amounts of might be a problem I the applicant's salary money 9. raise standards of living more than a bachelor's degree 4. taxing 9. the means and the desire I pursue a master's 1. undergraduates 13. taxes. I advantage 14. controversial . bring 3. attract. 2. areas 12. provide. with . infrastructure. hard. borders. recognize 19. impoverished. lose 21. with the notion I focus only on one type of 13. master's. waste.157 12. desire to continue I beyond the undergraduate career 4. desire. increasingly unpredictable I provide the widest portunities elsewhere range of skills 17. degrees. salary. waste. gives a person an advantage over higher education 14. become much more common 12. Rather than I gives people more options Practice Test 3 Step 3 ~g the Essay p. salary Practice Test 1 9. having. find. economy 13. build. common 11. with a higher education build them 8. Disadvantages bachelor's. opportunities living 4. end up working I unrelated to their degree I 15. build 18. those 16. enhance 3. 150 1. beyond Chapter 2 Advantages and 4. money 11. recognize this effort 19. acquire Step 3 ~g the Essay p. pursue 5. advantages. traffic . specialization. have both advantages and disadvantages I 7.nhantriviet. be very profitable I bring lots of money I local 10. careful prospects 3. hard to find a job I have good employment op- 17. open.

small 4. home. owning 10. buy. easi r 6. place . new money to be spent I helping people with 20. happier because he or she owns I becomes 13. animals 2. making. benefits. home 11. society 1. feel . need 15. seen tremendous changes 2. fill 12. raised animals for food 5. useful. not in their home I go to another h use I in 7.161 5. both advantages and disadvantag s 5. advantages of owning a pet 7. contact rush 18. for a pet owner to spend too much o take 16. they can 't give advice I in a time of need 14. continue to live together 19. 16. changes 2. 12. has a downside better 14. spend 18. responsible and caring I benefit th selves money 21. allow. have to weigh I worth the trouble to build frivolous goods 18. have to be very careful I decided to build Practice Test 3 Practice Test 2 1. have emotional companionship 8. la dlines 1. changed Step 3 <~ Finalising the Essay p. disadvantages 7. good for the local economy I lose all their 21. respond . food 17. it cannot talk I fill that role 9. feeling. own. satisfaction. contribut s. raised . gathering. house. make calls anywhere 9. Owning examine. disadvantages. tacitly support I were in that imaginary situation 19. dependent 15. as. make. owns. own pet animals distances 4. allow people to communicate aero s great 3. of 12. emotional 7. emergency 11. creatures. be. hard 8. is raised from new taxes I has to be spent on 16. ben efit the economy or society I m ney on 17. advantages and disadvantages of owning a pet 6. greatly changed communications 2. offending 17. to find that companionship from other people order to make a call 8. calls 4. changed 19. negative 16. attention 10. social creatures I for people to hav some sort economy of contact 13. bring more money I local businesses I help the 13. caring. a. satisfaction from taking care of what is happening 12. m ke. water and food 12. talk. Owning a pet 15. needed. costs. not reduce the pollution I tourists coming to care of town to hit 18. future 20. several disadvantages I have faced I they build 14. advice. it easier to plan outings 10. more traffic and more crime 15. relatively more affordable I come 1. technology 14. aware. dogs 8. informati n 9. no. owning 5. disadvantages. not. feel like they are needed I need a lot of 10. useful in emergency situations attention 11. bulky 3. used to be bulky 3. whole. care. money to buy special pet food improving I hiring more police 17. plans. question . living creatures I playtime. been living together 4. make. owning 21. h ar. dependent on cell phones www 11hdntriv1et. food 3. making detailed plans I get inform tion on 11 . benefit 19.com Ans ver~ 241 . possible. a few disadvantages I owning a pe 20. creatures. be made over landlines 6. support . busy. 14. seen. beneficial. taking. advantages. call 9. cost 6. require 13. better 13.

