A 3
= A
A 2 
= A
2 A= A A (
1) = A
2 = 1 A
=  A
= imaginary
1
A4 = A
A( 2) (2)= A
A (1) (1) = A
A=A

1. Rectangular or Cartesian form
1.1trigonomitric form
2. polar form
3. exponential form
1. A = a + a rectangular form
Imaginary component
Real component
2. A = A / polar form
a
cos = ; a= A cos
A
a
sin = ; a1= A sin
A
A= a + a
a1 a1
tan = ; = tan 1
( )
a a
RECTANGULAR TO POLAR
a1
2
A= a +()2
a1
= tan 1
( a )
3. A = A e exponential form
Example:
1. Give the polar and exponential form of vector A if A= 3+4.
A= 32+ 4 2 A= 5 53.13
polar
A= 5 A= 5 e 53.13
exponential form
4
= tan 1 (
3 )
= 53.13
60
2. Give the rectangular form of vector A= 10 e
A= 5 60o polar
a= 10 cos (60o)
a= 5
a1=866
therefor: A=58.66
3. Evaluate 2010
= (4) 502
. 2
502
= (1) (1)
2010 = 1
= tan1 ( 5
5 )
= 45o
A = 7.07 225o
VECTOR OPERATION
1. Addition
2. Subtraction
3. Multiplication
4. Division
5. Power
6. Root
7. Logarithm
VECTOR ADDITION
Let A= a+a
B = b+b
VECTOR SUBTRACTION
Let A = a+a
B = b+b
AB = (a+a) (b + b)
VECTOR MULTIPLICATION
Let A = A
B=B
A.B = ( A ) (B )
A.B = AB +
VECTOR DIVISION
Let A=A
B = B
A A< A
<
B = B< = B
POWER OF A VECTOR
An = ( A n
An = An n
ROOT OF A VECTOR
n A = n A <
n A = n A
n
LOGARITHM OF A VECTOR
Let : A = Ae
log e A = log e
By properties of logarithm,
log e A =
In A +
Sample problems.
A B C
7
A= 62 +72 tan 1
6 = 9.22 49.4o
180
C= = 0.765 rod = 43.83o
17 rod
C= 5.05 + 4.85
D= ( 9.22 49.4 o
) (4.1 + 2.87 + 5.05 + 4.85)
D= (9.22 49.4o) (9.15 +7.72 )
D= 110.36 89.55o
(6+3 )
2. Evaluate vector D if D = +8 30 o
\
(22 )
(6+3 )
D= +8 30o
(22 )
3
A= 62 +32 tan 1
( 6 ) = 6.71 26.56o
2
B= 2 +(2 )
2 2
tan1 ( 2 ) = 2.83
45 o
D= 20.296 <76.67
3. Evaluate vector H if
2
H = log e ( 3+4 ) [2 cis 30 +2<20 + 6 e ]
2 0 252
Let
4
A = 3 + 4 = 3+4 < tan 1(
3
)
= 5 < 53. 13
B = 2 cos 30 + 2 sin 30
B = 1.732 +
= 1.879 + 0.684
180
D = 0.252 rod 17 rod = 14.44
= 5.81 + 1.50
2
2 ( 5<53.13 ) [ 1.732+ +1.879+0.684 +5.81+1.50 ]
H = log e
( 7.62<66.80 ) (5< 25 ) +9<60
= log e
2 ( 25<106.26 ) (9.421+3.184 )
( 38.1<91.8 )+(9< 60 )
9.421
3.184
1
= log e
9.421+3.184 tan
( 25<106.26 )
2
= log e
2 ( 25<106.26 ) (9.94<18.67 )
3.3+ 45.87
248.5<124.93
2
= log e
3.3 + 45.87< tan1 ( 45.87
3.3 )
= log e
2 248.5<124.93
46< 85.89
= log e 2 5.40<39.04
19.52
= log e 2.32 e
rod
= log e 2.32 + 19.52 180
H = 0.84 + 0.34
4. ( 2x + 3y) 612 = 0
Solve for x and y.
