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CONTENTS

Abstract.

Introduction

Aims & Objectives

Methodology

Background Study
o Energy efficiency: Definition
o Difference between energy efficiency and sustainability
o Need for Energy efficient design.
o Concept of Energy efficient library
o Ways to achieve energy efficiency in library..

Case Studies
o Case Study1 National Library Singapore
o Case Study 2- Seattle library.

Comparative Analysis.

Design Outcome

Reference

CHAPTER-I
ABSTRACT

The idea of creating sustainable and energy efficient libraries is approaching a significant turn
and transforming into a library movement by implementing energy efficient methods in
building , by greening existing library facilities, providing energy efficient library services,
and embracing environmentally supportive and sustainable practices within the library. The
two most important things for making sustainable and energy efficient libraries are economy
and ecology. The main objectives of this seminar is to analyse the importance of such
libraries; to identify the various design elements that can be applied to achieve energy
efficiency in a library, to identify the major green library initiatives at the international and
national level; and to make suggestions for building efficient libraries for sustainable
development. Comparative analysis is done between two well-known libraries using various
energy efficient elements and inferences are drawn, so that it can be used in designing the
library

INTRODUCTION

Energy efficiency is the ability to use less energy more effectively to provide the same level
of output. This is done to overcome the rising problem of global warming and other
environmental issues. Energy efficient design in building employs strategies in terms of
design, construction and operation of buildings, that minimizes the use of energy.

.The energy challenges faced by the college campus are overwhelming. Everything we do on
campus requires energy, and that energy has to come from somewhere. But we have a great
deal of influence over how much energy we use to satisfy our needs and where that energy
comes from These influences are motivating institutions to re-evaluate their energy demands.
Surprisingly, these contrasting challenges can be met with a well-designed solution that
harnesses the power of integrated technology and on-going energy efficiency services. The
result is an efficient campus that becomes an optimal learning environment; saves money;
and protects people, property, and our planet.

Similarly sustainably designed and less energy usage libraries on the campus would be built
to last, to flexibly respond to changing functional demands, to provide an environment that is
inspiring and safe, as well as to perform efficiently, providing great financial value to the
community that supported its creation.

As we know the psycho-physiological effects that buildings have upon us, the importance of
the health of libraries becomes even more important. Numerous studies have shown that
strategies we use to reduce a building's environmental impact have secondary benefits for
improved occupant health and energy efficiency.

Another worth noting fact is that over the past several years, libraries have become one of the
most common categories of new construction and embracing sustainable design and energy
efficient solutions.. Libraries as non-commercial and service oriented public buildings are
particularly suited to give examples to illustrate the idea of sustainability, saving energy to
distribute and to disseminate this idea to the people.

AIM: To reduce the energy consumption and achieving energy efficiency in a campus and
achieve the desired comfort with the least input of conventional energy.

OBJECTIVES:- In order to achieve the aim following objectives are followed or carried
out:-

Understanding energy efficiency and its various techniques.

Determining the Criteria for selecting different energy efficient design features which
can be applied to the campus building and its surrounding.

Studying different buildings of the same type in which the techniques are used so that
the same can be applied in the type chosen.

Comparing and analysing the results after the application of energy efficient design
solutions.

SCOPE :- The study includes the identification of all possible energy efficient design
features/techniques used in an institutional campus and how these techniques are
ultimately helping to save energy.

LIMITATIONS:- The study about the energy efficient design techniques has been limited
to only one building type within a campus i.e. the Library building.

METHODOLOGY:

The basic framework for the following study:

Defining aim, objectives, scope and limitations


Background study of energy efficiency and its features.
Studying difference of energy efficiency and sustainability
Identifying the various areas, where the above design techniques can be applied.
Comparison and technical data relating to the before and after the application of energy
efficient design.
Case studies of the similar types of campuses (management) exhibiting the following above
features
Comparative analysis of the design features of different case studies
Inferences and conclusion drawn from the above steps followed by including it in thesis
design.

Aim, Objectives, Scope & limitation


Difference between sustainability & Case Study 2: Seattle public
Defining
Ways
Energy Problem
toenergy
achieve
EfficiencyStatement
efficiency
energy
in aefficiency
library Comparative
Case Studies
library Analysis
Background Study

Energy Efficiency:
Definition& Purpose

Case Study 1: National


Library Singapore

Identifying parameters to compare


case studies

Inference

Design Outcome

Methodology Flowchart

CHAPTER-II
BACKGROUND STUDY
ENERGY EFFICIENCY: Energy efficient and environment conscious building design is
essentially an integrated approach to reduce the consumption of energy generated from
construction and various activities as a result of building construction. The design solutions
which are architectural intervention, building materials and design methodologies has to be
carefully evaluated to minimize energy usage, minimize the ecological degradation that may
be caused by the construction of the building and provide cost effective solutions.

