U1 - S1 Scientific theories theory: logical system of general concepts that prov ides us with a framework to organize and understand

the observations (Newman / N ewman) System: A set or harmonious whole. Logical system of concepts - a set of concepts articulated in a logical, coherent and rational, which aim to explain o r understand certain phenomena. Concepts: Key blocks of thought, involving class ification and formation of categories. Concept learning involves the process of constructing knowledge and organizing information into comprehensive and complex cognitive structures. Involves: definition and label, and nãocríticos critical attributes, examples and non-examples, influenced by social context. Rating: Con cepts disorders - with structural rules constant, critical attributes combined a dditively and are always the same. Disjunctive concepts - broader and more flexi ble, allowing alternative sets of attributes.€Relational concepts - their rules depend on the structural relationships that can be established. Theory: Organon, a whole rational and coherent concepts. PA, concepts related to human behavior. Scientific Theories Popper: power of fallibility - have conjectures and refutat ions. Types of knowledge - fiction (novels, poetry) - religious and mythical (be lief, obedience) - philosophical (argumentation, formation of new concepts) - sc ientific (empirical evidence) How Scientific Theories are developed - from quest ions or problems with comments theories or scientific inquiry. - Scientific revo lution (Kuhn): conceptual break between two theories, which leads to a new world view and seek to explain the phenomena. Novelty, conceptual or phenomenal. - No rmal science (Kuhn): determination of significant facts, matching facts with the ory and linking theory.€Scientific Theories: - serve to organize and interpret o bservations for more knowledge. - Help identify orderly relations between phenom ena. - Relations formulated in terms of hypothesis - hypothesis predicts what ma y happen based on the theory - hypothesis establishes a causal relationship betw een variables (experimental method) / expected ratio between two groups of varia bles (correlational method) - Each theory focuses on certain aspects reality. PA - each theory to study and explain / understand facets of human behavior. Ex: A lbert Bandura - social learning theory - aspects of behavior learned through soc ial modeling (observation of behavior). Piaget: how to develop intelligence: how to build mental structures that allow certain thoughts. Collective monologues child's speech is egocentric. Vygotsky: aims to understand how to develop intel ligence,€but differently from Piaget. Speech: first social and then becomes inte rnalized, speaking inside the pensmento. Structures interpsychic to intrapsychic structures. Criteria for evaluating scientific theories - that seeks to explain phenomena (theory does not explain everything, to identify fenómentos we know t he application). - What are its assumptions (assumptions are influenced by cultu ral context, set of observations available, existing knowledge, intellectual ski lls). - Allowing the theory to predict-new levels of understanding causal relati onships unifying several observations, identifying the importance of the phenome na. Intuitive theories: They build themselves through social interaction, social learning in educational contexts, personal theories that help explain / underst and behaviors, phenomena, or not verifiable in practice do not coincide with sci entific theories. Text Pozo psychology will find its roots to classical antiquity Plato / rational ism / Aristoteles / associationism / Kuhn - 2 revo paradigmatic sec xx - behavio urism dominant theory - but not conditioned learning of the importance higher me ntal processes after 50 years, predominance psi cognitive influenced by linguist ics and cybernetics - processing information. In reality paradigm cognitive beha viourism not replace, particularly psi learning. Khun model unsuitable for socia l sciences. Based on physical sciences. CS more relativistic. Popper - science a dvances systematically distorting statements Lakatos - Bridge - predominance par adigm changes but thanks data. New facts do not invalidate theories are anomalie s that may change theories. Conditions evaluate theories - predict new facts - e xplained earlier theory - part new facts empirically confirms theory - theory pr ogressive program.€Cumulative scientific progress - with qualitative changes. fl ow beh / cog - parts of a whole / different theories / cog new paradigm will ___ _________________________________________________________________________ S2 U1-

Learning / Learning Development: relatively stable change in behavior and / or k nowledge of the individual, the result of personal experience and the maturation of the species. Maturation of the organism allows for different types of learni ng. Concept design evolves behavioral (behavior acquired through experience) for the constructivist conception (personal construction experiential process) thro ugh cognitive (relatively permanent change comes from experience. Learning - acq uiring or modifying behaviors Achievement (performance,€performance) - behavior exhibited in a particular situation / moment Learning: - "is a relatively perman ent change in knowledge or behavior of a person born of experience" (Mayer, 1982 ) - "refers to behaviors acquired through experience. Can not be attributed to m ere maturation of the organism. These behaviors are relatively stable "(Gagné, 1 976) -" is a form of selective modification of behavior, the structures of a spe cies to adapt to the environment. From the experience, not just an individual bu t from the evolution of species "(Osgood, 1966). - "Occurs whenever adopt new be haviors or modify existing ones, so that impact on the accomplishments and / or future actions ... often not aware that learning has occurred ...€This permanent change must grow from the experience, and differs from the behavior that result s from maturation (w reflex activity innate mechanisms) (Child, 1986) - "persona l construction resulting from an experiential process, within a person, and that translates by a relatively stable behavior modification "(Tavares and Alarcão, 1989). Development Evolution process that unfolds over structures. Structures: a whole, capable of changes and is autoregulated - progressive development over stages of differentiation: from simple to complex, from general to specific; of sensory-motor for the surgery (piaget) enactive to figurative and then symbolic (Bruner). Stadiums - constant order of succession of acquisitions - varying pac e of acquisitions - integrative€reintegrating schemes of previous stages - disti nguished initial moment of the final moment - the training process that leads to a final equilibrium (eq. upper bound for Piaget) Factors of development: - Biol ogical (heredity, maturation) - Environmental (social, educational, cultural ) Personal (activity) Piaget gives primacy to personal factors (process of assimi lation and accommodation) Vygotsky / Bruner - social factors - the role of culture and school learning ___ _________________________________________________________________________ U1-S3 Learning and Development - Vygotsky relationship between development and learnin g: Categories - Learning always follows the development: independence of the lea rning process of the development process. Learning outside process, parallel dev elopment, not actively participating or modify development.