Passport to NEW SPELLING 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW PASSPORT FOR Orthographic Agreement Through this publication, the Anglo

school system intends to offer its partners a new version of didatizada Orthographic Agreement of the Portuguese language. I nstructed to do so Judge Smith Professor Helm, recognized authority in this fiel d. The purpose of this work is implicit in the choice of its title: Passport is a tool that enables the transition from one place to another. Note that it is a passport, not a permanent visa, because, as you know, the rules of the Agreement are phrased in the abstract and generic, getting to the Portuguese Language Voc abulary Spelling (VoIP) the responsibility to apply them to each word - why, ind eed, the teaching material from the Anglo Teaching System in 2009, will continue following the current standards, which may last until end 2012, subject to any students who wish to provide any competitions, vestibular included. In this tran sition period, this passport can serve as a parameter, until you have the new Vo lpe. Francisco Plato Savioli ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 1 19/11/2008 4:05:20 PM 2 Passport to NEW SPELLING ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 2 19/11/2008 4:05:21 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 3 WHAT IT IS AND WHAT CHANGES WITH NEW AGREEMENT spelling in the spelling which is an agreement In general, it is understood by an adjustment agreement between the parties, a m utual understanding in the search for reconciliation. This assumes, of course, c oncessions on both sides. The Orthographic Agreement was prepared exactly in com pliance with the cultured accents of each country, subjecting them to the same s pelling rules. It is not, therefore, to standardize the vocabulary of the langua ge: what are the procedures that unifies the graphic recording, safeguarding, th rough the admission of double spellings, the peculiarities of pronunciation cult ured in Lusophone countries, ie they have the Portuguese as official language: A ngola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, Sao Tome and Pri ncipe, East Timor. The agreement became necessary because, to date, the Portugue se had the spelling systems governed by two different officers. This required in international forums - such as, for example, at the UN - a document in English was presented in two versions, each according to an official system of spelling. Therefore, the Agreement describes itself as "an important step for the protect ion of the essential unity of the Portuguese language and its international pres tige." Origin of two official spellings - 1904: The Portuguese philologist Gonçalves Viana spear in his book National Sp

elling, the fundamental principles for the simplification of spelling in Portugu ese. - 1907: Academia Brasileira de Letras formula for the first time, spelling rules, based partly on the principles formulated by Goncalves Viana. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 3 19/11/2008 4:05:21 PM 4 Passport to NEW SPELLING - 1911: Portugal undertakes a spelling reform, with which fully adopts the princ iples of Gonçalves Viana. In 1915, the Brazilian Academy of Letters agrees to ad just our system of spelling to that adopted by Portugal. - 1924: The Brazilian A cademy of Letters and the Academy of Sciences began to take effective steps in s earch of a common orthography. Result of these efforts is the signing in 1931 of an agreement based on the official spelling that Portugal had adopted in 1911. - 1938: By a presidential decree, becomes mandatory in Brazil, the spelling resu lting from the agreement of 1931. The decree is accompanied by rules for the acc ent under the foundations of this Agreement. Orders also publishing a Vocabulary Spelling's national language. - 1940: The Academy of Sciences publishes its Voc abulary Spelling. - 1943: Under the 1938 decree and based on the Vocabulary publ ished in Portugal, our Academy launches its own vocabulary Spelling. - Also in 1 943, they celebrate the Orthographic Convention between Brazil and Portugal, whi ch is consecrated by the simplified spelling system, which had led to the Agreem ent InterAcademy 1931. - 1945: The two academies prepare a new agreement. But, w hile Portugal has approved and adopted, Brazil nor approved by law, nor sanction ed by usage: continue with the system in 1943, with minor amendments adopted in 1971. With that, he got up the barrier that the new agreement Spell (1990) now w ants to overturn. Steps to prepare a new agreement In May 1986 there was, in Rio de Janeiro, a first tentative agreement between th e Portuguese-speaking countries.