THE VARIOUS TYPES OF COMMUNICATION THE VARIOUS TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Are very different scopes of operation of a public relations

agenda. In addition to advertising and promotional activities, the communication strategy of an ent ity is bound to serve and consolidate a capital of trust with their audiences. P ublic Relations, to play the role of interface between the company and its publi c, may present a second set of types of communication: 1.1 Corporate Communicati on 1.2 Communication Products 1.3 Media relations Internal 1.5 1.4 Communication Community Relations 1.6 Local Government Relations Financial Communication 1.8 1.7 1.9 Environmental Communication Crisis Communication 1 - CORPORATE COMMUNICATION "A Public Relations is a bridge builder, not a drummer - builds long term relati onships between the company or organization and the public, based on a two-way c ommunication. A professional public relations serves as an interpreter, helping the company to adapt to political, economic and social ... and helping their aud iences to better understand the company. "When we talk about long-term relations hips between the company and the public, we are inevitably talking about a slow and complex process : the construction of the Global Image of the company, which derives the concepts of image and reputation. In fact, regardless of size or se ctor to which it belongs, the image of a company is the result of multiple commu nication activities and plays a key role in achieving their business goals. Any company appears in the eyes of consumers, providers, public entities with which it relates, the financial community, local ... with a certain image positive or negative. This image caused by multiple factors, not just its products or servic es, such as physical media, the personnel in contact with the organization, the factors of image and visual communication and the media. 1 - CORPORATE COMMUNICATION FACTORS OF VISUAL IMAGE IN PERSONAL CONTACT - company name, logo, brand, slogan, signage (facilities, vehicles, letterhead, business cards, display cabinets, di splay ...) - managers, staff, receptionists, personal care, sale , after-sales s ervice, complaint handling, etc ... - Structure and organization, mission statem ent, shared values, sense of effectiveness, accountability to the market, etc .. . - Offices, factories, retail outlets, support equipment at points of sale, etc .. - Advertising, sales force, sales promotion, direct marketing, public relatio ns, etc ... - Announcements, audiovisuals, brochures, catalogs, posters, etc. .. ORGANIZATION PHYSICAL ACTIONS OF COMMUNICATION MEDIA COMMUNICATION MEDIA 1 - CORPORATE COMMUNICATION The Global Image of the company should be a communication strategy, as it may de termine, articulating each of the factors, although some of them exceed the fiel ds of marketing, particularly those which relate to the organization. However, t he company's image among its publics is vital to ensure the longevity of a compa ny by creating a climate of confidence, as the brand image is crucial to ensure the permanence of a product to market, and contributes decisively to its commerc ial success. 2 - COMMUNICATION PRODUCT By allowing a much greater efficacy than advertising, especially through the pub licity (not advertising information about the company and its brands), with resp ect to cost / benefit, the Public Relations presents itself as a powerful tool t o level of product communication, as part of marketing. In some cases, the PR pe ople even to be the prime variable of a communication strategy of product. This happens mainly when funds available for investment in communication is very low or when the products have to communicate a very complex and its benefits are dif

ficult to explain in a simple ad. A company that launches a new product to marke t him in the media through, for example, sessions of release, statements and pre ss releases, can often they publish articles about the launch of the product or on a advertising campaign of the same or on the company's strategy to launch it, without payment of these medias. For this it is important that the company seek s to create a trust relationship with the media,€that the information provided is relevant to the audience of each media and that the matter can captivate the attention of the journalist, both for its originality, both in the interest of i nformation or even the way this horn is described. 2 - COMMUNICATION PRODUCT Despite the deliverables should be appealing to media and care, the cost of such action is usually negligible when compared with an advertising campaign or the cost of a sales team. But it must be clear that the PR does not replace in any w ay the advertising or communication of sales - they should, rather, be integrate d into the communications mix and should be affected in terms of costs depending on the specifics of the business company, its positioning, its public and in ac cordance with its budget of communication. It is interesting that, increasingly, the plans and marketing budgets, public relations begin to gain importance and be regarded as a fundamental form of communication product. Another point to emp hasize is that public relations get easier-mind the objective of ensuring credib ility, which is not always achieved by other forms of communication. This stems from two reasons: One, is that much of the activity of PR result in actions not words. Action inevitably has more impact than mere words, and is more easily ret ained by the target audiences. 2 - COMMUNICATION PRODUCT Another reason is that it can mobilize opinion leaders and the media - extreme m ind important in the formation of public opinion - to convey the mes-ing that th e company intends to transmit, thus giving it greater credibility. While adverti sing is often perceived as little free: people know that was the company that cr eated the advertisement and, moreover, that pays for it. 3 - RELATIONS WITH THE MEDIA Relations with the media are also emerging as a kind of communication, because t he media, besides being a target audience of the message of the company are also a vehicle of that message and as such help others to form public opinion. It is therefore important that responsible companies are prepared to communi-cate in a proper and regular consultation with the media, and using these to develop a r elationship of trust, only achieved through sustained effort over time by Public Relations. This effort should include sessions on media training, development o f press kits and theme of thematic sites to provide rapid response and effective communication with the media. 3 - RELATIONS WITH THE MEDIA FORMS OF COMMUNICATION Press conferences OPPORTUNITY FOR ACHIEVEMENT very releva nt events that the company intends to release simultaneously to a set of media i n informing the Social tion. Theme to develop with a limited number of journalis ts, usually no overlap in the same sector. Event with some relevance to exposure to a wide range of media. Providing online information for consultation by jour nalists. Interviews Press-Release Internet (Press Room Online)

