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Oral Health Care During

A Resource Guide
O ral H ealth C are D uring
P regnancy :
A R esource G uide

E dited by
J olene B ertness , M.E d .
K atrina H olt , M.P.H., M.S., R.D.

J une 2012
Cite as
Bertness J, Holt K, eds. 2012. Oral Health Care During Pregnancy: A Resource Guide. Washington, DC:
National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center.

This publication was made possible by grant number H47MC00048 from the Maternal and Child Health
Bureau (Title V, Society Security Act), Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services to the National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center (OHRC) at
Georgetown University.

Oral Health Care During Pregnancy: A Resource Guide 2012 by National Maternal and Child Oral
Health Resource Center, Georgetown University

Second printing.

Permission is given to photocopy this publication or to forward it, in its entirety, to others. Requests for
permission to use all or part of the information contained in this publication in other ways should be sent
to the address below.

National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center

Georgetown University
Box 571272
Washington, DC 20057-1272
(202) 784-9771 (202) 784-9777 fax
C ontents
Introduction v

Acknowledgments vi

Journal Articles 1

Materials 9
Brochures and Handouts 11
Guidelines 14
Policy Briefs 17
Tools 18
Webcasts and Webinars 20

Organizations 21
I ntroduction

P regnancy is a unique period during a womans

life and is characterized by complex physio-
logical changes, which may adversely affect oral
health. At the same time, oral health is key to over-
all health and well-being. Preventive, diagnostic,
and restorative dental treatment is safe throughout
pregnancy and is effective in improving and main-
taining oral health.
However, health professionals often do not pro-
vide oral health care to pregnant women, and, at
the same time, pregnant women themselves often
avoid obtaining it. Oral health care is not routinely
included in perinatal care, and many pregnant
women with obvious signs of oral disease do not
seek or receive care. In many cases, neither preg-
nant women nor health professionals understand
that oral health care is an important component of
a healthy pregnancy.
In addition to providing pregnant women with 2008 to 2012, including brochures and handouts,
oral health care, educating them about prevent- guidelines, policy briefs, tools, and webcasts and
ing dental caries is critical, both for womens own webinars. The third section lists federal agen-
oral health and for the future oral health of their cies, national professional associations, resource
children. Evidence suggests that most infants and centers, and national coalitions that may serve as
young children acquire caries-causing bacteria resources.
from their mothers. Providing pregnant women Many of the items in the Materials section
with counseling to promote healthy oral health are available from the Internet. Others can be
behaviors may reduce the transmission of such requested from the organizations that produced
bacteria from mothers to infants and young chil- them or are available from OHRC. Inclusion in
dren, thereby delaying or preventing the onset of the resource guide does not imply endorsement
caries. by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, the
For these reasons, it is essential for health pro- Health Resources and Services Administration, the
fessionals (e.g., dentists, dental hygienists, phy- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
sicians, nurses, midwives, nurse practitioners, OHRC, or Georgetown University.
physician assistants) to provide pregnant women Our intent is to share resources that are use-
with appropriate and timely oral health care, ful and represent current science and practice. For
which includes oral health education. further information, we encourage you to contact
The National Maternal and Child Oral Health the organizations listed in the third section. Your
Resource Center (OHRC) developed this publi- state and local departments of health; state health-
cation, Oral Health Care During Pregnancy: A related associations and societies; schools of den-
Resource Guide, to provide information to health tistry, dental hygiene, medicine, and nursing; state
professionals, program administrators and staff, or local coalitions; and university-based libraries
educators, policymakers, and others working in are additional sources of information. OHRC will
states and communities in planning, developing, update the resource guide periodically, and we
and implementing efforts to ensure that pregnant would appreciate hearing from you if you know
women receive optimal oral health services. The of any relevant resources that are not included in
resource guide is divided into three sections. The this edition. An electronic version of the publica-
first section lists journal articles appearing in the tion with clickable links to all the URLs shown is
peer-reviewed literature from 2008 to 2012. The available at
second section describes materials published from OralHealthPregnancyResGuide.pdf.

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
A cknowledgments
We are grateful to the following experts for Washington; Lindsey Robinson, California Dental
their review of the resource guide: Tarsha Cava- Association; and Renee Samelson, Department of
naugh, Maternal and Child Health Bureau; Irene Obstetrics and Gynecology, Albany Medical Col-
Hilton, Dental Bureau, San Francisco Department lege. We would also like to thank those who sub-
of Public Health; Christine Riedy, Northwest Cen- mitted items for inclusion in the guide.
ter to Reduce Oral Health Disparities, University of

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
J ournal A rticles
J ournal A rticles
This section presents articles published in the peer- BARRIERS TO UTILIZATION OF DENTAL
reviewed literature between January 2008 and SERVICES DURING PREGNANCY:
This article describes a study that examined rea-
ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN sons that women with low incomes did or did not
CHILDRENS ORAL HEALTH STATUS AND use oral health services in a pilot program to pro-
THAT OF THEIR MOTHERS mote dental visits during pregnancy in Klamath
County, Oregon. Pregnancy stressors and oral-
This article describes a study that used data from health-related issues were identified as barriers to
a nationally representative sample to determine using services. Stressors included difficulties with
whether an association existed between the oral domestic relationships, personal finances, and
health status of mothers in the study sample and employment. Oral-health-related issues included
that of their children. Higher levels of untreated womens negative perceptions of oral health expe-
dental caries or tooth loss among mothers was a riences, negative attitudes toward oral health pro-
strong indicator of higher levels of caries in their fessionals, not valuing oral health or believing that
children. The effect of poor maternal oral health it is important, perceived inability to pay for care,
on childrens oral health was significant, irrespec- time constraints, and oral health professionals
tive of poverty status. and office staffs poor attitudes toward pregnant
Dye BA, Vargas CM, Lee JJ, Magder L, Tinanoff N. women.
2012. Journal of the American Dental Association. Le M, Riedy C, Weinstein P, Milgrom P. 2009. Journal
Abstract available at of Dentistry for Children 76(1):4652. Abstract avail-
142/2/173.abstract. able at
This article describes a study that assessed the
association of oral health experiences of women This article reviews Centering Pregnancy Smiles,
during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery. a community-university partnership program that
Women who did not receive oral health counseling incorporates group-based prenatal care with oral
or did not have a tooth cleaning during pregnancy health education and treatment to improve preg-
were at slightly higher risk for preterm delivery nant womens oral health status and health behav-
than women who did receive care. iors. Topics include assessment of the problem,
Hwang SS, Smith VC, McCormick MC, Barfield WD. planning of the model, engagement and imple-
2011. Maternal and Child Health Journal [Epub mentation processes, and preliminary program
ahead of print]. Abstract available at http://www. outcomes. Kovarik RE, Skelton J, Mullins MR, Langston L, Wom-
ack S, Morris J, Martin D, Brooks R, Ebersole JL. 2009.
Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engage-
ment 13(3):101112. Abstract available at http://