€Advocated, for example, elimination of the acce nt of every word proparoxitone ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 4 19/11/2008 4:05:21 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 5 and paroxitone. But the project was soon abandoned, precisely due to his radical ism. Only in October 1990 in Lisbon, they returned to meet representatives of al l Portuguese-speaking countries to draw up an agreement. The settlers were two b asic objectives: a) establishing and defining the differences between speakers o f the language, b) create a community that constituted a significant linguistic unit, increasing its prestige among the international organizations. The Agreeme nt provided that, once approved by all signatories, until January 1993 would be drawn up a common vocabulary Spelling, which came into force in January 1994. No ne of this happened. In 1994 an addendum was approved under which the Agreement could enter into force as soon as it was signed by three countries. With the app roval of the Agreement by the Portuguese Parliament on May 16, 2008, accelerated the process of its effective adoption, and the Brazilian Ministry of Education has determined that the textbooks to be distributed by the government in 2010 ar

e already adapted to the new standards. Second decree signed by the president on September 29, 2008, the new agreement will take effect Spelling as optional, on January 1, 2009 and became mandatory only in January 2013. The main items of change Changes in relation to the current system relate primarily to three topics: A accent, B - use the hyphen, C - silent consonants. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 5 19/11/2008 4:05:21 PM 6 Passport to NEW SPELLING The rules of accentuation, for clarity, the color black is used to record the ru les that already existed and will remain. With a blue background, will be exhibi ted items that represent a change in the rules currently in use. With regard to the hyphen, it seemed more appropriate not to make a contrastive study, but simp ly to present what will go into effect. The reason is that few people know in th eory that until now the rules in place. Marcos himself Vilaça, former president of ABL, once confessed: "I do not know the 21 rules of the dash ..." As for the silent consonants, we Brazilians do not have to worry about: just to continue to write words such as we've written so far! The boxes are made some critical comm ents or enlightening. It finally noted that the agreement calls for the various blocks basis of standards which divides. They are, in total, 21 bases. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 6 19/11/2008 4:05:22 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 7 Accent The Initial observation The Orthographic Agreement, to cover differences in pronunciation between Portug al and Brazil, drew attention to the legitimacy of both the acute accent and the circumflex, due to variations in timbre open or closed: a) in some words ending in oxítonas and b) in unstressed vowels e and when in the final syllable, are f ollowed by nasal consonants m and n. Variants of this type will be listed among the examples, using slash (/): desk / counter, sneakers / tennis; onus / burden; phenomenon / phenomena, gender / gender ... I The oxítonas are accentuated when: 1. ending in a, and or followed or not s: Amapá, Satan is, ipe, courteous, provi des even coffee, setback, grandfather, robot, composed, grandparents, eggplant, after ... bidet / bidet, sofa / sofa, karate / karate, crochet / crochet, counte r / desk, matinee / matinee, baby / baby, pongee / pongee, mashed / pureed, rape / snuff ... Note Included in this rule of oxítonas ended in a, and or: a) verb

forms with pronouns or enclitics mesoclitic (remembering that each element is co nsidered bound by the hyphen, in terms of stress, such as independent word) love them, send it, do it, impose it, stop them, replace them, we would deliver it, to inhabit them would ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 7 19/11/2008 4:05:22 PM 8 Passport to NEW SPELLING b) stressed monosyllables: already, faith, compassion, month, see, we give, beli eve, believe, give, read, put ... 