1
Substitute x = 2 to equation
4 ( 1y ) y =6
2
4
y  9y = 6
[ 4
y ]
9 y =6 y
4 9y = 6y
9y4 + 6y  4 = 0
By quadratic formula:
6 64 ( 9 ) (4 )
y = 2(81) x = 1.556
6 13.41640787
y = 2(9)
6 13.41640787
y(+) = 18
7.416407865
= 18
y = 0.412022659
y = 0.642
1 1
x=
=
y 0.6424
seatwork:
Ans: A = 0.0233 0.021
A = 0.031 137.97
4. H =
3 ( 3+ 4 )( 6+ 8 ) ( 2+2 ) (2+3 ) ( 43 )10 e 30
6 8 3+4 + 1216 100<60
H = 10.06 167.563
H = 9.824 + 2.17
5. H =
68 3+ 43 + 1216 100<60
10 e 30
203+0.524
= (124 +68 )( 2+3 ) ( 4 +3 )
3
35.956+22.708
2.302+0.524
=
3.162<26.5652.236<26.565+ 4.472<26.565
(124 +68 )
3
=
3 166.245<164.2
5.55<62.907
H= 3 29.954<227.107
H = 3.105 75.702
H= 0.767 +3
L [ f ( t )] = F (s) = f ( t) e 8t
dt
f (t) = L 1 [ F(s)]
the laplace transform method solves differential equations and corresponding initial
and boundary value problems. The process of solution consists of there main steps.
Function Transform
(f (t)) F (s)
1
s
1
T s
2!
t S
n!
n
t n+1
(n = 0,1,.) s
(9+ 1)
Ta s 9+1
( a positive)
1
eat sa
1
cos cot s + w
w
sin cot s + w
s
cos h at s + a
a
sin h at s + a
L {1} = f (t) e st
dt
0
L {1} = est dt
0
Let n = st
Dn = sdt
1
L{1} = s est
= [ 1 1
+
se se ]
1
L {1} = s
at
L {e } = eat est dt
0
= e(sa)t dt
0
Let n =  (sa) t
Dn =  (sa) dt
dn
( sa) = dt
0
1
=  (sa) en dn
0
1 e9 sa
=  (sa) [ t ]
=
1
( sa ) [ 1
1
e ( sa ) t e ]
1
L { eat } = sa
Dn= a sin at dt
0
0
1 1
L {cos at} = cos at ( s est)   s est (  a sin at dt)
0
0
1 a
= s cos at est  s sin at. Est dt
0
st
Let: n = sin at dv = e dt
1
Dn = a cos at dt v= s est
a cos at dt
=
1
s cos at e st

a
s [ ( sin at
1
2
est )] 
s
1
=
1
s cos at e st +s a sin at est 
a
s cos at est dt
a sin at estscos est a a
= s  s cos at est (1 + s ) , cos at estdt =
at
a sin atcos
est
a s + a
1+ s = s
at
a sin ats cos est
Cos at est dt = s
0
s
L {cos at} = cos est dt = s + a
0
(x) = e st
tx1 dt
0
=et v =t x1
t
= et ( 1 ) t
1
=  et t v= x tx
v = v v
(x) = et ( ) 1x
1
x
tx
0
tx (ett)
0 0
e
= x +1 e t
txt
0 x 0
(x) = t [ t
o
x e xe ] +
1
x e
o
t
t t
Comparison:
If (x) = x1
(x1) = x
1
(x) = x (x1)
x (x) = (x1)
Specifically
(1) = e t 11
t t if x = 2
0
(1) = e t
t (3) = 2 (2)
0
(3) = 2 (1)
let = t (3) = 2
let = dt
(3) = 2.1 = 21
(1) = e
( ) if x = 3
0
= lim
t [ 1 1
+
e e ] (4) = 3 (3)
= 3.2.1
(1) = 1 = 3.2.1
Using equation A (4) = 31
Lets derive, L { t}
L { tn} = e st
tn dt
0
(n+ 1)
L { tn} = sn+1 or
n1
sn+1
Let: z = st
z
T= s
1
t = s dz
L { tn} = e
0
z
( sz ) ( 1s )
n
dz
z dz
= e z
 s . s
0
1
= s +1 e z
.zn dz
0
L {12 ( e at )} =
1
2 L {eat} 
1
2 L {e at
}
1
= 2 ( sa1 ) 12 ( s+1 a )
= 2
1
[ 1
1
sa s +a ]
= [
1 s+ as+ a
2 ( sa )( s+ a) ]
=
1
2 [ 2a
( sa ) ( s+a) ]
a
{ sin h at }=
L ( sa )( s +a)
Proof:
0
= a e st f ( t ) dt +b e st
g (t) dt
0 0
= a L { f (t ) }+b L { g(t) }
0
Example:
Find the laplace transform of cos h at.
