You are on page 1of 7

Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice - 13(2) Spring 806-811

2013 Educational Consultancy and Research Center

The Effect of School Principals Leadership Styles

on Teachers Organizational Commitment and Job
a b
Eskiehir Osmangazi University Eskiehir Osmangazi University
engl UYSAL
Eskiehir Osmangazi University

Researchers have conducted a number of studies in order to demonstrate the effects of leadership styles on
school outcomes. In these research studies, particularly, the full range of leadership styles have been used.
The impact of transformational leadership, transactional leadership and laissez faire stated in this model on
job satisfaction and organizational commitment of teachers were analysed. In this research study, it is aimed
to determine the effect of leadership styles of school administrators on the job satisfaction and organizational
commitment of teachers using the method of meta-analysis. Twelve research findings made in Turkey were
analyzed using the method of meta-analysis. The research results showed that particularly, transformational
leadership style affected job satisfaction and organizational commitment of teachers in a positive way. It was
concluded that as the leadership style of administrators changes from transactional to transformational, the
level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment of teachers rose.

Key Words
Meta-Analysis, Leadership Styles, Transformational Leadership, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment.

Considered as a system of social change and transfor- capable of creating societal changes in expressing
mation, requirements of organizations is inevitable. and defines the transformational leader as a person
It has been suggested that the leadership which will who takes care of his followers, mobilizes their forc-
allow the change of organizations is the transforma- es to meet the needs and potential (Burns, 2003, p.
tional leadership built on an idealistic, innovative and 230). The full range model of leadership developed
learning facilitating concept (elik, 2003, p. 147). by Bass in later years states that the transformational
leadership consists of four components including,
idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intel-
Transformational leadership lectual stimulation, individualized consideration
The approach conceptualized by Burns (1978) as (Northouse, 2007). (i) Idealized Influence: It rep-
transformational leadership aroused great interest resents the strong vision and mission determination
of researchers and practitioners (Bass & Riggio, or transformational leader. Such a leader is a role
2006, p. 3). For Burns, an effective leader should be model for the followers and his behaviors are ideal-

* This paper was presented at the Sixth National Educational Administration Congress, North Cyprus, 2011.
a Ayhan AYDIN, Ph.D. Contact: Eskiehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Education, 26480, Eskiehir, Tur-
key. E-mail: Phone: +90 222 239 3750.
b Ylmaz SARIER. Correspondence: Eskiehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Education, 26480 Eskiehir,
Turkey. E-mail: Phone: +90 222 339 3750.
c engl UYSAL. Contact: Eskiehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Education, 26480 Eskiehir, Turkey.
E-mail: Tel: 90 222 239 3750.
AYDIN, SARIER, UYSAL / The Effect of School Principals Leadership Styles on Teachers Organizational ...