4 - INTERNAL COMMUNICATION Often large companies devote large budgets and responsibility for the developmen t of actions aimed at external audiences and forget or invest very low values in public relations for the internal public. It is a serious flaw, in that: the indoor public are a vehicle for spreading out side of the company's image and, if not involved, they can assume this role in t he negative, there must be coherence between the external and internal communica tion, therefore, If this condition does not occur, the effectiveness of communic ation itself, a whole view will be reduced, the company that fails to motivate / engage internally certainly not able to efficiently externally. 4 - INTERNAL COMMUNICATION Companies that develop consistent public relations campaigns and who are concern ed with the evaluation of their effectiveness establish clear objectives for bot h levels of government, and significant budgets dedicated to them. It is normal in these cases that companies articulate the actions of public relations not onl y with the other communication measures, but in a broader scope, with a set of a ctions explicit involvement of all employees, especially supervisors and manager s in harmonious development of the company (Project Company). Such a stance not only ensures strong consistency of all activities,€the assurance of great effic iency in their implementation. 5 - PUBLIC RELATIONS ON THE INTERNET For many companies, the business of public relations on the Internet is no longe r that their sites are static or merely the existence of an area of press releas es on corporate site. Indeed, if we consider public relations as an activity of strategic management of relations between the organization and its various audie nces, they should guide the communication of the corporate site. Only a few comp anies start to design their sites in a dynamic way on the homepage highlighting the most relevant news, adding the company's positions on various issues, develo ping themes for each of the hearings. One such example is the Annual Report, a k ey part of communicating to different audiences such as financial analysts, inst itutional shareholders, individual shareholders, financial media, media of large public sector media, suppliers, potential partners, students, potential employe es, government, etc.. 5 - PUBLIC RELATIONS ON THE INTERNET Obviously, it is not possible, due to costs, prepare a report for each of the he arings. In the online world, the RP's can organize information so that each audi ence, or rather, every individual, obtain the information required. The technolo gy also allows each individual, in addition to seeking certain information, subs cribe to types of information in the form of e-mail, electronic newsletter or ot her format, according to their interests. The option of sending e-mails will be created in Portugal, like other countries, the phenomenon of spam, that is a hug e amount of emails in which the majority is regarded by recipients as "rubbish". The ability to edit pages, exchanging e-mails and participate in chats or newsg roups allows clients to communicate with each other, developing campaigns to pro test online in an unprecedented scale. Crises can thus be created online and bro adcast online. 5 - PUBLIC RELATIONS ON THE INTERNET In addition, it is crucial not to forget the golden rule of Internet "Never send emails to people who have not previously indicated they were prepared to receiv e them." With regard to news companies need to monitor these forums to identify

problematic situations and to intervene and participate in the discussion itself or directly contacting customers unhappy. 6 - RELATIONS WITH THE LOCAL COMMUNITY The relationship with the local community is a strategic aspect relevant contrib utor to the success of a good integration of the company / institution in societ y that surrounds it. Involvement in local activities more relevant and promotion of initiatives that have direct impact on the local community helps to create a trust, to solidify the relationship with public and local leaders and serve to overcome possible barriers. 7 - GOVERNMENT RELATIONS Given the regulatory role of the state on economic actors, whether they are busi ness organizations or individuals, it becomes increasingly important to establis h a communication directed to this audience in order to communicate the most app ropriate form and bring out all the noise resulting from the mass of information interests, issues and problems of these agents, so that the powers of governmen t can lead the best of his performance, taking into consideration the interests of these agents. 8 - FINANCIAL COMMUNICATION Strategic objectives enterprises derive those having to do with the financial ca pacity and result in financial value of companies and its relationship with both customers and suppliers and with shareholders and banks. As such, financial rep orting takes on an increasingly important role in corporate communication, espec ially with the public referred to, and even with the financial community, locall y and globally. 9 - COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENT Environmental communication gets much more important the greater the influence a nd responsibility in the ecosystem. It is for this type of communication to rais e awareness among various stakeholders, among which are the environmental associ ations and authorities for the conduct of companies or organizations in this fie ld. 10 - COMMUNICATION CRISIS Businesses and organizations throughout its existence, are confronted with a var iety of adverse situations, which, taken to the extreme may be entitled to crise s. Public Relations are a good weapon to fight crisis. In recent years, large-sc ale disasters such as Bhopal, Seveso and Chernobyl, September 11 brought to the fore the need for governments,€institutions and companies are prepared to deal with crisis situations. This need was already evident a decade earlier but was n ot given at that time, due importance has led experts in various sectors of acti vities to look more deeply about this issue for study in all its aspects. Never be too much to remember that the experts in this area (the managers believed the mselves) do not make miracles, or resolve a critical situation with a few precep ts they have learned. 10 - COMMUNICATION CRISIS Each crisis situation is a new universe facing these managers, whose function is to be prepared to deal with it if possible to avoid it in the form preventive o r driving it with the aim of minimizing its effects harmful. The solutions will depend greatly on the degree of engagement of the administration of preventive m easures that have been authorized, training and team training for crisis managem

