The Teaching of Mathematics with Meaning in the First Years of Basic Education Sueli dos Santos ABSTRACT The

content of this work was developed by academic Sue li dos Santos of the Faculty of Education Degree modality for the early years of elementary school at the Center of Open and Distance Education Institute, Feder al University of Mato Grosso, for completing the area of Mathematics . It is con cerned with discussing how the process of teaching and learning of mathematics i n students should happen in the first years of Basic Education with meaning. Why is it important that students early grades of elementary school to build the lo gical-mathematical thinking in an organized manner. Doing what they know about t heir socio-cultural coexistence with what the school teaches, and provides basic elements for the participation of these students for life in society. Today, we understand that quality education is only attained by the student if the teache r lead him to reflect on situations that surrounds it in the real world, seeking to have this glimpse into student learning is not doing math or relationships. Keywords: Learning mathematics with meaning. INTRODUCTION In a school, the education of mathematics is seen as a language cap able of translating reality and settle their differences. At school the child sh ould become involved with math activities that educate in which to manipulate th em he builds learning significantly, because the mathematical knowledge manifest s itself as a strategy for achieving the intermediation created by man, between society and nature . But the construction of knowledge by students is still very far because the practice developed by many teachers is still traditional, their practice does not take his students to build a learning for the reality in whic h their students participate. The criticism about the negative results of the te aching of mathematics lead teachers committed to the education of mathematics in the early grades of elementary school to seek ways to remedy these deficiencies presented by the students, they seek to teach mathematics aimed at the students ' reality. Unfortunately the teaching of mathematics in many schools and many te achers still are directed to act as a disciplining tool and exclusionary. A larg e majority of teachers has the sole purpose of teaching mathematics without conc ern for the student to pass a significant mathematical knowledge. However the cr iticism from all sides that rise up against the various aspects and results of m athematics teaching, are all over the world, resulting in discussions that lead professionals to rethink their role and seek new teaching strategies. They seek mathematical activities that are truly educational and not merely a training in a language without meaning for the student. If the teacher can work in this line , mathematics is a tool to educate the first person socially. But still, it will be a unique tool to work their training. Just remember that it is one of human activities that require the simultaneous work of the two cerebral hemispheres, a s we saw in Part 1 of the First Degree Contacts Mathematical Reginaldo Souza Nav es de Lima. The application of the least eighteen reasoning and the use of at le ast three intelligences, emotional background having a not insignificant that mo st people know. Professionals who are concerned to demystify the teaching of mat hematics believe that it is possible to achieve these goals if it is taken into account the reality of the influences experienced by students in classroom mathe matics. To them, truth is the influence of at least four elements: 1 Teacher - 2 nd logical-mathematical knowledge - 3rd environment (parents, school administrat ion, colleagues, and physical space) - 4 students. In life, nobody wants to face difficulties, endure undue pain or suffering to. On the other hand, things that are capable of causing real satisfaction in people do not cause annoyance to th em, for in them, people always find new experiences. It seems reasonable to thin k that the learning approaches that fail to satisfy the people or keep their int erest, not bring more joy and fulfillment to their lives. So, to bring the stude nt to learn, it is necessary to make the object of learning will be enjoyable an d fun. Children and young like to move, talk, ask, doodling, playing, coloring, singing , playing and especially acting. In Mathematics Education,€all these actions tha t the child or young love become vehicles for the stupendous student learning. W

ell, besides the satisfaction and joy, we must understand that the child or youn g person has to be formed to face the world in front of her, unfortunately, many do not survive this confrontation. To survive the most to learn that the school offers to prepare that individual, so flexibility. This means that at every mom ent, people are required to get away from situations-problems from different asp ects. They should learn to deal with such situations-problems to be considered a ble to assume responsibilities. So you can only trigger mathematical ideas in so meone's head, if one is placed in a situation involving that will be problematic , interesting, challenging and at the same time, it is able to encourage him to learn. This situation is not read in the book, not a situation only explained or ally described or displayed on the blackboard by the teacher. It has to be a sit uation that glimpse the student, which makes him able to learn fully. Unfortunat ely, some schools and teachers are not prepared for it, fail because they are un able to accomplish this. We learn these mathematical studies that learning mathe matics the child has to happen with activities