€Assumption of the in vestigations on the development of thought: Piaget - learning always follows dev elopment (Vyg). Starts to value the social component (the most recent studies Inhelder et al.) - Learning is development: fundamental concepts shared with the previous one. Parallel development of learning and development: stages of each overlap. Thorndike, William James (Education is organizing behavior habits and i nclinations for the action), Gagne (cumulative learning). There is simultaneity / synchronization between learning and development. - Learning interacts with de velopment: reconciling the views above, considers the interdependence (maturity prepares and enables learning and learning stimulates maturation); role attribut ed to learning in child development. Theory Koffka (development with wider learn ing);€Formal discipline (Herbart: learning activities lead to the development of mental structures - the field has taught practical importance in mental develop ment overall). Learning activities: develops skills specific or general? Intelle ct: set of capabilities / modules that interact. Vygotsky - zone Development Pot ential (4th proposal). Learning starts before school learning (learning of child ren in school has a prehistory). Learning and development are related. Learning should be consistent with level of development - the relationship between level and ability. Level of actual development - activities which the child can accomp lish alone results in a development process already accomplished. Zone Developme nt potential - what a child can do with adult assistance. Role of imitation in s ocial relations.€Area of potential development: difference between level of deve lopment and development area. Good teaching is what comes forward for developmen

t. Learning gives rise to active and stimulates internal development processes, within the framework of inter-relationships, which will be absorbed and become a cquisitions interiors. Proper organization and active learning leads development processes. Line of thinking that guides the use of IT. ________________________ ____________________________________________________ U1-S4 Natural Learning / Le arning by Teaching Learning through instruction: - theory of expertise: how know ledge and know-how they are organized in memory - acquisition theory: explaining learning processes - theory of intervention: how to modify the course of proces ses: methods and teaching strategies.€Characteristics of the knowledge developed by experts - flexible application of knowledge and organized in memory: involvi ng facts, symbols, conventions, definitions, formulas, algorithms, concepts, rul es. - Heuristic methods: systematic strategies to analyze and process problems. (Analysis, decomposition into sub-problems, establishing paths problem-solution or problem-solution). - Knowledge and metacognitive skills: knowledge and cognit ive control and regulation of cognitive processes. Plan, monitor, evaluate, corr ect, reflect on learning processes. - Affective components: beliefs, attitudes a nd emotions. Generate predispositions. Knowing these characteristics, compared w ith those who are just starting (students) is important to realize what should b e taught and how to teach. Characteristics of Learning: - constructive process: more than memorize,€the subject must construct knowledge. Consensus: teaching li ttle but well and in depth rather than to teach very lightly. What constitutes t he essence of knowledge in a given area? - Cumulative process: new knowledge are based on prior knowledge. - Self-regulat ing process: being able to self-assess requirements of the task to be able to mo bilize knowledge. Mechanisms for monitoring and regulating the learning process. This allows progressive development of student autonomy against the teacher, se lf-directed learning. - Oriented to achieve certain objectives: it is most effec tive when targeted to achieve predetermined ends. - Contextual: more productive when conducted in communities of practice, sharing knowledge, building the ident ity of the learner. - Collaborative: valuing community, allowing the student to learn through the collaborative process.€Differences between natural learning an d school learning / teaching - there are also differences and similarities. - Na tural learning (Bruner) it is usually in the context of action, ie, learn and ap ply what is learned is processed in time simultaneous or continuous. There is th erefore a time and a different context for learning and applying what was learne d. - Problem of transfer of learning is not as pressing as learning through teac hing. This separates the time and context of learning time and context of its ap plication. The transfer then becomes a problem first learning by teaching. If th is seems to be an inconvenience, it is also an advantage because, as stated by B runer (1966), this separation facilitates the development of abstract thinking w hich, according to his opinion, is one of the purposes of the school. As an expe rt who has acquired skills in their field? - Delay time,€Not all training proces ses are adequate. - Ericsson (2002): deliberate practice, requires a constant re vision of performance targets, appropriate feedback (usually given by someone wh o knows more), persistence, and many hours of training. ________________________ ____________________________________________________ U2-S1 Origin of computers i n teaching history of the use of computers in teaching is inseparable from the h istory of programmed instruction, advance the concept of CAS - Computer Assisted Education for EBC - computer-based education, which includes Computer-Managed I nstruction. Changing the landscape of computing in schools: cd-rom, multimedia, networking. Definition of Computerized Learning Environments is what best charac terizes the possibilities of computer technology applied to education. Evolution : EAC / Teaching programmed. - Neocomportamentalistas are based on theories of l earning processes.€- Teaching schedule: based in structured environments, where the program controls the paths through which learning, detailed analysis of task s, successive approximations to the result, use of extrinsic reinforcement. Beha viorism: Watson (1913) - founded in reaction to current behavioral introspection ism structuralist Tichener and Wundt / animal psychology - Functionalism. Psycho logy had to focus only on what can be observed in objective terms, it leads to e