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
CENTERING PREGNANCY SMILES: who do, the extent to which they provide com-
IMPLEMENTATION OF SMALL GROUP prehensive care. Ninety-eight percent of respon-
PRENATAL CARE MODEL WITH ORAL dents provided some oral heath care services for
pregnant women in their practices each month.
HEALTH Approximately one-half of respondents identified
This article describes preliminary outcomes of a low reimbursement, time restrictions, culture and
program to integrate oral health education and language differences, and lack of demand for ser-
treatment into prenatal care in a rural health care vices as barriers to care. [Funded by the Maternal
clinic in western Kentucky. Program findings and Child Health Bureau]
include improved oral health status of pregnant Da Costa EP, Lee JY, Rozier RG, Zeldin L. 2010. Jour-
women at 3438 weeks gestation and possible nal of the American Dental Association 141(8):986
benefits for birth outcomes (rates of preterm birth 994. Abstract available at
and low birthweight). content/abstract/141/8/986.
Skelton J, Mullins R, Langston LT, Womack S, Eber-
sole JL, Rising SS, Kovarik R. 2009. Journal of Health
Care for the Poor and Underserved 20(2):545553.
This article describes factors related to preventive
oral health carespecifically, predisposing and
enabling factors associated with dental cleaning
CHANGING KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEFS before and during pregnancy. The authors found
that dental cleaning was associated with dental
THROUGH AN ORAL HEALTH PREGNANCY insurance; oral health counseling; and maternal
MESSAGE factors such as race, ethnicity, education, and his-
tory of physical abuse.
This article examines an online approach for pro-
moting awareness of oral health and whether Thompson TA, Cheng D, Strobino D. 2012. Mater-
this type of health messaging impacts oral health nal and Child Health Journal [Epub ahead of print].
knowledge and beliefs. A brief commercial and Abstract available at
pre- and post-surveys were pilot tested, lauched content/5n6j2w6873521n81.
on a website, and monitored for activity. Over-
all, respondents showed an increase in oral health
knowledge from pre- to post-commercial viewing. DENTISTS PERCEPTIONS OF BARRIERS TO
Respondents also showed more agreement with PROVIDING DENTAL CARE TO PREGNANT
belief items; they changed their views to more WOMEN
strongly agree that oral health care during preg-
nancy is important and that a mother can reduce This article presents the effects of dentists knowl-
the risk of cavities in her child by having good oral edge and attitudes about oral health care for preg-
health herself. nant women on self-reported clinical practices.
Dentists perceived barriers (e.g., time and eco-
Bates SB, Riedy CA. 2011. Journal of Public Health
nomic costs, dissatisfaction with compensation)
Dentistry [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract available
had the strongest effect on practices. Dentists per-
ceived barriers were related to incorrect assump-
tions, which suggests that dentists who perceived
high levels of barriers are more likely to have
DENTAL CARE FOR PREGNANT WOMEN: incorrect assumptions about the appropriateness
of routine and emergency oral health care dur-
AN ASSESSMENT OF NORTH CAROLINA ing pregnancy. [Funded by the Maternal and Child
This article examines the percentage of gen- Lee RS, Milgrom P, Huebner CE, Conrad DA. 2010.
eral dentists in North Carolina who provide oral Womens Health Issues 20(5):359365. Abstract
health care to pregnant women and, among those available at

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERIODONTAL (1) educating pregnant women on the etiology
DISEASE TREATMENT DURING PREGNANCY and prevention of early childhood caries and (2)
IN REDUCING THE RISK OF EXPERIENCING perinatal oral health education in the medical,
nursing, and allied health curriculum.
A META-ANALYSIS American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. 2011. Pedi-
atric Dentistry 33(6):118123. Available at http://
This article presents findings from a meta-analysis
study to determine if treatment of periodontal dis- PerinatalOralHealthCare.pdf.
ease during pregnancy is effective in preventing
preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), or
both in infants. The authors found that periodontal KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEFS REGARDING
treatment during pregnancy does not reduce risk ORAL HEALTH AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN
for PTB or LBW.
This article presents findings from a study to
Uppal A, Uppal S, Pinto A, Dutta M, Shrivatsa S, assess and compare oral health knowledge and
Dandolu V, Mupparapu M. 2010. Journal of the beliefs among pregnant women and to determine
American Dental Association 141(12):14231434. if maternal race, ethnicity, or other factors contrib-
Abstract available at uted to their knowledge or beliefs. The authors
141/12/1423.abstract. found that pregnant womens oral health knowl-
edge varied according to maternal race or ethnic-
ity and that their beliefs varied according to their
Boggess KA, Urlaub DM, Moos MK, Polinkovsky
This article compares safety outcomes from a trial M, El-Khorazaty J, Lorenz C. 2011. Journal of the
in which pregnant women received scaling and American Dental Association 142(11):12751282.
root planing and other dental treatments. The Abstract available at
authors found that essential dental treatment in 142/11/1275.short.
pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks gestation was
not associated with an increased risk of experi-
encing serious adverse medical events or adverse MATERNAL ORAL HEALTH IN PREGNANCY
pregnancy outcomes. Use of topical or local anes-
thetics during root planing also was not associated This article examines the effect of maternal oral
with an increased risk of experiencing adverse disease on pregnancy health. Emerging issues and
events or outcomes. future directions in oral health care for pregnant
women are also discussed. The author concludes
Michalowicz BS, DiAngelis AJ, Novak MJ, Buchanan that (1) there is significant racial disparity in oral
W, Papapanou PN, Mitchell DA, Curran AE, Lupo health, (2) research on the causal nature of the
VR, Ferguson JE, Bofill J, Matseoane S, Deinard AS, association between maternal oral health and
Rogers TB. 2008. Journal of the American Den- pregnancy is ongoing, (3) data support providing
tal Association 139(6):685695. Abstract available preventive care in pregnancy, and (4) obstetri-
at cians-gynecologists should educate clients about
685. the importance of oral health and preventive mea-
sures for maintaining oral health.

GUIDELINE ON PERINATAL ORAL HEALTH Boggess KA; Society for Maternal-Fetal Medi-
CARE (REV.) cine Publications Committee. 2008. Obstetrics
and Gynecology 111(4):976986. Abstract avail-
This guideline proposes recommendations for peri- able at
natal oral health care, including caries risk assess- abstract/111/4/976.
ment, anticipatory guidance, preventive strategies,
and therapeutic interventions. Topics include oral
health education, diet, fluoride, professional oral
health care, and delay of mutans streptococci
colonization in infants. Additional topics include

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
A META-ANALYSIS OF RANDOMIZED were prevalent problems among the women (46
CONTROLLED TRIALS SHOWS NO EVIDENCE and 37 percent, respectively) and most women (55
THAT PERIODONTAL TREATMENT DURING percent) had not had a dental visit in the past year.
The majority of women (88 percent) indicated that
PREGNANCY PREVENTS ADVERSE they brushed their teeth two or three times a day,
PREGNANCY OUTCOMES but only 12 percent reported daily flossing. Over-
all, Hispanic women had poorer oral health and
This article presents a meta-analysis of 11 ran-
fewer healthy oral practices than Filipina women
domized controlled trials to determine if scaling
or women of other ethnicities.
and root planing (SRP) compared with no treat-
ment or prophylaxis reduced the odds of preterm Hunter LP, Yount SM. 2011. Journal of Midwifery
birth or other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The and Womens Health 56(2):103109. Abstract avail-
author found that SRP had no significant effect on able at
the incidence of preterm birth. Furthermore, SRP j.1542-2011.2011.00041.x/abstract.
did not appear to have an effect on other adverse
pregnancy outcomes such as low birthweight or
spontaneous abortions or stillbirths. ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY
Baccaglini L. 2011. Journal of the American Dental This article encourages physicians to address
Association 142(10):11921193. Available at http:// maternal oral issues through disease prevention, diagnosis, early management, and dental refer-
ral. Topics include common oral problems in
pregnancy and periodontitis and poor pregnancy
OBSTETRIC OUTCOMES AFTER TREATMENT outcomes. Additional topics include screening,
OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE DURING diagnosis, routine treatment, medications, and
PREGNANCY: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND management of acute conditions.
META-ANALYSIS Silk H, Douglass AB, Douglass JM, Silk L. 2008. Amer-
ican Family Physician 77(8):11391144. Abstract
This article presents findings from a systematic
available at
review and meta-analysis of randomized con-
trolled trials (RCTs) to determine whether treat-
ment of periodontal disease during pregnancy is
associated with a reduction in the preterm birth ORAL HEALTH PROGRAM PREFERENCES
rate. All of the RCTs included pregnant women
with documented periodontal disease randomized
to either treatment with scaling and root planing CARE ORGANIZATION
or no treatment. Treatment of periodontal disease
This article examines the oral health information
with scaling and root planing had no significant
preferences (topics and methods of delivery) of
effect on the incidence of preterm birth.
pregnant women with public vs. private insur-
Polyzos NP, Polyzos IP, Zavos A, Valachis A, Mauri D, ance. Receiving oral health information by mail
Papanikolaou EG, Tzioras S, Weber D, Messinis IE. was the preferred option in both groups. Prefer-
2010. British Medical Journal 29:341:c7017. Avail- ences for program topics generally favored infant-
able at specific topics over topics that concerned both
17.full. mothers and infants.
Thoele MJ, Asche SE, Rindal DB, Fortman KK. 2008.
ORAL HEALTH AND ORAL HEALTH CARE Journal of Public Health Dentistry 68(3):174177.
Abstract available at
PRACTICES AMONG LOW-INCOME doi/10.1111/j.1752-7325.2007.00070.x/abstract.
This article examines the oral health status and
oral health practices of pregnant women with low
incomes in San Diego, California, and their need for
oral health education. Dental caries and gingivitis