that bring you meaning. Currently some schools and teachers have given the mathematical knowledge and finished re ady for the student. Do not allow students to construct their learning by establ ishing the relationship of meaning. The mathematical knowledge has to be built b y the students through activities that will arouse the interest to learn. Making relations of what he sees inside the school with what he knows outside of schoo l. Shared by it in its socio-cultural coexistence. Our work was divided into mom ents. In the first reflect on the teaching of mathematics, focusing on the studi es of Gardner about multiple intelligences, teaching and assessment of mathemati cs learning. In the second, we discuss about the child and the idea of the numbe r and its representation. In the third, an approach to teaching geometry. Finall y, we present our final remarks and research works to complete the final report of the area. 1 REFLECTION ABOUT THE TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS The Mathematics aros e in antiquity by the needs of everyday life, has become an immense system of ex tensive varieties and disciplines. Like other sciences, reflects the social laws and serves as a powerful tool for the world's knowledge and mastery of nature. With a superficial knowledge of mathematics, it is possible to recognize certain traits that characterize it: abstraction, prediction, force logical, irrefutabl e nature of his conclusions and the broad field of applications. Mathematics mov es almost exclusively in the field of abstract concepts and their interrelations hips. To prove his assertions, the only employs mathematical reasoning and calcu lations. In its origin, the math was formed from a collection of isolated rules of experiences arising directly connected with daily life. Likewise, survival in a complex society, which requires new standards of productivity, is increasingl y dependent on mathematical knowledge. It is important to emphasize that mathema tics should be seen by the student as a knowledge that can provide the developme nt of its reasoning, its expressive capacity, its sensitivity and aesthetics of your imagination. Within the school, the mathematics education is seen as a lang uage capable of translating reality and establish their various changes and impl ications. According to D'Ambrosio, mathematics has been designed and treated as frozen knowledge, creating barriers between the student and the object of study for not having the dynamic world in which it is inserted. History shows us that the teaching of mathematics was organized from the needs of each people. The fir st signs of construction of mathematical knowledge are the heritage of the peopl es Egyptians and Babylonians (2500 BC). These people used it to solve practical problems, usually linked to trade, tax calculation, construction of houses, fune rary monuments and measures of land. But the conception of abstract mathematical knowledge, regardless of the empirical influence, even today, in math who wants to teach in school. 1.1 Gardner's Multiple Intelligences and Teaching of Mathematics By the early 1980s, Howard Gardner, clearly explains in his works,€theories of m ultiple intelligences which currently has thousands of fans, which was formed as a pedagogical practice of many schools worldwide. The impact of scientific adva nce represented by the knowledge of the brain are extremely significant for medi

cine in the understanding of mental disorders and care of diseases and disorders of the brain. Also on education, launching new bases, and any guidelines, to un derstand the learning stimuli to develop intelligence in order to care for the d isturbances associated with attention, memory and creativity. According to Gardn er the brain houses eight intelligences or abilities, they are: • • Verbal or linguistic, is found in extremely professional and poets, writers, law yers, actors and others who do the word and sentences with real parts which buil d up the beauty of the talking. Logical-mathematical, appears in an unusual way in big names such as Einstein, Bertrand Russell, Euclid, Pythagoras and others. This ability is mainly found in the engineers and designers. It is manifested by the ability and sensitivity to discern logical or numerical patterns and abilit y to work with long chains of reasoning. The stimuli for its development in stru ctured person new ways of thinking and an accurate perception of the elements of greatness, weight, distance, time and other factors that involve our action on the environment. Space, this is closely linked to creativity and design, spatial design of geometric solids. Marked on architects, publishers, and inventors, al so joins the very understanding of space as a whole and the orientation of the p erson and their boundaries. Musical or noise, is associated with the perception of sound as a unit and language. This ability is so outstanding in big names suc h as: Mozart, Beethoven and others. It also features prominently in ordinary peo ple to realize that with the unique chord of a song. Bodily-kinesthetic, is the ability to develop movements that express the body language. Mark so expressive communication skills of professionals such as mimes, magicians, dancers, athlete s and others. Naturalist, Biological or Ecological, this capability is structura lly linked to animals and plants. Present in great names of Natural Sciences as Darwin, Laplace, Humboldt and others, manifested in different levels of capacity , for example, the landscape gardener, lover of nature the florist. Intrapersona l, which is linked to the perception of one's identity because the individual wh o is so keen has full understanding of