xperimentally verifiable conclusions. Fenómentos not observe the internal organi zation ("Black Box"), but the behavior. All behaviors were determined by externa l stimuli and may determine to be causal. Learning: the acquisition of reflex be haviors. The environment influences predominate. Conditioning more decisive than hereditary factors. Watson and Pavlov: learning as stimulus-response associatio n.€Leads to the deepening of behaviorism neocomportamentalistas, seeking to draw up a general theory of learning. Skinner: the most influential. Develops the th eory of operant learning. From the instrumental learning of behaviorism of Watso n and Thorndike. Practical applications of theory to education: operant conditio ning - the specific type of learning in which behavior is modified according to the consequences it produces. Feedback: possibility of immediately confirm the c orrectness of their response, with appropriate reinforcement. Skinner and Hollan d (1958): programmed instruction. Evolution of the computer: Pressey 1929 - which integrates machine learning prin ciples developed by psychologists: active participation, immediate confirmation, progression tailored to individual capabilities. 1950 - 1951 ENIAC - Mauchly an d Eckert - Univac evolution of the microprocessor.€Spenser and Bitzer: demonstra tion of efficacy of programmed instruction using the computer. Holland (1959) structuring principles of the EAC: - Active Participation - students construct t heir own answers - Division of difficulty overall - weak reductionism - Gradual progression - chain of increasingly complex behaviors - Immediate - effectively strengthening - Adaptation to student's personal pace - adequate time for reflec tion - Possibility of obtaining partial successes and established - additional m eans of maintaining motivation EAC - unsatisfactory at first, characteristics of the media. Second generation of computers has enabled better applications. Diff iculties limitations of linear programming Skinner and programs for Crowder bran ched programmed instruction. Linear Programming: items follow each other, only p ath to follow. Programming Branch: more flexible,€less linear progression, unles s all answers are correct. Inaccuracies lead student for parallel paths. Types o f programming have not disappeared today. Clements and Papert: adapt better to t raditional teaching, curricula, requiring no change in pedagogical practice. 60s : initiatives of other ways, without great repercussion in the future. Example: PLATO system (mainframe / terminals). Difficulty: maintenance costs. "70: rise o f microcomputers. Intel 8008 (1972); 1975 - MITS Altair, the computer allows mas s, communities of developers, 1976: Apple II (Jobs / Wozniak). Technological cul ture of garage. 1975: BASIC (Gates / Allen) - programming language "democratic." Builds on these foundations of computers for the masses and the mass of the cou nterculture of computing. End of the '70s: the emerging market of the early appl ication programs, programming languages, video games.€__________________________ __________________________________________________ U2S2 current applications of computers in teaching computers in education - educational programs / profession al programs taxonomy: classification of activities achievable with computers in education <b> Taxonomy bipolar </ b> two poles: - Computer as a tutor: eac, cd-r om , drill and practice computer as a tool: versatile instrument in the service of ideas and projects. Proqramas open, professional <b> Taxonomy Mendelsohn </ b > 2 orthogonal axes: - opening the computer system -> degree of freedom of actio ns that can be done by targeted learning systems -> 4 quadrants 1 - Profession al Programs - open without constraints, embedded in pedagogical practice althoug h not designed for such. Learning by imitation and transfer of skills analog 2 microworlds (eg logo) open non-specific.€Learning constructivist / construction ist -> learning computing concepts, concepts, metacognitive cap 3 / 4 - EAC tuto rials and practical exercise, closed programs, specialized, do not favor the ini tiative. Interactive dialogue -> behaviorism 5 - Smart Environments learning exp ert systems combine c open / closed, covering the center of the axes. Internet: covers quadrants. Ferguson's taxonomy is based on the degree of control Peio stu dent will <i> activities directed </ i> <i> exploratory environments </ i> Taxon omy of Jonassen 1 - Learn from the computers - two assisted learning - learning about computers

3 - Learning with computers - used as tools Hypertext Hypermedia / Interactive M ultimedia) Hypertext (Levy. 1990) - the interactive space and reticular handling , assembly and reading - image and sound acquire status as a quasi-text - hypert ext: nodes connected by links (words, pages, images,€graphics, sound sequences, documents, etc) - information organized in a non-linear - to navigate the hypert ext is a route in a complex network The problem is not having access to informat ion, but in being able to search and select information. Vannevar Bush in 1945: MEMEX. Indexing systems are artificial, do not reflect human thinking. Human spi rit with architecture network, run by associations, jumping from representation representation tangle of knots and links. Associative network. Memex - device / reservation desk on microfilm organized in associative networks. Theodore Nelson 60 years: term hypertext: the idea of writing / reading a computer system. Hype rtext available today (CD / Net) did not reach level of comprehensive concepts o f Bush and Nelson, for three main factors: technical (programming database beyon d a certain size); collection, indexing,€scanning and formatting of the vastness of documentary information, organization, distribution, user guidance (instead we have the anarchism of the internet) Repercussions Virilio: where new technolo gy is widespread something is gained and something is lost. Greater speed means greater uniformity. Concentration in the rapid access to information leads to lo sing the process of acquiring information. Weizenbaum: mechanistic image of the individual, rationalist view of society, to impose ethical limits. Turkle: blurr ing the boundaries of organic / inorganic, intelligence, alive / not alive. Idea of identity on the Internet as a multifaceted and descorporizada. Kerckhove: te cnopsicologia - psychological condition of people living under the influence of technology; psychotechnology - technologies that emulate, extend or amplify the power of the minds; potential dawn of a new civilization. Third: Homo digitalis Papert: Kids today, the computer generation,€school failure to make the leap to full integration of computers in teaching and learning. Changes to the role of t eacher lessons in classrooms -> Individual Exploration: networked computers, acc ess to information. Passive absorption -> learning: simulation model. Individual work -> group learning: collaboration (email, etc.). Professor omniscient -> te acher adviser: access to specialists through the network. Content stable -> muta ble content -> need for networks and editing tools (Third) Failures in the adopt ion of tools: a lack of institutional vision, enplane traditional methods, curri cula, poorly designed, limited projects. Possibilities and Limitations - program s used in unanticipated ways - inclusion in learning environments with features that develop in students the acquisition processes of knowledge - to question an d change the organization of the teaching process,€to make learning more effecti ve. - Insert computers in education without changing the design and organization of the processes of teaching and learning not effective. ______________________ ______________________________________________________ U2-S3 Distance Teaching and Learning "Good teaching is always good teaching" - p lanned, sequenced, structured, with formative assessment (feedback to students), content and relevant materials, competent teachers. Distance Education Characte rized by the separation of teacher and student