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
ORAL HYGIENE PRACTICES AND DENTAL 25(4):312319. Abstract available at http://journals.
WOMEN dontal_Disease_in_Pregnancy__Review_of_the.6.
This article presents study findings on oral hygiene
practices and service use during pregnancy to
develop policies to improve the oral health status PERSPECTIVES OF MARYLAND WOMEN
of pregnant women from racial and ethnic minor- REGARDING ORAL HEALTH DURING
ity groups. Participant characteristics associated PREGNANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD
with a lack of routine oral health care use dur-
ing pregnancy included the following: age 36 or This article presents findings from a series of focus
older, Hispanic ethnicity, annual income less than groups with pregnant women with low incomes
$60,000, and infrequent flossing. and new mothers to gather information on their
oral health knowledge and behaviors. The authors
Boggess KA, Urlaub DM, Massey KE, Moos MK, found that women were reasonably well informed
Matheson MB, Lorenz C. 2010. Journal of the Amer- about oral health practices for themselves and
ican Dental Association 141(5):553561. Abstract their children; however, important myths and
available at misperceptions were common. Several themes
141/5/553. emerged, a central one being that most women
had not received oral health information in time to
apply it according to recommended practice.
OUTCOMES Buerlein JK, Horowitz AM, Child WL. 2011. Journal
of Public Health Dentistry 71(2):131135. Abstract
This article presents findings from a meta-analysis available at
of 125 studies published between 1998 and 2010 1111/j.17527325.2010.00211.x/abstract.
on births to women with periodontal disease.
After adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, par-
ity, and intensity of prenatal care, maternal peri- PROVIDING DENTAL CARE TO PREGNANT
odontal disease remained associated with adverse PATIENTS: A SURVEY OF OREGON
perinatal outcomes, including increased rates of GENERAL DENTISTS
preeclampsia and spontaneous preterm labor.
This article presents findings from a statewide
Matevosyan NR. 2011. Archives of Gynecology and
survey of general dentists attitudes, beliefs, and
Obstetrics 283(4):675686. Abstract available at
practices about dental treatment and anticipa-
tory guidance for pregnant women. Most respon-
dents (92 percent) agreed that treatment should
be part of prenatal care, and two-thirds (68 per-
PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PREGNANCY: cent) reported an interest in receiving continu-
ing dental education about a pregnancy-related
REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE AND topic. Comparisons of self-reported knowledge
PREVENTION STRATEGIES and practice revealed several points of difference:
taking full-mouth radiographs, providing nitrous
This article explores research on periodontal
oxide, administering long-acting anesthetic injec-
disease, the impact of periodontal disease on
tions, and recommending over-the-counter pain
pregnancy outcomes, and recommendations for
nursing practice. Topics include safety of oral
health care in pregnancy, barriers to implement- Huebner CE, Milgrom P, Conrad D, Lee RS. 2009.
ing care, evidence on periodontal disease and Journal of the American Dental Association 140(2):
the impact of periodontal treatment, promoting 211222. Abstract available at
oral health during pregnancy, and perinatal-oral- cgi/content/abstract/140/2/211.
health-education guidelines.
Lachat MF, Solnik AL, Nana AD, Citron TL. 2011.
Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
PROVIDING A DENTAL HOME FOR Kloetzel MK, Huebner CE, Milgrom P. 2011. Jour-
PREGNANT WOMEN: A COMMUNITY nal of Midwifery and Womens Health 56(2):110
PROGRAM TO ADDRESS DENTAL CARE 117. Abstract available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.
This article describes the initial evaluation of a
community-based intervention to provide oral
health services for pregnant women with low FOR PERIODONTITIS TO REDUCE PRETERM
incomes in Klamuth County, Oregon. The pro- BIRTH AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT: A
gram consisted of outreach and anticipatory guid- SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS
ance to pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid, OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS
and placement with a dentist. A follow-up compo-
nent ensured that infants had a dental visit by age This article presents findings from a systematic
1. Overall, 56 percent of women received care. review and meta-analysis of randomized con-
Most who did not have a visit either moved or trolled trials to determine whether scaling and
were not the infants caregiver. root planing treatment in pregnant women with
periodontitis reduces the risk of preterm birth or
Milgrom P, Ludwig S, Shirtcliff M, Smolen D,
low birthweight compared to placebo or no treat-
Sutherland M, Gates PA, Weinstein P. 2008. Journal
ment. Scaling and root planing reduced the risk
of Public Health Dentistry 68(3):170173. Abstract
for preterm birth only for groups at high risk for
available at
preterm birth.
Kim AJ, Lo AJ, Pulin DA, Thornton-Johnson DS,
Karimbux NY. 2012. Journal of Periodontology
REDUCED RISK OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS [Epub ahead of print]. Abstract available at http://

This article examines the association of maternal

diet quality in the year before pregnancy and the SPECIAL ISSUE ON ORAL HEALTH IN
risk for neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. WOMEN AND CHILDREN
The authors found that increasing diet quality was
associated with reduced risks for the congenital This special issue focuses on the role of nurses
disabilities studied. in promoting oral health in women, children, and
adolescents. Topics includes a nurses call to action
Carmichael SL, Yang W, Feldkamp ML, Munger RG, to improve oral health in women; gaps in practice
Siega-Riz AM, Botto LD, Shaw G; National Birth and research on pregnancy and oral health and
Defects Prevention Study. 2012. Archives of Pedi- recommendations to close these gaps; and mater-
atrics and Adolescent Medicine 166(2):121126. nal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal
Abstract available at outcomes. The journal also addresses nursing care
cgi/content/full/166/2/121. and management of pathological oral conditions
in women and nurse-dentist collaboration.
REFERRALS FOR DENTAL CARE DURING Freda MC, ed. 2008. Special issue on oral health in
PREGNANCY women and children. MCN: The American Journal
of Maternal/Child Nursing 33(1):164. Abstracts
This article reviews the reasons that oral health available at
care during pregnancy is advisable, describes toc/2008/01000.
common dental procedures and treatment pro-
vided to pregnant women, and provides resources
that health professionals can share with their cli-
ents to help them understand the importance of
maintaining good oral health during pregnancy
and ways to do so.