self, because he can discern and discrimi nate against their own emotions. Interpersonal, which is linked to empathy, or t he warm relationship that exists between individuals, and the other as an object of full discovery. The person with ability is so sharp can perceive the changes of temperaments, moods, motivations and desires of others. • • • • • • It is up to schools to encourage students in these intelligences through teachin g strategies (games, toys and games) so that they can develop their skills and c ompetencies. It is therefore important that the teacher knows how to act pedagog ically with their students so that they reach those goals. For many years, the h uman brain was considered to be an impenetrable area. For many decades already u nderstand the functioning of various body parts, but the brain was still conside red as an impenetrable structure, could only view it after the death of their ne ural functions. Today, studies about the functioning of mind and brain are becom ing increasingly popular, because now we have new technologies that are able to provide input on these issues more concrete. As for understanding how learning t akes place in mathematics, Educational Psychology relates the proposition of an integrated approach of the human individual that is willing to learn math as som eone possessing a subjectivity always embedded in a specific cultural context, b

ut never submitted or directly shaped by the latter. Addressing this same discus sion now a methodological point of view means choosing the focus of analysis suf ficiently circumscribed to be searched, while complex to be representative of th e learning situations in mathematics, in order to be able to build a good story about people involved in learning activities in mathematics.€"The brain works in cooperative modules that help in time to retrieve information. The more roads l ead to it, the easier the Rescue "(New School Magazine, p. 44, 06/2003). 1.2 The assessment of learning mathematics Currently schools, the vast majority, have a policy for evaluating school performance focused so to speak, in the dic hotomy of pass / fail. In this context, there is room for a practical assessment , which helps in the identification of overcoming difficulties in the teaching a nd learning, both the student and the teacher. The assessment in most of our sch ools, public or not, is eminently summative, always concerned with the final res ults which lead to irreversible situations with regard to student performance wi thout being taken into account the many implications, including social, decision -making Fatal educational point of view. Assess learning corresponds to a social need. The school receives the social mandate of educating the new generations a nd therefore should respond to that mandate, giving its students the manifestati on of their behaviors learned and developed "(LUCKESI, p.174, 2002). In taking a dvantage of the ideas of Piaget (1991) who believes that the school and some tea chers have taken the student's autonomy as a means to develop learning with grea ter efficiency and creativity. He said teachers with negative attitudes do not e ncourage students to develop and achieve this autonomy, very limited development of critical thinking, ie, teachers with negative attitudes provide opportunitie s for students to persist in their own efforts. It is therefore of fundamental i mportance that schools develop programs that help not only students but also tea chers to develop positive attitudes towards learning mathematics. It is elementa ry to see the student as a social and political subjects of their own developmen t. The teacher need not change their techniques, their methods of work, but must see the student as someone able to relate cognitive and effective, while mainta ining an interactive action capable of liberating transformation, which provides a smooth experience with reality and personal social surrounds. So, understand that the professor who teaches mathematics in the early grades of elementary sch ool should always act as a facilitator who helps students to overcome their limi ts. Drawing on creative activities and assessments that enables its students to build learning significantly, ie to do school knowledge interact with the social environment in which it is inserted. 2 THE CHILD AND THE IDEA OF THE NUMBER AND THEIR REPRESENTATION 2.1 The Number T he Natural Number Natural born of the need to compare each other in discrete qua ntities. The combinations of these quantities led to the idea of operating on nu mbers. The practice of adding knowledge and more or less clear of their properti es are part of the elementary mental activity. Bringing together different colle ctions into a single, and predict the outcome, this operation is trivial the gen esis of mathematical thinking. Documents from Babylonian and Egyptian sources re veal, since ancient times, a great advance in the process of calculations, inclu ding addition, multiplication, division, determination of squares and cubes. The Babylonian boards goes back to 2300 BC, and employ the numbering systems decima l and sexagesimal. Served the calculations and utility purposes only, the measur es in trade in the combinations of the calendar, etc.. The numeral, according to Piaget, and a synthesis of two types of relationships that children establish b etween the object (reflective abstraction). One is the order and the other is th e hierarchical inclusion. The number theory of Piaget is also contrary to common assumption that the numerical concepts can be taught by social transmission as social knowledge (conventional), especially in relation to the act of teaching c hildren to count. Examples of social knowledge (conventional) are those that ref er to facts like that Christmas is always celebrated on December 25, some people greet each other in certain circumstances, shaking hands, and that the tables w ere not made for that stand on them. The fundamental source of social knowledge