in space and time, control of lea rning done by the student, communication deferred (asynchronous) between instruc tor and student, mediated by various technologies, synchronous communications. H istory: - correspondence courses - courses via radio and television - email, int ernet,€It is based videoconferencing: - Production of teaching materials of exce llent quality - use of styles and teaching methods as well designed and support services to ensure effective independent learning - designing relevant curricula that match the specific training needs - keeping the innovative approach cautio usly Resume - careful assessment of students, use of formative assessment to imp rove programs Critical factors: - logistical and administrative aspects - curric ulum - student profile - tutoring - Theories of learning technologies underlying approaches: - the processing of information (instructional): values memory and information organization. It takes into account the characteristics of short-ter m memory, and categorization of information in long-term memory. It is based on: maintaining student attention, help distinguish the essential from the accessor

y;€establish links between new information and knowledge they already possess; e nsure repetition and review information; present the material in a clear and org anized, accentuate the meaning of information as a means of improving memory and understanding. Attention to the effects of the overload of working memory, cogn itive consequences of formats multmédia. - Constructivist values processes of co nstructing knowledge using resources and materials available, participating in c ommunities of practice. Materials and help systems diversified, personal project s, activities suggested. Studies that seek to: - understand relationships betwee n cognitive styles and hypermedia environments to suit these individual differen ces (Ackerman, Woltz) - ways to develop communities criticism (Selinger) - ident ify skills that teachers have to develop (Payne,€Hughes) - Develop tools for int eractivity (Vander Comes) - analyze speech and online interactions (Rodriguez) to identify navigation problems in hypertext (Days) research is not conclusive given the superiority of approaches. Teacher can and must choose the most approp riate to achieve the objectives of the discipline. Student's profile: - able to self-motivate and discipline - able to manage time well - able to express ideas and thoughts through writing - able to accept critical thinking - with computing experience - comfortable to exchange experiences ______________________________ ______________________________________________ U2-S4 Results of investigations o n the different learning environments computerized CAE (Computer Aided Learning) - to verify its effectiveness compared to traditio nal teaching. - Experimental methodology,€establishing causal relationships betw een dependent variables (results obtained by students) and interdependent (contr olled by the investigator-effectiveness of eac). Dependent variables studied: Achievement of Students - The relationship between students' abilities and acade mic achievement - Retention of information - Attitudes to EAC Investigation proc edure: compare results between groups of students - experimental (computer) and control group (traditional teaching) on standardized tests. Results: - in favor of the experimental group - students with major difficulties who benefit most fr om EAC - EAC does not seem to favor the retention of information compared to tra ditional teaching - favors the development of more positive attitudes to learnin g effectiveness of CAS depends not only on computer as the ability, talent and c ommitment of the teacher - school organization, knowledge, training;€way they or ganize the space and interact with students. EAC has no intrinsic pedagogical vi rtues. ITS (intelligent tutoring systems) Expert systems in an area of knowledge , the work of multidisciplinary teams and seek practical application and testing of theories of learning. Components of ITS - expertise: need to know about it, assumptions, common mistakes, heuristics resolution - Tutorial: use of the infor mation component of expertise and information provided by the student to guide t he development of the demonstration, provides information requested by student / tutor for the relevant model - the students - communication between system / st udent: communication interfaces and strategies / methodology allow: - compare re solution processes used by experts with those used by students: process modeling solution.€- Building abstractions on the processes used by students in solving problems. - Develop metacognitive strategies from abstractions produced by the s ystem. - Reconfigure processes of representation. Research on GPTutor (ACT * And erson) traditional classes - aim of teaching and learning process is the class a s a whole - the linchpin of the teacher group - the rules that govern the behavi or consistent with the type of control of learning lessons with Teachers GPTutor - act in a more collaborative - support more individualized - motivational vari ables taken into account students - increased level of involvement - the degree of healthy competition - sense of challenge - like the material (geometry) resul ts point to more effective learning. ITS hard to build, expensive, involving many professionals. In the medium term m ay not become widespread in education.€LOGO programming language paradigms - pro cedural or imperative: to give orders to the computer, based on procedures perfo rmed sequentially. Fortran, Cobol, Basic, C, Logo geometry. - Functional: proces sing of symbolic data. Lisp. - Object Oriented: modular objects that interact. C

, Objective C, Prolog, Common Lisp Object, Smalltalk, Hypercard. - Logic: abstra ct model of computation, from knowledge bases. Prolog. Program in each of the pa radigms means to represent the solution of problems to be solved by the machine. Learning a programming language means more than learning the syntax and semanti cs - involves changing thought processes adjusting them to a new way to represen t problems. Logo: programming language created by Papert high level for use with children (4 years above).€Axes of research on the logo: Develop cognitive skill s develop new ways of dealing with existing knowledge: Given the transfer of skills. Learn computing concepts teach curriculum content. Hypothesis of tr ansfer: - programming language considered a means that generates new ways of dea ling with existing knowledge. (Howe, O'Shea). Learning the Right is to learn the system of powerful metaphors to deal with the real world. Results of experiment s show that there are no differences between children's programming in logo and other children in analogical transfer. - Rigorous experimental approach with ref erences to cognitive psychology: children develop cognitive skills programming i dentifiable, measurable and transferable to other situations. Skills most studie d: - Logical reasoning and temporal (Ross, Howe) - Action Planning (Pea, Kurland ,€Littlefield, Miranda) - Detection and correction action (Klahr, Craver, Mirand a) - metacognitive skills (Clements, Gullo, De Corte, Verchafell, Miranda) - Dev elopment of logical operations and spatial (Mendelsohn) Results conflicting and divergent. Hypothesis approach to content - teaching computing concepts: non aim s to train programmers, before giving children the basic tools of access to know ledge. Competencies assessed: - Iteration (Kessler, Anderson) - Recursion (Mende lsohn) - Sequential - Modularity (Fay, Mayer) - Definition of variable computing - programming as a means to teach school subjects: programming is used to repre sent properties related to the contents and their transformations, particularly arithmetic and geometric concepts. Results: divergent views.