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
M aterials
M aterials
BRUSH FOR YOU & YOUR BABYS GOOD South Carolina Department of Health and Envi-
HEALTH! WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ronmental Control, Division of Oral Health. 2010.
ABOUT ORAL HEALTH Dental Care Before, During and After Pregnancy.
Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of
Healthy Start Coalition of Hardee, Highlands, and Health and Environmental Control, Division of
Polk Counties. 2011. Brush for You & Your Babys Oral Health. 2 pp.
Good Health! What You Need to Know About Oral
Health. Bartow, FL: Healthy Start Coalition of This handout provides tips for women on oral
Hardee, Highlands, and Polk Counties. 2 pp. hygiene and oral health care before, during,
and after pregnancy. Topics include toothbrush-
This brochure for pregnant women and new ing, flossing, eating healthy foods, and visiting
mothers addresses oral health during pregnancy the dentist. Information for women who experi-
and infancy. Topics include the importance of reg- ence nausea and vomiting is included. Infant oral
ular toothbrushing and flossing, a healthy diet and hygiene, feeding practices that may contribute
nutrition, and smoking cessation. The brochure to oral problems in infants, and the importance
also addresses X-rays, bleeding gums, nausea, and of taking infants to the dentist by age 1 are also
oral emergencies during pregnancy. The brochure discussed.
is available in English and Spanish.
Contact: South Carolina Department of Health
Contact: Healthy Start Coalition of Hardee, High- and Environmental Control, Division of Oral
lands, and Polk Counties, 650 East Davidson Street, Health, 2600 Bull Street, Columbia, SC 29201.
Bartow, FL 33830. Telephone: (863) 534-9224; web- Telephone: (803) 898-3432; website: http://www.
site: Available at Available at
%20English.pdf (English) or http://www.healthystart CR-009602.pdf. (Spanish).


California Dental Association Foundation. 2010. Native American Professional Parent Resources,
Cavity Keep Away. Sacramento, CA: California Dental Support Center. 2011. For a Healthy Preg-
Dental Association Foundation. 2 items. nancy and a Healthy Baby. Albuquerque, NM:
This brochure and poster contain messages about Native American Professional Parent Resources,
the importance and safety of oral health care dur- Dental Support Center. 2 pp.
ing pregnancy and infancy. The materials explain This handout discusses the importance of oral
how mothers can avoid passing to their infants the health during pregnancy and encourages Native
bacteria that can cause tooth decay. The materials American women to seek care. Topics include
are available in English and Spanish. common problems (tooth decay and gum disease)
Contact: California Dental Association Founda- and tips for maintaining oral health, such as daily
tion, 1201 K Street, Suite 1511, Sacramento, CA toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste, getting
95814. Telephone: (800) 232-7645, ext. 4916; e-mail: enough calcium, limiting sweets and sodas, and; website: http://www.cda getting dental and prenatal checkups. Available at http://www.cda Contact: Native American Professional Parent Resources, Dental Support Center, 6916 Fourth
OralHealthEducationPatientEducationMaterial.aspx. Avenue, N.W., Suite 1, Albuquerque, NM 87107.

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
Telephone: (505) 345-6289; fax: (505) 345-6478; VA 22031. Telephone: (800) 994-9662; (888) 220-
website: 5446; fax: (703) 560-6598; website: http://www.
com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=13. Available at http://www.womens
Available at (order print copy) http://www.nappr.
org/catalog?page=shop.product_details&flypage= oral-health.pdf.


HEALTH DURING PREGNANCYWHAT TO Schonfeld J (ed.). 2011. Good Oral Health for Two.
EXPECT WHEN EXPECTING Lawrence, MA: Northeast Center for Healthy Com-
munities, Greater Lawrence Family Health Center.
American Dental Association. 2011. For the Den- 26 pp.
tal Patient . . . : Oral Health During Pregnancy This resource presents oral health messages
What to Expect When Expecting. Journal of the for pregnant women and new mothers. Topics
American Dental Association 142(5):574. include the importance of toothbrushing, flossing,
This handout provides information for pregnant eating healthy foods, and getting dental checkups
women on the need for oral examinations and and treatment during pregnancy. Illustrations and
professional cleanings during pregnancy, how fre- color photographs show common oral conditions
quent snacking can increase the risk for develop- such as tooth decay and gum disease, as well
ing tooth decay, and the importance of oral health as toothbrushing and flossing techniques. Infant
to overall health. The article is one in a series of feeding, oral hygiene, and oral health care are also
articles that dentists can copy for their clients. addressed. The resource is available in English
Other topics in the series include gum disease, and Spanish.
tobacco-use cessation, oral health during cancer Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health
treatment, and the benefits and safety of dental Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box
X-rays. 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone:
Contact: American Dental Association, 211 East (202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC
Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-2678. Tele-; website: http://www.mch
phone: (312) 440-2500; fax: (312) 440-7494; e-mail: Available at http://www.mchoral; website: Avail-
able at (English) and
Research/pdfs/forthedentalpatient_may_2011.pdf. goodoralhealthfortwo_sp.pdf (Spanish).


South Dakota Department of Health, Oral Health
Department of Health and Human Services, Office Program. 2010. Healthy Smiles for Two. Pierre, SD:
on Womens Health. 2010. Frequently Asked Ques- South Dakota Department of Health, Oral Health
tions: Oral Health. Washington, DC: Department Program. 4 pp.
of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens
This brochure presents tips for women on oral
Health. 10 pp.
hygiene and oral health care during and after
This handout provides answers to questions that pregnancy. Topics include the importance of visit-
women frequently ask about oral health. Topics ing the dentist early in pregnancy, eating healthy
include common problems and how they may be foods, drinking water with fluoride, avoiding
linked to non-oral-health problems, oral hygiene adverse impacts of nausea and vomiting during
and dental visits, pregnancy, infant health, and pregnancy, and avoiding tobacco products.
cancer treatment. Contact information for organi-
Contact: South Dakota Department of Health, Oral
zations that provide relevant information is also
Health Program, 615 East Fourth Street, Pierre, SD
57501. Telephone: (605) 773-3361; website: http://
Contact: National Womens Health Information Available at
Center, 8270 Willow Oaks Corporate Drive, Fairfax, gov/OralHealth/PDF/SmilesforTwo_Brochure.pdf.

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
California Dental Association. 2012. Patient Edu-
cation Tools. Sacramento, CA: California Dental
East Coast Migrant Head Start Project. 2010. La Association.
boquita de Felipe: Como la familia de Felipe apren- This series of handouts on oral health topics is pre-
dio a cuidar sus dientes. Arlington, VA: East Coast sented in a question-and-answer format. Several
Migrant Head Start Project. 8 pp. topics related to oral health care during pregnancy
This booklet illustrates the importance of good include gum disease, nutrition, and xylitol. The
oral health in pregnant women and infants as articles are available in English, Spanish, Hmong,
described by a young family. Topics include oral Chinese, Russian, and Vietnamese.
hygiene during pregnancy, tooth eruption, early Contact: California Dental Association, 1201 K
childhood caries, and visiting the dentist. An Eng- Street, Sacramento, CA 95814. Telephone: (800) 232-
lish transcript of the Spanish booklet is available. 7645; e-mail:; website: http://
Contact: East Coast Migrant Head Start Project, Available at
1501 Lee Highway, Suite 208, Arlington, VA 22209. page/patient_education_tools.
Telephone: (800) 453-0805; website: http://www. Available at
Transcript_La_Boquita.pdf (English transcript). HEALTHY
American College of Nurse-Midwives. 2011. Share
ORAL HEALTH PROMOTION CARDS with Women: Oral HealthKeeping Your Mouth
Clean and Healthy. Journal of Midwifery and
Washington State Department of Health, Oral Womens Health 56(2):187188.
Health Program. 2010. Oral Health Promotion
This handout was developed for health profes-
Cards. Olympia, WA: Washington State Depart-
sionals to share with their clients. It explains the
ment of Health, Oral Health Program. 26 items.
importance of oral health and how it affects preg-
This series of 13 cards provides talking points for nancy, signs of periodontal disease and how to
health professionals and community program staff prevent it, and oral health care during pregnancy.
to share with clients. Each card is accompanied Smoking cessation and substance use, diet and
by a brochure for clients containing the messages nutrition, and physical activity are also addressed.
and additional resources. Two of the cards pro-
Contact: American College of Nurse-Midwives,
vide oral health messages for pregnant women.
8403 Colesville Road, Suite 1550, Silver Spring,
Topics include hormonal changes and nausea,
MD 20910. Telephone: (240) 485-1800; (888)
oral health care, toothbrushing and flossing, and
MID-WIFE (643-9433); fax: (240) 485-1818; web-
drinking fluoridated water.
site: Available at http://
Contact: Washington State Department of Health,
P.O. Box 47835, Olympia, WA 98504-7835. Tele- Filename/000000000732/Oral%20Health%20-%20
phone: (360) 236-3524; e-mail: Keeping%20Your%20Mouth%20Clean%20and%20
gov; website: Available at Healthy.pdf.
PatientCareResources/OralHealth/OralHealth TWO HEALTHY SMILES: TIPS TO KEEP YOU
PromotionCards.aspx. AND YOUR BABY HEALTHY (REV.)=DOS
Holt K, Barzel R, Clark M. 2009. Two Healthy Smiles:
Tips to Keep You and Your Baby Healthy (rev.)=
Dos sonrisas saludables: Consejos para mantenerte

