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A

R
I
A

V

26 :

27 :





26

Joule;

-
. -
Joule.


Joule;

.
Joule -
.
( -
) -
.


(Q).
m Q = cm c = .

! Joule

.
Joule S.I.
Q R,
t -
,
, .
Q = I 2 R t
320. M

-
:
.
.
. .


: Q = I 2 R t .

. -

. -
( -
)

.
.
.

.
.

, , -
;

,
Joule ,
.
-
-
.
321.

()
. -

.
.
.

Joule.

E . .
Joule -
Joule -
.

,
( ) .
. .

.
-
.
. .
-
. -
-
.
. -
(-
) .

1. Joule
.
.
2. Q Joule Q = I2 R t ,
:
. .
. .
322. M

R V
I = 2A . m = 0,1Kg ,
, 1 = 20 o C . t = 0, 5min
2 = 26 o C . :
. ,
.
J
. . c = 4200 .
Kg.C

t = 0,5min = 30s
. :
Q = m c Q = mc ( 2 1 )

Q = 0,1g 4200
J
Kg C
( 26 o C 20 o C ) Q = 2520J

. Joule :
Q 2520J
Q = I 2 Rt R = R= R = 21
(2A ) 30s
2 2
I t

. H :
V = IR V = 2A21 V = 42V
323.

1. R t
Q. R, -
Q:
. . ,
. .

2. R
t, :
. .
. .

3. R t
, :
. .
. .

4. R1 > R 2 . -
Q :
. . R1
. R 2 .

5. R1 > R 2 . -
Q :
. . R1
. R 2 .
324. M

1. R = 15 V = 60V . -
Q t = 2 min .

2. R1 = 15 R 2 = 20 . -
V = 140V . t = 10 min :
. ,
. ,
. .

3. O I = 22A
220V. 200L. -
75% . :
. ,
. 20min.
. 20 o C ,
20min;
J
c = 4200 1g / cm 3 .
Kg C
325.

1
Joule

2

:
i.
ii.
iii.

3
Joule

i.
ii.
iii.

iv.

.

1
Q = 1440KJ .
. 100V.

2
R = 7 Q = 10Kcal
t = 1min . ;
1cal = 4, 2Joule .


27

-
;

-

. :

E = V
It -
.
E -
.
I t -
.
I:

E E
-
I=
V t .
V t


t:

:
E E E = V I t :
t=
V I V: ()
V I
.
I:
E: t: .

E = V I t E = V I t
V I t

328. E

V I.

P = V I . t o

q : q = I t .
P
-
V q : E = V q .
: E = V q = V I t
P:

"-
P = V I "
V I .


V: H "" -


P P -
V=
I I .
E VI t
P= P= P = VI
I: t t
: :
P P 1KW = 103 W
I=
V ().
V
1MW = 10 W 6

().

S.I 1 Watt.
1Watt, -
1V 1.
S.I 1 Joule.
1 Joule 1 1s
1V. 1KJ = 103 Joule .

(Wh).

H (Wh)
. (. ..).
(1) -
329.

1W,

P = V
2/R
.

E = 1Wh = 1KW 1h = 1000W 3600s = 3600000J
V2

P R Joule -

P:
E = V I t .

V2 V2 -
P =
R R .
: V = IR :

R:
E = Q Q = VI t Q = IR I t Q = I 2 R t .

V
2
V2
R=
P
P .

P = V I .
V2:
V = IR :
P = IR I P = I2 R

P R V
I = :
R
V 2 = P R V V2
P = V P = .
R R

1.
: E = V I t .
2. 1Joule.
3. :
P = VI 1Watt.
4. H
1W .
V2
5. : P = P = I2 R
R
330. E

220V, 1100W. :
.
. .
. t = 8h .
. KWh 0,12 .
. V = 110V .

V
. P = V I I = :
R

( 220V )
2
V2 V2
= R = R = R = 44
R 1100W

1100W
. P = V I I = = I = 5
V 220V
. W = 1100W = 1,1KW . :
E = t E = 1,1KW 8h E = 8,8KWh
. 1 Wh 0,12 8,8 Wh :
8,8KWh 0,12 = 1, 056
KWh
. V = 110 V .

(110V )
2
V2
44. = P = = 275W
R 44

220V
E = 6, 6KJ 1 .
m = 50Kg h = 10m . :
331.

.
.
.

.
. .

t = 1min = 60s E = 6, 6KJ = 6600J


. :
E 6600J
E = V I t I = I= I = 0,5A
Vt 220V 60s
.
m.
E = U . E = w h E = mg h
E = 50Kg 10m / s 2 10m E = 5000J

. Q = E = 6600J 5000J = 1600J

V 220V
. R = R= R = 440
I 0,5A

. 5000J
. = = = = 0, 76
6600J
332. E

1. V. ,
, :
. .
. .
. .

2. R1 R 2 ( R1 > R 2 )
. :
. R1 R 2 .
. R 2 R1 .
. .
. .

3. R1 R 2 ( R1 > R 2 ) .
:
. R1 R 2 .
. R 2 R1 .
. .
. .

4. .