€Use of Logo in an e ducational context can facilitate the development of cognitive and metacognitive skills, learning of curricular content, acquisition of basic computer concepts, the instructional environment has certain characteristics. Transfer of knowledg e and skills also depends on the method used. More recent research aimed at desi gning, developing and evaluating computerized learning environments. Features: abandon the romantic idea of self-teaching and learning through self-discovery - learning effective teaching requires structured and mediated by the teacher. Compromise between discovery learning and systematic guidance, mediation of lea rning and structured instruction. - Favorable results from the enhancement of collaboration and cooperation among students. Teaching strategies: - Modeling: observing an expert to perform a task ,€that leads students to construct appropriate mental models of the activities n ecessary to accomplish the task. - Explain and give individual feedback (coachin g): teacher observes the student's performance, with concrete base to provide cl ues and information for gradual improvement in achievement. - Putting scaffoldin g (scaffolding): direct support to the student while performing the task (Vygots ky's ZPD) - Articulation: techniques that support students to clarify knowledge and procedures for resolving problems. - Reflection: compare cognitive strategie s and problem solving between students, between models. - Exploration: increasin g learner autonomy in improvement,€incentive to discover Techniques: - work in s mall groups - cards with pictures that explain Teaching skills transfer - Effect iveness in applications that were taught to transfer so intentional and explicit : to show how the skills acquired by learning programming apply in other context s. Strategies: - Abstraction significant: the knowledge and skills that they wis h to see transferred - Decontextualization progressive (the knowledge and skills ) techniques - systematic and random variation of different application contexts - a framework (framing) of knowledge, linking specific set framework with more extended - Make connections (bridging) between knowledge,€relationship between c ontexts procedures Logo stimulating learning environments allows to: - Identify skills and knowledge they want students to learn and teach in the context Logo Develop instructional environments with a balance between discovery learning / personal exploration and systematic guidance, mediation and education - Consider

the positive teaching of the transfer of cognitive skills, teaching them while the knowledge-base - use the Logo as a means of teaching course content, facilit ating integration in the activities of professional applications programs open s tructure, without specific curriculum purpose. Results of research: what student s learn, how they are entered and used;€what purposes? - Programs for word proce ssing the most used - learning these programs made by analogical transfer: teach ers do not teach them explicitly and sequenced, which means that students do not know how to exploit the potential of many programs, mistakes, wrong ideas - so that the programs are effective should be inserted in stimulating learning envir onments - the need for competent operators to operate effectively ______________ ______________________________________________________________ U3S1 Memory Impor tance in learning, problem solving and reasoning. Reconstruction of the reality that change with age and experience. Multiple and complex, is composed of many s ystems. Properties: - power - wilderness - diversification of records - Stores a nd retrieves information functions - encoding - storing - Coding - Information Through ....€- Free recall - indexed remembering - recogn ition Oblivion - decline of stored information - new information interference Ty pes (Baddelley) - autobiographical memory (personal record of experience) - sema ntic memory (data, general information about the world) - procedural memory (kno wing how ) systems - declarative memory - Memory memory procedure has physiologi cal basis, involving many areas and brain processes related to learning memory: a set of biological and psychological mechanisms that enable the encoding, stora ge and retrieval of diverse information, whether for use immediately or for late r use. (Lieury, 1997) perspective of analysis - structural, analyzes the compone nts of memory (mcp/mlp-> semantic, episodic, procedural) - procedural, examines the encoding, retention,€Recovery information -> run dynamic structural perspect ive sensory memory - information captured through the sensory organs, brief, pre cise. short-term memory (instrumental, active, primary) - first storage system i nformation. Seven items, 30 seconds. Stores chunks - units of information with m eaning. Organization info MCP-learning facilitates working memory - retaining in formation for short-term synthesis and global understanding. Working memory broa der concept that MCP. consisting of: - central executioner - attentional system, involved in all attention tasks, coordinates other systems. Limited capacity he ld by different tasks. - Ring articulation - verbal test system. Organize, read, €articulate verbal information - System Visuo-Spatial - deals with non-verbal in formation - Primary Acoustic Store - acoustic information retains Long Term Memo ry processes and stores information from the mcp. Potentially available througho ut life. Components: episodic memory (self-bioqráfica) semantic memory (general knowledge) procedural memory (know-how) flow between MCP and MLP (modal model) P rospects Procedural Memory - function code storing and retrieving record store r epresent remain aware storage - registration and maintenance time coding - proce ssing complex stimuli. Processing superficial - deep physical processing - meani ng of stimuli strategies for learning motivation -> influnencia encoding Recovery - search and recovery information stored, which should be available and accessible.€Categori es: Remembrance - free recall, more difficult method of memory access. Remembran ce index - indices, they provide at the time of encoding facilitates the recover y process. Recognition - conscious identification of information, easy and effec tive method of probing memory, takes place from the word or image source. Strate gies - mnemonic: acronyms that facilitate memorization. - Sobreaprendizagem (rep etitions) to master essential basic information and produce automatisms. - Organ ization: the foundation of knowledge, understanding and grouping of information, relationship and association of new material with existing knowledge base. meta memory - cgmo works Oblivion: law more classical memory (Ebbinghauss)€natural pr ocess of decline - loss passive interference - failure to recover retroactive in hibition (new preclude earlier) Inhibition proactive (previous prevents new) ___ _________________________________________________________________________ U4-S2 relationship between learning and knowledge / know-how Pleas psychological oppos