2. ending in-or-ens in more than one syllable: holds deténs, maintains, you keep, hostages, congratulations, Jeep, however, Be thlehem, too, and the comments ...) Exceptionally, if the stress-syllable words have come and plural and to have their coming. b) In oxítonas verb forms ending in-in the verbs and derivatives have come, the acute accent (') marks the singul ar, and caret (^), the plural. he maintains, they maintain, he comes, they come; it contains,€Note contain these things ... No more caret in verbal forms of thi rd person plural present indicative of verbs believe, read and see (creem, read and see) and the third person plural present subjunctive verb give ( deem). The same will happen with the derivatives of these verbs, such as disbelieve, reread , revise, and since REDAR. So from now on always be written without accent creem feats, read, see, disbelieving, reread, revise, redeem, since ... 3. terminated in open diphthongs behold, I (s), hi (s), including the stressed monosyllables, rings, papers, veil, veils, sky, skies, hat, hats, aches, eats, eats, headlight s, hero, heroes ... Under the new rule, diphthongs Hi and Ei are more pronounced in paroxitone words like heroic, paranoid, European, idea ... So going forward: heroic, paranoid, European idea ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 8 19/11/2008 4:05:22 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 9 II The paroxitone are accentuated when: 1. ending in diphthong of any kind, whether or not s: • orphan, organs, Jock, ye , Judgement, kind, sing, history, glory, savagery, lily, hurt, language, vacuum, Stephen, ought, textile ... • pony / pony. 2. ending in r, x, n, l, ps: • revol ver, disparate, seed pearls, cancer, chest, hyphen, kind, textile, consul, canon , hanging, fragile, biceps, forceps, Cheops ... • femur / femur, Phoenix / Phoen ix, onyx / onyx, semen / semen, xenon / Xenon ... Of course, in Brazil, will con tinue to use forms with circumflex: semen, femur, Phoenix, onyx ... 3. completed in-one /-ones: album, albums, factotum, forum ... 4. ending in a / i / is or us : • orphan, magnets, beriberi, bile, jury, pencils, viruses, humus, Memphis, anu s ... • penis / penis; sneakers / tennis; bonus / bonus; onus / burden, tone / t one, Venus / Venus ... In Brazil, we will continue using, of course, the circumf lex: penis, tennis, bonds, liens, tone, Venus ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 9 19/11/2008 4:05:22 PM

10 Passport to NEW SPELLING 5. It is the accent which was abolished in paroxitone ending in-oo (s), regardle ss of whether they are nouns or verb forms. Henceforth, one should write: flight , flights, nausea, dizziness, resonates, forgive, people, choir, bless, buttons, huddled, Magoo ... 6. Is abolished in the accent of the diphthongs ei and hi pa roxitone syllable words. The reason is that in many cases there is oscillation b etween the opening and closing in their articulation. From now on, you must spel l: House idea, audience, centipede, European, diarrhea, diarrheal illness, epic, protein, alkaloid, ovoid, support (from the verb support), support (noun), bere t, roue, heroic, introduction, boa constrictor ... The reader, with this rule, n o longer can take advantage of accent to resolve questions about the pronunciati on of words is open or closed as stoic, roue, apneic ... In the old spelling whe n the word admitted two pronunciations, our dictionaries recorded two spellings, as happened with the hive / hive. III proparoxitone Words are all marked. As can be seen from the examples, the agreement between the proparoxitone also a ccepts paroxitone words ending in diphthongs growing. • sang, symbol, symbolic, lucid, meanwhile, Arabic, caustic, finally, glory, savagery, lily, building, hur t, language, vacuum, camphor, dynamic, lamp, galaxy, shaky, almond crust, Mantua , late ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 10 19/11/2008 4:05:22 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 11 • academic / academia, antonym / antonym, economic / economic, bursar / treasure r, euphonic / euphonious, phenomenon / phenomena, sex / gender, coach / bus, syn onymous / synonymous toponym / toponym, Anthony / Anthony, twin / twin, genius / genius, fine / fine ... In Brazil, we will continue using, of course, the circu mflex. It is assumed, however, that dictionaries should register both. IV Accents differential 1. Remain as mandatory: a) the differential tone accent that distinguishes post (verb) to by (preposition), b) the differential tone accent that distinguishes m ight (third-person singular past tense) and can (third person singular present i ndicative) verb power. 2. Come into existence as optional: a) we give the caret in (first person plural present subjunctive), to distinguish from demos (first p erson plural past perfect tense), and mold (closed timber) for distinguishing fo rm (open timber), b) the acute accent on the first person plural past tense verb s from the first conjugation: we loved, praised, we had dinner ... The justifica tion is that, unlike what occurs in the form of this,€the timbre of the vowel ac cent is open, if so, in certain variants of Portuguese. 3. All the others disapp ear (for stops, hair by hair, polo polo, pear pear pear, koa coa). Now if only e ver write for at (s), pole (s), pear (s) and coa (s). ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 11 19/11/2008 4:05:23 PM