ized by them (ii) Inspirational motivation: Transfor- tween the leader and his followers. These leaders do
mational leaders identify high goals, create a team not take care of needs and developments of follow-
spirit, enthusiasm and constantly motivate his fol- ers and wish to continue as it is. The leader rejects
lowers. Transformational leaders produce original responsibility, delays decisions, does not provide
ideas and encourage entrepreneurship as well as feedback, and has no effort to meet the needs of the
starting change in the organization (iii) Intellectu- followers (Hoy & Miskel, 2010, p. 396; Northouse,
al stimulation: Transformational leaders motivate 2007, p. 179). There is a negative relationship be-
their followers to be innovative, analytic and cre- tween the satisfaction, performance and motivation
ative. These leaders always encourage their followers of followers and Laissez-Faire leadership (Rowold
on the issues of the discovery of new ideas and the & Scholtz, 2009, p. 45).
production of creative solutions to problems. (iv) In-
dividualized consideration: Transformational lead-
ers, acting as a team coach, take into consideration Job Satisfaction
the desires and needs of the followers, help them to Today, the survival of organizations in developing
be successful and thrive. In this context, the leader and transforming the world, to reach goals and ob-
has a special interest of each follower, taking into ac- jectives, is closely related to the quality of its human
count individual differences (Bass & Riggio; Lunen- resources. The individual in organization needs to
burg, 2003; Stewart, 2006, p. 12). be happy and be appreciated. To meet these expec-
Transformational leadership is thought as a critical tations allow people contribute the organization in a
approach in terms of organizational innovation in positive way as well as feeling satisfied by the organi-
education. Transformational leader supports teach- zation. An organization where employees are highly
ers intellectual development and also infuses ex- motivated, high efficiency and organizational objec-
citement and enthusiasm of transformation (elik, tives are achieved (Gll, 2009, p. 44). The organiza-
2003). Transformational leaders can create a posi- tional efficiency is possible on the condition of teach-
tive organizational climate, reach goals more easily, ers job satisfaction and their willing to act in accor-
and increase the levels of job satisfaction and orga- dance with the organizational purposes. The level of
nizational commitment of stakeholders as a result individual job satisfaction may affect their physical
of motivating followers and paying close attention and mental health, the working environment and ef-
to them (Deluga & Souza, 1991; Leithwood & Jant- ficiency with social and economic development.
zi, 1999; Rowold & Scholtz, 2009). Ensuring satisfaction of the employees is one of
Transactional leaders identify primarily tasks of the most important tasks of management. The
the followers, establish the structure, emphasis on person who can generate creative solutions within
planned and scheduled work. Followers are re- the organization, determine the policies of the in-
warded or punished to achieve organizational goals stitution and make necessary improvements in the
(Hoy & Miskel, 2010). Dimensions of transactional regulations is the leader. Transformational leaders
leadership are (Bass & Riggio, 2006): (i) Contingent increase the level of job satisfaction of employees by
reward: The primary aim of transactional leader is developing shared vision, motivating the followers
to achieve organizational objectives. In this con- (Voon, Lo, Ngui, & Ayob, 2011, p. 26).
text, the leader gives various awards to improve the
performance and motivations of his followers. His
follower can get the award when fulfilling the man- Organizational Commitment
date. (ii) Management By- Exception: It is applied Schools are essential and the most important orga-
in two ways, active or passive. If the management nizations in the educational system. Schools realize
is active, leaders correct the mistakes of followers the organizational, educational and administrative
by tracking their performance. If the management purposes. The individual who has high level of mo-
is passive, leaders wait until the emergence of er- tivation and commitment are needed to fulfill the
rors. These leaders follow performance as problems purposes. Literature on approaches to leadership
arise, they pass action to correct them. and organizational commitment show that leaders
have a great role in raising the organizational com-
mitment of employees (Balay 2000; Bulu, 2009).
Laissez-Faire Leadership
Organizational commitment is classified in various
Bass (1990) defines Laissez-Faire as an approach ways in the literature. Research and theses pro-
in which there is no leadership, no interaction be- duced in Turkey generally use OReilly and Chat-