ition to "know" / "know-how "The distinction between verbal intelligence and pra ctical intelligence (nonverbal) - there was a verbal intelligence based on langu age and logical reasoning, and a practical intelligence, based on perception and action. - Behavioral psychologists of the early century used the same methods f or studying verbal learning and motor learning. Memory: headquarters of verbal l earning, confused with language. - Intelligence studied from the standpoint of l earning by action.€- Intelligence "abstract" summarized the reasoning (logical s yllogisms) - there is no integration between these two views, verbal and nonverb al intelligence coexist independently. Sensory-motor intelligence and intelligen ce representative - Wallon, Piaget, Vygotsky (developmental psychology): awarene ss of the complex relationships between thought and action. - Perception that kn owledge construction is after the acquisition of know-how sensory-motor. Intelli gence linked primarily to the action and only subsequently to the representation of the action. - Piaget demonstrated the importance of this phenomenon in the c onstruction of the intelligence, switching of sensorimotor intelligence for inte lligence representative (key step in intellectual development, the reconstructio n process). - Know-how (practical intelligence) allows access to knowledge. Abst raction process complex and slow. It seems to be the core of the development of thought.€Get results and understanding - awareness of action. - Piaget: to deepe n the relationship between representation and action (Réussir et comprendre, la gear of conscience). - Action is knowledge (know-how) autonomous, whose conceptu alization is done through awareness later. - Raising awareness: moving from the periphery (visible effects of the action) to the center (internal coordination o f actions). - Development of Knowledge: reverse motion - understanding frees up the action and drives. Procedural knowledge and declarative knowledge - Decades of 70/80: Interest in the study of expertise. Opposition between knowing and sab erfazer boils down to the opposition between declarative knowledge and procedura l knowledge, analogy with computer languages (Mendelsohn). - Procedural knowledge: prescriptive and specific uses we give them, consists in associating the ends to the shares.€- Declarative knowledge is descriptive and independent of the uses, represent the abstract facts, events basics. Functions (Mendelsohn): communicating information, controlling the conduct of the operatio n, to generalize. Anderson's ACT * model: computational model of cognitive funct ioning - is based on declarative and procedural knowledge, organized in memory ( database) declarative and procedural, which contribute towards the realization o f problems in working memory. - Three memories: declarative, productions and wor king memory (information to which the system has access, information retrieved f rom declarative memory and long-term time frames transferred from the encoding p rocesses and operations in production - what we remember, what perceive, what we do). Declarative knowledge permanently or temporarily in an active state.€Proce sses: - encoding (encoding): stores information about the external world in work ing memory. - Execution (performance): convert commands in the memory of work be haviors. - Storage (storage): permanent records in the declarative memory of the contents of working memory, increase strength of existing records. - Recovery ( retrieval): retrieves information from declarative memory. - Comparison (match): data from the memory of work are put into correspondence with the conditions of production. - Implementation of production (production Application): the compar ison made by the processes of implementation. - Application (application): ring returns to the memory of productions, new productions are learned by studying th e history of the application of existing productions. - Theory ACT: learning by doing - learning by doing.€- ACT model contradictory to the theory of Piaget - d eclarative knowledge (knowing) prior procedural knowledge (know how). Knowledge and know-how are representations of the same knowledge in different states. - Co gnitive approach is interested in containing and founded the concept of represen tation and modes of organization of the representations of the membership of tha t study processes of knowledge acquisition (developmental psychology). Conceptua l representations / representations on the action - Richards: three kinds of rep resentations of knowledge in memory. - Conceptual: we know that the world (decla rative memory, basic verbal and propositional), preserve and transmit knowledge

about the real. Concepts covered by the words, relations between concepts (defin itions), networks formed by the interconnections of concepts. - Icon express the spatial structure of visual perception characteristics (shape, size,€position, orientation). - Linked to action: declarative knowledge about actions are not ac tions in themselves. Components: semantic and implicit representations on the ac tion. - Component semantics: to know that not to be confused with the action but allows evoke their meaning. - Component of implicit relations: let you control the course of action that we can not fully explain its content. - The components related to actions seem oraganizadas the same way that representations of conce pts. More difficult access, linked to automated procedures and organized hierarc hically in levels. Representations about the fall in action: - purpose of the ac tion - the mode of implementation - pre-requisites of the action - access to the se three levels takes place from the periphery to the center of the action. Acce ss to the prerequisites is prior to understanding what enabled success in action . (Piaget,€Mendelsohn) - Analysis of the core problem of the design / relationsh ip between knowledge / know-how from a psychological point of view. Mendelsohn: tendency to distinguish whether the know-how is difficult to explain why access to representations of action (whether on the know-how). Leads to think that they are interdependent and can function effectively without knowing about the knowhow. Know and Know-How in learning through teaching. Mendelsohn: the act of teac hing is completed in a position to know and know-how are manipulated explicitly. - Study how teachers use in the classroom declarative knowledge about procedure s - Examine the means they use to teach the procedural knowledge associated with v erbalization of knowledge.€Mendelsohn: - learning is continually reducing ohiato between the conduct of these proceedings and we know about this situation becau se I found a situation that we identified as being similar. - The learning takes place during the action, not after it has ended. - Learning is a process of man aging the flow of information that goes through when performing a task. - Memori zation of the steps that management form a set of implicit and explicit knowledg e that function as a system for detecting and correcting errors (Ohlsonn). - Sys tem: knowledge following the action controlled by this system: know-how. - Knowl edge is knowledge stored in memory (verbal and practical) and know-how to update them here and now. ____________________________________________________________ ________________ U4 S3-Term Transfer of Learning elusive, is a central concept i n the debate on learning and education.