. q i. J
. ii. V
. V iii. W
. iv. A
. v. C
333.

5.
:

. i. V/R
. ii. IR
. iii. V/I
. iv. VI
v. I 2 R t

6. ( V = 220V ) .
, :
. . . . .

7. 60V, 500W.
;
. 6 . 10
. 16 . 20
334. E

1. V = 1KV
500mA. :
.
. t = 40 min .

2. M 2Wh t = 30 min .
W W.

3. P = 100W
E = 0,5KWh .

4. 120W, 240V.
. 3
1 Wh 0,08 .

5. R 1 = 15 R 2 = 30 .
V = 180V . :
. .
. .
. .
. R 2
t = 10 min .
6. R 1 = 15 R 2 = 30
V. = 10 . :
. .
. .
. .
335.

. R1 t = 20 min

7. E = 13, 2J
t = 0,5min V = 220V . 75%.
m = 220Kg . :
. .
. .
. t = 0,5min .
. .
.
t = 0,5min .

8. (6W, 6V) (12W, 12 V) -


. :
. .
. .
. V = 9V.

9. ( R1 R 2 R 3 ).
R1 = 3, R 2 = 6, R 3 = 8, V = 100V .
:
. .
. .

10. (1200W, 100V).


R
V = 220V.
336. E

1

.

2

Joule.

3
.
E
. P = . P = V 2 R . P = I 2 R . E = V 2 R t
t
. E = q V . E = V I t . E = I2 R t

1
R = 10
V = 220V . 5 ,
. 1Wh 0,09 .

2
R1 R 2
V=220V. R1 P1 = 550W
R 2 P2 = 1100W . :
. R1 R 2 .
. 4h ,
. Wh, Joule
cal. 1cal = 4, 2Joule .
337.



(. 234 - 237)

E:
1. / / / .

2. / / / / / /

3. / / / / .

4. . . Q = I 2 R t ,
t , I R .
Q = mc , -
, m .
2 min = 40,5 min , . -
= 42 = 8 o C 20 C 28 C.
. . Q = I 2 R t Q
I R t . Q
I (1A 2A ) . Q = mc
= 42 o C = 8 o C .
28 C.
. . Q = I 2 R t , Q R I t
. R Q .
Q = mc = 22 o C = 4 o C . -
20 C 24 C.
. .
2
I I2
. Q = R 4t = R 4t = I 2 R t = Q -
2 4
. .
338. E

5. . -
,
.
.
, .

6. . . . . . . . . .

7. .
Joule .

8. Q = I 2 R t = 30Joule . -
:
t t
Q = ( 2I ) R Q = 4I 2 R Q = 2I 2 R t Q = 2Q
2

2 2

9. .
, Joule, -
.
, .

10. .
, Joule -
.

11.
12V
30W. 12V, :
Pk 30W
Pk = Vk I k I k = I= I = 2,5A
Vk 12V

12. . .
. > . .

13. -
12V . -
. :
P = P1 + P2 + P3 P = 6W + 30W + 24W P = 60W
339.

R
A
1. .
I

. .
V 6V
: I = I= I = 1A
R 6
. t = 2 min = 120s
Q = I 2 R t Q = (1A ) 6 120s Q = 720Joule
2

. = V I t = 6V 1A 120s = 720Joule
E . = Q.
.
R V 6V
. R = = 3 Q = Q = 720Joule I = = = 2A
2 R 3
Q 720J
Q = I2 R t t = t = t = 60s 1min
I R ( 2A ) 3
2 2

. . . :
J
P= P = VI = 6V1A =6 P = 1W
t t s
J
P= P = VI = 6V2A = 12 P = 12W
t t s

V 6V
2. . Ohm : I = I= I = 0,5A
R 12
. Q :

Q = mc Q = 0,1Kg 4200
J
Kg o C
(23o C 20o C ) Q = 1260J
:
Q 1260J
Q = I2 R t t = t= t = 420s 7 min
(0,5A ) 12
2 2
I R
340. E

V
3. . Ohm : I = V = IR V = 5A 40 V = 200Volt
R
= V I t = 200V 5A 120s = 120000J
. () t = 2 min = 120s
70
: Q = Q = 0, 7120000J Q = 84000J
100

Q 84000J
. Q = mc = = = 2o C
mc J
10Kg 4200
Kg o C

4. . .
R = R1 + R 2 R = 20 + 40 R = 60 .