1
at at
Solution : Recall: cos h at = 2 (e + e )
1 1 1 1
= ( ) ( )
+
2 sa 2 s+a
=
1
2 [ 1
+
1
sa s+ a ]
=
1
2 [ S +a+ sa
( sa ) ( s+a) ]
=
1
2 [ 2s
( sa ) ( s+a) ]
L {cos h at= s as }
THE GENERAL METHOD
Theorems 1. If f (t) is a continuous function of exponential order on [0, ]
whose derivative is also of exponential order and at least piece wise regular
on [0, ] , then :
Proof:
L {f (t) } = f (t0 e st
dt
0
= lim [ f (t ) st
dt + e st
dt]
0 +
C 0
B
se
f ( t )(sest dt )
f (t) b b
[e st
f (t) t 0 st
dt ) + e st
f (t)
+ t 0
f (t)
(1) T = e sto
f (to) e s (0)
f (0) + s f (t ) est dt + [ e st
e sto f ( to ) ] +
s f (t ) e st
dt
+
+ s f (t ) e st
dt
+
=L { f ' ( t)}=s f (t ) e st
dt f (0)
0
regular on [ o, ] then,
L { f ' ' (t) }=L {[ f ' (t)] ' }=s L { f ' ( t)}f ' (o)
(n1)
Corollary 2: If f (t), f (t), f (t) .. f continuous and of exponential order on
[ o, ] and if f (n)
(t) is of exponential order and at least piecewise regular
on [ o, ], then
L { f (t ) }=s L { f (t) }s n1
f (o) sn2 f (o) f (n1)
(o)
a [ s L { y } sy
y yy ' o ] +b [ s L { y } yy ] + c L { y }=L { f ( t ) }
L { f (t ) }+ ( as+b ) y+ ay '
L { y }=
as +bs +c
L 1 { F(s) } =f (t)
Example:
1. L 1
{ s +ww }=sin cot
2. L _1 { sa1 }=e at
1
F (s) = s + 4 s+3
( s + 4s + 3 ) = (s +1) (s +3)
1 A B
= +
s + 4 s+3 (s +1) (s+3)
1 A B
=
s + 4 s+3 (s +1) + (s +3)
1 A ( s+3 ) + B( s+1)
=
s + 4 s+3 ( s+1 ) (s+3)
S= 0 = A+B ; A = B
C= 1 = 3A + B
1
3A + B = 1 ; A= 2
3 (B) +B =1
1
2B = 1 A= 2
1
B= 2
1 y y
=
s + 4 s+3 (s +1)  (s +3)
L { s + 41s +3 }= 12 ( e e )
{ y } { y} = L {t }
L L
1
s Y (s) sy (0) y (0) y (s) s
1
( s 1 ) y ( s )=s+1+
s
s+1 1
+
Y (s) = s 1 s (s 21)
s+1 1
+
= ( s+1 )( s1) s ( s21) for partial fraction
1 A B
=
+
s (s 21) s s 1
A ( s 21 ) + B(s 2 )
= 2
s (s 1)
For : S = 0 = A + B ; A= B
Constant : 1 =  A
Therefore: A = 1 ; B = 1
1 1 1
= 2+
s ( s 1 ) s s 1
2
1 1 1
Y (s) = s+1
+
s 1 s
L 1 { y (s) }= L 1 { s+11 }+ L 1 { s 1
1
} 
L { s1 }
Y (t) = et + sin h t t
1. L { f ' ' ' ' (t) } =s L { f (t) }sf ( o ) s 2 f ( o )s f ' ' ( o )f '' ' (o)
2. L { f ' ' ' ' ' (t)}=s L { f (t) }s 4 f ( o )s f ' ( o )s2 f ' ' ( o )s f ' ' ' ( o )f ' '' ' (o)
L { eat f (t ) }= L { f (t) } s s +a
L { eat f (t ) }= f (t ) e (s+a) t
dt
o
(n+1)
{ eat t n }=
Formula 3: L ( s+ a ) n+1 n > 1
Example:
2 s+ 5
{ y }=
1. If L s +4 s +13 , what is y?
s +20+1
L 2
{ y }=
1
2t
Y=2e cos 3t + 3 e2t sin 3t
1
{ y } [ s +2 s+1 ] = + s (1 ) +1+2(1)
L (s+1)2 s +1
1
{ y } [ s +2 s+1 ] = ( s+ 1)
L s +1
1 ( s+1)
{ y }=
L ( s +1 ) (s+1) (s +1)
1 1
{ y }=
L ( s+1) (s +1)
1 t
Y(t) = ( 2 t21) e
(s +1)
1 1s
{ y (t ) } =
(s +1) + (s +1)
s +1
3 s
+ (s +1)
{ y (t ) } = 1
3
s s+11 (s+1) 1
A= = =
(s +1) ( s+1) (s +1) (s+ 1)
1 1
A= s+1 (s+ 1)
Y (t) =
1
31 1
{ 3!
( s+1 ) 3+1}+ 1
{ s+11 } 1
1
(s +1)
t e
Y (t) =
+e te
3!
t
t+
6
Y (t) =
S MULTIPLIED AND S DIVIDED TRANSFORMS
{ }
t
1
L f ( x ) dx =
L { f (t) }
o
s
{ }
t o
L { f (t) }= s L f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx
o o
{ }
t
1
L f ( x ) dx =
L { f (t)}
o
s
d
L 1 { s (s ) }=f ' ( t )= L 1 { (s) }
dt
L 1 {s ( s )=f ( t )= dtd }
'
L 1 { ( s) }
{ }
t
1 1
Proof: L f ( x )dx =
L { f (t) }= ( s)
o
s s
L 1
{ 1
s o
}
(s) = f ( x ) dx
Example:
2
{ sin 2t }=
1. Given: L s + 4 , find
L 1 { s +s 4 }
To verify this result, we suppress the factor s, then use the given
formula to write the inverse of the remaining portion of the transform, getting
L 1 { s +s 4 }= 12 L 1 { s +2 4 }= 12 sin 2t
2t
1
d sin
2
F (t) = dt L 1
{ } 1
=
s + 4 dt
d
1
F(t) =
cos 2 t(2)
2
F(t) = cos 2t
2. L 1
{ 1
2
s(s + 4) }
1 1
Suppressing the factor s , we set (s) = s + 4
(s) =
1
{ }2
2 s + 4
L 1 { ( s) }=
1
2 L 1 { s +2 4 }= 12 sin 2t
Therefore:
L 1
{ 1
2
=
s(s + 4) o 2 }
sin 2 t
dt
t
1
= sin 2t dt
2 o ; let : n = 2t
Dn = 2dt
dn
=dt
2
t
1 dn
=
2 o
sin
2
2t
t
cos
= t
o
1 1
4 o
sin n dn=
4
1 1
= 4
cos 2 t+ cos (o)
4
1 1
=
cos 2t
4 4
L 1
{ 1
=
s(s + 4) 2
2 } (
1 1cos 2 t
2 )
1cos 2
By identify :
=sin
2
Finally:
L 1
{ 1 1
}
= sin t
s(s + 4) 2
2
this,
d
f (t ) e
ds o
st
dt = (s)
d
f (t ) ds
( est ) dt= [ t f ( t ) est dt=' ( s) ]
o o
{ tf (t) }=' (s )
By taking inverses in the assertion of theorem and then solving for f (t),
Corollary 1:
If { f (t) }= ( s ) , then
1
F (t)= 1 { (s) }=
t
1 {' (s )}
1