is guided by conventions made by people. The main feature of social knowledge an d that nature has largely arbitrary. The same object can have several names seve ral different languages, since there is no physical or logical relationship betw een an object and its name. Therefore,€for the child to build social and knowled ge essential to the interference of others. Therefore the view of Piaget notes with the belief that a world of numbers towar d what every child should be socialized. It can be said that there is consensus about the sum of 2 +3, but neither the number nor the addition are out there in the social world, to be the correct answer to 2 +3, but you can not teach them d irectly relations that underlie this addition. Likewise, even the children of tw o years can see the difference between a stack of three blocks and one of ten. B ut this does not mean that the number is out there in the physical world to be l earned through empirical abstraction. "The activity school mathematics is not on e to look at things ready and set, but the construction and appropriation of kno wledge by the student, who had served him for understanding and transforming the ir reality" (PCN: Mathematics, p.19, 2001) . The child who has already built the logical-mathematical knowledge is able to represent this idea with symbols or s igns. Piaget's theory of the symbols of the signs differ in that the symbols rem ain a figurative resemblance with the represented objects and are created by the child. The aim to teach the number of construction and that the child makes the mental structure of number since it can not be taught directly, the teacher sho uld prioritize the act of encouraging children to think actively and independent ly in all types of situations. A child who thinks actively build the number. The teacher's task to encourage spontaneous thought of the child, which is very dif ficult because most of us were trained for the production of children's response s. The links are created by children from inside and you are taught not by other s. However, the teacher has a crucial role in creating material and social envir onment that encourages autonomy and thought. Children can learn how to recite numbers in the correct sequence, not necessaril y choose to use this ability as a reliable tool. When a child builds mental stru cture of the number and assimilate the words and the structure count becomes a r eliable tool. However, before the seven years of age, one to one correspondence, a copy of the configuration space, or even imperfect estimates represent the ch ild procedures more feasible. Children do not learn numerical concepts with draw ings. Nor learn numerical concepts merely by the manipulation of these concepts by building objetos.Elas reflexive abstraction the extent to which act (mentally ) on the objects. Today, educators of pre-primary education often define their g oals by saying that children should learn the so-called concepts such as numbers , letters, colors, geometric shapes, above, below, between, from left, more fulf illed, first, second third and so on. Some mathematical skills that preschool ch ildren and up to the age of 8 years before it has to be formally educated about mathematical concepts. These skills relate to everyday concepts that the child b uilds from his experiences and actions on the world. "It is possible to conclude that there is an intuitive knowledge, spontaneous, addition and subtraction on very early, this knowledge prior to schooling," (Revised SBEM, No. 3, p. 43, 2nd semester 1994). In Piagetian theory, the game does not receive a specific conce pt. Seen as assimilationist action, the game appears as an expression of the con duct, endowed with metaphoric characteristics with spontaneous, pleasurable, lik e the romanticism of Biology. By placing the play within the content of intellig ence and not the cognitive structure, Piaget distinguishes the construction of m ental structures of knowledge acquisition. The joke while assimilative process a nd participates in the intelligence, the similarity of learning. Through play th e child takes the mathematical content in order to develop solving skills, givin g yourself the opportunity to establish and achieve certain goals. Most often te achers fail to seek alternatives to teaching that encourage students to construc t learning so that they are able to develop their skills and competencies. I thi nk that is very important for the teacher to always be careful to expand the mea ns and resources to stimulate interest and participation of children in the clas