man (1986) classifications in organizational com- One of the most important concept used in the me-
mitment (Bulu, 2009; Kul & Gl, 2010; Sezer, ta-analysis is the concept of effect size. The effect
2005; Zeren, 2007). OReilly and Chatman (1986) size is the basis of the meta analysis and developed
discuss this concept in three dimensions: by Cohen (1988). It is defined as the frequency of
phenomenon in the population. Relational research
Compliance: Compliance is the first stage of com-
data (Pearson correlation coefficient-r) levels in
mitment. It represents the superficial commitment
studies using effect size is interpreted as follows
(Balay, 2000). Individual is in expectation of reward
(Lipsey & Wilson, 2001):
or fear of punishment to fulfill the duties (Burs-
alolu, 2005). 0 < effect size 0,10 small effect
Identification: Identification of the individual is a 0,10 < effect size < 0,40 medium effect
double integration with the organization for the
Effect size 0,40 large effect
things with a sense of value. In identification, in-
dividuals accept the effects of others on the rate of In this meta analytic research, the studies analyzing
self-expression and the opportunity to maintain re- the effects of leadership styles of school administra-
lation with others (Baaran, 2000). tors on the job satisfaction and organizational com-
mitment are used. The key words, leadership styles,
Internalization: The final stage of engagement. It
transformational leadership, transactional leader-
refers to the mutual harmony of the individual and
ship, job satisfaction and organizational commit-
organizational values. The individual accepts the
ment are used. Subject inclusion criteria are:
organizations values and
norms as their own, with-
out coercion (Baaran, 2000). A study produced in Turkey between the dates of
01.01.2005 and 31.12.2010.
In this research study, it is aimed to determine the
effect of leadership styles of school administrators School principals leadership styles and teachers
on the job satisfaction and organizational commit- job satisfaction and organizational commitment
ment of teachers using the method of meta-analysis. relationship analysis.
Including effect size and sample size necessary
for the calculation of Pearsons correlation coef-
ficient (r) values.
Meta-analysis is a method that provides re-inter-
Twelve research studies which have the stated cri-
pretations of the statistical data of more than one
teria and produced in Turkey were used (Appendix
studies (Cohen, 1988; Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). Me-
1). Eight of these studies examine the relationship
ta-analysis is defined as the process of combining
between leadership styles and teachers job satis-
the findings of studies conducted on the same topic,
faction and four of them examine the relationship
independently of each other, expanding the sample
between leadership styles and organizational com-
to obtain a more reliable and consistent results in
mitment. In this context, the correlation transfor-
the use of statistical methods (Dempfle, 2006, p.
mations, effect size, significance, and heterogeneity
6). Meta-analysis is a brief analysis of analyzes. Re-
tests for the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis statis-
searchers state that there are six processing steps
tical package was used.
of meta-analysis (DeCoster, 2004; Shelby & Vaske,
2008, p. 99). (i) Determination of the research prob-
lem. (ii) Literature review and data collection. (iii) Results
Coding of studies. (iv) Determination of the statis-
tical methods used in the analysis. (v) Meta-analy- The majority of the studies included in the research
sis. (vi) Evaluation and discussion of the findings. are made in 2006 (25%) and 2007 (33.3%). Mostly,
theses are preferred. According to the fixed effects
There are two models of meta-analysis; fixed effects model, the average effects size values for the rela-
model and random effects model (Topu, 2009). tionship between transformational leadership and
Fixed effects model is based on the assumption that organizational commitment, and dimensions of
all the studies have the same effect (Kknder, Efe, identification and internalization are 0,56, 0,48 and
ahin, & karde, 1999). On the condition that the 0,55 respectively. For Lipsey and Wilson (2001),
studies are not homogenous using the fixed effects these findings show that the effect of transforma-
model, random effect model is applied. The change tional leadership on organizational commitment is
between studies as well as changes in the work are large. As the transformational leadership behavior of
taken into account by this model (Camnalbur, 2008). school principals increases, teachers organizational

AYDIN, SARIER, UYSAL / The Effect of School Principals Leadership Styles on Teachers Organizational ...

