Introduction 1. The coffee and the industry first.

12 That period of history, the coffee crisis, is also the period of the replacement of slave labor for empl oyee, market development, the rapid expansion of railroads, the appearance of th e first industries. 2. 13 The coffee expansion and industrialization are two s tages of capitalist transition in Brazil. This is explained mainly by the rise o f capitalist mode of production in its highest stage and the establishment of a capitalist world economy. 2. Industrialization and capitalism 1. 14 It is nece ssary to understand how industrialization progress of productive forces, as a so cial process. 2. 14 The development of productive forces under capitalism is n ot only that, but also development of capitalist social relations. 3. 15 Indus trialization indicates the upheaval (transformation) of the productive forces by capitalist relations. 3. Industrialization and a transition. 16 Industrializa tion is the final stage of the transition period. This capitalist transition is the result of a set of contradictions. 2. 17 The existence of these pre-capita list relations is the result of a particular form of domination of capital. 3. 1 8 These relations do not exist except as articulated dominant-subordinate rela tionships. 4. 18 Ultimately, these are forms that explain the contradictions i nherent to the capitalist transition and thus the process of creating the condit ions for industrialization. 4. Transition and a global economy. 18 For the Bra zilian transition to be late, it features new contradictions. 2. 19 World econ omy: when the reproduction of capital on a national scale is submissive to the i nternational scale, a structured whole and not a juxtaposition of parts. 3. 19 In those underdeveloped countries, contradictions are seen as "obstacles." 4. 2 0 Imperialism is, at the same time, "obstacle" and "driving force" of developm ent, the latter being the dominant feature. 5. 20 The obstacle is the uneven d evelopment, a fundamental characteristic of capitalism. 6. 21 This relationshi p of domination-subordination, the end of the century. 19, relies mainly on econ omic relations. Conditions of Expansion Historical Coffee 1. External Conditions 1. Introduction 1. 23 From 1851 to 1900, world trade grew at an amazing pace, the incorporation of less developed countries, like Brazil. 2. World market for export of capital first. 24 The development of trade is a historical conditio n for the development of capitalism. 2. 24 This development changed the nature of economic relations international, the dominant role in exports of capital. 3. 25 The development of international trade becomes a part of capitalist development (of capitalist p roduction). 4. 27 To understand the actual movement of capital, it is necessar y to move the analysis of movement for the reproduction of capital. At this leve l, we can understand the capital as a relation of production. 5. 27 Pe, borrow ing by Brazil from 1851 to 1900 did not serve as an export of capital, but fundi ng for immigration, railroads ... 6. 28 The output of this capital in the form of debt service, financially strangling the country, despite the positive trade balance. 3. Some data on British investment in January. 32 The British invest ment has been growing massively, up to 3x in 1900 and exports two thirds of the net domestic product. 2. An internal conditions. Capital 1. 34 The opening of ports (1808) and political independence (1822) are the dates of the bourgeoisie magna Brazilian trade. 2. 33 This process is part of an international framewor k: the industrial revolution, "decadence" of merchant capital, the rise of indus trial powers and the crisis of the old Portuguese colonial system (accelerated b y a number of popular revolts in Brazil). 3. 34 From these dates to enter the big bourgeoisie importaçãoexportação world trade, developing rapidly thanks to c onsolidation and expansion of coffee plantations. 4. 34 From 1801 to 1850, cof fee was using slave labor, an inner part, a larger part imported from Africa. Af ter this time the coffee was already our most important product, and allowed the creation of a class and wealthy. 2. Workforce 1. 35 The possibilities for exp ansion on the basis of slave labor was very limited. 2. 36 Find the work force within it was also difficult. They were poor, lived in self-maintenance and ver y attached to large estates. 3. 36 Small-holders and they are few, the autosub sistência also lived in almost total isolation. 4.€37 The pioneer of coffee th en turned to immigration. 5. 37 The farmer got the loan with the State and imm