ent and the validity of the program has been implemented. For a corporation, a crisis need not necessarily be a major accident like a plan e crash, the explosion in a factory or an ecological disaster. In reality, most companies often face the so-called "small crises" which, in one form or another, are trying to solve, not always the best way and rarely with satisfactory resul ts. But sometimes it is these "small crises" that generate large pr-lems in the short term. Hence, it must conclude that even the crisis of small dimensions mus t be managed effectively so as not to become later in critical situations and un controllable. 10 - COMMUNICATION CRISIS The types of crisis a) the predictable crises - are the critical events that, one way or or-tra, one can see how, for example, mass layoffs or bankruptcy. Are considered as the cri ses - of the economic (eg bankruptcy) - structural changes (eg, layoffs and rest ructurings), contextual (eg, the Gulf War). b) the unpredictable crises - which as the name suggests, is not supposed to know ahead of time that will take place and that obviously are more difficult to manage properly. Note that most crises are precisely this kind. Considered in this case: - natural disasters (eg earth quakes, floods) - business disasters (eg airplane crash, fire) - financial (eg h ostile take over) - sabotage (eg, actions terrorists) - aggression (eg, slander, action by pressure groups) - contextual (again the example of the Gulf War). 10 - COMMUNICATION CRISIS The types of crisis Crisis Grade 1 - is called the "minor crisis" that need not involve the maximum charge of business and which is likely to resolve quickly with few resources. Cr isis Grade 2 - Although considered a "minor crisis," but when it becomes necessa ry to think and plan carefully how to take action and where the involvement of t he Crisis Management Team (EGT), we will see later, is total. Crisis Grade 3 - A t this level it is already necessary to activate a program of crisis management, because the situation has repercussions for the entire structure of the company (sales, production, etc.). And national level. Crisis Grade 4 - is the major cr isis that could jeopardize the survival of the entire company and has wide reper cussions across borders and within the ruling classes. Crisis Grade 5 - Although , fortunately, much rarer have planetary effects, and can only be compared to ca ses of Chernobyl. 10 - COMMUNICATION CRISIS The types of crisis Another aspect that must be taken into consideration is the origin of the crisis . This can be: a) the company domestically, related to the human elements, mater ials or structural (corporate disasters, scandals, layoffs, etc.).. b) from exte rnal sources, related to situations of aggression, sabotage, natural disasters, etc.. 10 - COMMUNICATION CRISIS Crisis management through public relations is based on two basic points: - The p reventive action. Its purpose is to prevent and neutralize potential crises, inc luding preparation of spokespersons, assembly of warning systems and identify po tential crisis scenarios and develop relationships with lobbyists. Crisis commun ication itself. The purpose of this is to minimize the negative impact of crises , the communication can be made from the definition of strategies previously pre pared, preparation of press releases and strengthening relations with the 'suppo rters' organization or company. 10 - COMMUNICATION CRISIS

Crisis management through public relations is based on two basic points: - The p reventive action. Its purpose is to prevent and neutralize potential crises, inc luding preparation of spokespersons, assembly of warning systems and identify po tential crisis scenarios and develop relationships with lobbyists. Crisis commun ication itself. The purpose of this is to minimize the negative impact of crises , the communication can be made from the definition of strategies previously pre pared, preparation of press releases and strengthening relations with the 'suppo rters' organization or company. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Type Public-Shareholders-finance community-Bodies-Com.Social Adm.Pública (centr al, local), Unions, employers' associations, opinion leaders, local community-Ge neral Public Goals - Vehicular and consolidate a capital of trust from the publi c Example Actions Assignment IBM Scientific Prize Press Conference Jointventure BP / Mobil Institutional TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Type Public - Customers - Distributors - Prescribers - Opinion leaders-General p ublic Product Objectives - - Create or enhance the reputation of the product - explain its characteristics - Stimulating the appetite for the purchase of Shar es Example - Super Festival Bock Super Rock-News about the launch of products TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Type Public - Meeting - Community-Fijnanceira Bodies Com.Social Financial Goals - Attract and keep shareholders - Enhance the performance and potential profitab ility of the company Example Actions - Disclosure of Audit Report Portucel - Dis closure of major projects TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Type Public - Customers - Com.Social Bodies - Distributors - Prescribers - Leade rs of Opinion - Suppliers - Financial Community - Unions - Employers' Associatio ns - Local community - Adm.Púb. central and local public-general objectives - t o prevent and minimize potential crises - Minimizing the effects of an adverse s ituation of the developmental relations with lobbyists Example Actions UNICE rea ction to a possible food poisoning by ingestion of water Vitalis Crisis TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Type Public Objectives Sample Stocks Employees Interna-enterprise-Inform and mot ivate employees-Disclosure internal magazine of the Insurance C lub Shares Sales TMN