engineered . encourage. expensive. help parents choose the best genes ing to prevent other customers I second-hand 9. clones 8. involve 12. smoke . reduce 18. Unlike . genetically engineered to I produce goods 12. travels through the air I breathed in I who choose not to smoke 7. sure they are giving their children the best hair chance I from the very start 10. give us new weapons I the ravages of aging 8. no armies of clones 7. workplaces 3. sense 14. organisms. irrefutable evidence I of research to support 5. cautious. biotechnol- 6. limited to smokers themselves 6. freedom . create pressure to respond I risk offending the 14. aging 8. research 17. produce 13. places. Genetic. biomedical 16. acquaintances 16. used implemented 4. inhaling. transplant. non-smoking . limited . signal to smokers I habits are dirty and 18. fair. eliminating . bio - habits 17. inadequate. support 3. smokers to reduce aware of their negative effects 18. side. encourage. flexible .11s Step 3 ~lising the Essa~ 1. travels. production of many goods I involve 11 . choosing 13. people themselves are not perfect 4. themselves 7. agree very strongly I they should be implemented 3. produced. prevent. sticks 10. genetic . how 10. become Step 4 Write Your Own 1. discoveries. choose. lungs genes 9. themselves 4. between "smoking" and "non-smoking" I noth. researchers 5. neither 2. contributes to I has to rush through everything 16. kills 4. no longer be able to smoke 2. take jobs I in order to survive 12. cost. scientific . discourage 19. maximizing 14. used by humans for good or evil 3. second-hand 7. production . neither good nor evil 2. fiction 6. not be able to choose I smart or good-looking smoke a child will be 9. as flexible as others I choosing a place cheaply 242 fhe best p 0 parat O'l 'or IELTS Writing www . ban smoking I has been successful 1. kills 5.CO'Tl . no question that I changed people's lives offensive 19. common to hear people I left their phone at 13. evidence. effects. successful 2. 1. minus. there are many benefits I examine them I 17. terrible addiction I government to discourage smoking 19. individual . cloning. cule 15. strongly. 11 . 9. cancer. weapons. obviating govern ment. for smokers are inadequate I sticks to people's 10. Limiting . in science fiction is not practical 6. smokers . start 11. 15. addiction . from . chance. breathed ogy. Limiting the number I a smoker can light up I people to quit Chapter 3 To What Extent Practice Test 7 Practice Test 2 Step 3 ~g the Essay p. to cancer causing smoke I fair. choose . 8. Medicines. leaves that area I find their way 11. survive 12. nor does it home I insecure or even vulnerable make economic sense 16. perfect.'I ha ntriviet. common places I acquaintances to meet 17. far more expensive I smoke-free other person 15. leaves . quit 15. ban. very cautious about advancements I much freedom as possible to researchers 5. beginning .

abroad. s stem. hough Practice Tes t 3 g tile Essay p. and expensive. not very useful 6. o send 7. fu ding succeed 20. appearance planet's 3. lau ching. ethic 22. does not learn the foreign language quickly. experience . travel. especially human beings into outer space if the native. difficult. opportu- 5. though .184 1. planets 8. different. very complicated . not the best idea for everyone age young children I become scientists and 21. will ften research ways they are treated differently based on their "space" technology "Asian " appearance 243 . overcome. u manned nities 15. In . foreign. For those who are strong enough . space. space 6. abroad. benefits. best. going abroad offers many opportun ties 14. immigrate. depends on the growth of new talent I encour. move to a foreign country to start a new life tists and engineers are 5. opportunities 19. treated . Practice Test 1 language 7. about ho much guage. future. network. abroad. eliminating any chance of rejection I obviating 15. used 16. complicated . foreign . research. impa- tient 8. foreign. like China. provided 14. 12. one of the most homogenous countries in the their own space programmes world 9. Emerging powers. be done better with unmanned pr bes and 9. careers 18. explore. the language barrier 5. especially where they speak a different lan. problem 11 . humans. 3. exposed. everyone 6. beneficial. communication 17. social 18. improving. not only to universities for research I to primary 18. challenge. made for each specific individual. waste. emigrates. start 5. international 12. A family that takes advantage of ec nomic op- schools portunities and works hard 17. careful 4. needs to lift all restrictions that can help their careers and thei social life 16. capabilities 1. do not have the language ability or work ethic researchers to succeed in a country not of thei birth 22. located. how creative and ingenious our pl net's scien- 4. also become part of an internation I network 15. 13. 10. inspiring 2. technology. funded . study. Manned. solar. abroad 17. know 16. be very careful. advantage. fluent speaker is impatient 6. ere tive. communication. 13. challenges. help 9. move. everyone 21. business. they might be shocked to discover the many 10. the same exact technology used f r missiles I 12. who want to experience another culture study abroad for a few years 2. language 10. vehicles life will be much harder for them 8. to other countries for a variety of reasons 3. shocked . people 2. frustrating. open __. with other people can be frustrating. general 9. diverted . presents many challenges and is not money we spend on the space pr gramme the best option for everyone 4. mann d. abroad 4. 20. pessimistic 14. also dangerous to encourage cou tries to have 11. homogenous 1. send 2. speak. minimizing 13. depressed or too pessimistic side effects 14. reasons Chapter 4 Your Opinio 3. Most. astronauts. sent. ability. understand 15. countries 7. usef I 13. countries. are located in several different cou tries the need for 17.