igrants promised his future work. But they were partners, in harvest received a share of income. Then lived almost as slaves. 6. 37 This condition hampered im migration, condition for growth of coffee. 7. 37 It took 10 years to change th is condition. 8. 38 In 1870, the government of the Province of São Paulo assum es all the costs of immigration and since 1880 immigration has become massive. 3 . FT: contradictory effects of a gradual abolition. 39 The progressive aboliti on did not reach large portion of this population. 2. 39 Even the abolition in 1888 greatly expanded the job market. 3. 40 This was due to minor ideological adaptation to work and the possibility of escape for pre-capitalist forms or se lf-sufficiency. 4. 41 According to Furtado, the abolition "was a far more poli tical than economic," unable to cause any "significant change in the way of prod uction." 5. 41 A "progressive abolition" did not involve a "phasing" of employ ment, only slowed the very accumulation of defending the former regime. 6. 41 The ruling classes are a means of cushioning the abolishing and when she reached had positive economic effects. Coffee Economy 1. Introduction 1. 43 In 1880, there is a geographic shift: Coffee RJ for the SP. 2. 44 Going up the h ighlands of Brazil, the coffee production using wage labor and mechanization kno w - even if only partially. Also benefits from a network of railroads, and expor t houses and a network bank for now, advanced trading system. 2. Plantations 1. A salaried job. 45 The immigrant, since replacing the slave, receives a base s alary (the family), a commission by the size of the harvest and undertook to do the planting outside services for a price stated in the contract, plus land for its cultivation for self-sufficiency. 2. 45 Workers preferred the interspersed productions (where his land was adjacent to the cafe) as they could keep the tw o cultures with less work. 3. 46 After it is rare, because it prevents further expansion of the coffee area. 4. 46 After the first. World War, the Brazilian immigrants become important for coffee (23.4% in 1918-1927) and decreases wages in the plantations. 5. 47 The immigrants did not accept the new situation wit hout a fight. Strikes and even murders were onstage in the plantations. 6. 47 At the end of the contract (one year), the immigrants came from farms to cities, new planting (even in other countries) or returned to Europe. 7. 48 The insta bility of manpower was an obstacle to coffee, but this is a result of this strug gle between workers and farmers. 2. Mechanization 1. 48 Transactions with bene ficiation machines had a better price in the market, and address the lack of wor kers on the farm. 2. 49 This mechanization required significant properties to make viable the use of this machinery. 3. Railways 1. 50 The railroads were es sential, as the troop of mules would not mind to sell the huge production. 2. 51 The price of transportation by train was 6x lower than the troops of mules. 3 . 52 The rapid development of the network of railroads, it constitutes a neces sary infrastructure for the development of capitalism, with assistance from the trees. 3. A coffee capital. Introduction 1. 53 The development of the coffee e conomy is the development of the coffee capital. But the economy and capital far exceeds the coffee plantations. 2. 53 The major growers were homeowners expor t, railroads ... 3. 53 These export houses have origins banks financed the pla ntations and its mechanization. 2. Several aspects and dominant aspect of a coff ee capital. 54 The coffee capital had features of the commercial capital, indu strial, and commercial banking. 2. 54 With the development, there is a special ization of the capital and the bourgeoisie. In Brazil, there was only one coffee bourgeoisie with multiple functions (Intercorrelated). 3. 55 The big business defining a commercial bourgeoisie, b ut the average capital, an agrarian bourgeoisie. 4. 55 The coffee capital repr esents the unity of the two, under the domination of the first. 5. 55 The prep onderance of the commercial capital is a result of weak development of capitalis t production relations, a slower development of productive forces. 4. Developmen t of the coffee economy in the beginning of the century. 20 1. Overproduction 1. 56 In 1882, world production exceeds consumption, and in 1893, with the crisi s in the U.S., prices plummet. 2. 56 With inflationary policy and currency dev aluation,€the fall in prices is dampened by distributing the setback for the ent