sroom. I believe that a child will understand better how the numbers and mathema tical operations if they can manipulate concrete materials. For the child succee d in this way€establish the necessary relationships between the knowledge given in the school with the world she knows. 2.2 The Rational Number The study of rational number is usually developed by the school in a fragmented manner. The concept of rational number, to be quite comp lex mathematical point of view, it generates a series of difficulties in the tea ching-learning process, whose resilience has motivated the implementation of res earch. Sumerians, Egyptians and Babylonians used fractions already in 3100 BC, when rec orded on clay tablets fresh inventory of their property with bags of grain, etc. . The seats were weird and different from the present. One side of the tablet bo re the quantity of goods. The total came on the back. As in the cryptogram cross word puzzle, the symbols have been deciphered by historians after following subs titutions on both sides of the tablets. First we got down to integers, simple gr ooves that were repeated. Since these numbers were always recorded in ascending order, concluded that what was left of the unit was always a fraction. Aguiar (1 980), developed a study aiming to analyze, among others, the nature of the proce sses involved in building the concept of fractions, finding that the part-whole relations and part-part, indicated by Piaget, enter the concept development frac tions of the same or similar ... ... Initially, the count and the perceptual imp ression of the magnitude of geometric figures, and without linking these two pro cesses (p.6-7). Lima (1985) analyzed the development of the concepts of fraction and conservation in discrete quantities and continuous, noting that the conserv ation of discrete quantities (collections) prior to the conservation of continuo us quantities (areas, volumes etc.). Usually around One year, because the child cope with early sets and collections. Start, therefore, the study of collections and fractionating fraction using the same might be more appropriate. Guimarões e Silva (1991) observed that the difficulties of students and teachers involving fractions with discrete quantities were the same, although they have presented a better performance than the students, solving fractions with continuous quanti ties. They found, dealt also indications that the difficulties were related more to teaching than aobstáculos on the development of students. To deepen the anal ysis on the difficulties in solving problems with fractions, Carraher and Schlie mann (1992) investigated the use of fractions and fractions on literals. They co ncluded that there was a strong tendency on the part of students to relate the n umerator and denominator, respectively, the number of marked elements and the to tal number of elements in a set. When there was no such relationship many studen ts did not accept the representation as a fraction of the figure. The results of quantitative analysis showed the progress of students with the intervention and the following aspects: students do not cogitate that the division has to be in equal parts in order to obtain a fraction; issues of equivalence grow in difficu lty as there is a need an intermediate step, it is very difficult for students t o establish relationships between the issues that involve graphics related to eq uivalence, the difficulties in sorting issues increase significantly when the nu mber of fractions is greater than two. The notion of equivalence is usually expl oited only through the rule of thumb is get a fraction equivalent to a given fra ction by multiplying or dividing mere non-zero. She, however, says nothing to th e student. The fact that the student be encouraged to question their own respons e, ask the problem, transforming one problem into a source of new problems, high light a conception of teaching and learning not by mere reproduction of knowledg e, but through the action reflected that builds knowledge. (PCN: Mathematics, p. 45, 2001). The concept of equivalent fractions as those that represent the same quantity can only be built from concrete experiences and images which are given to students through playful activities that bring the reality they experience to the classroom. 3 A GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO TEACHING Neolithic man represented elements from their

surroundings, through drawings, creating tools and instruments to express the r elationship experienced by him in his day-to-day. He recorded the history and ex pressed concern that the spatial relations. The first considerations that man ha s made about the geometry are unquestionably very ancient.€Appear to have origin ated from simple observations of human ability to recognize physical configurati ons for the comparison of shapes and sizes. In another historical period, the Eg yptians used measurement procedures of land in order to solve the problem arisin g from the annual flooding of the Nile that erased the boundaries of the land ar ound them. These demarcations were crucial to regulate the possession and charge taxes on the land. All those old skills have been left as an experience for pos terity. Many circumstances of life, even the most primitive man, took him to a c ertain amount of geometric discoveries subconscious. The concept of distance was undoubtedly one of the first geometric concepts to be developed. The need to demarcate the land led to the no tion of simple figures such as rectangles and squares. Other simple geometric co ncepts, such as the notions of vertical, parallelism and perpendicularity, have been suggested for the construction of walls and houses. Man to create, build, p roblem-solving situations, he becomes aware of himself and everything around you , assimilate concepts, discover relationships, the general formula that takes th em to construct mathematical knowledge in geometry. (LIMA and VILA, issue. Parag raph 8, 2002) The many observations of everyday life led primitive man to the de sign of curves, surfaces and solids. For example, no record of pictures drawn on cave walls that suggest many circles, among others the outline of the sun and m oon, the rainbow, the seeds of many flowers and the cross section of a tree trun k. In other records appears in the design of the launch of a stone, flung it des cribes the path of a parabola, not a rope stretched and hung by the tips form a catenary, a coiled rope form a spiral, the rings of growth of the trunk of a tre e, the