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
a ti y a tu beb sanos. Washington, DC: National Contact: National Network for Oral Health Access,
Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center. PMB 329, 3700 Quebec Street, Unit 100, Denver,
2 pp. CO 80207-1639. Telephone: (303) 957-0635; fax:
(866) 316-4995; e-mail:; website:
This brochure is designed to educate women about Available at http://www.
the importance of oral hygiene and oral care dur-
ing pregnancy. Topics include brushing, flossing,
eating healthy foods, and getting dental check-
ups and treatment. Additional topics include the
impact of hormonal changes during pregnancy on
gum health, caring for an infants gums and teeth, GUIDELINES FOR ORAL HEALTH CARE IN
and finding a dentist. The brochure is available in
English and Spanish. [Funded by the Maternal and
Child Health Bureau] Northwest Center to Reduce Oral Health Dis-
Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health parities. 2009. Guidelines for Oral Health Care in
Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box Pregnancy. Seattle, WA: University of Washington
571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone: School of Dentistry. 2 pp.
(202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC This document provides guidelines and recom-; website: http://www.mch mendations for providing oral health care to preg- Available at http://www.mchoral nant women. It discusses treatment considerations (order print copy), or http://www. related to hypertension, diabetes, the use of hepa- rin, and the risk of aspiration as well as the need
pdf (English), or to correctly position clients during procedures. A
PDFs/pregnancybrochure_sp.pdf (Spanish). chart summarizes recommendations during vari-
ous pregnancy stages.
Contact: Northwest Center to Reduce Oral Health
GUIDELINES Disparities, University of Washington School of Den-
tistry, Health Sciences B-530, Box 357480, Seattle,
2008 PREVENTION SUMMIT: A SUMMARY WA 98195. Telephone: (206) 543-5599; fax: (206)
able at
National Network for Oral Health Access. 2009. IMPROVING PERINATAL ORAL HEALTH:
2008 Prevention Summit: A Summary Paper
Bringing Evidence and Best Practices into Health
Center Dental Programs: Improving Childhood MEETING, MEETING SUMMARY REPORT
Oral Health. Denver, CO: National Network for
Brown A. 2009. Improving Perinatal Oral Health:
Oral Health Access. 20 pp.
Moving ForwardAn Expert Meeting, Meeting
This paper summarizes a summit held on Decem- Summary Report. Washington, DC: Altarum Insti-
ber 8, 2008, in Washington, DC, to convene experts tute. 23 pp.
in oral-disease prevention to review and recom-
This report summarizes the perinatal oral health
mend manageable and effective strategies that
meeting held on September 8, 2008, in Washington,
can be implemented in health centers and other
DC. Topics include the Maternal and Child Health
safety net oral health programs. The strategies dis-
Bureaus role in improving pregnant womens oral
cussed include effective preventive solutions for
health; an overview of needs by dentists, obstetri-
dental caries and periodontal disease in pregnant
cians and gynecologists, state policymakers, and
women. Critical factors for national implementa-
consumers; strategies for approaches in improv-
tion and perinatal measures and definitions are
ing oral health care during the perinatal period;
also addressed.
and identifying areas for working in collaboration.
[Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health treating pregnant women, and when to consult
Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box with a prenatal health professional.
571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone:
Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health
(202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC
Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box; website: http://www.mch
571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone: Available at http://www.mchoral
(202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC; website: http://www.mch
pdf. Available at http://www.mchoral
AT-A-GLANCE REFERENCE GUIDE Oral Health Care During Pregnancy:
A National Consensus Statement
Maryland Department of Health and Mental
Hygiene, Office of Oral Health. 2012. Oral Health Care Summary of an Expert Workgroup
During Pregnancy: At-a-Glance Reference Guide. Meeting
Baltimore, MD: Maryland Department of Health
and Mental Hygiene, Office of Oral Health. 2 pp. Oral Health Care During Pregnancy Expert Work-
group. 2012. Oral Health Care During Pregnancy:
This guide provides recommendations for oral A National Consensus Statement Summary of
health professionals and prenatal care health pro- an Expert Workgroup Meeting. Washington, DC:
fessionals on helping women obtain oral health National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource
care during pregnancy. Topics include emergency Center.
or non-elective treatment and dental X-rays, rou-
tine dental cleanings or elective dental procedures, This document presents a summary of an expert
using and avoiding medications, complying with workgroup meeting held on October 18, 2011, in
standards of care, strategies for increasing preg- Washington, DC, and the resulting national con-
nant womens comfort during treatment, and rec- sensus statement. The document was developed
ommendations for improving or maintaining oral to increase health professionals awareness of the
health during pregnancy. importance and safety of womens oral health
care during pregnancy through the promotion of
Contact: Maryland Department of Health and Men- evidence-based science. The document provides
tal Hygiene, Office of Oral Health, 201 West Preston guidance on oral health care for pregnant women
Street, Third Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201. Telephone: for both prenatal care health professionals and oral
(410) 767-5300; (800) 735-2258; fax: (410) 333- health professionals, pharmacological consider-
7392; e-mail:; web- ations for pregnant women, and guidance for health
site: professionals to share with pregnant women.
Pages/Home.aspx. Available at http://fha.dhmh. Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health
reference_guide.pdf. Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box
571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone:
(202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC
ORAL HEALTH CARE DURING PREGNANCY:; website: http://www.mch
AT-A-GLANCE REFERENCE GUIDE Available at http://www.mchoral (order print copy) or http://www.
West Virginia University School of Dentistry. 2008.
Oral Health Care During Pregnancy: At-a-Glance Consensus.pdf.
Reference Guide. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia
University School of Dentistry. 2 pp.
This guide highlights key recommendations for A SUMMARY OF PRACTICE GUIDELINES
both assessment of and anticipatory guidance for
pregnant women. It is designed to be used chair- Kumar J, Iida H. 2008. Oral Health Care During
side as a checklist when providing care. Topics Pregnancy: A Summary of Practice Guidelines.
include complying with standards of care, strate- Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral
gies for improving pregnant womens oral health, Health Resource Center. 8 pp.