ire Brazilian economy. 3. 57 Politics generated inflationary increase in cost of living and satisfaction of all other classes. 4. 57 As the volume of export s did not surpass the price decline, the government still had difficulties to se rvice its debts. 5. 57 The government sends ministers to establish a contract with the English banker and debt service is suspended for 13 years in exchange f or a stabilization policy, which is sustained for 20 years. 6. 58 With this fu nding loan, the bourgeois coffee becomes aware of the problem and the need to re solve it. This temporarily solves the national finances; lacked resolve the prob lem of overproduction. 2. Valuation 1. 60 In 1906, defined the goals of "recov ery" with the Covenant of Taubaté. 1. Purchase of surplus by the government to r estore the balance of supply and demand 2. Financing these purchases by borrowin g from foreign banks in March. Service payments on these loans through a new tax (set in gold) on the export of coffee 4. Adoption of measures to discourage the expansion of plantations 2. 61 The federal government has not accepted, but t he state of SP deploys. Later the federal government assumes for itself, not to lose control of the economy. 3. 62 With this policy, foreign capital becomes d ominant at the marketing of coffee and its subsidiaries develop rapidly, and dom estic banks. 4. 62 With the crisis that the bourgeoisie is different than the rest of the coffee bourgeoisie. 5. 62 These powerful bankers lend to the whole economy and, in time of war, the industrialization drive. 6. 62 The "recovery " is not the beginning of the end, but its highest stage, where foreign capital and the coffee take their definitive forms in this period. 7. 63 It's a contra diction of capitalist development. 5. The issue of land and an abundance of land . 64 The coffee bourgeoisie owned the land for planting. 2. 64 Legally, ther e was property and unoccupied land. 3. 65 As the bourgeoisie proceeded inland, was occupying the lands occupied and could not a property deed. 4. 65 If ever there was someone there, used to violence and, if necessary, until the army. 5. 65 Brazilian crossbred these lands were of European origin, Indians. 6. 65 When I met with land titles, it was for the owner: (1) become a grower or (2) se ll the land. 7. 65 Turning grower had to take loans from merchants Santos. 8. 66 Selling the land could a lot of money due to land speculation. 9. 66 Land speculation can not be explained outside the domination of capital that gives commercial val ue to the land. 10. 67 The abundance of land relative to capital is and is not associated with abundance to those who should be the labor market. 11. 69 At the time of Brazil's coffee expansion, capitalism develops into other bases. 1. Capitalist production breaks the boundaries of national territory. 2. The capita l is the power to develop into viable places before, its development depends sol ely on the international division of labor. 12. 69 Is the transformation of ca pitalism and the establishment of the capitalist world economy that leads to the question of the abundance of land. 13. 70 The transformations at the national level (on one hand, capital accumulation, and others, greater division of labor and market growth), modified forms of reproduction of capital driven world econ omy, manifested by an accumulation of relatively fast compared to the growth of domestic Origins of an Industry. The growth of an industry. 71 Until 1875 indu strial establishments existing in Brazil are few and unimportant. The industrial boom occurring in 1880-1890. 2. 73 The industry develops very unevenly: the f irst and SP (regions of coffee), the latter faster. 3. 74 The transformations of the period - mainly wage labor, but also railways, banks, large retailers, ex porter and importer and mechanization in the processing of coffee - the coffee e conomy are the center of the rapid accumulation of capital. This accumulation wa s born the industry in Brazil. 2. The growth of a large industry. 75 From 1876 to 1900, features more similar to the later periods than the previous ones, eve n with the predominance of coffee. 2. 80 data clearly show that in 1907 the in dustrial structure was characterized by a large or small companies, not manufact uring. 3. 81 From 1907 to 1920,€RJ major industries grew even more (2x RJ and 3x SP) 3. Origins of an industrial bourgeoisie. 85 The industrial bourgeoisie was of European origin. Those coming to Brazil in situations better than the mas s of immigrants. 2. 89 The beginning of the accumulation is not a small compan