12 Rule V i and u tonics on hiatus Passport to NEW SPELLING The ieou receive tonic accent when you combine these three conditions: I - to fo rm hiatus preceding vowel; II - are alone or accompanied by the syllable s; III - are not followed by nh. Examples • I fell, draw, wharf, fell, fell, Louis, sel fishness, casuistry, spark, selfish, drew, bay, opossum, Judges, noise, loss, dr aw them, keep them, destroy it, draw it We would, we would destroy it ... • ants , jealousy, widow, chest, Anhangabaú ... With this rule is intended to indicate that hi or u do not form a diphthong with the preceding vowel. As, however, ther e is a diphthong ii, are written without accent words like Shia and Shiism. So d o not stress: drop, drop, Raul, bad, come, taxpayer, demiurge, influence, judge, root, fell, attracted, distracted, instituted, contributed evolved, marshes, mi ll, queen, ring ... No more will increase oieou tonics when preceded by diphthon gs. Then write: dumpster, ugliness, boiuno, reiuno ... mistakenly put the agreem ent in this regard the words cheiinho, saiinha ... Now, they've had no accent, t he old spelling, because they contain gap followed by nh. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 12 19/11/2008 4:05:23 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 13 Note This rule does not apply to words that oxítonas hi or u tonics, preceded by a diphthong, whether alone or accompanied by s. Continue therefore to be pronou nced as words Piauí, tegu (s), Jabiru (s) ... But it is clear that if this or u i is followed by another letter other than s, there is no accent: beer. VI The acute accent and umlaut u in groups gue, gui, which, qui 1. The shake is totally abolished by the new agreement. Henceforth, one should w rite: bear, argument, eloquent, quiet, seniority, attendance, frequent, often fi fty, argue, bilingual. Note The shake will be kept in foreign proper names and t heir derivatives, such as: hübneriano (from Hübner), mullerian (Müller), schönbe rgiano (from Schönberg) ... 2. The fall in the umlaut also causes another change : when a tonic u came after q or g and was followed by i or, received, not shake , but an acute accent. Then he wrote: tu argues, he argues, they argue, which I investigate, that thou inquire, investigate it, they check, it apazigúe ... This accent has disappeared. Write now: you Arguis, he argued, they argue, that I in quire that you check, he inquire, they inquire, that he apazigue ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 13 19/11/2008 4:05:23 PM 14 Passport to NEW SPELLING With the abolition of the shake up and accent, it creates some problems: a) no l onger possible, through the shake, whether in groups gue, gui, and wanted that o r not, or should be pronounced. The existing system, distinguish the spelling ma kes sure that he or she should not be pronounced, the double spelling age / seni

ority, liquid / liquid makes sure both possibilities pronunciation of words. To remedy this lack, the dictionaries will certainly bring additional information a s is done currently to indicate the correct pronunciation of the letter x. b) So far we wrote it argues (3rd person present) and I defendants (first person past perfect tense). With the new spelling, I'll have him accused and the accused. 3 . Verbs watering, cronies, appease, apropinquar, check, emptying, rinsing, obliq ue, delinquency and related, "because they offer two paradigms' are now acceptin g two graphs: a) with the stressed syllable in u, but no accent: investigating, check, check, rinse, drains, drains, oblique ... b) with emphasis on phonic and graphic unstressed vowels i or the radical: Check, check, check, rinse, river fl ows, river flows, delinquency ... For this device, it is worthless which prescri bed before the Vocabulary Spelling: "Do not put the accent on the stressed sylla ble of the verb forms ending in-that-who." Now, you must write thus, or apropínq ue, delinquency, or apropinque, delinquency (with the accent on u). ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 14 19/11/2008 4:05:23 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 15 VII grave accent The grave accent will continue to be used exclusively to indicate the phenomenon of backtick: to, to, to that (s) to that (s), what, àqueloutro (s), àqueloutra (s). VIII The tilde in derived words It kept the tilde of primitive words in derivatives that are formed with the suf fix-tion or with any suffix beginning with the letter z: irmãmente, Christian, p omegranate, lions, orfãozinho, bençãozinha ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 15 19/11/2008 4:05:24 PM 16 B I USE THE HYPHEN Passport to NEW SPELLING The hyphen in compound words, phrases and vocabulary threads 1st) They split up by a hyphen compound words by juxtaposition, that do not cont ain forms of connection, and whose elements, whether nominal, adjectival, or ver bal numeral, are syntagmatic and semantic unit, and may well be the case the fir st element be reduced: Decree-law, great-uncle, Captain-General, Luso-Brazilian, dropper, umbrella, rainbow, South African art-south-african-asian ... Why synta gmatic unit must understand that the two elements are to behave like a single wo rd autonomous, not if, therefore, not to merge any other element, or reversing t he order of components. For semantic unit is understood that each element of und ress her own meaning, passing the joint to have a third meaning, different from each of the component elements. Note There will be no hyphen when it has lost th e notion of composition: sunflower, honeysuckle, kick, brandy, bigwig, parachute , parachutist ... In some cases, it will be difficult to measure this loss of ba sic composition. The agreement cites as examples of this case, the words bigwig,

parachute and parachutist. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 16 19/11/2008 4:05:24 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 17 However, not only the Vocabulary Spelling of Portuguese, Brazilian Academy of Le tters, as well as the Dictionary of the Academy of Sciences record parachute, pa rachutist and rain-maker. The Dictionary of rain-maker as a way preferable. Howe ver, the old Form Spelling stated that "only by linking the elements of the hyph en in compound words that keeps the notion of composition ..." After all, in the words manda-chuva/mandachuva, and pára-quedas/paraquedas pára-quedista/paraqued ista remains or not the notion of composition? Second) will dash in toponyms (na mes of places) started by United, Grand or verbally, or by elements linked artic le: Britain, Grand Para, Passa-Quatro, Kind, Strong, Bay of All Saints, Entre-os -Rios, Tras-os-Montes ... Note With the exception of Guinea-Bissau (spelling est ablished by custom), the other place names have no hyphen: North America, Belo H orizonte, Cape Verde ... Of course, words like nob, Grand Duke and Grand Rabbi c ontinue to be written with a hyphen, since it fit the first item. Third) also sp ell hyphenated names of zoological or botanical species, even related in any ele ment: cauliflower, fennel, forget-me-not, water snakes, bem-te-vi ... 4th) In Ge nerally, NO is used the hyphen in the phrase of any kind (as a guard dog, weeken d, dining, wine-colored, each one, anyone at will in order, ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 17 19/11/2008 4:05:24 PM 18 Passport to NEW SPELLING about as long as ...), with some exceptions established by usage: eau de cologne , rainbow, pink, more-than-perfect, foot-and-half, up for grabs, point-blank ran ge ... The list of exceptions above would be merely illustrative. The word test of strength, for example, can be embedded on that list, since its elements are c onnected by preposition, not a toponym, is not the name of zoological or botanic al species ... 5th) The hyphen appears also in combinations occasionally forming chains vocabulary: Rio-Niteroi bridge, linking Angola, Mozambique, flight Tokyo -Rio de Janeiro, Lisbon-Coimbra-route Port ... II The hyphen in the formations by prefix and recomposition These are cases where the first element is a prefix or antepositivo element (fro m Greek or Latin origin) that, generally not having autonomy in language, are co nsidered false prefixes. • The prefixes listed in the Agreement are: ante-, anti -, peri-, co-, counter-inter-, extra-, hyper-, infra-, intra-, post-, pre-pro-on -, super-, sub-, supra-, ultra-, etc.. • The antepositivos or false prefixes, ci ted by the Agreement are: air-, agro-, arch, self, hio-, electro-, geo-, hydro-, inter-, macro-, maxi-, micro, mini - multi-, neo-, pan-, pluri-, proto-, pseudo -, retro-, semi-, tele-, etc.. By resetting the agreement means the process of w ord formation in which it enters a prefix antepositivo considered false.€It rema ins unclear what the criterion for classifying a antepositivo prefix or fake pre fix. If hyper-and super-are prefixes, strange that inter-is placed between the f alse prefixes. The agreement does not cite nuper-.

ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 18 19/11/2008 4:05:24 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 19 1st) In respect of prefixes and antepositivos elements, the rule sends them apar t by the second element hyphen whenever it starts by h: unsanitary, circum-hospi tal co-heir, pre-history, geo- history, neo-Hellenic, pan-Hellenism, semi-hospit al ... As Exception that is established at Base II of the new agreement, oh orig inal is deleted "when, by way of composition, [it] becomes the interior and the element in which it appears clings to the precedent: biebdomadário, disharmony a nd inhuman, exhausting, awkward, werewolf, rehabilitate, recover. " Thus, with t he prefixes bi-, dis-, ex-, in-and there will be no re-hyphen when the second el ement beginning with h. There will be fall of hea assemblage of elements. It sho uld be noted that, by taking the word werewolf, one can not talk about compositi on in the traditional sense, for the list of examples. What we have here is adva nce fixing. 2nd) As the first element of a prefix or fake prefix ending in a vow el, there hyphen when: a) according to the general rule, the second element begi nning with h: unsanitary, co-heir, geo-story, neo-Hellenic Semi-hospital counter -shaft, superhuman ... b) the prefix or fake prefix ends with the same vowel tha t begins the second element: anti-Iberian, Rear Admiral, counterattack, supra-au ral, archi- brotherhood, self-observation, electro-optics, micro-wave, half-buil t ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 19 19/11/2008 4:05:24 PM 20 Passport to NEW SPELLING Exception The prefix co clings even with the word started by: joint obligation t o cooperate, coocupante, coordinate, cooperation, etc.. It is curious that the A greement intend to join the assemblage of elements without the mediation of the hyphen, traditionally when we talk of agglutination in the case of compound word s in which, at the junction, there was loss of one or more phonemes, as in werew olf, Hidalgo, Marc Remarks i. ... There will be no hyphen, so when the prefix or fake prefix ends in a vowel other than the initial vowel of the second element: antiaircraft, coeducation, coauthorship, extracurricular, aerospace, freeway, s elf-learning, self-esteem, agribusiness, hydropower, multi ... ii. When the pref ix or fake prefix ends in a vowel and the second element beginning with s or r, there is no hyphen, but these letters must be duplicated: antirreligioso, anti-S emitic, contrarregra, contrassenha, cosine, extrarregular, infrassom, ultrasound , miniskirt, eletrossiderurgia, microsystem , microradiography, anteroom, he ran third ...) Where, however, be separated by a hyphen in the second element: a) t he prefixes ex-, sota-, Sotho-, and vice-Vizo: ex-admiral, former director, form er President, ex-king, sota pilot sota master, soto-captain, vice president, vic e-chancellor, Vizo-king ... The former ratio indicates that function or previous state, as in former President, ex-husband , ex-junkie. One can not confuse it w ith the ex ("move out", "separation") to exhaust, exhume, excommunication ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 20

19/11/2008 4:50:54 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 21 b) the prefixes tonics accented post-, pre-and pro-when the second element has a life apart: postgraduate, post-tonic, prehistory, pre-school, pre-natal, pro-Af rica, pro Note-Europe ... clump, however, the corresponding unstressed forms: po stpone, assume, prepor, agent, aphorism, radiates ... c) the cross-prefixes, sho rt-, and no newly-: overseas, short-border , newlywed, no-number, shameless 4th ...) The prefixes hyper-, inter-and super-always be separated by a hyphen when t he second element beginning with h or r: hyper-refined, inter-tough, super- maga zine, interracial, superman, interrelation ... The agreement does not address nu per-. Spelling by far in force, wrote to nuper deceased, nuper-published. The Di ctionary of nuper-prefix scholar. Cites in this regard, Rebelo Gonçalves, for wh om this prefix is "subject to the same graphic standards that regulate the use o f hyper-, inter-and super-. We could then think of nuper-terminated, nuper-honor ed, though not record Vocabulary Spelling these words. 