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
This document summarizes the New York State ORAL HEALTH CARE FOR PREGNANT
Department of Health publication Oral Health WOMEN
Care During Pregnancy and Early Childhood:
Practice Guidelines, which is geared toward pre- South Carolina Oral Health Advisory Council and
natal care health professionals and oral health pro- Coalition. 2009. Oral Health Care for Pregnant
fessionals. The guidelines are intended to bring Women. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Depart-
about changes in the health-care-delivery system ment of Health and Environmental Control. 30 pp.
and to improve the overall standard of care for
This document presents clinical practice guide-
pregnant women. [Funded by the Maternal and
lines for the oral health care of pregnant women
Child Health Bureau]
in South Carolina. The document contains data
Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health on infant mortality and preterm birth and the use
Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box of oral health care and counseling in South Caro-
571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone: lina and recommendations for health profession-
(202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC als. Topics include strategies to improve access; website: http://www.mch to care, key messages for pregnant women, and Available at http://www.mchoral the oral health assessment. Recommendations for (order print copy) or http://www. oral health professionals on conducting a health history, risk assessment, and examination; treating
Guidelines.pdf. pregnant women; managing disease; and knowing
when to consult a prenatal health professional are
provided. Referral forms are included.
AND EARLY CHILDHOOD: PRACTICE Contact: South Carolina Department of Health and
Environmental Control, 2600 Bull Street, Colum-
GUIDELINES bia, SC 29201. Telephone: (803) 898-3432; fax:
(803) 898-3323; e-mail: form on website; website:
Kumar J, Samelson R, eds. 2006. Oral Health Care Available at http://www.
During Pregnancy and Early Childhood: Practice
Guidelines. Albany, NY: New York State Depart-
ment of Health. 72 pp.
These practice guidelines are intended for use by ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY AND
prenatal care, oral health, and child health profes- EARLY CHILDHOOD: EVIDENCE-BASED
sionals in bringing about changes in the health- GUIDELINES FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONALS
care-delivery system and improving the standard
of care for pregnant women and young children. California Dental Association Foundation. 2010.
Contents include general information about oral Oral Health During Pregnancy and Early Child-
health and pregnancy and about oral health and hood: Evidence-Based Guidelines for Health Pro-
early childhood, along with background informa- fessionals. Sacramento, CA: California Dental
tion and specific recommendations for prenatal Association Foundation. 75 pp.
care, oral health, and child health professionals.
These guidelines are designed to help health pro-
An executive summary and instructions for using
fessionals deliver oral health services to pregnant
the guide are also provided. [Funded by the Mater-
women and young children. Topics include the
nal and Child Health Bureau]
importance of oral health; maternal physiological
Contact: New York State Department of Health, considerations related to oral health; pregnancy,
Bureau of Dental Health, Corning Tower Build- oral conditions, and oral health care; oral health
ing, Room 542, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY and early childhood; access to care; and systems
12237. Telephone: (518) 474-1961; fax: (518) 474- improvement and public policy changes. Sample
8985; e-mail:; web- forms and websites for parents are included as
site: appendices. A policy brief is also available.
dental. Available at
Contact: California Dental Association Founda-
tion, 1201 K Street, Suite 1511, Sacramento, CA
95814. Telephone: (800) 232-7645, ext. 4916;
e-mail:; website: http://

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
16 Available at http://www. that all pregnant women have access to oral health care during pregnancy. [Funded by the Maternal
pdf (guidelines) or and Child Health Bureau]
Portals/0/pdfs/poh_policy_brief.pdf (policy brief).
Contact: National Institute for Health Care Man-
agement Foundation, 1225 19th Street, N.W., Suite
710, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202)
POLICY BRIEFS 296-4426; fax: (202) 296-4319; e-mail: http://www.; website: http://www.nihcm.
org. Available at
Brown A. 2008. Access to Oral Health Care Dur- INCREASING ACCESS TO DENTAL CARE IN
ing the Perinatal Period: A Policy Brief. Washing-
ton, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health MEDICAID: TARGETED PROGRAMS FOR
Resource Center. 8 pp. FOUR POPULATIONS
This policy brief provides an overview of the Snyder A. 2009. Increasing Access to Dental Care
major barriers to addressing womens oral health in Medicaid: Targeted Programs for Four Popula-
needs during the perinatal period. The brief pro- tions. Portland, ME: National Academy for State
vides examples of strategies to promote the use Health Policy. 34 pp.
of guidelines during the perinatal period, expand
This policy brief describes strategies that several
opportunities for professional and consumer edu-
states have used to address the oral health needs
cation, increase dental insurance coverage, and
of Medicaid beneficiaries, including young chil-
integrate oral health care as a part of routine peri-
dren, pregnant women, people with developmen-
natal care. [Funded by the Maternal and Child
Health Bureau] tal disabilities, and people living in rural areas.
The brief also examines ways that Californias state
Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health agencies (including Denti-Cal, the states Medicaid
Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box dental program), dental associations, and univer-
571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone: sities have explored these issues, and additional
(202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC steps the state might take to build on its efforts.; website: http://www.mch Available at http://www.mchoral Contact: National Academy for State Health Pol-
icy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME
04101. Telephone: (207) 874-6524; (202) 903-
0101; fax: (207) 874-6527; e-mail: info@nashp.
IMPROVING ACCESS TO PERINATAL org; website: Available at
Buerlein J, Peabody H, Santoro K. 2010. Improving
Access to Perinatal Oral Health Care: Strategies &
Considerations for Health Plans. Washington, DC: SERVICES
National Institute for Health Care Management
McGinn-Shapiro M. 2008. Medicaid Coverage of
Foundation and Childrens Dental Health Project.
Adult Dental Services. State Health Policy Monitor
15 pp.
This issue brief explores how oral health practices
This issue brief presents findings from a survey
and utilization of oral health care among pregnant
of Medicaid dental program managers to assess
women may affect a womans overall health, her
the status of states Medicaid coverage of adult
birth outcomes, and her childrens oral health.
(ages 21 and older) oral health services. Topics
Guidelines and statements are reviewed, and bar-
include categories of service (emergency services
riers that limit utilization of perinatal oral health
only, examinations, preventive services, basic
care are explained. The brief describes opportuni-
restorative services, advanced restorative services,
ties for health plans to remove barriers to ensure

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
periodontal services, dentures, oral surgery ser- that states are addressing as exemplified by prior-
vices); annual limits; variation in coverage (range ity needs statements, and it highlights specific state
of services) by state; and variation by population. efforts to improve womens health. The review also
Information on coverage for people with disabili- describes state performance measures for wom-
ties and for pregnant women is included. ens health and implications for a national perfor-
mance measure for womens health. [Funded by
Contact: National Academy for State Health Pol-
the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]
icy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME
04101. Telephone: (207) 874-6524; (202) 903-0101; Contact: University of North Carolina at Chapel
fax: (207) 874-6527; e-mail:; web- Hill, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services
site: Available at http:// Research, 725 Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard, CB# 7590, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Telephone:
Monitor.pdf?q=files/Adult%20Dental%20Monitor. (919) 966-5011; e-mail:; web-
pdf. site: Available at http://
Buerlein J, Isman B, Hanlon C. 2009. Medicaid Cov- TOOLS
erage of Dental Care for Pregnant Women. Wash-
ington, DC: National Oral Health Policy Center. 3 pp. INVESTING IN MATERNAL AND CHILD
This policy brief examines state Medicaid oral HEALTH: AN EMPLOYERS TOOLKIT
health coverage for pregnant women. Topics (UPD. ED.)
include the importance of oral health during preg-
nancy, oral health care utilization, and state rec- Campbell KP, ed. 2010. Investing in Maternal and
ommendations to improve access to oral health Child Health: An Employers Toolkit (upd. ed.).
care for pregnant women enrolled in Medicaid. Washington, DC: National Business Group on
[Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau] Health. 304 pp.

Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health This kit outlines opportunities that employers
Policy Center, Childrens Dental Health Project, have to improve the health of children and ado-
1020 19th Street, N.W., Suite 400, Washington, lescents (from birth to age 21) and women (pre-
DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 833-8288; e-mail: conception, pregnant, and postpartum periods).; website: Topics include health benefit design, beneficiary
Available at education and engagement, and health promo-
Medicaid%20Coverage%20of%20Dental%20Care tion programs. Recommendations related to mini-
%20for%20Pregnant%20Women%2011.09.pdf. mum dental benefits, cost-sharing arrangements;
and other information pertinent to plan design
and administration are provided. [Funded by the
STATE MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Maternal and Child Health Bureau]
PROGRAMS TO ADDRESS THE HEALTH Contact: National Business Group on Health, 20 F
AND HEALTH CARE NEEDS OF WOMEN: Street, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20001-6700.
FINAL REPORT Telephone: (202) 558-3000; fax: (202) 628-9244;
e-mail:; website:
Freeman VA. 2010. State Maternal and Child Available at
Health Programs to Address the Health and Health
Care Needs of Women: Final Report. Chapel Hill, maternalchild/investing/docs/mch_toolkit.pdf.
NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research.
43 pp.
This review examines the ways in which states are
addressing womens health and health care needs.
The review explores the areas of womens health