control 12. make. also control the school should be led and funded 12. develop. potential . small. choose. developing. taken 13. start-up money. developing. knowledge. tuition. inefficient the civilian sector 14. standards 2. be diverted into other social programmes or schools tax cuts. undeveloped .nhdntriv et co. black. people a chance to succeed in life 2. find . employment. discourage them from learning or seeking 15. provides. destroy. inefficient 14. envied throughout the world for their high 3. home. saying . organisations 18. support 4. sicken 10. education. for university tuition. government-funded education and private Practice Test 2 l schools Practice Test 3 1. poor and developing countries 4.. important. raising living standards economy and preserving the environment for everyone 6. learning. but also give approval for new ple can get a specialised education factories. a network where people can support and help standards of living each other socially and in business 2. they are faced with a number of choices 7.. money they can make. 11. from funding space programmes have their money taken away 13. education 7. not. Unmanned missions to explore outer space 11. only. envied. it is important to a whole know our surroundings 17. that kind of education to be innovative and 8. innovation. so important. harms 16. 4. succumb. chance 2. choices 11. power plants. wealth . fund 18. affects. seek alternatives to those public schools though humans into space 19. compete have. alternatives. exposed. work. improve. Sick 12. creative. friends 3. important. access. more people are able to get an education 3. Governments. important. where there is less government control 20.. essential 11. often a source of conflict that innovation helps the country prosper and compete in the global economy www. control. a greater number of peo. work 20. citizens 6. whole start-up. themselves 3. environment 5. stated. developing 7. public 19. us understand our place in the universe 16. and other infrastructure 10. doubt. 7. which affects the economy as ever travel to other stars. succumb to government regulation or else 12. provide. 15. regulation . developing 8. impact 17. form. true 19. control understand. people want the government to movies and often desire to have such a life for provide education for all its citizens themselves and their families 6. assets 15. areas 14. source 17. they have to choose between developing the 8. beings will never live on any other planets or more education . private ductive 13. specialised 10. force . exposed to this lifestyle through television and 4. . approval . industrialised . healthy 1. than white 6. minimise. very important actors in a developing economy 9. happen . approve. it is also where people meet most of their friends in life 1. space technology has provided new goods for 13. It is a waste of money to send 18. number. provide. 1. approval 8. gives people basic knowledge and skills . provide education to many people if they fund 17. faced . provides.. pro- 20. dissatisfied. balance. stark 16. 9. Schools work best when there is local control 14. standards 9. education. important.

lation and. Printed media sees a very slow decrease in the average number of hours a person spent per week reading them. after which. For most of the time pe iod shown. The hours spent on the Int met show a different trend. productive (191 words) 13. find ways to minimise the environmental impact 1990 to 2005. water. they might destroy a pristine river or hours by 2005. the health of the labor force is one of The line graph shows the average nu er of hours the country's most important assets a person spent on various kinds of media from 16. It can be assumed the Internet. the a erage goes living standards. or is underedu. radio. it oscillates. on the other hand. The number of hours spent on printed still have the potential to create new business material in 1990 was at 7 hours w ich continu- opportunities and wealth through hard work ously fluctuated but then decreased o 2. the number of hours spent Test 1_Line Graph on television and printed materi decreased over the years. if a government wants to ap. or the approval of a factory might though. lake habitat. especially in rural areas 14. goes down faster. but the government should up to almost 15 hours in 2005. where the population is small . For example. T e years are 17.COr1 245 . They then steadily ent up from 0 hours to 2. the hours show a tremendous increas to about 14 Writing Task 1 hours. The media includes t evision. Model Answer 2 cated . It seems t at the sub- a growing economy stantial rise of the Internet. radio. also important for the mental health of workers. From 2 01 to 2005. access to clean air. the of dams and factories Internet. and food is less fect on the average number of hours f television. ha a great ef- 12. The Inter- The average number of hours spent per person per net showed the greatest increase d television week is shown for four types of media: television. not have as much money and education as significantly to just over 17 hours er week by industrialised countries. although radio did not show tremendous chan e. showed the greatest decrease. provide jobs and electricity to improve people's media. and printed material. provide energy or employment for their popu. shown in five-year intervals. Radio.5 hours 20. This can only happen though by 2005. sees prove a hydroelectric dam to provide more a very slight increase in the average number of power. The average for television also decreases very slow at first until the 1990's. The average for he Internet pollute the air and sicken people changes the most dramatically among all types of 10. Radio started at just unde 4 hours in 1990 and slowly increased to just u der 5 hours by 2005. Two categories of media end up having a lower (229 words) average in 2005 than in 1990 while the other two categories end up having higher ones. though.5 hours by 2001. The hours f r television projects gradually decreased until 1998. most importantly. is absolutely essential to much over the time period. and t en dropped 19. Printed material and the radio do not hange that and of the population. The infor- that the significant change of the In met had an mation given is for the years 1990 to 2005. but their populations 2005. effect on watching television. From zero hours in 1990. and printed material. they can find An average person spent 25 hours a eek watch- money from organisations willing to fund such ing television in 1990. As an overall trend. The hours spent on fi st started to Part Ill Actual Tests appear in 1993. it WWW rr d'ltriv1et. understand that the health of the environment. while the number of hours spent on the radio and the Internet increa ed. 9.