Ohm.
V 12V
I= I= I = 0, 2A
R 60
. t = 2min = 120s :

Q1 = I 2 R 1 t Q1 = (0, 2A ) 20 120s Q1 = 96J


2

Q 2 = I 2 R 2 t Q 2 = (0, 2A ) 40 120s Q 2 = 192J


2

. = V I t = 12V 0, 2A 120s = 288Joule

Q1 I 2 R1 t Q Q
= = I 2 R1 1 = (0, 2A ) 20 1 = 0,8J / s
2
.
t t t t
2
Q 2 I R 2 t Q Q
= = I 2 R 2 2 = (0, 2A ) 40 2 = 1, 6J / s
2

t t t t
. t = 1s = V I t = 12V 0, 2A 1s = 2, 4Joule

5. . P = V I P = 12V 2A P = 24W
. t = 1min = 60s E = V I t E = 12V 2A 60s E = 1440J
. :
= Q + . Q = . Q = 1440J 1000J Q = 440J
.

341.

. 1000J
= = 0, 7 = 70%
1440J

6. . 10min = 600s :

P = = P t = 600W 600s = 360000J
t
P 600W
. P = VI I = I= I = 5A
V 120V
80
. P = P P = 0,8600W P = 480W
100
. 10min = 600s :

P = = P t = 480W 600s = 288000J
t
. t = 1s

P = = P t = 600W 1s = 600J
t

P = = P t = 480W 1s = 480J
t
:
= Q + . Q = . Q = 600J 480J Q = 120J
. :
= Q + . Q = . Q = 360000J 288000J Q = 72000J

7. . P = V I V = R I :

P P 4W
P = IR I P = 2 R I 2 = I= I= I = 0, 2A
R R 100
. Ohm :
V
I=
V = IR V = 0, 2A 100 V = 20Volt
R
t = 2min = 120s :
Q = I 2 R t Q = ( 0, 2A ) 100 120s Q = 480J
2

. Ohm :
342. E

V 10V
I = = = 0,1
R 100

t = 1s : Q = I2 R t Q = (0,1A ) 100 1s Q = 1J
2

t = 2s : Q = I2 R t Q = (0,1A ) 100 120s Q = 120J


2

Q 480J Q
: = = 4 Q = 4Q
Q 120J Q
Q Q.

9
FL
I
B
B
A

FL
I
B

F
L

28 :

I
FL
I
B
A

FL


28 Laplace

-
.

, -
. -

( -
.. , ,
...) .

! ;

- -
- . -
- .
. .
346. - Laplace

'
,
-
. .
1Tesla. -

( ).

( )
..
.

-
; ;


.

! -
.

( ( ).
)

Oersted;

.
Oersted


. -
Oersted .

Laplace ;


- Laplace 347.

Laplace:
F=BIl
FL = BI  . . -
F:
.

. ,
-
B I l
FL = BI  .
FL = B I 
.
B:
!
To Laplace
FL FL
B= F L = BI
I 
I l -
.
I:

FL ;
FL
I=
B 
B l
FL 1N
1Tesla = 1T = . Tesla
l: 1 1A 1m

FL FL 1m 1 -
=
B I -
B I
1.

1.
( - )
.
2. :
FL
B=
I  . 1Tesla.
3. .
4.
Laplace (FL) .
348. - Laplace

4m
2 Tesla 2 . Laplace
.

I
FL = BI  B
= 2T 1A 3m
= 6N
FL I

.
.

.

5m -
2 4.
.

FL = BI
FL 4N 4
I= I= I = A I = 0, 4A
B 2T 5m 10
FL
. B
I


.
- Laplace 349.

1.
Laplace. ;

2. -
Laplace.
;

3.
F L .

4. F L
.
. .

5. -
.

6. ;
350. - Laplace

1. 3m
4 4 . Laplace
.

2. 2 m
. 2 0,2 Kg.
. g = 10m/s 2 .
.

3.
.

.
Laplace. :
V =16Volt  =1m B = 2T R = 4

V
B
- Laplace 351.



(. 249 - 251)

E:
1. , ,

2. , , , , .

3. Tesla ,1Tesla , , .

4. . 5. , , .

6.
FL B
B I

FL

7. Laplace . -
()
.

8.
FL
B

I
352. - Laplace

9. -
FL FL I2
Laplace.
B1 I1 B2

10. . , ,
.
. , ,
.
.
. ,
. ,
. .

A:
FL 0, 08N
1. FL = BI  I = I= = 4A
B 0, 04T 0,5m

FL 0, 08N
2. FL = BI   = = = 1m
BI 0, 04T 2A

3. F L = BI = 0,04T 4A 1m = 0,16N


FL
B

4. .

FL 0, 06N
5. F L = BI B = B= B = 2T
I 1A 0, 03m

6. 5cm = 0,05m I
A
F L = BI = 0, 02T 2A 0, 05m = 0,002N
FL B