5th) The prefix circum-pa n-and are separated by a hyphen when the second element begins with a vowel, h, m or n: circum-school environment circumnavigation, circumnavigate hospital circ um-walled, circumnavigation, pan- African, Pan American, Pan-Hellenic, pan-magic pan-blackness ... ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 21 19/11/2008 4:51:25 PM 22 Passport to NEW SPELLING a) The Agreement does not expressly cite the prefixes ab-, ad-, ob-under-. There seems no words with the prefix sub-, ob-, ad-or ab-followed by h. But the sub-p refix is among those that should be separated by a hyphen for words beginning wi th h. So the spelling should now be sub-human, although the agreement also punis hing inhuman and inhumane ... b) the Agreement states that the Base XX, which de als with the syllabic division, one must assume that the spelling will now be su rreptitious, subrace, sobroda, obreptício, obrogar, adreferendar, adrenal, adrog ação, abrogate. Indeed, the text says: "They are indivisible within the word, as initially formed and, therefore, syllable forward succession of two consonants that are perfect groups (with exception of several compounds whose prefixes endi ng in b or d: ab-legation, d-link, sub-lunar, etc.. instead of the blegação-a-dl igar, su-Blune, etc.). ... "In this case, the sign (-) does not indicate the pre sence of hyphen, but the syllabic separation. c) The Agreement will not tell how the spelling of sub-librarian and digital ad. 6th) With respect to prefixes poo rly and well: a) Mal-separates by a hyphen when the second element begins with a vowel or h: ill-fortunate, sick, moody Note ... In other circumstances, has alw ays clumped as in rude, cursed, malfalante, malmandado, malnascido, malsoante, u npopular ... b) Well-separated almost always the second element by a hyphen, no matter whether the second element begins with a vowel or consonant (including oh ) : ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 22 19/11/2008 4:05:25 PM

Passport to NEW SPELLING 23 blessed, welfare, good-humored, well-established, well-told, well-spoken, well b orn, well-ordered, well-ringing, well-regarded, welcome ... Note Very few words in the prefix and hyphen to connect without a word started by consonant: blessed , blessing, beneficial, benefactor, improvement, benevolence and well liked. a) The new agreement considers good and evil, not as a prefix or antepositivos, but as adverbs. That's why when it speaks of them compound words (Base XV). And he quotes me as well as between the words that exemplify the rule that if graph wit h hyphen names of botanical or zoological, even related in any element. However, the Agreement Grafa marigold (see Base XV, 3rd). However, marigolds, as well as forget-me-not, fits well in establishing the third item Base XV: "Hire the hyph en in compound words that describe the zoological or botanical species, whether or not linked by any other preposition element. " So the spelling should be "dai sy." So the spelling marigold (hosted by the Agreement) is justified by what is established in Section 4 that deals specifically with the "adverbs" good and evi l. It is more consistent to treat them as prefixes, as we do here. b) It is very strange that the new agreement, saying "well can not coalesce with words beginn ing with consonant" give the impression that the agglutination of good with word s beginning with whichever is the rule. However, statistically, non-clumping of good with words beginning with consonant (excluding oh) is the rule. Agglutinati on is the exception, as discussed above. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 23 19/11/2008 4:05:25 PM 24 III Hyphen with suffix Passport to NEW SPELLING The suffixes that this Agreement are those of the Tupi-Guarani, originally adjec tival forms:-açu, guaçu-and-Mite. Is there a hyphen in words that end with these suffixes when the first element ending in a vowel or graphically accentuated wh en the pronunciation require the distinction of the two graphic elements: Love-f ronted Macaw, Anajás-Mirim, walk-afu, grass açu, Ceará-Mirim. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 24 19/11/2008 4:05:25 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 25 CONSONANTS OF SEEDLINGS C About the silent consonants, the Base IV prescribes that some are retained, othe rs deleted and still others optional. 1. They are conserved when invariably spok en in educated pronunciation of the language: compact, conviction, convinced, fr iction, rubbing, covenant, pictorial, fan, fit, diptych, rash, eucalyptus, inept , marriage, abduction ... 2. Remove the seedlings when invariably the educated p ronunciation of the language, resulting in spellings such as (action) action (tr