y, but trade (export and import houses). 3. 89 The study highlights the import ance of the importer that acts to take control of relatively small companies tha t grow, they draw on their holdings of capital. 4. 90 The mother of infant ind ustry is the big trade and not the middle class European. 5. 91 Some members o f the bourgeoisie also interested in the coffee industry, even family ties betwe en it and the industrial bourgeoisie were important for the industry. 6. 91 Fo reign investment at that time were very low: 50% papers in the state and the rem aining railroads, utilities, banks and insurance companies. 4. Contradictory aspects of coffee-industry relations 1. 91 Find the workforce in immigration caused by the expansion of coffee, and consumer market. 2. 93 The dizzying growth of electrification and urbanization is a condition and resul t of industrial developments. 3. 94 The "obstacles" that requires the coffee i ndustry are contradictions of capitalist development, whose center is coffee. 4. 97 The relationship between international trade and the coffee economy, on on e hand, and the nascent industry, on the other, involve the same time, the unity and contradiction. 5. 97 Unit: capitalist development based on coffee expansi on causes the birth and development of a certain industry. 6. 97 Contradiction : the limits imposed on the development of the industry's own dominance of the c offee economy in the accumulation of capital. 7. 98 The situation of subordina tion of Brazil in world capitalism explains the importance of the export sector and puts the coffee economy as the center engine of capitalist development in Br azil. 5. Contradictions of development based on a coffee economy. 99 Brazil wa s commercially and financially dependent, explicit in the growing foreign debt a nd sudden changes in international prices of coffee. 2. 99 External imbalances are treated, at first, with the currency devaluation. 3. 99 Do not resolved, the government appeals for funding loan (grace period), but calls for policies o f financial austerity, reduce costs and increase revenues, or raise taxes. 4. 99 There could be tax exports for political imbalances and to be the center of c apital accumulation. 5. 1999 Rate the products for the domestic market, import s (because taxing local production could further unbalance). 6. 100 This Agree ment is made with the British financial groups, which support the reduction of t heir imports by an increased flow of money. 7. 101 This taxation of imports se rves the industrial, but this policy was adopted to focus on the coffee sector, because the industry wanted was a differentiation between products that would co mpete with them and the machinery they needed it. 8. 102 Ideologically Brazil had a "vocation land," according to the law of comparative advantage. 9. 103 B ut the very expansion of world capitalism imposes Brazil the local industrial pr oduction, as output to external financial imbalances and increased accumulation. 10. 103 Wage labor is not the cause of the external imbalance, but it is a ne cessary condition for the transformation of the capitalist mode of production, e specially industrialization. It is concerned rather to shatter the tranquility o f the coffee farms to develop. 6. The first industrial capital. 105 The form o f development led to the dominance of commercial capital over the industrial (ma nufacturing). 2. 105 The return on investment resulting from the pricing struc ture. 3. 105 The form of industrialization took place under the international division of labor (and its implication in the relationship between international prices and its modification by Brazilian policies). 4. 107 The form of indust rialization was to concentrate on consumer goods. 5. 109 This characteristic i s also given as the imposition of international division of work. To the extent that it was more profitable production of consumer goods, wi th imports of machinery, the development of the incipient break IBConsumo IBProd ução. 6. 109 In this way allows a rapid accumulation of capital, allowing "ski p steps" and does not need the processing or manufacturing of handicraft industr y. 7. 109 Even the industrial capital, in its contradiction, prevents the deve lopment of IBProdução in its development. Questions for class II 03/11/2009 first.) How to configure foreign loans, and fo r what purposes intended in Brazil in the second half of the nineteenth century?