Difference between Energy efficiency and sustainability

Energy efficiency Vs. Sustainability:

Energy efficiency = profits = growth = higher energy use

Energy efficiency = profits = unsustainable growth = higher CO2(carbon di


oxide)emissions

So what is sustainability if it is not energy efficiency?

Sustainability = profits = sustainable growth = zero emissions

Figure 1 : Figure showing carbon footprint distribution

NEED FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN

There is an imperative need for energy efficient design, as the conventional building design
methods are contributing to serious environmental problems because of excessive
consumption of energy and other natural resources and increasing carbon footprint.

The close connection between energy use in buildings and environmental damage arises
because energy intensive solutions sought to construct a building & meet its demands for
heating, cooling, ventilation & lighting cause severe depletion of invaluable environmental
resources. However, buildings can be designed to meet occupants need for thermal and
visual comfort at reduced levels energy & resources consumption. Energy resource efficiency
in new constructions can be effected by adopting few innovative building design solutions.

ENERGY RATING SYSTEMS IN INDIA


There are three primary Rating systems in India.

GRIHA

IGBC

BEE

GRIHA- Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) is Indias own rating
system jointly developed by TERI and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,
Government of India. It is a green building design evaluation system where buildings are
rated in a three-tier process. The process initiates with the online submission of documents as
per the prescribed criteria followed by on site visit and evaluation of the building by a team
of professionals and experts from GRIHA Secretariat. GRIHA rating system consists of 34
criteria categorised in four different sections. Some of them are ( 1) Site selection and site
planning, (2) Conservation and efficient utilization of resources, (3) Building operation and
maintenance, and (4) Innovation

IGBC- (Indian Green building council)The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design
(LEED) is the rating system developed for certifying Green Buildings. LEED is developed by
the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), the organization promoting sustainability
through Green Buildings. LEED is a framework for assessing building performance against
set criteria and standard points of references. The benchmarks for the LEED Green Building
Rating System were developed in year 2000 and are currently available for new and existing
constructions.

Figure 2 Figure showing LEED criteria for evaluation

IGBC is the non profit research institution formed in the year 2001,having its offices in CII-
Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre, which is itself a LEED certified Green building.
Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) has licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from
the USGBC.

Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)


BEE developed its own rating system for the buildings based on a 1 to 5 star scale. More stars
mean more energy efficiency. BEE has developed the Energy Performance Index (EPI). The
unit of Kilo watt hours per square meter per year is considered for rating the building and
especially targets air conditioned and non-air conditioned office buildings. The Reserve Bank
of Indias buildings in Delhi and Bhubaneshwar, the CII Sohrabji Godrej Green Business
Centre and many other buildings have received BEE 5 star ratings.

ENERGY EFFICIENT LIBRARY

A energy efficient library is designed to minimize energy consumption, negative impact on


the natural environment and maximize indoor environmental quality by means of careful site
selection, using passive and active techniques use of natural construction materials and
biodegradable products, conservation of resources (water, energy, paper), and responsible
waste disposal (recycling, etc.)

Figure 3 National Library Singapore Figure showing Beitous green library

TECHNIQUES TO MAKE LIBRARIES ENERGY EFFICIENT

Site Analysis (Site location, landscape)

Building envelope( Walls, Windows, aperture placement etc.)

Passive Design Strategies: (Building massing& orientation, Passive Heating,


Passive Cooling, Lighting and Day-lighting Design)

Artificial lighting and controls

Active design feature: It uses purchased energy to keep the building comfortable.
These strategies include forced-air HVAC systems, heat pumps, radiant panels or
chilled beams, and electric lights.

Renewable energy systems (photovoltaic cells, Solar water heating)


Materials & Method of Construction

SITE CONSIDERATIONS include climate (sun & clouds, wind, temperature, humidity, and
precipitation), the building's immediate surroundings (other buildings, trees, etc.), and
location in the context of a city or other area (walkability, transit access, and other
transportation for the people who use the building)

PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES

Incorporation of solar passive techniques in a building design helps in minimizing load on


conventional systems such as heating, cooling, ventilation & light.

Passive strategies provide thermal and visual comfort by using natural energy sources &
sinks. Ex: solar radiation, outside air, wet surfaces, vegetation etc means, in hot & dry
climate: an architects aim would be to design a building in such a way that solar gains are
maximized in winter and, reduce solar gains in summer.

