/ D REVHUYDFLyQ ¢ HV OD REVHUYDFLyQ 4XP " The observation is a qualitative research technique that allows us to collect in formation through what is perceived

by our senses. Although the name of this tec hnique-REVHUYDFLyQ "refers to the sense of sight in particular, its application is not only based on VH YH OR LT but also WKDW VH OR HVFXFKD. In this sense, the name refers rather to the attitude or role assumed during the process of pickin g up information or research, "observer", which we have discussed previously. As with any research technique, the observation is not made in a disorderly manner , with no clear objective or goal, but rather is a process of information gather systematic and oriented to exploring the problem or issue that we want to addre ss. But, unlike other methods of qualitative or quantitative research,€observati on allows us to obtain information about the problem or issue that concerns us a s it is produced, ie in the same context and time when this takes place. For exa mple, if our interest is to investigate the relationships that exist between stu dents and teachers in some schools in Huancavelica, would not only important to perform interviews or surveys of students and teachers of schools selected but w ould also be essential to observe how these relationships are developed effectiv ely, ie to observe how the relationship develops between students and teachers i n the same class issued during the office hours or during recess, to name some e xamples. In this way, we can say that the observation is an approach to reality "during and in the way that the same happens."€It is from the definition of our problem or topic to investigate what determines "what is seen, who is seen, as n oted, when observed, where notes, when the observations are recorded, what obser vations are recorded, how analyzed data from observation or what use is given to data "1. 'HILQLFLyQ Observation is a qualitative research technique is a process in which the investigator collects information about itself with a certain problem, thro ugh the use of his senses. This process involves the perceptions of the observin g subject and their interpretations of the observed. REVHUYD 4XLpQ ¢ "¢ VH REVHUYD 4XP" The whole observation process involves at least three elements. The REVHUYDGRU i s a person who plans and use observation to gather information (the researcher). €The GH REMHWR REVHUYDFLyQ what interests us is what we observe and which we obt ain information. The SHUFHSFLyQ is the result of the interaction between observe r and subject / object of observation, ie observation itself It is recommended that observation is the only technique that is based on an inv estigation. Its results should be contrasted or supplemented with data obtained through other investigative techniques. However, the observation allows us to: ( [SORUDU and realize aspects that are not necessarily collected by other techniqu es, such as physical and social context, the characteristics of individuals, gro up dynamics, daily life, etc. ) RUPXODU SUHJXQWDV or concerns which can then be further by other techniques. ([DPLQDU WHPDV or problems that do not speak or exp ress verbally costs. However, it should be clear that the REVHUYDGRU is an individual who has values, €norms and prejudices, like any other. This is important to consider the extent that the observation is based on Rodriguez, Gregorio Gil and Eduardo Javier Garcia, 0HWKRGRORJ \ WKH HYDOXDFLyQ F XDOLWDWLYD Málaga: Ediciones Aljibe, 1996, p.151. 1 65 SECTION 3: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS OBSERVATION

perceptions that make the observer and anyway these will be affected by their va lues, norms and prejudices, their way of seeing and understanding the world. The refore, the observer must be aware of this and must seek to be as impartial and objective as possible during the development of observation. OBSERVER PERCEPTION OBJECT OF OBSERVATION The GH REMHWR REVHUYDFLyQ us back to two units of $ VSHFWRV pWLFRV nobody likes inseparable observation: i) the subject of observation, and ii) to feel observed . For most people the feeling observed the context of observation.€When talking about the subject is somewhat uncomfortable and irritating. The observation we r efer to the individuals that we most likely want to get some kind of information and that the presence of an observer, the observed behaviors, attitudes, ways o f relating, people went out to change its ways act, among others (in our example , the behavior or inhibit some of the behaviors that you want students and teach ers from schools in Huancavelica, observe. Therefore, it is best and their ways of relating). When we speak of the context to inform the public purposes of obse rvation and background we refer to the stage where our research or the motives o f these individuals operate or act as the context of our presence. In fact, syst ematic observations and without physical, historical, social context,€the contex t for people to know they are being cultural, among others (following our exampl e, the observed context can lead to serious physical or classrooms are classroom s where classes are taught the ethical problems. same school, but so is the Huan cavelica region itself, which we refer to a specific social and cultural context , for example). Depending on the research, determines what contexts are covered or not, but at least in general, the physical context where the action is subjec t to our observation, must be covered. This means that you can not make an obser vation of the subject without obtaining information from the context where they do their deeds. Child labor is one of the problems afflicting most countries in Latin America. T herefore, the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour of the ILO,€elaborated "(IRU VWXGLR GHWHUPLQDFLyQ GH OD EDVH GH OtQHD WUDEDMR LQIDQWLO \ DGROHVFHQWH SHOLJURVR iUHDV XUEDQDV HQ ORV GH GH GLVWULWRV 3DQDPi \ WKH 6DQ 0L JXHOLWR 3DQDPi 3URYLQFLD GH 'The objective of this research was to obtain comple te information on the involvement of children ( as) and adolescents aged 5-17 ye ars in urban work. To know the demographics of this population were surveyed and focus groups to gauge their perceptions about work. However, the required data could not ask directly because the children were reluctant and uncomfortable, or simply because it was intimate subjects. To obtain this information problem, we used the observation. The observation allowed to observe the risk conditions of children in employment space, as well as physical impacts , psychological and s ocial work. Among other things,€could find that: the work involved more physical risks, environmental, emotional and social (garbage collection), was done mainl y by males between 10 and 14 years, that among the children themselves were case s of physical and verbal abuse; adults who work in the same place, customers, by standers and / or drivers verbally abused minors, among other results. In additi on, it was to observe the real attitude of children while working, which could n ot have been known through another technique. Finally, when we speak of perception, we mean everything that the observer hears and sees, and then systematizing or register. But hearing and seeing this does not amount to an interpretation of what he believes to see or hear the observer (or of the reasons why they happen), but rather a vast and comprehensive descrip tion of what you see,€as if trying to photograph or portray as accurately as pos sible what is in front 66