The oil price then started to increase again.5 days US$85. Chinese workers have the most number of working days lost due to work- This bar graph shows the number of lost work. Saudi Arabia exported the most oil in 2005 with about 9 million barrels per day going to other countries. Model Answer 2 The number steadily decreased over the years. America. 246 . China in millions of barrels. (188 words) In case of Germany. the price working days lost per worker. From 1970 to around 1980. the number of days lost the chart. In 2005. the highest figure on of one barrel of oil goes from less than US$9 to the chart. China shows the same trend in 2005. ally so that by the years 2001-2005 there are 1O though. For Germany. of oil is about US$55 . ing days per worker due to on-the-job injuries for (198 words) several countries. China. the UAE. The number then dropped to and reached US$15 per barrel by the middle of 5. The among the countries shown. Russia is in second Model Answer 2 place with about 7 million barrels of oil being ex- ported. One can see some general trends. the top six oil-exporting countries 5 days per worker.5 days between 1996 and 2000. graph shows three different time periods. Korea. lost working days occurred the most between 1991 and 1995 at over 3 days. the number reached just The line graph shows the price of oil per barrel under 2.5. America and Korea both saw Model Answer 1 increases in the number of days lost and had very similar statistics from 1991 to 2005. it went up from about US$9 to over On average. and Brazil. in millions of both countries started at over 2. the price of oil has continually gone days lost due to injury. The second trend. The 2 million barrels of oil per day. The next four countries export significantly This bar graph shows the number of working days less than Russia or Saudi Arabia. almost US$90. America and Korea show an opposite between 1970 and 2005 in US dollars. when it starts years 1991-1995. and tries in 2005 and how much they exported per day then rises again during the years 2001-2005. which shows. From number of working days lost in Brazil fluctuates. second chart shows the top six oil-exporting coun- ally drops during the second five-year period. It covers three time periods that are five years each from 1991 to 2005. and each period contains five years from 1991 to 2005. is clearly the country with the highest number of Since 1970. significant increase to 7. This is the highest price seen on For almost all countries. Nigeria.Test 2_Bar Graph The country that shows the least number of lost working days is Germany. The only exception to this rising rising again. That number rises continu- up and down . related injuries. it increased to barrels per day. US$55. the average price per barrel trend was Germany. The first graph shows that the price of oil world- It has the most lost working days reported. and Norway each exported a little more than Germany. a Brazilian worker lost nearly 6. Since 1980 the price generally decreased from 1991 to 1995. 1970 to 1980. lost due to on-the-job injuries for 5 countries: Iran. The first chart shows the average price for a bar- ally has the second highest number of days lost rel of oil from 1970 until 2005 in US dollars. the number of lost working days Test 3_Line Graph +Bar Graph decreased from about three to about two over the time periods shown. Brazil gener. (173 words) In the second chart. After 1980 the price generally decreases during the years 2001-2005 was greater than in the to US$15 per barrel around 1999. Between 2001 and 2005. The wide fluctuated many times within 35 years . This number actu.5 days between 2001 and By 2005 the average world oil price per barrel was 2005. followed by a 1998. While the number of lost working days for graph is a bar graph . as those other two countries but on a larger scale.