€Fundamental component of learning, more or less natural procoesso that allows us to knowledge in the new context previou sly purchased here. There is a spontaneous process, and difficult to put into ev idence. Transfer types and transfer procedure using general or specific knowledg e learned in a given situation to new situations or similar situations more gene ric and far from the initial learning situation. Gaffan, "Effects of previous ep isodes of learning in later achievement of certain tasks" fundamental types: spe cific transfer - a knowledge is applied in detail in at least two situations. Tr ansfer by generalization - when the second task is similar to the first. Transfe r by abstraction or conceptualization - perform the second task is based on a pr inciple or rule in this initial task of learning.€Transfer by inference - previo usly learned information is combined with new information and generate new behav iors and knowledge. Salomon€Qualities of abstraction facilitates the transfer. I t is also necessary that the subject uses volunteers and controlled processes conscious and deliberate effort, typical of metacognition and deep processing. M eaningful concept of abstraction (Salomon€Mayer Near Transfer (forthcoming): the ability of students to transfer a learned task or event to another task or even t (school). Far Transfer (distant): ability to transfer information learned in s chool to real life problems. Mendelsohn (1994) Transfer next - the ability to tr ansfer knowledge belonging to the same thematic field. Transfer distant - betwee n subjects belonging to different areas. What relationship can be established be tween types of transfer? Distinctions are not mutually exclusive, there are many similarities. What is more dependent and more independent of the contexts? Envi ronmental theories, which emphasize issues related to the characteristics of sti

muli (identical elements of Thorndike and Woodworth, transfer surface Osgood, ve rtical transfer of Gagné). Current theories of learning continue to attach impor tance to practice.€A lot of school do appeal to more abstract types of transfer, nonspecific. Which one should the school care? Bruner: nonspecific transfer (Sa lomon, Perkins), logical consistency of the low road, high road. Ericsson: the c oncept of deliberate practice: learning within a specific domain, based on pract ices designed to improve achievement, requiring effort, modification of work obj ectives, development of new activities. Theories about Theories transfer environ mentalists basis of learning theories of Thorndike instrumental, reflexive learn ing of Pavlov, Skinner's operant conditioning. Modified behavior by reward. Birt h of the concept of transfer, associated with stimulus / response. Thorndike, an alyzes formal discipline (Herbart), transfer occurs if cases share identical ele ments (the concept of similarity). Nonconsensual problem: what are the stimuli,€ concepts, similar tasks, depends on characteristics of the stimuli, structural l evel of the subject, metacognitive skills, expertise, context? Theories of devel opment Piaget: children can construct mental representations and make calculatio ns on transactions beyond the operant learning. Mechanisms of assimilation and a ccommodation. Transfer, reduced to the concept of décalage horizontal or vertica l application of mental structures. Bruner: specific transfer / non-specific, sk ill acquisition, the acquisition of abstract notions. School should worry about transferring non-specific suitability of the fundamental structure of the discip line to intellectual abilities of students. Vygotsky: school learning crucially influence the Evolving intellectual. Good teaching is what comes forward for dev elopment. ADP and ZPD, imitation, and mediation.€Download: related collective ac tivities, academic learning, imitative capacity of the species. Functionalist th eories of cognition and functioning architecture, computer as a metaphor. Study of expertise, compared with beginners, computing devices. Experts competêcias tr ansfer through isomorphism between deep structures of the problems, started proc eed by trial and error. Transfer relates to how the knowledge is organized in me mory and the degree of similarity between situations and problems, near and far transfer, the subject's ability to regulate and monitor their learning. Newell a nd Simon Anderson. Contextualist theories takes into account social and cultural contexts where learning takes place. Lave, Wenger, Rogoff, Chavajay, Greeno, Co llins, Resnick, recover Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger, Gibson, Vygotsky.€Knowledge is an expression of a complex process of interaction, distributed throughout the b ody, mind and activities, organized culturally, subject to finding suitable adju stments in situations, immersed in real strongly socialized. Learning means to p articipate in communities of practice. Knowledge associated with contexts; trans fer is one exception - the concept of affordance: subject, placed in context, le arn to react to put themselves in accordance with the situation imposed upon it .. Experimental investigations Transfer is not a spontaneous process, difficult to teach, to bring out explicitly. Transfer occurs when account was taken of the learning environment. Good teaching should be directed to the transfer. Variabl es associated with the subject: - Subject to transfer and spend more time analyzing, planning, classifying remed ies;€assess the intrinsic value of the results, putting in place more effective procedures for self-correction. - Subjects with difficulty in transferring seek solutions rapidly but in random order, mobilize its entire repertoire, learn lit tle from their mistakes, have difficulty self-correcting itself. School should h elp students develop metacognitive strategies - training that involves metacogni tive support for students to develop strategies for planning, self-observation, self-assessment and self-questioning. Entering the same time that the knowledge base. Variables associated with the tasks: - functionalist theories. - Analogy b etween initial problem and target problem. - Transfer of learning through tasks that allow decontextualization progressive knowledge, drawing from various probl ems, the principle tasks, rule or common scheme.€- Transfer varies depending on the degree to which tasks share cognitive elements in common. - Statement of abs tract principles to deal with concrete situations. - Supporting students to repr esent their experience levels of abstraction that transcend especeficidades cont