commitment increases. On the compliance dimen- Discussion

sion, it is observed that there is a large but negative
According to the fixed effects model, the average
relationship (-0,42). Z test was applied to determine
size effect values which show the relationship be-
the statistical significance of the study and found that
tween transformational leadership, organizational
all studies were significant statistically (p<0,01).
commitment, the dimensions of identification and
Based on random effects model, the effect size internalization are 0,56, 0,48 and 0,55, respective-
values indicate that there is a large relationship ly.In this context, Sezer (2005) states that it is quite
between the transformational leadership, organi- important to provide dedication of teachers to
zational commitment with the dimensions of com- school with the dimension of internalization for the
pliance and internalization (0,58, 0,45). With the administrators who want to use existing resources
result of homogeneity test, the studies analyzed by in the most efficient manner. He also emphasizes
random effects model are homogenous. the need to develop school principals transforma-
tional leadership behaviors. It is clear that there is
According to the model of fixed effects, the effect
a negative correlation between transformational
size value between the transactional leadership and
leadership behavior of school administrator and
the dimension of compliance was determined to be
the compliance dimension of organizational com-
0,13. For Lipsey and Wilson (2001), this value indi-
mitment of teachers. The reason for this, the com-
cates a medium effect.
pliance dimension of organizational commitment
Based on random effects model, at 95% significance is a superficial expression of loyalty and the first
level, the average effect size value was calculated as stage of commitment. Because of this there is no
0,25. Random effects model meta-analysis conclud- need to show such commitment to increase the
ed that the studies were homogeneous. According transformational leadership behavior. However,
to the model of fixed effects, the average effect size transformational leadership behavior becomes im-
between transformational leadership and job sat- portant for the dimensions of identification and in-
isfaction value is calculated as 0,81. It shows that ternalization which express a deeper commitment.
transformational leadership effects job satisfaction The findings of the research are consistent with the
at a large level in a positive way. For the random results of Karip (1998), Korkmaz (2005), Cemalo-
effects model, the Q value obtained from the chi- lu (2007). For Bulu (2009), school principals
square table value (18,31) is not exceeded. This re- transformational leadership skills could influence
sult shows that the studies are homogeneous. employees more easily and direct them to perform
According to the model of fixed effects, the average organizational goals. In addition, according to the
effect size between transactional leadership and job results the study, some dimensions of transactional
satisfaction value is calculated as 0,56. For Lipsey leadership are needed as well as transformational
and Wilson (2001), this value can be said to be at leadership for an effective school management. A
a broad in a positive way. As the transactional lead- According to the fixed effects model, the average
ership behaviors of school manager increases, the effect size value for the impact of transformation-
teachers job satisfaction increases. The result was al leadership on job satisfaction was calculated as
found significant statistically by applying z-test. For 0,81. It shows that it is a broad effect in a positive
the random effects model, the Q value obtained from way. According to the research results on the same
the chi-square table value (11,07) is not exceeded. subject, transformational leaders could raise the
This result shows that the studies are homogeneous. level of job satisfaction of followers by motivating
According to fixed effects model, the average effect followers and showing them close attention (Bry-
size related to transactional leadership and job sat- man, 1992; Deluga & Souza, 1991).
isfaction is calculated as -0,15. For Lipsey and Wil- The average effect size value related to transaction-
son (2001), when the leadership behavior of school al leadership and job satisfaction was calculated as
managers increases, the level of job satisfaction of 0,56. It shows that transactional leadership affects
teachers increases. The result was found signifi- job satisfaction at a broad level and in a positive
cant statistically by applying z-test. For the random way. In particular, contingent reward dimension of
effects model, the Q value obtained from the chi- transactional leadership affects job satisfaction in a
square table value (9,49) is not exceeded. This result positive way and at a broad level. This result is con-
shows that the studies are homogeneous. sistent with Cemalolus (2007).
According to the model of fixed effects, the aver-
age effect size value for the impact of laissez faire