the pie chart show the million barrels per day in 2005. The number of people who took ive to eight days off increased to 64 % by 1980. Around 1985. depending on the number of sick days taken. ewer people decreased to just 10% in 1990. and then healthcare between 1970 and 1980. Norway. The bar graph and pie chart show ow well four Th e initial rise in healthcare spending per person study groups do in a psychological task. Their export to 1990. The line graph In the line graph . nearly eight times the Model Answer 1 amount in 1970. United Arab Emirates. People with pie ch arts that categorize the national population more than eight sick days were at 22° t hat year. less than 500 US were spent shows the average amount of healthcare spent per on healthcare per person per year i 1970. rate ranged from 2.3 to 2. Among the four study groups. Model Answer 1 and 25 % who took four or fewer si days. By 1990. and the average amount of money in US d liars (USO) Nigeria. However. more than three-fifths of the population There was a significant increase fr m 1 . In 1970. (2 49 words) Th e money spent per person on healthcare rose sli ghtly at first until 1975. The person from 1970 to 1990. ally completes the task successfully The pie chart when spending per person had risen dramatically. Iran . In 1970. it stayed nearly the same level. and then leveled off for the n xt 10 years. though . The line g aph shows countries. doubled between 1980 and 1990 to 22%. Wl/'J v riti rnt•1v et CO'fl 247 . while peo le with four tion is shown in two ways. peo- perce ntage that took more than 8 sick days ple took more sick days off even thou h healthcare decreased over the first ten-year interval. creased in 1990 to 68 %. 00 USO by 1975. By 1990. healthcare spend- ing per person was $4 . from 1980. categorizes the people who finish t e task in less th e number of sick days seems to have increased than one hour by those different gro ps. The second graph shows that Saudi Arabia Model Answer 2 exported the greatest amount of oil at nearly 9 For three different years. T e Truffles and Hawks also do quite well . The percentage of the population that took four or fewer sick days It seems that when people spent m re money on increased at first from 1970 to 1980. it started to Test S_Bar Graph+ Pie Char increase dramatically. the were sick for a long time. there are three or less sick days decreased to 10% . i 1990. First. Four remaining country that had sick days. respectively.000. having a out 65 % and 50 %. the Brewers have (215 words) the highest percentage. The Foxes do t e worst. Finally. increased in both 1980 and 1990. exported significantly less amounts of oil spent on healthcare per person per ye r from 1970 compared to Saudi Arabia and Russia.5 million barrels. number steadily increased to over 1. The bar seem s to have reduced the number of sick days graph shows what percentage of ea h group actu - taken between 1970 and 1980.000 USO between the years of 198 and 1990. and then spending increased . For ten years. Russia was second percentages of the population in a imaginary at just over 6.7 million barrels per day that year. 19% sad that they (170 words) were only sick for four or fewer days while 20% claimed that they took more than eig t sick days off. There were Test 4_Line Graph + Pie Chart 11 % of those who took more than eig t sick days.500 to took five to eight sick days. 61 % of the population stat d that they took five to eight sick days. with far less than a quarter of that grou able to finish the task. The number of people who took five to ei ht days in- Information on the health of the national popula. That percentage 4. Each pie ch art represents one single year. with over t ree-fourths of that group completing the task.

ing . People from Foxes had the lowest From the table. The Foxes.nhantriviet. and that 45% of those were from Truffles. only 1. Foxes had the is the most studied subject for undergraduate lowest percentage in completing the task. it second place. Only 15% of students from Foxes completed the task successfully. The school with the second highest percent. it. business shows up in highest percentage of people finishing the task. respectively. It can be seen that the subjects recorded came in second with a percentage of 23% .com . other countries. but some task in less than an hour. (228 words) a subject that does not appear under the United States or Germany. Most up only 12% of those people who could finish the subjects show up for all three countries.3% Model Answer 2 of undergraduates major in foreign languages. age was Truffles at 66%. the largest percentage of undergrad- group that finish the task. the higher the percentage of each On the chart. In the United States.8% . fine arts and design comes next. com- (222 words) ing in at over 18%. is dissimilar between the United 85%. Educa- than an hour. The table represents the percentages of undergrad- The pie chart breaks down by school those who uate students studying different subjects in three finished the task in less than one hour. making are the United States. the faster they complete uate students in the United States study business. graph and the chart do not seem to be correlated. The pie chart shows the percent. do the worst. In Korea. It shows different countries: the United States. and Germany. subjects show up for only one or two countries. again. States. In contrast. Foreign languages and literature are the least studied subjects among Looking at the bar graph. On the students in Korea at 20. Brewers Germany. of those who completed the task in one hour were from Hawks. Nearly half of Model Answer 1 all people who finish in that time are Truffles. it is sixth. the school with the American undergraduate students.6%. and Germany. tion comes second at 7. Korea. Korea. the undergraduate students in the percentage of those who finished the task in less United States study business the most. Generally. The second most pie chart. sports science has the lowest percentage among German undergraduate 248 www. Business is ranked at about 15%. and design at just over 10%. Korea. nearly a majority of people who finished popular subject for Korean students is fine arts the task in less than an hour were from Truffles. are similar. Engineering ranks the first again in Germany. One exception is sports science. For both Korea and Germany. The subject is medical science at just under 4%. that is the lowest percentage of all Model Answer 2 groups. 50% of the test subjects (190 words) from Hawks finished the task completely. However. making it last place on the chart. though. the is the Truffles who have the most people finishing it greatest percentage of students studies engineer- in less than an hour. On the table. The least favored while the smallest minority was from Foxes. For both Korea and Germany. The ranking of the completing the psychological task successfully at subjects. Engineering highest completion rate is Brewers. The This table shows the percentages of undergradu- Brewers make up about a quarter of that group ate university students studying selected subjects while the Hawks have the next highest percentage in three different countries. i ent groups that completed a certain psychological psychology ranks third in America whereas in the I task successfully. The bar graph shows the percentages of four differ. The pie chart gives more specific information and Test 6_ Table shows information on just those people who com- plete the task in less than one hour. 20% for the three countries are not all the same. foreign languages as a subject appears 4th and 3rd. ages of people from those schools that completed Many of the subjects studied in the three countries the task and finished it in less than one hour. even though the Brewers have the In the column for Germany. The three countries at 20%. which Brewers had the highest percentage of people is studied only in Germany.