concentric circles caused the surface of a lake by a stone thrown into it and figures on certain shells that suggest the idea of families of curves. Many fruits and pebbles are spherical bubbles and water are hemispherical and some b ird eggs are approximately ellipsoids of revolution, a ring is a torus, tree tru nks are circular cylinders, conical configurations are often found in nature. Pr imitive potters built many surfaces and solids of revolution. Bodies of men and animals, most of the leaves and flowers and some shells and crystals illustrate the idea of symmetry. The idea of volume arises immediately when considering con tainers to hold liquids and other commodities. So we can say that the geometry u sed by early man for making ornaments and decorative designs paved the way for d eveloping geometric later. Around the year 600 BC the Greeks began to introduce the geometric deduction, giving rise to what we now consider demonstrative geome try. Over time this focus on the geometric thinking has become axiomatic study m aterial designed space: shapes, sizes and relations of physical objects containe d in space. For the Greeks had only a single physical space and geometry, these concepts were absolute space was not designed as a collection point of view, the relationship was the basic geometry of congruence or overlap. For a long time u nderstanding the geometry was closely related to physical space, beginning actua lly as a gradual accumulation of subconscious notions about physical space and t he forms contained therein. The vision that we call primitive geometry subconsci ous. Later, human intelligence has evolved to become consciously able to consoli date some of the primitive notions of geometry a set of laws and rules somewhat general. Scholars call this the laboratory phase of the development of scientifi c thought geometric geometry. All that walking in the current knowledge concumin ou called analytic geometry, in the first half of the seventeenth century, consi ders the space as being like a collection of points. With the invention of class ical non-Euclidean geometry, some two centuries later, mathematicians have accep ted the situation that there is more than one conceivable space and therefore mo re than just a geometric look. But the space was still considered as a place whe re the figures could be compared. The central idea has become that of a group of congruent transformations of space itself, and geometry has to be considered as a study of the properties of configurations of points that remain unchanged, as

the surrounding spaces that are constantly subject to change.€There are many ar eas of mathematics that the introduction of a procedure and a geometric terminol ogy simplifies the understanding and the presentation of a particular concept or development. This is becoming increasingly evident, such that many mathematicia ns of the twentieth century feel that perhaps the best way to describe the geome try today not as a body of knowledge, something separate and determined, but as a point of view, a particular maneia to observe the space. Besides the language of geometry often be much simpler and more elegant than the language of algebra and analysis, it is sometimes possible to carry out rigorous lines of reasoning in geometric terms without translating them into algebra and analysis. This resu lted in considerable savings, both as reflections of reflections of communicatio ns. Also, perhaps this is the most important, the images suggested geometric res ults and often lead to additional studies, giving us a powerful tool for inducti ve reasoning creative. In the early 60s that is generalized, also in Brazil, the influence of motion of modern mathematics, whose central idea is to adapt the t eaching of mathematical concepts to new developments arising from this branch of knowledge. Are released early mathematics textbooks written according to the ne w orientation. Them with the others to be published from there, this is a concer n with algebraic structures and the use of symbolic language of the theory assemblies. As for the teaching of geometry, the option is, at first, for those books conceptualize the concepts of geometric shapes and figures such as interse ction of sets of points in the plane, adopting for its representation, the symbo lic language of set theory. The evolution of knowledge of geometry for children is well known and easily observed, for this understanding makes her see the worl d around them differently and that different look is improved at school. Current ly, the understanding of geometric figures it is necessary to a greater or lesse r degree, for professionals from different fields of human activities. For examp le, engineers, artists, geographers, airline pilots, ground vehicles or marine, etc.. Therefore, it is necessary for the child who will have a future in this or other roles in society that surrounds it. The results highlight the role of geo metry in mathematics education are few and have not reached the schools. The ver y development of mathematical science, to generate more comprehensive theories, is devoting less time investigations in this field, because the geometry is cons idered difficult, too abstract. Occasionally, the majority of teachers working i n the early years of elementary school directs its preference for themes just ar ithmetic. These themes, in turn, are developed at a level of abstraction is not consistent with developmental stage of students, for example, the student is led to repeat definitions, rules, properties and processes without functional signi ficance for him. Despise themselves, thus preparatory experiences, essential to building mathematical logic that