exts and examples is beneficial for learning and transfer. - Wire Transfer asymm etry of powers between areas of knowledge. Variables associated with learning si tuations: - systematic variation of different contexts of application of the pro cedures or concepts, through deliberate practice and varied. - Permanent readjus tment of knowledge, strategic re-locate operations / concepts to be transferred into broader frameworks. - Establish links between knowledge, involving procedur es to similar procedures in other contexts. - You can teach subjects to be trans ferred using the transfer as an indicator.€- Stimulating learning environment sh ould be directed to the transfer of learning. Summary: Problem of the transfer i s on how students acquire the knowledge and teaching methods used. Matching the quality and content of the knowledge taught and constraints of different areas w here these skills are applied. Teach transfer - to prepare students to be able t o adapt flexibly to new problems and situations. _______________________________ _____________________________________________ Learning strategies Given a learni ng task - try to organize how to approach the task (repeating, elaborating, orga nizing) strategies for learning are "integrated sequence of procedures or activi ties that are chosen with the aim of facilitating the acquisition, storage and / or use information "(Nisbet and Shucksmith 1987, Dansereau,€1985) learning stra tegies as well as the support, they help to Metacognition, through interaction b etween the basic processes (hearing, seeing, reading, ESTC), the acquisition of specific knowledge and study habits. To learn a subject, it should be (ex period ic table) evaluation: qualitative and quantitative nature of the material to pri or knowledge learn learning conditions Purposes of learning the acquisition of k nowledge (learning) depends on the interaction factors such as skills training, basic processes, prior knowledge and automation, integration of these (Metacogni tion); interrelationship between skills, support strategies, learning strategies and Metacognition. Types of Strategies Marton et al, 1984 - superficial - simpl e memorization, repetition of information - deep - to extract meaning, to unders tand Ausebel: memorística and significativs Gestalt (school): Productive and reproductive Piaget narrow sense and broad sens e learning by association - repetition - selection - practice learning by restru cturing - development - organization - and sort relacioanr Flavell: stages of ac quisition of learning strategies according to age level Repetition - simple - a selection of information-elaboration Restructuring - simple (key words, pictures , rhymes, codes) - complex (analogies, reading texts organization - sort (catego ries) - hierarchy (networks concepts, structures,€concept maps) ________________ ____________________________________________________________ Behaviorism Thorndi ke - Law of effect: the consequences of behavior reinforce the links between ans wers - Law Practice: strengthening the connections between stimulus and response depends on the new number of times that the stimulus is paired with the new res ponse Pavlov: - learning comes down to establishing a link between a new stimulu s and a reflex response previously in the body. Skinner - Association stimulus / result - when the occurrence of a behavior is followed by a reinforcing consequ ence, the strength of behavior increases. - When the occurrence of a reinforced behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcing consequence, the strength of the behavior decreases.€Operant Conditioning Concepts - discriminative stimuli or c ircumstances that indicate the subject the probability of a particular consequen ce - operant response, instrumental action of the subject - the consequences of the operant response of the subject Reinforcement: the effect of behavior that h as the effect of increasing the frequency, duration or intensity of behavior. Sc ales Strengthening Programs through which the reinforcement is given. - Continuo us Reinforcement Scales - operant responses followed by reinforcement, rather re sistant to extinction process. - Intermittent Reinforcement Scales - only some a nswers are followed by reinforcement, resistant to extinction process. - By prop ortion of answers - for the time interval - Fixed (reinforcement after a fixed n umber of responses) - variable (booster administered at random) Punishment: aver sive event or withdrawal of positive stimulus, two types as.€Extinction: making response is followed by strengthening, weakening the response. Stimulus control: antecedent stimuli, discriminative. Stimulus associated with reinforcement, dis

criminative stimuli associated with no reinforcement, delta. Answer differential ly controlled by antecedent stimuli. Differential reinforcement: strengthening the response to a stimulus and reinfor cement with no other stimulus. Assumptions: Operant Conditioning - behaviors reg ulated by the consequences. Where the consequences of behavior are reinforced in creases the likelihood of such behavior. Punishing consequences likely to decrea se behavior. Extinction - no longer working followed by a reinforcer progressive ly decreases the probability of emission of the operant. Operant Transformation - behaviors can be operationalized into discrete behavioral units.€You can ident ify the consequences that maintain behavior and stimuli indicative of the possib ility of occurrences. It is possible to establish therapeutic and educational pl ans. Strategies to decrease behavior: Extinction: withdrawal of the reinforcemen ts that maintains a behavior problem. Need proper identification, consistent and systematic withdrawal. In the process behavior initially increases and then dec reases. Do not use in case of danger. Satiation: super-abundance of reinforcemen ts, losing the reinforcing value. Need reinforcements that are potentially saciá veis. In the process behavior initially increases and then decreases. Do not use if there are no conditions. Super-Correcção/Prática Positive: better fix for th e negative effects of behavior. Need to identify the consequences of behavior, r esponses to refund useful activity. Applied as soon as possible.€Do not apply if behavior has no visible impact on the environment. Cost of Response - prelimina ry withdrawal of reinforcements as a consequence of undesirable behavior. Need t o have a range of positive reinforcement. Realistic cost, reinforcements difficu lt repurchase. Impractical if the amount of reinforcement is reduced. Time-out take positive reinforcement for a certain period of time. Area time-out free of positive reinforcement. Average length. Only if it is possible to isolate. Aver sive stimulation - an aversive consequence of undesirable behavior. Short, mediu m intensity, immediately. Immediate effects to use only in situations of highly dangerous behavior. Strategies to increase behavior: Positive reinforcement - po sitive result against the desirable behavior. Need variety of positive reinforce ments. Application immediately followed by the intermittent variable. Can cause dependence.€Negative reinforcement - remove negative stimulation as a consequenc e of achieving desired behavior. Need motivation. Negative situation, ended imme diately when behavior changes. The use of adaptive responses of avoidance. Shapi ng - reinforcing behaviors that are progressive approach to comportamentoalvo. I dentify steps. Decompose behaviors. Use when defining successive approximations. Dimming - moving gradually controlling the behavior of the consequences for the discriminative stimulus history. Identification signs may advertise proabilidad e of consequence. Becomes apparent stimuli, paired with appropriate reinforcemen t. Can cause dependence.