SECTION 3: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS OBSERVATION yes. It closed after the research process through observation, you are trying to make interpretations. $ OJXQDV VXJHUHQFLDV GH • 6HOHFFLyQ A good implementation of the observation is an adequate selection of observers as the context and the subject of observation. If subjects are observ ing what pregnant teenagers, the best would be to have observers women. If, howe ver, observe what is sought are the activities and interrelationships of sex, it is better to have men observers, given the danger that surrounds this issue. • $ SOLFDELOLGDG Despite its value as a technique of gathering information, observ ation is of limited use in certain situations. For example,€would not be right t o observe certain events such as a medical, as this would violate the privacy of patient-doctor relationship. • 5HJLVWUR we should not rely on the resources of our memory, it is essential to keep track of what is observed. The investigation ³ (O MXHJR FRPR HVWUDWHJLD DOFDQ IRU] DU HQ OD OD HTXLGDG FXDO LWDWLYD HGXFDFLyQ LQLFLDO (QWRUQRV O ~ GLFRV \ RSRUWXQLGDGHV MXHJR HQ HO GH€as w ell as depth interviews. When you have the equity issue in schools was essential to include in the study were children (as) from all socioeconomic sectors. Thus , we selected 26 children (as) in the sectors A, B, C, D and E were studying ear ly childhood education. Two researchers observed three children (as) and his tea cher for a whole day of classes, games and recording all occurrences of children (as), and the actions and time management of the teacher in the classroom. Also , observations were made at the playground during recess time, for indeed it was very important for the performance fun for the child (a). Another moment of obs ervation was to determine the child's play space (a) at home. To this end, obser vers asked the parents to allow children to play (as) as they do every day. In t hese two areas, classroom, playground and home,€were observed in detail the elem ents, dynamics and equipment available for the game. (GH VWLORV REVHUYDFLyQ Once we found our REMHWR GH REVHUYDFLyQ and what we want to observe it, we can c hoose different styles of observation. Observation can be characterized by two m ain criteria: i) your level of structure, and ii) the role of the observer. $ 3R U VX GH QLYHO HVWUXFWXUDFLyQ Depending on the level of structure, observation ma y be structured or unstructured. However, both types should not be considered as polar opposites but as complementary or as part of a continuous line. Thus, the unstructured observation must be understood as a preliminary step required to d evelop structured observation as a preliminary exploration research field where serious doubts and where it offers complete freedom to discover, explore,€descri be and explain the issue or problem that we are interested in researching, gathe ring data and background, but above all with special attention to the context of specific observation. 67 SECTION 3: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS OBSERVATION The results of the unstructured observation must be rapidly incorporated into th e construction of structured observation guide, which is oriented - specifically , to the objectives or goals of our research, to what we observe. Thus, structur ed observation sets in advance the issues or points to be observed (behaviors, a ttitudes, ways of relating, ways of acting, etc), calling for more formal proced ures (guidance) for the collection of this information . Thus, the results of st