1 that undergraduate students in the United States tern. but its percentage is only 1. business was the most popu- by bacteria in the soil.3% in the United States. it might be possible Nitrogen plays a very important role i our ecosys. Other types o plants and lar subject in the United States while engineering bacteria change these nitrogen com ounds from was the most preferred subject in the other two animal waste or from other bacteria · to nitrogen countries. gen compounds. The one shown on the chart is a cow eating This fan base supports professio al teams finan- grass. countries around the world. have recently been news stories bout big name ria into nitrogen gas again. increasing price of tickets and stadium refresh- The black arrows represent the movement of nitro. hey need to raise money. facilities or hire a sports star. waste. I think those The nitrogen cycle is important because the gas is situations are the exception and used by plants. Humans also eat these plants and animals for the Modern sports clubs act very nitrogen compounds they have. facilities . Spo s teams often it is transformed into nitrogen compounds either unify the populations of cities or ountries. Sometimes they invest in ig name stars in tial part of life here on Earth. The black arrows show the movement of nitrogen and how it changes Model Answer 1 throughout the cycle. Animal waste then goes back into the soil. Animals like team with a celebrity sports st r. Most cater to local fa . On the other hand. tively. These proteins are essential language. deals give evidence to the argu ent that there is too much money in sports. when absorbed by do not feel the urge to study foreign languages plants and eaten by animals. nies. Only the most prestigious sports clubs can a ord to do this. Howe er. (156 words) however. provid the building and literature because English is an international blocks for proteins.students. The rest of this the cow shown on the diagram consume the nitro- money can come from ticket a souvenir sales. The itrogen gas is also converted into other nitrogen ompounds As an overall trend. A more common comp aint is about the The diagram explains the nitrogen cycle on Earth. Test 1_Agree or Disagree gen cycle here on Earth. By looking at the table. which are then eaten by animals. starting the cycle again . plants. When a team seeks to upgrade sporting gen and how it changes during the process. it goes back into the soil. Much of this money co es from advertis- Nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere is converted ers who understand that more eople will follow a into nitrogen compounds by plants. and travel to other co petitions. www. This gas then goes back sports stars getting very lucrative ontracts. which are contained in the plants. (241 words) (148 words) Test 7_Process Writing Task 2 Model Answer 1 This chart shows a simplified version of the nitro. foreign languages gas again. These into the atmosphere. not national or international ones.com Answer~ 249 .nhantriviet. ments. The nitrogen compounds. The gas goes back into th atmosphere ranks 4th and 3rd in Korea and Germany respec- where it started from. maintain Other types of bacteria or plants convert the nitro. Professional sports are quite popul r in many Starting with nitrogen gas (N2) in the atmosphere. for life. There by plants or by bacteria in the soil. Animals then are often many fans that spend tim following their eat the nitrogen compounds that are made by the home teams by watching or at ending games. Very few als have the finan- cial resources and connections raise that much capital. cially by allowing them to buy un forms. order to generate more revenu . It is a very essen. The other subjects range anywhere from When the animals digest the plant a d produce about 4% to over 13% in all the country. There gen compounds from animal waste or other bacte.