leadership style on job satisfaction was calculated Dempfle, A. (2006). Evaluation of methods for meta-anal-
as -0,15 which is moderate and in a negative way. ysis of genetic linkage studies for complex diseases and
application to genome scans for asthma and adult height.
In the light of the findings of descriptive and me- Philipps-University Marburg, Inaugural-Dissertation.
ta-analysis following recommendations for practi- Gll, E. (2009). Snf retmenlerinin alglarna gre ilkretim
okulu yneticilerinin liderlik stilleri ile retmenlerin i doyumu
tioners and researchers were developed: dzeyleri arasndaki iliki. Yaymlanmam yksek lisans tezi,
It is important to make school administrators Gazi niversitesi, Eitim Bilimleri Enstits, Ankara.
aware of transformational leadership in order Hoy, W. K. ve Miskel, C. G. (2010). Eitim ynetimi (ev. ed.
S. Turan). Ankara: Nobel Yayn Datm.
to increase levels of organizational commitment
Karip, E. (1998). Dnmc liderlik. Kuram ve Uygu-
and job satisfaction. In this context, in collabora- lamada Eitim Ynetimi, 4 (16), 443-465.
tion with the Ministry of Education and univer- Korkmaz, M. (2005). Duygularn ve liderlik stillerinin
sities, school administrators should be given on retmenlerin performans zerine etkisi. Kuram ve Uygu-
the subject of theoretical and practical seminars. lamada Eitim Ynetimi, 11 (43), 401-422.
Kul, M. ve Gl, M. (2010). Okul yneticilerinin lid-
The method of meta-analysis which has been used erlik stilleri ile beden eitimi retmenlerinin rgtsel
since 1980s became popular in 2000s in Turkey. ballklar arasndaki iliki. Uluslararas nsan Bilimleri
In this context, master and PhD students might be Dergisi, 7 (2), 1021-1038.
encouraged to use new methods and techniques. Kknder, H., Efe, E., ahin, M. ve karde, F. (1999).
Meta analizinde modeller ve kullanlan yntemler. Kahra-
man Mara: Kahraman Mara St mam niversitesi,
Ziraat Fakltesi Yaynlar.
Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (1999). The effects of trans-
formational leadership on organizational conditions and
student engagement with school. Journal of Educational
References/Kaynaka Administration, 38 (2), 112-129.
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-anal-
Balay, R. (2000). zel ve resmi liselerde ynetici ve ret-
ysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
menlerin rgtsel ball. Yaymlanmam doktora tezi,
Ankara niversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstits, Ankara. Lunenburg, C. F. (2003, August). Emerging perspectives: the
usefulness of the construct of transformational leadership in
Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformation-
educational organizations. Paper presented at the Annual
al leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational
Meeting of the Cational Council of Professors of Educa-
Dynamics, 18 (3), 19-31.
tional Administration, Sedona.
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leader-
Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice.
ship (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
California: Sage.
Baaran, E. (2000). rgtsel davran, insann retim gc.
OReilly, C., & Chatman, J. (1986). Organizational com-
Ankara: Feryal Matbaas.
mitment and psychological attachment: The effect of com-
Bryman, A. (1992). Charisma and leadership in organiza- pliance, indentification and internalization on prosocial
tions. London: Sage. behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (3), 492-499.
Bulu, B. (2009). Snf retmenlerinin alglarna gre okul Rowold, J., & Schlotz, W. (2009). Transformational and
mdrlerinin liderlik stilleri ile rgtsel ballk arasndaki transactional leadership and followers chronic stress, kravis
iliki. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eitim Ynetimi, 15 (57), 5-34. leadership institute. Leadership Review, 9 (2), 35-48.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper ve Row. Sezer, F. (2005). lkretim okulu mdrlerinin sergile-
Burns, J. M. (2003). Transforming leadership: A new pursuit dikleri liderlik stillerinin retmenlerin rgtsel ballna
of happiness. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. etkisi. Yaymlanmam yksek lisans tezi, Gazi niversitesi,
Eitim Bilimleri Enstits, Ankara.
Bursalolu, Z. (2005). Okul ynetiminde yeni yap ve
davran. Ankara: PegemA yaynclk. Shelby, L. B., & Vaske, J. J. (2008). Understanding me-
ta-analysis: A review of the methodological literature. Lei-
Camnalbur, M. (2008). Bilgisayar destekli retimin etkili-
sure Sciences, 30, 96-110.
lii zerine bir meta analiz almas. Yaymlanm yksek
lisans tezi, Marmara niversitesi, Eitim Bilimleri En- Stewart, J. (2006). Transformational leadership: An evolv-
stits, stanbul. ing concept examined through the works of Burns, Bass,
Avolio, and Leithwood. Canadian Journal of Educational
Cemalolu, N. (2007). Okul yneticilerinin liderlik stiller-
Administration and Policy, 54, 1-29.
inin farkl deikenler asndan incelenmesi. Trk Eitim
Bilimleri Dergisi, 5 (1), 73-112. Topu, P. (2009). Cinsiyetin bilgisayar tutumu zerine etkisi:
bir meta analiz almas. Yaymlanmam yksek lisans tezi,
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral
Marmara niversitesi, Eitim Bilimleri Enstits, stanbul
sciences. New York: Academic Press.
Voon, M. L., Lo, M. C., Ngui, K. S., & Ayob, N. (2011). The
elik, V. (2003). Eitimsel liderlik. Ankara: Pegem A Yaynclk.
influence of leadership styles on employees job satisfaction in
DeCoster, J. (2004). Meta analysis notes. Department of public sector organizations in Malaysia. International Journal
Psychology, University of Alabama. of Business, Management and Social Sciences, 2 (1), 24-32.
Deluga, R. J., & Souza, J. (1991). The effects of transforma- Zeren, H. (2007). lkretim okulu mdrlerinin liderlik
tional and transaction leadership style on the influ- stilleri ile bu okullarda grevli retmenlerin rgtsel ball
encing behavior or subordinate police officers. Journal of arasndaki iliki. Yaymlanmam yksek lisans tezi, Harran
Occupational Psychology, 64, 49-55. niversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstits, anlurfa.