The inverse of a transform is equal to  t times the inverse of the
{ t sin at }=
d
ds
[ {sin at } ] =
d
[
a
ds s +a ]
2 as
{ t sin at }=
(s + a2)
2
(s+ 1)
Example 2: What is y if { y }= ( s )=
(S1)
By corollary 1, theorem 1
Y= t
1
1 { (
d
s+1
ds a1
=
1
t )} 1 { s+11 s11 }
e e 2 sin h t
Y=
=
t t
d ' d d
 ds [
s y ( s )sy y o ]+ 2 [ sy ( s ) y ] 2 [ sy ( s ) y ] y ( s ) +2 y ( s ) =0
ds ds
d
2 [ sy ( s ) y ] ds y ( s ) +2
(s 2+ 2 s1 ) y ' ( s ) + (4 s+ 4 ) y ( s )=3 y
'
 ( s 2 s+1 ) y ( s )4 ( 4 s1 ) y ( s )=3 y
'
 ( s1 ) y ( s ) 4 ( s1 ) y ( s )=3 y
4 ( s1 ) y ( s) 3 y
Y (s)  =
(s1) (s1)
4 3 y
y=
Y (s) s1 (s1)
dy
Recall:
+ y P ( x )=Q ( x )
dx
1. F = P ( x ) dx
Y (1.f) Q ( x ) [ ( 1. f ) ] dx +c
4 ds
e (s1) =e 4lu (s1)
= (s1)4
f = (s1)4
after multiplying each side by this factor and integrating, we have
( s1 )4 y = y ( s1 ) + c
y c
+
Y (s) = s1 (s1)
c
Y(t) = y et +
t e
6
3 y
y [ 1( s1 ) ] = [ 1(s1) ] ds +c
A. (s1)
( s1 )4 y =3 y ( s1 )2 ds +c
4 (s1)
( s1 ) y = y +c
2+1
( s1 )4 y = y ( s1 ) +c
Theorem 2:
Fi F (t) is piecewise regular on [o, and of exponential order, if {f
(t)} = (s) and if f (t)/t has a limit as t approaches zero from the right,
then
{ }
f (t)
t
= ( s ) = { f (t) } ds
0 o
proof:
(s) = { f (t) }= f ( t ) e st
dt
o
[ ]
( s )= f ( t ) est dt ds
o o o
to [ ]
f (t)
t
( s ) ds= f ( t ) e
o o o
st
ds dt = f (t )
o
[ ]
e
t
dt
=
o
[ ]
f (t)
t
e d t
= { }
f (t )
t
By taking inverses in the assertion of theorem and then solving for f (t) , we
obtain
Corollary 1: if { f (t) }= ( s ) , then
{ }
If words: Corollary 1:
Example 1:
What is {sint kt } ?
{sint kt }= {sin kt } ds
k s
= s +k
ds=tan
k s
o
=s [ s
tan tan
k
s
k ]
s s
=
tan =cot
2 k k
Example 2:
s
{ y }=
What is y if 2
( s 1)
2
s 1
2
1
Y = t
{ }
s
(s 21)
ds =t
o
s 21
2
= t 1
= t {( 1 1
1
4 s1 s+ 1 )}
t
y= ( e e )
4
ee
recall: sin ht = 2
t e e
y= 2 ( 2 )
t sin ht
y= 2
3
=
tan k
90
K 2
=tan ( ks )
+=90
=90
=90tan 1 ( ks )
But:
k
tan
=
s
1 k
=
cot s
=cot ( ks )
Therefore:
=90tan 1 ( ks )
cot ( ks )= 2 tan ks1