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
ORAL HEALTH DISPARITIES COLLABORATIVE Contact: New Jersey Department of Human Ser-
IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL vices, Division of Medical Assistance and Health
Services, P.O. Box 728, Trenton, NJ 08625-0212.
Hilton I, Lampron C, Anderson J, Jacobs T. 2008. Telephone: (800) 356-1561; website: http://www.
Oral Health Disparities Collaborative Implementa-
tion Manual. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Available at
Services Administration, Center for Quality. 63 pp. Form.pdf.
This manual provides an overview of the Health
Resources and Services Administrations Oral PREGNANCY AND DENTAL CARE
Health Disparities Pilot, launched in 2005. The care
model is described as it relates to the improve- New York State Department of Health. 2009. Preg-
ment of perinatal oral health and the treatment nancy And Dental Care. Albany, NY: New York
and prevention of early childhood caries. Contents State Department of Health. 2 items.
describe lessons learned, oral health and medical
This mini-poster and wallet card remind pregnant
primary care integration, the business case for oral
women of the importance of healthy teeth and
health, a guide to getting started, and information
gums and visiting the dentist or dental hygienist
about improving dental practice efficiency. Also
during pregnancy. Information on the relation-
included is Steps to Success, a compilation of
ship between germs in the mouth, tooth decay,
change concepts and ideas for improving the oral
and infant health is provided. The materials are
health status of pregnant women and of infants
available in English and Spanish. [Funded by the
and children from birth through age 5.
Maternal and Child Health Bureau]
Contact: Health Care Communities, HRSA Health-
care Systems Bureau, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room
Contact: New York State Department of Health,
Bureau of Dental Health, Corning Tower Build-
12C-06, Rockville, MD 20857. Telephone: (301) 594-
ing, Room 542, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY
1390; fax: (301) 443-9795; e-mail:;
12237. Telephone: (518) 474-1961; fax: (518) 474-
8985; e-mail:; web-
Available at http://www.healthcarecommunities.
dental. Available at
New Jersey Department of Human Services, Divi- PREGNANCY AND PERIODONTAL HEALTH
sion of Medical Assistance and Health Services.
National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource
2007. Perinatal Screening, Risk Assessment and
Center. 2012. Resource Highlights: Focus on Preg-
Referral Form. Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Depart-
nancy and Periodontal Health. Washington, DC:
ment of Human Services, Division of Medical
National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource
Assistance and Health Services. 2 items.
This risk-assessment screening tool collects informa-
This resource features selected materials on preg-
tion on pregnancy risk factors, medical conditions,
nancy and periodontal health. It includes a list
and social risk factors. The tool directs health pro-
of materials such as brochures and handouts for
fessionals to examine the teeth and gums of preg-
pregnant women, policy briefs, practice guide-
nant women and to refer women with periodontal
lines, program reports, and websites. [Funded by
disease or other oral health problems to local oral
the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]
health professionals for care. The form is designed
to be incorporated into a central data repository for Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health
use by Medicaid managed care health plans in New Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box
Jersey. An accompanying document provides infor- 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272. Telephone:
mation on the pilot project, including design, imple- (202) 784-9771; fax: (202) 784-9777; e-mail: OHRC
mentation, key lessons, and future plans.; website: http://www.mch Available at http://www.mchoral

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
Douglass AB, Maier R, Deutchman M, Douglass ENGAGING PROVIDERS TO IMPROVE
JM, Gonsalves W, Silk H, Tysinger JW, Wrightson PERINATAL AND INFANT ORAL HEALTH:
AS. Smiles For Life: A National Oral Health Curric- INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES
ulum (3rd ed.). Leawood, KS: Society of Teachers
of Family Medicine, Group on Oral Health. Maternal and Child Health Bureau. 2009. Engag-
ing Providers to Improve Perinatal and Infant
This curriculum comprises eight modules covering Oral Health: Innovative Strategies. Rockville, MD:
core areas of oral health, including oral health and Maternal and Child Health Bureau.
the pregnant patient. Modules include presenter
notes, companion videos, an implementation This webcast, which was held on April 16, 2009,
guide, educational objectives, test questions, and focuses on interventions designed to improve
text resources. The modules may be completed perinatal and infant oral health. Topics include
online or downloaded and are suitable for indi- preventing disease, assessing risk, and increas-
vidual or small-group education. Pocket cards and ing access to care by engaging professionals who
mobile device applications that summarize key provide services for pregnant women, infants, and
point-of-care information on adult oral health and their families. [Funded by the Maternal and Child
dental emergencies are available. Posters in Eng- Health Bureau]
lish and Spanish may also be downloaded from Contact: Maternal and Child Health Bureau,
the website. Health Resources and Services Administration,
Contact: Society of Teachers of Family Medi- Parklawn Building, Room 18-05, 5600 Fishers
cine, 11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Suite Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. Telephone: (301) 443-
540, Leawood, KS 66211. Telephone: (913) 906- 2170; (800) 311-BABY (311-2229); (800) 504-7081;
6000; (800) 274-7928; fax: (913) 906-6096; e-mail: website: Available at; website:
Available at castDetail.asp?aeid=494.


National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coali-

tion. 2010. Text4baby. Alexandria, VA: National
Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition.
This free mobile information service provides
health tips timed to a womans stage of pregnancy
or an infants age. The service enables pregnant
women and new mothers to get health informa-
tion delivered regularly to their mobile phones by
text message. Messages focus on topics such as
nutrition, breastfeeding, oral health, and tobacco
use. The program also connects women to pub-
lic clinics and support services for prenatal and
infant care. Messages are available in English and
Contact: National Healthy Mothers, Healthy
Babies Coalition, 2000 North Beauregard Street,
Sixth Floor, Alexandria, VA 22311-1748. Telephone:
(703) 837-4792; fax: (703) 684-5968; e-mail: info@; website: Avail-
able at no charge at

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
O rganizations
O rganizations
ACADEMY OF GENERAL DENTISTRY improving care delivery, supporting continuing
211 East Chicago Avenue, Suite 900 and postgraduate education, fostering research,
Chicago, IL 60611-1999 and seeking funding for maternal and child health
Telephone: (888) 243-3368 programs.

The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) serves AMERICAN ACADEMY OF

the needs of general dentists, represents their inter- PERIODONTOLOGY
ests, and provides continuing education. AGDs 737 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 800
website features a message board where consum- Chicago, IL 60611-6660
ers can post questions that will be answered by Telephone: (312) 787-5518
a dentist, a referral service and directory, and a Website:
monthly e-newsletter.
The American Academy of Periodontology seeks
to advance the periodontal health of the public
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FAMILY and to represent and serve the academys mem-
PHYSICIANS bers. The academys website provides information
P.O. Box 11210 on periodontal disease, including fact sheets and
Shawnee Mission, KS 66207-1210 other educational materials and frequently asked
Telephone: (913) 906-6000 questions. The site also includes a database for
Website:, finding a periodontist.