(P. 33-36) second.) How to configure England's investments in Brazil until the early decades of the twentieth century? (P. 36-68) third.) Explain the factors t hat contributed to Brazil's independence and the rise of commercial capital (p. 39-40) fourth.) What were the internal limits for creation of the working class and the formula found for its constitution? (P. 41-44) 5th.) What were the contr adictory effects of the abolition of slavery? (P. 44-47) 6th III.) As the employ ment was part of the coffee plantations (p. 50-54) 7th ..) How advanced the prod uctive forces - mechanization - the coffee activity? (P. 54-56) 8th ..) Characte rize the expansion of the railroad and what it meant for the coffee activity. (P . 56-58) 9th.) How did the coffee production, in particular the process of forma tion of the coffee bourgeoisie? (P. 58-60) 10th.) What was the importance of the coffee capital in carrying out its business functions (p. 60-62) 11th.) As the problem of overproduction of coffee appeared as an expression of development of this activity ? (P. 62-66) 12th.) As the policy of upgrading the coffee explains capitalist development in Brazil in the first decades of the twentieth century? (P. 66-70) 13th.) As if the land issue was addressed in this period? (P. 70-75) IV 14th.) How did the growth of industry and its peculiarities in the early twe ntieth century? (P. 77-91) 15th.) Addresses the origins of the industrial bourge oisie. (P. 91-96) 16th.) Point contradictory aspects of coffee-industry relation s. (P. 97-110) A) loans made by the public sector became one of the main forms of capital expor ts. Government loans have made it possible for Brazil to become an exporter of c apital, as well as return the principal, the country had to pay the interest and financial charges related to these operations. These funds originated from the loans used to finance the immigration of the labor force Europe, as well as inve stment in infrastructure, especially railroads and utilities and industrial, suc h as electricity, gas, urban transport, and construction and consolidation of th e rule itself. However, they eventually got off capital that came in the form of debt service. Capital outflows and balances for the developing countries are tw o aspects of the movement of capital worldwide and export of capital is the domi nant aspect. 2) In the first decades of the twentieth century, British investmen ts in Brazil were predominant. The volume of these investments was three times t he value of exports and over two thirds of domestic GDP. Britain has gained from the opening of the ports of Brazil, ending with the Portuguese monopoly. The Br azilian independence also has been a great help. England was intimately linked t o the abolition of slavery, as would open market for their products, which would increase imports into Brazil. The railways had a large impact on industrializat ion in economies that have made their first industrial revolutions, and the same happened in here, and England one of the major owners of these rails on Brazili an soil, through the São Paulo Railway. (The banker Lord Rotthschild had enormou s influence over the Brazilian government, and he half determined as the nationa l state should act to contain the fall in coffee prices after overproduction, an d the Council of Taubaté could generate a regional policy which was later elevat ed to the national level. São Paulo managed to get funding out of the House Rott hschild. The banker would earn much money from loans made to our government). Ba nks and foreign capital coming in just several sectors of the Brazilian economy. 3) With the opening of the ports, after the arrival of the Portuguese Royal Fam ily, Brazil has entered the global economy. The Brazilian independence was influ enced by the Industrial Revolution, the decay of merchant capital, the rise of i ndustrial powers and the decadence of the Portuguese Empire. Internally there we re some armed revolts. With the opening of ports and political independence of t he Brazilian commercial bourgeoisie develops, for now Portugal no longer had pow er over commerce in Brazil. The trade was located on agricultural exports, espec ially coffee, whose production was in the hands of the aristocrats and the risin g bourgeoisie, and slave labor to productive matrix of coffee. 4) In the ninetee nth century the work force was the dominant slave, however,€independence from Br itain became the main influence on government, and demanded changes in the polic y of slavery where the slave trade should end. To meet these demands the governm ent was passing some laws that restricted a little bondage. With these restricti

ons and the expansion of trade and production of coffee, manpower became scarce. Free workers were linked to self-sufficiency, but many worked on the land of la ndowners in an almost feudal mode of production. With the reduction of variable capital, the landowners eventually returning the land in the hands of peasants. However, this stratum of society was not a labor market. Immigration has become a way of creating a labor market. However, the first Europeans were sold as a co mmodity, like slaves. This led European countries to create troubles for the arr ival of immigrants. But over time the network was increased migration and Europe an immigrants, primarily Italians, began to form the Brazilian labor market duri ng the first decades of the twentieth century. 