Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] The competency-based approach in education Rocío A.

Andrade Cázares1 The intention of this paper is an overview the reader about the competence in education, placing development that this issue has had on our country, but without disregarding the international trends that are shaping the course of this approach. Introduction Education Competencies in the The The approach by competencies in education, this essay addresses the issue of lis ted [in Mexico] in the late sixties related to job training competency-based approach in education, to develop that theme, we use a broad vi ew of competence, it implies moving away from positions in the fields of industry, his primary interest was "to link the sector productive school€especially the professional levels and preparation for employm ent (and Rigo Diaz Barriga Arceo, 2000:78). However, the notion of competition t akes a different aspect when the passing of workplace cognitive aspect to promot e the development of educational skills-intelectualesen where functionalist and behaviorist to constructivist approach positions. Lic in Pedagogy and M. in C. Education. Student of the 2nd. Semester Doctorate i n Education at the University of Guadalajara (enrolled in the PNP CONACYT). His research is: teaching-learning processes. Into which you insert the subject of h is doctoral thesis "The university high school curriculum and the development of skills during the teaching-learning process from high school." E Mails: rocioan and 1 link the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, with the aim of providing comp rehensive training (remember that

53 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] in general are more focused curriculum development

Research on the issue of skills Something that becomes problematic in the international and national research ou tput is provided on the competency approach is that it is written from different positions in various knowledge, neglecting the other areas of knowledge). Another antecedent current competency-based approach is found from the Bologna Declaration (1999) and the T uning Project (starting with Phase I in 2000-2002), who emphasize their compatib ility, comparability and competitiveness Higher Education in Europe by offering to do so, as one of the strategies, establishing sometimes partially or rushed, which is why it usually falls in uncertainties an d contradictions about Diaz Barriga (2006), Tobon, Rial, Carter and Garcia (2006 ) agree that the building needed theoretical and conceptual generic and specific competencies of each discipline. Currently, the Mexican Edu cational System in Basic Education includes the skills approach, this is the cas e with the Preschool Program Preschool 20042, Elementary Education with communic ation skills in the area of Spanish and Education Reform High 20 063, and curren tly the SEP4 proposed the formation of a National High School which is built on the competence approach to structure common PEP 2004. RES 2006. 4 Secretariat of Public Education. March 2 concept of competence.€To mention some authors Burnier (2001) discusses in his article in a Pedagogy of competence (where propo sed as the project essential method which in turn takes over from John Dewey and Celestin Freinet), in contrast Diaz Barriga (2006), questions the competence ap proach, says it's a costume change and no real alternative, and on the other han d, Tobon, et. al. (2006), expresses the need to establish the conceptual constru ction of this approach, stating that the powers are one approach and not an educ ational theory, but more abundant in the explanation. of a Framework Curriculum

54 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] As a result of the foregoing, it is no coincidence that diversity of writings on the subject at hand, it seems that Burnier (2001), Diaz Barriga (2003 and 2006) Report states COMIE5 knowledge With regard to educational research in the eighties and nineties in the States o f Knowledge COMIE6 in relation to the issue of education curriculum and competen cies in the high school level (NMS), we highlight the following: In the decade o f the eighties have not found the word competition ( Perrenoud (2002), Tobon (2006), among others, present different views of the

powers, with certain spots which locate them in an educational vision, but inste ad there are positions that seek to link areas of work with education. It is imp ortant to mention that the production of the issue of competencies from the late nineties is prolific (especially internationally), but such relation to the curriculum), therefore, the search in this period was referred t o the relationship that existed between education and work, education and the pr oductive sector,€attention was given in the review of technology education withi n which arises the CONALEP and technological institutes. It rescued the developm ent of curriculum and the different options for developing diversity of texts and publications suggests a new fashion, and to the multiple views, you can create more confusion than answers to the doubts that have arisen . Therefore, at the present time is common to hear several comments from teacher s regarding the powers, destructive criticism and arguments, but before taking a position in such discussions would have to determine where you look at the skil ls (visions, approaches and authors for clarity and then have a say so software (and curricula), we must remember that the curriculum in a broad sense, gives rise to changes in the structures of Curriculum,€attention from social de mands and the labor market. As for the approaches which was in Competence Based Education (and in the decade of the €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ May 6 based). Mexican Council of Educational Research. See the volumes consulted in the litera ture.