igger) trigger, (emotional) affective, (aflicção) distress, (aflicto) anxious, ( Act) Act, (Collection) collection (collective) collective (steering) direction ( director) director, (exact) exact, (object) object; (adoption) adoption (adopted ) adopt, (christening) baptize (Egypt) Egypt€(Optimum) great ... The current Dic tionary of the Academy of Sciences registers with consonant changes: action, tri gger, emotional, action, active, collection, collective, director, direction, ex act, adoption, adoptive, baptizing. But it records no oc mute grief and distress . 3. It is optional to employ the consonants when seedlings are delivered in a c ultured accent, either generally or narrowly, or when oscillate between delivery and mute: aspect / aspect cactus / cato, character / characters, speech / dicti on, fact / fact sector / industry , scepter / mace, design / conceção, corrupt / corrupt, reception / receção. ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 25 19/11/2008 4:05:26 PM 26 Passport to NEW SPELLING Of course the Brazilians seem uncomfortable variants conceção graphic (for conce ption), receção (for reception) and corrupt (for corrupt). Note The changes in n m when, according to what is said above, there is suppression of the consonant changes p, leaving only nc, nc and nt: Assumpcion / Assumptionist, assumption / bear, assunptível / assuntível; peremptory / perentório; sumptuous / sumptuous; sumptuousness / sumptuousness ... 4. Are also optional: a) groups of ob and db b t: British subject / subject, subtle / subtle and its derivatives, b) og gd grou p: amygdala / amygdala and derivatives, c) om min group: amnesty / amnesty, free / harmless, indemnify / compensate, omnímodo / surrounding all things, omnipote nt / omnipotent, omniscient / omniscient, etc.. d) ot tm Group: arithmetic / ari mética, arithmetic / arimético. Of course, Brazil will continue to speak and wri te the way we have done until now. You are right that the Portuguese MEP, speaki ng of the publishing industry, said: "The agreement resolves in favor of a major case, that of silent consonants." (See Folha de S. Paulo, 17/05/2008, Special, C4). But dictionaries should always register the two possibilities ... Judge Smi th Leme ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 26 19/11/2008 4:05:26 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 27 BIBLIOGRAPHY "Agreement spelling of Portuguese (Lisbon, 1940). In: BRAZIL, Journal of the Nat ional Congress, Brasília, 21 abr. 1995. Figueiredo, Candido. The spelling in Bra zil: history and criticism. 3rd ed. Lisbon, Livraria Classical Press, 1929. GONÇ ALVES, Rebelo. Treaty of spelling in Portuguese. Coimbra, Atlantis - Bookstore P ublishing House, 1947. HOUAISS, Anthony. The new spelling of the Portuguese Lang uage. São Paulo, Attica, 1991. MACEDO, Valmírio. Vocabulary official spelling. R io de Janeiro, People's Universal Library, 1964. VIANA, A. R. Gonçalves. Nationa l Spelling: simplification and standardization of systematic Portuguese spelling s. Lisbon, Livraria Editora, 1904.

ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 27 19/11/2008 4:05:26 PM 28 NOTES Passport to NEW SPELLING ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 28 19/11/2008 4:05:26 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 29 NOTES ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 29 19/11/2008 4:05:26 PM 30 NOTES Passport to NEW SPELLING ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 30 19/11/2008 4:05:26 PM Passport to NEW SPELLING 31 NOTES ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 31 19/11/2008 4:05:27 PM 32 NOTES Passport to NEW SPELLING ANGLO SYSTEM OF EDUCATION assaporteAzul.indd 32 19/11/2008 4:05:27 PM