The American Academy of Family Physicians AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PHYSICIAN

(AAFP) promotes the science and art of family ASSISTANTS
medicine to provide high-quality, cost-effective 2318 Mill Road, Suite 1300
health care for clients. AAFPs websites contain Alexandria, VA 22314
information on clinical care and research, policy Telephone: (703) 836-2272
and advocacy, careers, and educational resources. Fax: (703) 684-1924
141 Northwest Point Boulevard The American Academy of Physician Assistants
Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 works to provide high-quality, cost-effective, and
Telephone: (847) 434-4779, (866) 843-2271 accessible health care by supporting the profes-
E-mail: sional and personal development of physician
Website: assistants. The website provides information on
the profession, careers, and practice; continuing
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) works medical education; research; news and publica-
to improve childrens oral health by fostering com- tions; and events.
munication and collaboration between medical
and dental homes and to make pediatricians and
other health professionals an essential part of the
oral health team. AAPs Section on Oral Health and
Chapter Oral Health Advocates provide education,
training, and advocacy for pediatricians, dentists,
other health professionals, and families. The Sec-
tion on Perinatal Pediatrics works to improve
the health of pregnant women, unborn fetuses,
and newborn infants by sponsoring programs,

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
8403 Colesville Road, Suite 1550 ASSOCIATION
Silver Spring, MD 20910 444 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 3400
Telephone: (240) 485-1800 Chicago, IL 60611
Website: Telephone: (312) 440-8900
The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM)
works to improve services for mothers and infants
in cooperation with other allied groups. ACNMs The American Dental Hygienists Association
website includes information in English, Spanish, (ADHA) works to advance the art and science of
French, and Asian languages. ACNM also offers a dental hygiene, promote standards of education
website for consumers called and practice in the profession, and provide profes-
sional support and educational programs. ADHAs
website offers information about continuing edu-
cation, career opportunities in public health, and
AND GYNECOLOGISTS publications. The site also features resources for
409 12th Street, S.W. families, including materials in Spanish.
P.O. Box 96920
Washington, DC 20090-6920
Website: 1901 L Street, N.W., Suite 300
Washington, DC 20036
The American College of Obstetricians and Gyne-
Telephone: (202) 466-3825
cologists (ACOG) provides education, improves
health care for women through practice and
research, and offers support and services for
members. ACOG provides educational materials The Association of Reproductive Health Profes-
on pregnancy, birth, contraception, reproductive sionals (ARHP) educates health professionals
health, and issues relevant to womens health, across disciplines and specialties. ARHP pro-
such as outreach to underserved women. Statis- duces accredited programs for health profession-
tics from a variety of resources are posted on the als across a range of reproductive health topics.
website, along with guides to selected resources. The website provides information on professional
Services to consumers include inquiry responses education, policy and advocacy, publications and
and publications. Some materials are available in resources, and news.


211 East Chicago Avenue 1838 Fieldcrest Drive
Chicago, IL 60611-2678 Sparks, NV 89434
Telephone: (312) 440-2500 Telephone: (775) 626-5008
E-mail: E-mail:
Website: Website:
The American Dental Association (ADA) is com- The Association of State and Territorial Dental
mitted to the publics oral health and to ethics, Directors (ASTDD) formulates national oral health
science, and professional advancement. Initiatives public policy and promotes its establishment and
include advocacy, education, research, and the assists state oral health programs in developing
development of standards. ADAs website contains and implementing programs and policies for the
information on continuing education, volunteer prevention and control of oral diseases. ASTDDs
opportunities, and information for families. website contains information on national, state,
and local partners; state reports and action plans;
and related resources.

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND clinical trials. The website provides information on
PREVENTION womens health topics, product recalls and alerts,
science program outcomes, and related links.
Division of Oral Health
4770 Buford Highway, N.E., Mailstop F-10
Atlanta, GA 30341-3717 MARCH OF DIMES
Telephone: (770) 488-6054 1275 Mamaroneck Avenue
E-mail: White Plains, NY 10605
Website: Telephone: (914) 997-4488
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Division of Oral Health, provides leadership in The March of Dimes (MOD) works to promote
preventing and controlling oral disease, promot- healthy pregnancies and to prevent congenital
ing oral health, and improving the quality of com- disabilities, premature births, and infant mortality.
munity water fluoridation. The divisions website MOD fosters research and advocacy efforts, shares
includes information for health professionals and best practices, and conducts educational campaigns.
consumers in English and Spanish. The website provides information about MODs
national and local efforts, research, advocacy, and
campaigns. Statistics and educational resources are
CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID available for professionals and communities.
7500 Security Boulevard, C2-26-12
Baltimore, MD 21244
Telephone: (410) 786-3000 Health Resources and Services Administration
Website: 5600 Fishers Lane
CHIP-Program-Information/By-Topics/Benefits/ Parklawn Building, Room 18-05
Dental-Care.html Rockville, MD 20857
Telephone: (301) 443-2170
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Website:
offers guidance to states administering Medic-
aid and the Childrens Health Insurance Program The Maternal and Child Health Bureau provides
(CHIP) and provides services to beneficiaries and leadership, partnership, and resources to advance
health professionals. The website contains an the health of mothers, infants, children, and ado-
overview of Medicaid dental coverage, a guide to lescents, including those with special health care
childrens oral health care in Medicaid, and Medic- needs. Services to health professionals and con-
aid/CHIP contacts. The site also includes national sumers include referrals, publications, and a hot-
and state reports as well as information on policy line for prenatal care information.
issues, promising practices, and innovations.
Office of Womens Health 9805 Tandem Court
10903 New Hampshire Avenue Raleigh, NC 27615
W032-2333 Telephone: (919) 855-4280
Silver Spring, MD 20993 E-mail:
Telephone: (301) 796-9440 Website:
Fax: (301) 847-8604
The Medicaid-CHIP State Dental Association
(MSDA) works to optimize the oral health of Med-
icaid and Childrens Health Insurance Program
(CHIP) beneficiaries by developing, promoting,
The Food and Drug Administrations Office of and promulgating evidence- and best practices-
Womens Health works to protect and advance the based state and national Medicaid/CHIP oral health
health of women through policy, science, and out- policies and practices. The website provides news
reach and advocates for womens participation in and information about events, resources, and

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF PEDIATRIC distributes consumer-education and professional-
NURSE PRACTITIONERS education materials and provides information on
20 Brace Road, Suite 200 organizations.
Cherry Hill, NJ 08034
Telephone: (856) 857-9700 NATIONAL MATERNAL AND CHILD ORAL
Fax: (856) 857-1600
Website: Georgetown University
Box 571272
The National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practi- Washington, DC 20057-1272
tioners (NAPNAP) works to improve the quality of Telephone: (202) 784-9771
health care for infants, children, adolescents, and E-mail:
young adults. NAPNAP sponsors conferences and Website:
collaborates with a number of nursing and other
health organizations. Publications include a news- The National Maternal and Child Oral Health
letter and a journal. Resource Center (OHRC) gathers, develops, and
shares information and materials to respond to
the needs of states and communities in address-
NATIONAL HEALTHY MOTHERS, HEALTHY ing current and emerging public oral health issues.
BABIES COALITION OHRCs website describes and provides links to
2000 North Beauregard Street, Sixth Floor professional and family resources, including bro-
Alexandria, VA 22311-1748 chures, curricula, fact sheets, guidelines, manuals,
Telephone: (703) 837-4792 policies, and reports.
The National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies ACCESS
Coalition (HMHB) improves the health and safety PMB 329
of mothers, infants, and families through educa- 3700 Quebec Street, Unit 100
tion and collaborative partnerships of public and Denver, CO 80207-1639
private organizations. Products include a weekly Telephone: (303) 957-0635
newsletter, educational materials, and a maternal (866) 316-4995
and child health webinar series. HMHB also spon- E-mail:
sors the national public-awareness campaigns Website:
text4baby and Healthy Beginnings for Babies.
The National Network for Oral Health Access
(NNOHA) provides advocacy and support for
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF DENTAL AND health centers working to improve the oral health
CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH status of underserved populations. NNOHAs web-
National Institutes of Health site includes news and membership information
31 Center Drive, MSC2290 as well as information on careers, events, forums,
Building 31, Room 2C39 medical/dental partnership, policy and advocacy,
Bethesda, MD 20892 programs and initiatives, publications, and other
Telephone: (301) 232-4528 resources.

The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial

Research (NIDCR) seeks to improve oral health
through research, training, and the dissemina-
tion of information. NIDCRs National Oral Health
Information Clearinghouse (NOHIC) also pro-
vides information and materials on topics related
to childrens oral health. NOHIC produces and

O r a l H e a lt h C a r e D u r i n g P r e g n a n c y : A R e s o u r c e G u i d e