Once the solar passive architectural concepts are applied to design, the load on conventional
systems (HVAC & lighting) is reduced.

Architects can achieve a solar passive design by studying the macro and micro climate of the
place. The solar passive design strategy should vary from one climate to another

Different techniques are:-

Building Mass & Orientation


Passive Heating
Passive Cooling
Lighting and Day lighting Design

Building Mass & Orientation

For many building types, massing is one of the most important factors in passive heating,
cooling, and daylighting, yet often these are not considered until after massing is finished.
Its important to begin considering passive design strategies in the massing stage, so that the
surface areas exposed to sun at different times of day, building height, and building width can
all be optimized for passive comfort.

Orientation is simply what compass direction the building faces. It should be optimized early-on, along
with massing, and can be the most important step for passive design. Orientation is measured by the
azimuth angle of a surface relative to true north. Successful orientation rotates the building to minimize
energy loads and maximize free energy from the sun and wind. -
Figure showing energy gain in different building orientation

Passive Heating

Direct Solar Gain


Direct gain is the heat from the sun being collected and contained in an occupied
space. Direct solar gain is important for any site that needs heating, because it is the simplest
and least costly way of passively heating a building with the sun. Avoiding direct solar gain
is also important in hot sunny climates.

Figure showing direct solar gain Figure showing heat gain for different massing

Massing & Orientation for Heating


Massing and orientation are important design factors to consider for passive heating. These
factors should be considered early in design so that the surface areas exposed to sun at
different times of day, building dimensions, and building orientation can all be optimized for
passive comfort.
Thermal Mass
Thermal mass is a material's resistance to change in temperature. Objects with high thermal
mass absorb and retain heat. Thermal mass is crucial to good passive solar heating design,
especially in locations that have large swings of temperature from day to night.

Figure showing wall exhibiting thermal mass


Trombe Wall and Attached Sunspace
A Trombe wall is a system for indirect solar heat gain that is a good example of thermal mass,
solar gain, and glazing properties used together to achieve human comfort goals passively. It
consists of a dark colored wall of high thermal mass facing the sun, with glazing spaced in
front to leave

Figure showing trombe wall


Apertures for Heating
Windows and other apertures bring in heat from sunshine, but can also lose heat by radiant
cooling and by conducting heat better than most wall or roof constructions. Apertures and
shading must be intelligently placed to take advantage of the sun's heat in cold locations and
seasons, while not overheating in hot seasons.

Figure showing heating via different size of apertures Figure showing shading effect

Shading for Solar Heat Gain


Shades can keep the heat and glare of direct sun from coming through windows. They can
also keep direct sunlight off of walls or roofs, to reduce cooling loads.
Passive Cooling

Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation, also called passive ventilation, uses natural outside air
movement and pressure differences to both passively cool and ventilate a building. It can
include design strategies like wind ventilation, the stack effect, and night purge ventilation.
-Wind Ventilation
-Stack Ventilation & Bernoulli Principle
-Night-Purge Ventilation
Air Cooling
Natural ventilation can still be an option even in hot climates, particularly in hot dry
climates. Two techniques can be used to cool incoming air: Evaporative cooling and
geothermal cooling.

Figure showing natural ventilation Figure showing air cooling effect

Massing & Orientation for Cooling


Massing and orientation are important design factors to consider for passive cooling.
Consider these factors early in the design so that the building layout and building orientation
can all be optimized for passive comfort.

Figure showing cooling effect on different orientation and


massing
Apertures for Cooling
The simple act of opening a window can often provide immediate cooling effects. Window
design and ventilation louver design greatly affects passive cooling potential, specifically
natural ventilation.

BUILDING ENVELOPE
Figure showing air cooling effect

Aperture Placement & Area

Aperture placement and area are important because strategic use of windows and skylights can help
achieve thermal and visual comfort passively, saving both energy and money.
Figure showing aperture area and placement Figure showing the heat transfer via window

Windows

Heat flow through windows and skylights requires special attention for several reasons. Despite dramatic
improvements, these transparent/translucent envelope components still usually have the lowest R
(highest U) of all components of an envelope.
Shading & Redirecting Sunlight

Shading is an important set of strategies for visual comfort and thermal comfort. As such, successful
shading is measured by the overall success of visual and thermal comfort.

Figure showing shading effect Figure showing infiltration through the envelope

Infiltration & Moisture Control

Water also moves through building envelope assembliesin both liquid and vapor states. The focus
here is upon water vapor movement. Water vapor will often need to be handled by a climate control
system through the use of energy (termed latent heat).