ructured observation can provide data on frequency, intensity and duration of th ese aspects or points to note.€$ OJXQDV VXJHUHQFLDV XQ VHU IRU EiVLFRV 5HTXLVLWRV EXHQ REVHUYDGRU • Be clearly identified to whom (s ) you want to watch and what is it that you want to watch. • Concentration and p atience. • Criteria to discern between what is important and what is not. • Thor oughness to watch and listen. • Ability to "become invisible". • Ability to obse rve, listen and record simultaneously. • permanent Curious to identify unusual s ituations. • $ SOLFDELOLGDG unstructured observation is particularly useful when you want t o discover unknown aspects of the issue or problem under study or want to see th e wider context in which to develop your observation. • 'HVDJUHJDU is desirable that the structured observation guide behaviors, attitudes, ways of relating, an d so we want to observe,€are as disaggregated as possible to ensure that his rem ark may be reproducible (eg, all observers see the same thing), comparable (eg t he same behaviors are observed in all subjects) and quantifiable (for example, a llows to know frequency or duration). % 3RU HO GH SDUWLFLSDWLRQ QLYHO REVHUYDGRU WKH Depending on the level of participation of the observer, observation may be: i) from the inside, disguised as an observer, ii) from the outside or from the pers pective of "a fly on the wall," as an observer, or iii) an intermediate situatio n, as a participant observer. In the case of REVHUYDFLyQ HQFXELHUWD, the researc her is, or purports to be, a member of the group or individuals under observatio n, and therefore did not inform them they are being observed. This covert observ ation, however, raises ethical issues that we mentioned earlier. €WKH DELOLGDGHV REVHUYDGRU In the case of FRPR REVHUYDFLyQ REVHUYDGRU, the investigator informs people the reasons for their presence, but that their presence will not affect the normal d evelopment of relations or actions. Therefore, it must try to "be invisible", an d its location and participation must be extremely secretive (if we are observin g the development of a class, we should not sit in the front row but in the end, and we must avoid to be up and relocating , for some examples). $ QWLFLSDFLyQ a good observer takes the time prior to review and understand the observation guide that will apply in their work. 6HFXULW \ a good observer never fails to ask about the issues or points of observation guide that have been unc lear 5HVSHWR a good observer never carries out its work without putting it to bo th the people who will watch.€€but informing them about our intentions in advanc e. Therefore, and depending on the group, trying to learn their codes or languag e (whether it is a rural community of Quechua, the observer participant will lea rn the language if it is a group of young barrister, the participant observer mu st learn and use of slang language, to name a few) and try to live or spend as m uch time as possible with them. Thus, the participant observer seeks to understa nd the things I observed or that interest from the viewpoint of observing the su bjects themselves and not as a stranger. This type of observation provides a ric h and detailed information. The goal of participant observation is to contextual ize the information collected by other research techniques, and try to understan d it or understand it from the point of view of the subject of observation. The Faculty of Humanities at the Universidad Centroamericana in Nicaragua did th e research "6LWXDFLyQ 1LxH WKH] \ SHUVSHFWLYDV GH 'HVDUUROOR XPDQR 1LFDUDJXD HQ' to learn how children live (as) and adolescents of lower socioeconomic sectors of his country. One line of research sought to explore in everyday life and soci al representations of children (as) and adolescents, as participant observation was used. Twenty children and adolescents divided into two subgroups by age in u rban and rural areas, and belonging to the two levels of poverty (extreme and me an) were observed in their natural environment (community, school and family). T

he presence of observers in the areas of development to study groups managed to clear some unknown characteristics and find inconsistencies with the information provided by informants through other techniques.€In general, the research on ch ildren, they go to parents to obtain the data on their children, as they suppose dly are the main informants. However, it is also vital to learn more about the s pace where children live, and that parents may be hiding information you should disclose them (such as forcing their children to work, or keeping patients). 5HJLVWUR WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ To start recording our first observation should be clear what we observe. Undoub tedly, we need to keep track of where what we perceive. A notebook, for example, with enough leaves and taken to order enough to record the observations. The bo ok could be organized so that the data do not get mixed and lose their meaning. For example,€if all data is written to run and could confuse unclassified inform ation describing the context with methodological notes, but still, if done a lar ge number of observations without carrying an order then how can recall with cer tainty the source of the data? . One of the easiest ways to provide some order i s keep track of dates and times at which observations were made. Additionally, y ou can add information about where the observation is made in order to different iate (for example, in our example to observe the relationships between students and teachers from schools in Huancavelica, could set a date, time, name of schoo l district province, whether private or individual, etc). Finally,€another way t o get our registration in order to classify the information passes through three levels: descriptive information: containing the description as accurately as po ssible what we see, including the description of the subjects of observation and their actions and the context of observation. Methodological information: conta ining the doubts, questions or new information sources that may occur during the observation. 69 SECTION 3: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS OBSERVATION