55 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] ninety) is the behaviorist, functionalist and constructivist. Particularly strik ing is the vagueness about the powers, because there is a unique concept and gen erally accepted, because it says it is a young field of study. The emphasis is t o distinguish that not all job skills, which is necessary to restructure the con cept and speak better professional or academic skills. After reviewing the state of knowledge of COMIE,€confirms the confusion that already was detected (intern ational) about the meaning scope of education and average Some higher technological mention

experience in higher education with competency models but deepen them. In the nineties, the investigations that are reported with respect to the high school level are a total of 29 papers in indexed publications which include, reports of the National Preparatory School, College, Bachelors, College of Sciences and Humanities and institutions states (Tlaxcala, Jalisco, Puebla, Morelos and Aguascalientes), according to data provided by Diaz Barriga Arceo, M onroy and Muria (2003) Another important issue I want to mention is that there i s limited production in Mexico on the issue of skills, there is more information in the design behavioral skills job prospects, or approaches from less polysemic word competition and in relation to its application in education, whic h is linked to in the workplace. Upper Secondary Education, curriculum linked education with the firm's productive sector, and educational l evels, are the concepts through which the search was made in the states of COMIE Knowledge and with respect to investigations located in the middle level educat ion in the eighties almost everything is focused on what the die-CINVESTAV7 repo rted in €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ 7 functionalist, there constructivist production, although at the present time include the proposals that the Media Secretariat for Higher Education in Mexico. Educational Research Department Research Center and Advanced Studies of National Polytechnic Institute. 56 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] Some contributions on competencies competition in order to be clear about what this means: The powers are much more than an expertise in context, then go beyond the level of performance and involve commitment, willingness to do things with quality, re asoning, management of a conceptual foundation and understanding (Tobon, et. Al. 2006 : 100). With regard to publications of the competencies approach in education, there are several contributions that speak of powers in the levels of basic education, up per middle, upper and graduate design aspects related to curriculum, end profiles, skills, skills of t eachers, among others that are located in a more generic approach. The powers in the With relationship

to the contributions Recent comes at a working meeting in Buenos Aires, conceptualization of competence as a basic Tuning Project in Latin America. education, diversify example, it is common nowadays to refer to in academic curr iculum design competency, evaluation of learning and developing skills The education, concept of competition, as a Networking presents conceptual wide, which refers to training of the citizen, through new approaches , such as meaningful learning in different areas: cognitive (knowledge), psychom otor (know-how, skills), affective (ie being, attitudes and values) ... covers a whole set of skills that are developed through processes that lead to the respo nsible person be competent to perform many actions (social, cognitive, cultural, emotional, employment, production), why skills for the use of Information Technology and Communication€give rise to the issue of competence. In recent years from the formation of the European Higher E ducation Area and European Tuning Project (and in Latin America), articles on th e topic of skills are increasing. And all this is relevant to include some conce ptualizations of the term designs and demonstrates its ability to solve a given problem within a specific context and changing ... (Paper

57 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] Buenos Aires, 2005, cited in Beneitone, Esquetini, Gonzalez, Marty, and Siufi The failure of model performance because ... next stop has essentially failed in Wagenaar, 2007: 36). Therefore, one can say that knowledge as the accumulation o f knowledge is not significant, its value lies in the use made of it, therefore, schools should rethink this perspective methodological€which is ultimately what allows him to transform into the reality , but