studies the geometry provides. The teaching of geometry, compared to teaching other parts of mathematics, has been the wildest, students, teachers, textbook authors, educators and researchers, from time to t ime, have faced strong radicalizing fashions from the formalism impregnated with statements supported logical deductive reasoning through the algebraic going to empiricism dead. In Brazil, the teaching of geometry is absent or nearly absent from the classroom. Several studies of Brazilian researchers, among them Peres (1991) and Pavaneli (1993) confirm this unfortunate reality of education. There are innumerable causes, but two of them are acting strongly and directly in livi ng room: one is that many teachers do not hold the geometric knowledge needed to perform their educational practices. The second cause of failure is due to geom etric exaggerated importance to us, plays the textbook, either due to poor train ing of our teachers, either because of the grueling working hours that are submi tted. However, the chaotic situation of teaching of geometry has other causes th at although more distant from the classroom, are no less evil than the previous two. The geometry has an extremely fragile position: 'How can we teach and what they do not know? ". Is there another reason for the current geometric oblivion. €The movement of modern mathematics also has its share of contribution in the cu rrent chaos in the teaching of Geometry: before his arrival in Brazil, our teach ing was markedly lógicodedutivo geometric demonstrations. The proposal for teach

ing mathematics algebrizar modern geometry in Brazil did not work out, but manag ed to eliminate the previous model thus creating a gap in our pedagogical practi ces, which persists to this day. Geometry is everywhere, since before Christ, bu t we must be able see it, even unwilling, to deal with it every moment of our li fe. For example, we see the geometric knowledge on the ideas of parallelism, per pendicularity, consequently, similarity, proportionality, measurement, length, a rea, volume, etc.. Therefore, learning geometry is necessary for the child's dev elopment, because in many school situations requires spatial perception. For exa mple: algorithms, measurements, place value, series, string, etc., as in reading and writing. Geometry can also be an excellent way for children to indicate the ir level of understanding, their reasoning, difficulties and solutions. The conc ern with the abandonment of the teaching of geometry, that this neglect is actua lly a worldwide phenomenon, appears to be linked to issues of educational policy . There, among mathematicians, opinions differ as to the role of the teaching of geometry. Today, both in education and research in mathematics, we understand t he importance of students, from the early grades of elementary school unable to establish relationships between geometrical knowledge taught in school, with wha t she experiences in the world that surrounds it, because one today that the geo metric learning is a most valuable contribution to the child can understand the world with a different look about shapes. The teaching of geometry in school sin ce the early grades of basic education has been essentially utilitarian. Search the mastery of surgical techniques that are necessary for practical life and act ivity trade, therefore of great importance for the development of spatial reasoning of the student. It is up to us who are teachers, mediate this knowledge, leading s tudents to reflect and see the geometry everywhere, even when the geometric know ledge is brought in later chapters of books. Importantly, the geometry should be viewed by the student with a knowledge that can promote the development of thei r reasoning, leading him to realize that mathematics is all around you in geomet ric shapes. This can occur if the classes give priority activities meaningful to students, developing their important aspects covering an extended posture in th e activities experienced by the child. Besides influencing the child to awaken y our imagination, creativity and willingness to learn through play. Play activiti es allow children to interact with the environment, as well as socialize with ot her children, thereby promoting not only the cognitive development as well as so cialization. Working with concrete activities in which children are able to mani pulate these materials to build their learning with meaning, is undoubtedly the task of the teacher. 4 A FOCUS ON TEACHING OF STATISTICS Statistics is a science that originated in a ntiquity and developed in parallel to human civilization itself and, of course, hardly anyone could trace its origin. Considering that there are over 3000 years BC, the ancient Egyptians left no statistical data on its people recorded in hi storical monuments of that era, especially in the famous pyramids. Besides them, the Chinese conducted a census in the year 2275 BC, and later the Romans in the year 556 BC, also carried out work very similar. At such times, censuses were c oncentrated primarily in raising the number of inhabitants, births, deaths and e ven the forces of war, since the main objective of this was to provide reliable data with the then rulers. In the Christian era, especially in the first millenn ium, there were also several censuses, notably in Israel and some countries of t he West. However, from the sixteenth century the statistics began to gain import ance, but should be studied by mathematicians and philosophers, and consequently introduced in the curricula of major universities. The term statistics was used in the eighteenth century to describe the science of state affairs and meant da ta collection performed only by government agencies. These surveys were directed to guide the state in collecting taxes and,€to determine strategies for wars th at were characterized by successive battles. Of course, it was necessary that se nior commanders maintain some control of their military potential. Currently, st atistics is regarded as a branch of Applied Mathematics and Continuing character