More labor markets are flexible. Money is not the best Labor market flexibility eventually helps both busi- reason for young kids to envy sports stars. A worker who changes jobs many times can see how different companies work. it is not uncommon for people to have had up to ten different jobs in their lifetime. (267 words) ---------- In my opinion . and outdoor fields . In reality. An athlete core group of people with lots of 'tribal wisdom ' has to devote his or her life to endless practicing can handle crisis situations and help move the and faces the risk of serious injury. to spend time together. they has increased. having one job for a long time means purpose of sports. it was normal for someone to have (287 words) maybe two or three jobs during their whole work- ing life. Model Answer 1 there are only a handful of sports stars talented The average length of time that an employee stays enough to command such salaries. they have to do many things. They are also an affordable way for families hire or fire people and how mobile workers are. but it nesses and the average worker. In addition. As sports facilities improve. people try ten or more different jobs in their lifetimes. the number of jobs careers. however. Model Answer 2 This change has some advantages and disadvan- tages for workers. Compared to organization forward. but also for the company as a whole. companies are able money invested in good athletes makes sports to hire the best employees. This intimate knowledge is helpful not only for the In order for someone to become a successful worker. These days. (267 words) people used to change careers just once or twice.com . there will be more comfortable seats and better Economic changes cause hardship initially. the amount of effort athletes put in . athletes as role models. When better conditions for athletes and audiences. Changing their own countries but can also get recruited by companies means adjusting to a different corpo- foreign countries with higher offers. 250 T' P b c. Others will be excited to see a famous person playing on their team. new jobs compared to the past. This will provide better stadiums them fulfill their potential. While. professional matches remain a local factors . There are many athletes who get signed on for multi-million dollar contracts throughout the world. now.t pr er 1r t on for I El TS Wr •linq www. such an investment encourages They bring new ideas or ways of doing things that people to participate in sports more by providing help improve how profitable a business is. People nowadays are more open to should earn as much money as possible. in the past. There will be some people who find it too expensive Test 2_Advantages and Disdvantages to attend live games. For most in one company is influenced by a number of sports clubs. In the past. will make the sports industry more attractive. advantages. Workers can find a livelier. That is why I think The ability to change careers many times also has they deserve to get paid millions of dollars. understanding the way an institution works. including how hard it is for companies to affair.nhantriviet. Many food . A athlete. More money in the sports industry will also people who thought they had lifetime employment encourage young children to see their favorite guarantees now worry about their job security. one that helps different games. On the say that too much money in the industry defeats the other hand. So while they are up and running. They are at grave Model Answer 2 risk of serious injury that might put an end to their With many changes in society. attracting many companies to sponsor workplace best suited for them. professional sportsmen deserve every cent they earn for all the hard work and effort they put into their short career. Some people rate culture and to different coworkers. with many more jobs and fields of work avail- able. they have a very short career span. One disadvantage of having many jobs is a lack Professional sports players not only play for of familiarity with one's workplace.

Model Answer 2 Therefore. and ferent things. Peo le can now com- but it is not possible to have the conveniences of plete their work in a shorter ti e. Com - fields . our diet changes water. One drawback is the change in o r lifestyle. There is the potential to waste All of the factors mentioned abov make peo- time and money. desires to have a comfortable life with modern therefore. people can better understand them.One advantage when people try different jobs is People desi re those conveniences. Peo le can commu- nicate with each other much faster and that means Test 3_ To What Extent they can take. people working people physically and mentally. personal digital assistants (PDA's) elp people selves and develop their specialties. Being stuck in an unsatisfactory job is very unfortunate. As for individuals. There are several factors that contribute on their hobbies. ur lives are not the same as they used to be. Anyone who that much less time to specialize in their fields and. Many com plain about not body. society needs to implement an educa- When I walk down the streets of m town . fields. there a e more fast food with their friends and family. which means modern life and not feel pressed for time. It is very crucial for each individual to understand what they are good at and what they would like to (292 words) do in the future as soon as possible. Fast food causes obesity. Modern life offers many comforts. There are ways to cope wit work-related to invest a lot of time and money in finding what to stress. They give up quality time stressed . there are: digital radio . those people also feel increas. New innovations like e-mail . allowing more professional jobs to be done. ut they also our society to have more experts in many different make it harder to separate work and private life. frustrated when faced with any sort of delay. they might also have stress. eart disease. In addition. www. is that it is too competitive. With (282 words) the help of advanced technology. able makes us feel short on time. Unlike in the distant past. and having enough time in their day. There are also many