5) The end of slavery in Brazil was progressive, it ended up delaying the format ion of a labor market, because for decades there were still slaves and only when necessary for the sale of the workforce, the worker, it appears that the market work. Such maintenance of slavery eventually slowing the economy. The character istics of slavery remained for a long time, damaging the overall shift to capita lism. Thus, the ruling classes retarded accumulation itself. Another factor that the elite was exposed to free workers were lazy. 6) The employment was part of the coffee plantations with the decline of slavery. The immigrants, mostly forme d the basis of productive coffee, and they signed contracts of employment, even at the time these contracts were being questioned by employees. 7) the mechaniza tion emerged with the adoption of wage labor, because the marginal productivity of capital has become greater than the work, so it is more advantageous to inves t in capital assets in variable. Another factor that led to mechanization was th e lack of manpower for the plantations. This mechanization led to a concentratio n of capital in the hands of the wealthy. 8) With the increase in coffee product ion mules, which were the main means of transportation of grain, became inadequa te and ineffective. Thus, the railroad emerged as a solution in a time where thi s means of transportation was used in industrialized countries. Foreign companie s and large coffee growers invested heavily in the implementation of trills in B razilian soil. With the rapid development of the network of railroads in Brazil from 1860, constitutes a necessary infrastructure for the development of capital ism, particularly in the coffee region. The railroads were responsible for major coffee production in Sao Paulo, because this was the state with more miles of t hese roads. 9) The major coffee growers were not limited to organizing and leadi ng coffee plantations. They were also buyers of production of all the land owner s. They exercised the functions of a bank, financing the establishment of new pl antations and modernization of its equipment, lending to farmers in difficulty. Thus, large coffee planters then spread by various sectors of the Brazilian econ omy, thus creating the coffee production, which was controlled by the bourgeoisi e of coffee which had the resources to do so. Agrarian capital, industrial capit al, bank capital and commercial capital. The export houses in importance with th e development of the coffee economy, because it centralized the purchase of all production. 10) The capital was linked to agricultural trade, that capital did n ot exist alone, they are intertwined. The coffee capital was characterized as a predominantly commercial capital, as large producers is that had the commercial capital. The coffee capital had characteristics of capital: industrial, banking and shopping. This capital dominated the country's exports. 11) in the late nine teenth century the production of coffee began consuming the same. What made the price of the same fall. The agricultural exporting bourgeoisie clashed with the other social classes. To protect the interests of coffee the government devalued the currency, which has led to inflation, but it allowed the bourgeoisie to cus hion the effects of coffee prices fell. However, the increase of coffee exports has not offset the fall in coffee prices. 12) To the extent that ensured continu ed accumulation in the coffee economy,€that was the core of capitalist developme nt in Brazil. The appreciation has as main result the continuation of capitalist development. With this policy, foreign capital and the coffee take their final form during this period. Recovery and coffee economy underpinning the Brazilian development. Ie maintaining the profitability of the coffee, the state maintaine d the accumulation of capital in the country as growers were the main drivers of

development in Brazil. 13) There was the period two types of lands, which had o ne owner, and unoccupied, which were not owned by anyone. Or rather, property an d unoccupied land. With the expansion of coffee production, the land became vacant property from day to nigh t, so confusing. When the coffee was in his way lands which were property, the o wners of these had two solutions: integrate into the coffee expansion, or sell t heir land. The two led the domination of capital. At this time there was land sp eculation, which raised the price reflects the land and land appropriation by ca pital. It is the transformation of capitalism and the establishment of the capit alist world economy that leads to the question of the abundance of land. These f orms of capital development, where the accumulation relies mainly on extensive d evelopment of production can not be attributed simply to the abundance of land, given that the abundance of land must be explained by these new forms of accumul ation by certain transformations capitalism and the establishment of the capital ist world economy. 14) in the late nineteenth century were fledgling industries, and the 1st industrial boom occurred in the last two decades. Since these texti le companies and steel mills. Already in the first 2 decades of the 1900s there was a large increase in industrialization. This industrialization has been uneve n regionally, being implemented mainly in coffee regions. A major driver of indu strialization was the abolition of slavery, since it has a consumer market, whic h demanded products, and industrialization came to remedy this demand and reduce imports. We must distinguish the manufacturing factory, the first owners are th e employees and another for employees who are not owners, and this being the typ ical unit capitalist. The larger firms is that better characterize the Brazilian industrial structure during the period. These companies are scattered throughou t the country and serving the local market, which characterize the nascent indus try in Brazil. 