Interpretation: containing our hypotheses or explanations for what we observe. $ OJXQDV VXJHUHQFLDV GH • $ SR \ R registration information may be accompanied, as an auxiliary procedur e, maps, diagrams or tables. •, participant observation QWHUSUHWDFLyQ considered important to record the descriptions of the experiences, emotions and actions o f the observer.€• $ SOLFDFLyQ participant observation favors an approach in real -time investigator to the lived experiences of the subjects of observation. WKH 9HQWDMDV REVHUYDFLyQ; The observation facilitates the recording of events in context or can get an idea of the facts in context. ; You can get information o n topics or issues that are difficult to collect through other investigative tec hniques, such as those based on the story of the informants. ; The observation i s useful to explore issues or problems that are difficult to narrate or describe the individuals themselves or what they tend to be described in ideal terms (eg , religious beliefs, food habits, hygiene practices, etc.).. / LPLWDFLRQHV WKH R EVHUYDFLyQ: Requires a special focus, because sometimes required to take note, o bserve and participate. : Whenever notes€difficult to record the facts in an imp artial and neutral, not that our beliefs affect our view of observation and reco rding. : The presence of the observer can alter the normal development of behavi ors that are to observe. : The researcher has little control over the situation. : Not always applicable technical observation as pickup information.

70 SECTION 3: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS OBSERVATION €choose as a research problem to address "the conditions of child labor among th e street children of Lima." To be clear about the problem that will guide our st udy, we will define a research strategy. In general, in relation to "street chil dren", we can raise several questions or topics to explore. One way to find out its causes and deepen them might be through the use of the interview. Also, to d etermine their number and find out information about their activities, income or age, among others, could implement a survey. But to know what places these chil dren live, where they meet, that passing places, or activities performed in the day, we can develop the art of observation. The advantage and wealth of observat ion is that it allows us to obtain information about the problem or issue that c oncerns us as it is produced, ie€in the same context and time when this takes pl ace. We may collect the description of everyday life of street children through interviews, but it would be an indirect means to get their daily events. Very di fferent is to observe its terms with our own eyes. 3DVR 'HILQLHQGR HO GH REVHUYDFLyQ REMHWR We think that is obvious to whom we will see: the street children. However, obse rvation involves a more complex process than the mere idea of "watching the stre et children." When you "see", we observe the action of children in a given conte xt and we should not downplay this context or scenario. For example, we see chil dren in the place they considered home, who are usually abandoned houses, and se e that his behavior shows differences they have in the street. Similarly,€observ ing the characteristics of this place we can identify what kind of conditions th ese children live. Also, if we follow the children over a few days, not only dis cover the activities that are dedicated (and perhaps not declare in an interview , like inhaling WHURFDO or steal), but we can discover that they have a circuit or defined route with meeting points, resting points, lunch, points of theft. Co nsequently, not only to observe the actions, conduct or behavior of children, it is also important to note where and when they happen. 3DVR (O GLVHxR GH GH OD JXtD REVHUYDFLyQ Defined our problem, and identified are the individuals who observe, we must des ign a specific guide to observation. Before doing so, it is always advisable to go to school or texts that have been done on the subject and they can give us cl ues as to what we could find.€When making an observation guide, it's always good to have a trailing space for notes of things or important facts and perhaps our guide does not address. Also, it is good to note some basic facts as: the date on which the observation was made, the time, the number of people observed, wher e the observation occurs, among others. In our case, we can raise an observation guide designed to gather the following information: • • • • • • • Observer Name Date Start / end of the observation space one observation: the place where they sleep. Location. Physical description. Activity (ies) that develops (n). Childr en's behavior. Space Observation 2: place where they feed. Location. Physical de scription. Activity (ies) that develops (n). Children's behavior. Area 3 point: place where "work." Location. Physical description.€Activity (ies) that develops (n). Children's behavior. Attitudes of street children each in the three areas: aggression, passivity, cooperation, indifference. 71 SECTION 3: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOOLS

OBSERVATION This is a topic guide observation not exhaustive and seeks to explore every one of the spaces where children act. In fact, each of these spaces (the home, the c orner of rest, where they feed, to name a few) may be observed for location, phy sical description, activities that are developed and the behavior of children . In fact, you can get to divide or specify many of the components to observe, for example, physical description, activities and behaviors. 3DVR / D WKH DSSOLFDWLRQ REVHUYDFLyQ However, any exercise of observation requires a permit and approval of our obser vations. In this case,€presents a difficult task since in general no person like s to be observed. The permission and approval to conduct the observation can be obtained from the explanation we do our work and an end, but above all confidenc e that we can achieve our target population. The development of trust is not an immediate process and involves several days of interaction with children. Also, depends largely on our personal qualities and empathy that we can generate with them. Finally, unless you are applying the technique of participant observation, the observer must seek at all times to go unnoticed and not to alter the natura l development of the shares. It should therefore be placed in strategic location s and interfere as little as possible. For example, we follow the children into their routine at an appropriate distance. As often happens in the observation€in the first times our presence will be distracting, but after a few days will cea se to be. 3DVR 6LVWHPDWL] DFLyQ WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ Participant observation usually does not have an observation guide, so it is nec essary to keep records in a notebook, and ordering information in an orderly man ner. But the observation which has a guide does not have that problem, because i n theory the code should provide all the space possible to make annotations, and all the elements to watch. 72