AYDIN, SARIER, UYSAL / The Effect of School Principals Leadership Styles on Teachers Organizational ...

Appendix 1./Ek 1.
Aratrma Kapsamna Alnan almalarn Kodlama Tablosu
alma Hazrlayanlar alma
Yl alma Ad Yaymlanma yeri
No (Yazar) Tr
lkretim okulu mdrlerinin sergiledikleri liderlik Yksek
1 Fevzi SEZER 2005
stillerinin retmenlerin rgtsel ballna etkisi Lisans YK
lkretim okulu mdrlerinin dnmc liderlik
2 Halit ZEREN 2007 sitilleri ile bu okullarda grevli retmenlerin rgtsel YK
ball arasndaki iliki
lkretim okullarnda grev yapan retmenlerin Kuram ve
3 2009 rgtsel ballk dzeyleri ve okul kltr alglar Makale Uygulamada Eitim
arasndaki ilikinin incelenmesi Ynetimi Dergisi
Murat KUL Okul yneticilerinin liderlik sitilleri ile beden eitimi Uluslararas nsan
4 2007 Makale
Mehmet GL retmenlerinin rgtsel ballklar arasndaki iliki Bilimleri Dergisi
Okul yneticilerinin dnmc liderlik sitilleri ile Yksek
5 Tuncay KOAK 2006 YK
retmenlerin i doyumu arasndaki ilikiler Lisans
lkretim okulu retmenlerinin algladklar liderlik Yksek
6 Arif BAARAN 2006 YK
sitilleri ile i doyumu dzeyleri arasndaki iliki Lisans
Eitim rgtlerinde retmenlerin i tatmini ile okul Yksek
7 Ferda AYHAN 2006 YK
ynetiminin lider davran biimleri arasndaki ilikiler Lisans
Yneticilerin liderlik sitillerinin alanlarn i tatmini
8 Ali GEZC 2007 zerindeki etkileri: zel eitim kurumlarnda retimsel YK
liderlik ve bir uygulama
retmen alglarna gre ilkretim okulu
Meryem E. Yksek
9 2007 yneticilerinin dnmc liderlik zellikleriyle YK
BLR Lisans
retmenlerin i doyumu ilikisinin incelenmesi
Orta kademe yneticilerinin liderlik zelliklerinin Yksek
10 Sekin KARACA 2008 YK
alanlarn i tatminine etki zerine bir aratrma Lisans
Necati Okul yneticilerinin liderlik sitillerinin farkl deikenler Trk Eitim
11 2007 Makale
CEMALOLU asndan incelenmesi Bilimleri Dergisi
Hasan Basri Okul yneticilerinin liderlik sitilleri ve yaratclk Uluslararas I.
12 GNDZ 2009 dzeyleri Bildiri Eitim Aratrmalar
Aysel DOAN Kongresi

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without