deepen methodological mainly on the methods of how to do, not join the exchange and the model floats o ver their players educational programs from the skills development and its application to real lif e situations, from approaches focusing on learning where the student to particip ate in its construction and so it makes sense to learning activities, from metho ds main (teachers and students) and is configured only in halos sociological, epist emological and philosophical very necessary, but still no way for action, action to pedagogy, and in pedagogy, with the didactic methodology, rowed to how to co nduct the teaching-learning process to make students competent in multiple direc tions (Ruiz Iglesias, 2000: s / p). Some authors such as Bernal Guerrero (2003); €Minte Münzenmayer and Claveria Villalobos (2006); Tobon, et. al. (2006) teaching designed with the aim of strengthening (core, and develop skills and generic specific transverse). Some difficulties for the development of competency-based approach in education It is appropriate at this point to mention about the difficulties of bringing th e skills approach to practice, as pointed out by Ruiz Iglesias (2000) match what was stated by Ruiz Iglesias (2000), regarding the powers are devoid o f pedagogy and somehow although not stated clearly how the latter is presented. Due to the lack of connection between the skills of pedagogical theories have pr oblems in training 58 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] teachers, the landing of the approach itself powers and especially to assess stu dent learning.€There is no point in designing the curriculum and based on the co mpetence approach, but is lentos8 these curricular reforms are, because according to the goal of the Secre tariat for High School (SEMS), competency curricula are effective in Mexico from the 2008-2009 school year. understand the changes required in teaching, because otherwise they will do the same is being done and make the same mistakes (to simulate a practice not applic able) for then say that the competence approach is not useful. Another difficulty for the development of competency-based approach is that there is polysemy on the very c oncept of competition, this situation leads one hand to various interpretations as to what can be understood and how to interpret that term, and this is observa

ble in different literature that circulates in this issue.€One difficulty for ot her relevant in the educational aspect, and that has to do with the development of competency-based approach is at present the process of training teachers in t he high school level, new approaches are made from the curriculum, without Howev er, the processes of teacher education to address The skills of educators It starts from the precept that "no one gives what he has" for that reason, it i s essential to prepare the curricula teachers working with competency-based appr oach, reform the curriculum, required to be socialized to the education communit y to everyone is aware of what the changes are being proposed, such action is ev en more imperative if apart from changes in the curriculum is a new approach that supports the teaching practice. For this reason, teacher training and socialization €€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€€ 8 In this regard the proposal is in the process of SEMS ANUIES and regarding the d evelopment of a Diploma in "teaching competencies in the NMS," for which institu tions will be selected who will participate as trainers.

59 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] curriculum are the basis for a model curriculum change (regardless of the promot ion), in this case the competence approach requires a prior hard work and with t eachers (before beginning work on a curriculum development officer). The term of teaching skills, is mentioned in the international arena in documents such as P errenoud (2005), Bar (2007), Calzada and Addin Trocones own for teaching or disciplinary type). Emphasis is also€the powers of guardians (or virtual environments) as well as in managerial skills, it is important Moreover, the analysis of teaching skills from the logic of the governing docume nts of educational policy, this is the case with the guidelines of UNESCO (2008) , OECD (in Gómez Vázquez, 2007), as well as laws or educational documents of dif ferent countries. However, it is necessary to Fernandez (2007), Fernandez, M. (2007), Sánchez Ortega (2007), Sarramona (2007), Vázquez Gómez (2007), UNESCO (2008), amongst others, and Mexico is addressed in the National Education Plan 2001-2006, Diaz Barriga (2005 ) in the Education Se ctor Programme 2007-2012, Villalobos Gutiérrez Torres Parés (2007) and by SEP th rough the documents of the Reformation of the National High School (2008), among others. The proposals around noting that each level has its own needs with regard to what is required of a te acher, but in general stated that the pedagogical function is a constant, but th ere are issues that require different skills, such as dealing with students acco rding to their age, management methodology should be based on the type of studen t and their characteristics, therefore, not enough to know (and be an eminence i n the art at the best), it is necessary to put knowledge in relation to the othe r, ie establish a mediation process as well as an educational environment conduc ive

teaching skills, are a function of various types with some points of convergence and divergence others, especially when referring to the different educational l evels are discussed and considered necessary for those engaged in teaching (whet her they are training