15) the core of the industrial bourgeoisie is based on the origin of its members, the Europeans. This bourgeoisie is characterized as a layer of the urban petty bourgeoisie and not coming from the coffee. However, not all imm igrants were part of that bourgeoisie, they were of a specific type of immigrant or immigrant bourgeoisie. The latter had some experience in business or technic al in Europe and came here with some kind of capital, just did not come with the intention of being settlers. The formation of the Brazilian industrial bourgeoi sie can only be properly explained by the internal dynamics of the very developm ent of capitalism in Brazil. Immigrant bourgeoisie that specializes in trade, ma inly internal. Since the products from imports, mostly. 16) The idea that the co ffee economy provides an infrastructure for industry, for example, it seems high ly misleading. In a place because, precisely, is impossible to attribute the pro gress made at that time in sectors like electricity and urbanization, for exampl e, only the growth of the coffee economy. This infrastructure is at the same tim e, condition and result of the progress of the industry. The birth and growth of the industry is one aspect of the development of capitalism in Brazil since the last quarter century. XIX, in which the expansion of demand is a simple result. According to Dean, industrialization took place because of the 1st war, it was very expensive to import. The relationship between foreign trade and the coffee economy, on one hand, and the nascent industry, on the other, involve the same t ime, the unity and contradiction. The unit is the fact that capitalist developme nt based on coffee expansion causes the birth and development of certain industr y, the contradiction within the limits imposed on the development of the industr y's own dominance of the coffee economy in the accumulation of capital. With the coffee crisis of 1901 was a rural exodus, which will nourish the industry with workers. QUESTION 1 The debt service increased by 1000% from 1851 to 1900.€The loans were intended to finance the immigration, the construction of railroads, investment in the energy sector (electricity, gas) and the actual construction and consolid ation of the state. QUESTION 2 The British were to invest more than half the inv estment in the country during that period. QUESTION 3 The independence is relate

d to the rise of industrial powers and decay of the capital market, and was acce lerated by the riots (Rio, Bahia and Pernambuco). The commercial capital has gai ned momentum in Brazil from the opening of ports (1808) and independence (to end the trade monopoly Portuguese). QUESTION 4 With the restriction on the slave tr ade, it was difficult to get manpower slave able to meet the growing need of the coffee economy. Moreover, labor-free work in Brazil was inappropriate for large coffee plantation (hick armadillo) and was not a labor market. The solution was immigration (State Bank). QUESTION 5 If, on one hand the "progressive abolition " prevented the ditches of the mass of slaves disappear from one day to another, on the other hand she held the picture of slavery and was slowing the transitio n to employment, including in particular the transformation of free men and form er slaves in workers Assal. QUESTION 6 You entered through the immigration (inte rnal migration was nil). The employment contract was one year, guaranteeing a ba se salary plus one 'prize' in accordance with the harvest, plus a payment for wo rk outside of the harvest (bagging, loading, etc.). One problem faced was abando ned after one year . ISSUE 7 appliances wood, moved by water or by human power w ere replaced by iron, steam. Were limited to processing operations. QUESTION 8 T he coffee economy could not have developed without a railroad. The transportatio n cost is six times smaller than the troops of mules. In 1908, SP had 3236km of railways. QUESTION 9 Pioneers of the process were not limited to organizing and leading co ffee plantations. They were also buyers of production of all the landowners. The y took the place of a bank, financing the estab. New plantings, lending to farme rs in difficulty. The measure that gives the coffee expansion, they will get awa y from the adm of plantations and focus on exports, giving rise to the creation of the first banks in the country. QUESTION 10 The coffee capital was divided in to two (theoretically) commercial (large capital) and agrarian capital (average capital) being the predominant first, that given the lack of development of capi talist production relations. Question 11 The coffee production soon showed his f ace super-productive. In 1882 world production had surpassed consumption, causin g the price of coffee fell. Faced with this, governments have adopted policies i nflation (currency devaluation). QUESTION 12 The great bourgeois coffee is affir med as the ruling class. The policy of leaving the coffee capital appreciation i ncreasingly dependent on foreign funding. QUESTION 13 The lands were of two type s: the properties and vacant. The vacant lands were those who had never had owne rs (legally), simply evict the occupants (employees of subsistence, the Indians ...)