Artificial lighting and controls

Good lighting is usually an intelligent blend of natural and artificial light. Specifying the right
lights and fixtures, laying them out well, including good controls, and making the system
easy to maintain are all crucial for energy efficiency.

Electric Light Sources

The choice of light source is very important, both for visual comfort and for energy
efficiency.
Figure showing tungsten light source

Light Fixtures and Layout-Light fixtures and layout can be as important to good lighting as
the light sources themselves.

Figure showing different light layout and its effect

Controls for Lighting and Daylighting- Lighting and daylighting controls are systems that
adjust the amount of natural and artificial light in a room, based on its brightness, occupancy,
and other factors. Eg dimmers, motion sensors

Figure showing lighting controls


Lighting Operations & Maintenance-Lighting operations and maintenance are the practices
that keep lighting systems working at peak performance during the life of the building.

CHAPTER-III

CASE STUDY 1: NATIONAL LIBRARY SINGAPORE


Architects: T.R. Hamzah & Yeang Sdn Bhd

Location: 100 Victoria Street, Singapore

Building height: 102.8 m, 16 stories, 3 basement levels

Energy savings: 31%


Design : the building has two blocks separated by an atrium. The atrium is fully day-lit and
Bridges in the atrium act as linkages between the two blocks. The larger block of the project
accommodates the library which is located over a naturally-ventilated civic plaza that is open
to the sky. The smaller block is a curved entity that houses all the noisy activities including an
exhibition, auditorium and a multi-media space

Figure 5 Figure showing the faade of National Library Singapore

Energy Efficient Design techniques:-

Passive Design Strategies


Active design strategies
Renewable energy systems
Building envelope
Artificial lighting system

PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES

Orientation:The building is oriented away from the East-West axis to avoid exposure to the
afternoon sun.

The southwest side has a solid wall that permanently prevents direct sun rays from getting
into the building.
Figure 6 Figure showing the building layout of National Library Singapore
Stack effect: A vast atrium sits as a thermal stack over the internal street.

Figure showing the section of National Library Singapore

Daylighting: Sunshades wrapped around the building controls solar radiation and
glare, yet maximize daylight. And light shelves are present to minimize indoor
lighting system

Indoor temperature: 14 landscaped gardens in the complex


Figure helps
showing the in regulating
landscaped daytime
areas
Figure showing the sunshades
temperature inside the building

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

Rain sensor as part of the automatic irrigation system for rooftop gardens. Water efficient
taps and cisterns are used to conserve water

ACTIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES

CO2 sensors CO2 sensors installed at the Air Handling Units (AHUs) ensure that the
percentage of fresh air in the supply air is maintained at acceptable levels in all areas.
Carbon monoxide monitoring When the level of carbon monoxide exceeds the
standard limit, the car park ventilation system is activated where fresh air is pumped
in while the exhaust air is extracted.

Night setback This allows an increased air-conditioned temperature to be maintained


in the building during unoccupied hours.

BUILDING ENVELOPE

Double-glazed glass faade (About two-thirds of the building faade is double-glazed


with high quality low emissivity glass to minimize heat transfer)

Figure showing the building envelope

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING SYSTEM

Light sensors also dim or switch off the indoor lights when the interior spaces exhibit
sufficient day lighting.

Motion sensors have been installed in the escalators


Figure showing the lighting systems

CONCLUSION

National Library has used most of the energy efficient design features and have saved
most of the energy consumption in various forms
The building has also been able to achieve interesting faade and has also provided
enough light and sufficient green spaces making it the most favourable place to read
and interact.

CASE STUDY 2: SEATTLE LIBRARY

Architect: Rem Koolhaas, OMA, Joshua Prince-Ramus, LMN Architects

Location: Seattle,Washington , United States.

Floors:11 + 1 basement level

From the outside , one can see a large glass building , straight lines that intersect. It is
articulated by large blocks at different levels corresponding to the library premises
Figure showing the faade of Seattle library

There are many levels in the building which are used

for various purposes:-

Leve1- playground, auditorium, learning section

Level 2 Staff area

Level 3 Living area, meditation purpose Figure showing the ramps connecting al the
levels in the building Figure showing the faade
Level 4 Meeting rooms of Seattle library

Level 5 lab and resource centres

Level 6-9 book spiral

Level 10 reading area

Level 11 administration area

Energy Efficient Design techniques used in the building:-


Figure showing the structure of the library
Building envelope
Sustainable site
Active design strategies
Renewable energy systems
Passive design strategies
Efficiency in materials
Figure showing the location of Seattle library

SUSTAINABLE SITE: The library is located on major bus routes; bicycle parking spaces;
landscaping and exterior design to reduce "heat island effect.