restaurants for people who cann t spend a lot of c ultural and entertainment options available to time on meals. manage our time. All modern conveniences cost money. movies in theater . cellular hones. and .nhantriv1et com 251 . However. many people in industrialized coun. As we tries have good shelter and access to clean must keep up with everyone else. s they work that they can find the right career by trying different more in order to achieve their financial oals. there are disadvantages from cable television. plays and people changing careers many times. By trying dif. This stress does n t always have to make us physically and mentally i I. Living Another disadvantage of a fast hanging society under such stress may indeed harm one's health. Therefore. New technology helps connect people accordingly. the time. are more likely to achieve their personal technology will always have som amount of goals much later. they will have ple feel constantly under pressure. Their stress le el continues to to this. Living in a fast-paced society is not alwa s bad. of course. have to spend time training new employees who might not stay on. Fast food may ta te good most of enjoy. I come tion system that helps everyone find what they are across many people who seem so busy that they best at. as well as techn ques to help do in their life. making a better economy. our potential is even at a later age. however. Someone who feels longer hours are forced to giv up their personal that they never have enough time is constantl y life . but it is extremely un ealthy for every- ingly harried and rushed . On the other hand. Al ng with the regular network channels. look like they are racing or being ch sed after. For instance. It is sometimes very difficult to find out what munication technology also adds to ne's stress. or feel extremely many other illnesses. care of their busine s quickly. Companies other cultural events. This will allow keep in touch with family and friends . he Internet. Even the plethora of entertainment o tions avail- and in the long run . but having to change careers many times is also bad . although Model Answer 1 there are some negative effects th t we must seri- ously consider. that whoever works harder a d faster is most Having stress for long periods of time affects likely to succeed.

In some cases. voluntary euthanasia might seem like the serious pain. they develop diseases such as high blood pressure. Those who No one can know exactly how much pain and stand against sui c ide and the purposeful taking of suffering a person and their family go through a human life have a valid position . regardless of whether they want it or option . patient's life. legal in only a very few places. they have to be highly regulated by hospital ethics boards and by the law. However. we can mini. mize making mistakes and hurting each other. nasia is wrong for many reasons . Society might one day have to consider whether Working hard is always rewarding and promising. There is also when someone is so badly injured that euthanasia the real fear of doctors disregarding the rigorous is an option . patient goes through is not a valid reason for tion like cancer. of euth anasia by medical personnel. a cies regarding when it could be used. Once in a while. That way. A patient with tubes in every part of their body. Model Answer 1 Advocates say that it is much better for the patient to be put to death rather than have them suffer or Sometimes a medical situation arises where a have loved ones go on emotional roller coasters. Doctors can sia was allowed . th e medical system will have to deal with greater numbers of people with terminal illnesses. There are important. it would be cruel is not the only option . ness years later. These strict patient who was comatose might gain conscious- condit ions would make the use of euthanasia rare.t prrpc::rat1or for IELTS Writing 0 www. there will always be cases where euthanasia is an option . Euthanasia may seek to end their life with the doctor's assis. euthanasia is to prolong their pain . Proponents of euthanasia claim that it is a way of (282 words) letting a patient die in peace. In any place where euthana. Euthanasia is extremely controversial and is otherwise. struggling to breathe and live. the patient suffering to support their argument. Despite advances in medical technology. Killing a patient or asking to be put to death person w ere fated to die anyway. thanks to advanced medical technol- more compassionate option . or not to legalize euthanasia. In many cases. The logic is that if a ogy. In addition . mak. docto r has to take care of a terminally ill patient They constantly emphasize pain and emotional who is in great pain. sounds like an enticing option but opponents think tance. I strongly believe that eutha- and where we are going to. it There are also strong arguments against the use would raise ethical issues. If such practices are allowed. but also loved ones who are watching . (283 words} ing eut hanasia unnecessary for them . would certainly be in extreme pain . though. In the future . we need to have hope legal and medical procedures required for ending a rather than work against natural processes. advances in pain control might relieve the suffering of some patients.nhantriviet. As the population in developed countries grows older and older.com . Society has to make a choice about eu- thanasia. Opponents say that the physical pain that a For a person suffering greatly from a fatal condi. If there is no way for doctors to save the not. morally wrong in many aspects. It is Test 4_ Your Opinion not only the patients themselves that are suffer- ing . we need to stop for a some countries that allow euthanasia to be prac- second to think about where we are coming from ticed by their doctors. euthanasia seems like a valid euthanasia. Euthanasia is a very However. If a doctor euthanizes them. (273 words} 252 f~. rise . b( . living one's life to the fullest is just as controversial issue throughout the world . there would be very strict poli . When that happens. misjudge a patient's prognosis. Painkillers and antibiotics can deal with most patient.