60 Year 3, No. 39,€September 8, 2008 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] learning (where the teacher-student relationship is essential). The competent te acher is that you have acquired and gradually perfected 3. Develop and do evolve heterogeneity; 4. Involving students in their learning and work, 5. Teamwork 6. Participate in school management, 7. Inform an d involve parents, 8. Using new technologies, 9. Addressing the duties and ethic al dilemmas of the profession, 10. Organize training. This proposal Perrenoud pu t it in the context of primary education in 1997, however, in the book published in 2005, clarifies that these are not specific to gradually its capacity to know (to know the content and processes to which they apply, students and their institutional and cultural environment) ... that cogni tive ability€or the cognitive dimension of personal and professional competence involves the ability to understand the world because, otherwise, the educational function would lose its ultimate meaning: the account (realized in the consciou s, cognitive sense of the term) of man-world of men among themselves and the man himself and with himself (Vázquez Gómez, 2007:4950). On the subject of professor of elementary or middle level, which are generally those that have any teacher, and those that are desirable for the profession. powers, it is important to rescue what he proposes Philippe Perrenoud (2005:10), in his text "ten new powers for teaching ", where families have the following powers: 1. Organising student lear ning, 2. Managing the progression of states that are competency-based approach i n education, represents significant challenges to the teaching and teaching-lear ning process,€under which involves Conclusion learning; 61 Year 3, No. 39, September 8, 2008

[Ide @ s CONCYTEG] break with practices, ways of being, thinking and feeling from a rationality tha t is conceived that the function of school is to teach (accumulated knowledge), to reproduce forms of life, culture and ideology of the dominant society, throug h a education system that weights loaded curricula content and competency curriculum, in order that teachers teaching methodology to incorporat e aspects strengthen the development of skills in the teaching-learning process. teaching of the theory without practice. The competency-based approach is propos ed as an alternative for curriculum design and development of teaching-learning from a constructivist support considering the development of skills and know-how in practice€but motivated in meaningful learning that is transferred to real li fe situations, which involves the resolution of problems. In Mexico, in relation to competency-based approach there is still much to say and to investigate, in order to clarify positions and make a difference in terms of research output, as well as the need to work on the the Bibliography 1. Bar, G. (1999). Profile and competence of teachers in the institutional conte xt of education [Electronic Version]. American Organization Available from: http :// accessed 13 September 2007. 2. Beneitone, Esquetini, Gon zalez, Marty, Siufi,€The concept of personal maturity as competence and pedagogi c possibilities. Spanish Journal of Pedagogy LXI (225) :243-262. 4. Burnier, S. (2001). Pedagogia das skills: conteúdo e methods [Electronic Version]. Technical Boletim do Senac, 27. Retrieved from 3/b oltec272e.htm SeptembroDezembro May 2001. Trocones Calzada, J.,€September 8, 200 8 [Ide @ s CONCYTEG] alternative or a costume change? Educational Profiles, Online [August 28, 2007]. Diaz Barriga, Á. (2005). The professor of hi gher education meet the demands of new educational debates. Perfiles Educativos, 27 (108), 20. Diaz Barriga, Angel (Coord.). (2003). Curricular research in Mexi co in the nineties. Volume 5. Mexico, D.F. CESU-SEP-ate. Diaz Barriga, Angel (Co ord.) (1995). Curricular and organizational processes. Educational research in t he eighties perspectives for the nineties. Volume 5. Mex. D.F. Ate. Diaz Barriga Arceo, Frida, and Marco Antonio Rigo (2000). Teacher training and competency ba sed education and skills training In training. Mexico, D.F. CESUUNAM. Diaz Barri ga Arceo, F., Monroy, M.,€humanistic and Technology teaching and learning proces ses. Educational research in Mexico, 19922002 (Vol. Volume 7 vol. II, pp. 121-16 5). Mexico, D.F. Ate. M. Fernandez, J. (2007). Matrix of competence of teachers in basic education. [Electronic Version]. OEI Revista Iberoamericana de Educació n. Retrieved accessed [September 13, 2007] Available from: / m Loyo, Aurora and Jorge, Padua (coords.) (1996). Economics and policies in education. Educational research in the eighties perspectives for the nineties. Volume 6. Mex. D.F. Ate. Minte Münzenmayer, Claveria and Villalob os (2006). Ethical management of pedagogical work in the globalized world. Contr ibution to the competence approach. Educational Horizons, Online 15. 7. 8. 16.

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