BUILDING ENVELOPE

Building is designed to outperform Seattle energy code by 10 percent; about half the glass
used in the curtain wall is triple-glazed with an aluminum expanded metal mesh sandwiched
between two panes to reduce heat buildup from sunlight;

RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS


Figuresofshowing
Approximately a quarter the building envelope
plants drought-tolerant of the library
is provided; water-efficient drip
irrigation system, water comes from an on-site 38,500-gallon rainwater collection tank;
interior water use reduced by metered faucets, no-flush urinals and efficient mechanical
equipment.

EFFICIENCY IN MATERIALS

Space designed into loading dock area to collect and store recyclables; more than 75
percent of demolition and construction waste was recycled; a significant amount of
recycled material was used in construction; a minimum of 20 percent of the building
products used in the Central Library were manufactured within 500 miles of Seattle, thus
helping the local economy and reducing impacts of transporting materials long distances.

ACTIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES

Monitoring system automatically adjusts for thermal comfort


Control systems meter HVAC systems, water usage and energy performance of the
building
Monitoring system for carbon dioxide

CONCLUSION

The building has a very sound Active design strategies and has achieved great deal of
efficiency in material and its constructability because of using recycled materials.
The most innovative design solution is its faade, its envelope, which makes it
aesthetically pleasing and has enough glazing to prevent it from overheating and
cooling

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Energy NL SINGAPORE SEATTLE Inferences


efficient LIBRARY
techniques

Passive Design A vast atrium Day lighting Courtyard planning


Strategies: sits as a thermal with water body for
stack over the passive cooling and
internal street corridors which
Orientation allows natural light
Sunshades with Reading room
light shelves in Orientation towards
the faade north
daylighting Thick plantation
towards west

Materials & Glazing mostly Minimum of 20 Materials with low


Method of and dead wall of percent of the embodied energy like foam
Construction concrete in recycled building concrete, brick with jhaali
south products used in walls or rattrap bond wall
the Central and cavity wall
Library

Site Analysis 14 landscaped located at major Site should surrounded by


(Site location, gardens in the bus routes; well landscaped areas to
landscape) complex helps in in bicycle parking affect the micro climate eg
regulating daytime spaces; xeriscaping plants
temperature landscaping and
exterior design to
reduce "heat
island effect.

Building The southwest side Curtain wall is The library should have
envelope has a solid wall that triple-glazed with glazing for undistracted
permanently and the an aluminium north light and the reading
rest has glazing expanded metal areas mostly should be
with sunshades mesh sandwiched oriented towards north or
between two north east with thick ivy
panes. covered walls

Artificial Light sensors The planning and Efficient artificial lighting


lighting and also dim or orientation of with control systems like
controls switch off the spaces and dimmers etc. should be
indoor lights building blocks used
when the ensures glare free
interior spaces daylight in all
exhibit regularly
sufficient day occupied spaces
lighting.
Motion sensors
have been
installed in the
escalators

Active design Various monitoring Monitoring Efficient placement of the


feature system to control the system for hvac system and control or
CO2 gas and air thermal comfort monitoring system should
conditioning HVAC control be present
system

CHAPTER-IV
DESIGN OUTCOME:

The comprehensive study of the various techniques and guidelines associated with it along with the
case studies which incorporated the following energy efficient design features has been used in the
final design of IIM Amritsar campus library. The library has used the following design features:-

SUSTAINABLE SITE- The site has been covered with planers all around and the pavers
which allows grass growth has been used alogwith manicured grasses and bushes to reduce
island heat effect.

BUILDING ENVELOPE- The building has double glazing towards the north and nrth east
and the rest has cavity walls with brick jaalis as the facade

PASSIVE DESIGN STRATEGIES

Brick jaalis has been used for proper ventilation


Courtyard has been provided in between so that it can be used as heat sink,
Water body is present just few steps away from the library block to cool its
microclimate

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING SYSTEM-

Sufficient north glazing has been provided with light shades to prevent frequent usage
of artificial lighting.
Dimmers as well as motion sensors are provided that will intelligently switch off the
light when no motion is detected, this saves a lot of energy

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CONSOLIDATION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT


DESIGN ELEMENTS WITH THE CAMPUS
DESIGN
SEMINAR-X REPORT

SMRITI GUPTA

2011BARC074

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE,

BHOPAL.

10TH SEMESTER

YEAR: 2016