ized by a set of methods and processes that allow collect, organize, describe an d analyze data in order for practical decision-making level in government and bu siness. The term population statistics can be considered as the set of objects, people or things that have at least one feature in common and what matters to a particular collective phenomenon. We emphasize that the statistical universe or population, usually has a large number of elements that represents it. However, in most cases, when you want to do a search, limited to collecting data from a s mall sample of this population, these data will be analyzed and expressed the en tire population involved in the research. It is essential that this small propor tion of the population is analyzed carefully selected, so that faithfully repres ents the set as a whole. So, to conclude that a particular poll in any segment o f our society is essential to have a proper method for doing so. The data after collection and organization will be tabulated and expressed as tables of statist ical series, which is a set of data organized according to specific criteria of each variable involved in the research. A table has as main objective the groupi ng of similar data, to facilitate their interpretation and analysis. The tables present figures collected so well organized, and summarized according to a prede termined order. After the data are organized into tables of statistical series m ay also be in the form of statistical graphs, whose goal is to bring the researc her or the general public, faster printing and vivid study of the phenomenon, si nce the graphics express order faster and clearer understanding of the series. I n general, the statistical data represented by graphs are important because they allow a global view of the phenomenon being studied, enabling a rapid and safe analysis, basically without question. Their understanding is very easy to lay in the statistics. However it is essential to be done wisely and follow certain patterns that will allow their interpretation in an objective manner. Typically, the graphics are s tandardized and tailored to certain situations, but the key is that they represe nt with clarity the statistical phenomenon for which they were prepared. You can even make use of bright colors to highlight data that deserves greater attentio n of the observer. In statistical analysis, one can not simply observe a sequenc e statistics, but to create machinery for the study it, regardless of the number of elements, is convenient for both the use of calculations of some measures th at characterize the behavior of the elements of a statistical series. These meas ures are called measures of central tendency in practice possible to determine a value between the highest and lowest of the numerical series. In general, measu res of central tendency seek to establish a value on the horizontal axis called the abscissa axis, which expresses the highest concentration of values. Measures of central tendency most commonly used are: Fashion, the mean and median. The s tatistical knowledge is expressed at any time, for example, in magazines, in new spapers, in books, in television news, etc.. It is therefore of vital importance do students know the statistics in school, because we live in a global society, and social phenomena that show all the time in the form of tables and charts. T his will give the student a position to opine, be critical and act in society in a responsible and consistent. FINAL Mathematics has been defined as the science of numbers and forms, relation s and actions. Even as a science that shows exactly, not yet awakened the intere st of most students because they can not respect what is taught in school about what they experience in their daily social. The future of mathematics education does not depend on content revisions, but the promotion of education. The key pi ece is the teacher who must assume the role of mediator or facilitate knowledge for the student. The teacher's pedagogical practice has to take the student to t hink that math is not far from him,€but that is part of your day-to-day simply b ecause the socio-cultural context in which the student is inserted into the math is always present. It is undisputed that Mathematics plays a fundamental role i n human life. This knowledge enables us to solve problems in everyday life. Has many applications in the workplace, and works as an essential tool for building knowledge in other curriculum areas. It is also an important component for promo

tion of student autonomy in order to exercise their citizenship with that respon sibility, because in that society uses scientific knowledge and technological re sources in various areas of human knowledge, directly or indirectly there is Mat h. In the education field teaching of mathematics is still mystified as to disci pline difficult and complicated. Some see a lot of concepts unnecessary to live in society, because it is believed that some of its contents do not bring geomet ric and algebraic meaning, do not relate to what is experienced. However, this l ook negatively on the learning of mathematics has to stop. The teacher should no t teach mathematics as a knowledge ready and finished. It should facilitate your understanding so that students build on a non-traumatic logical-mathematical kn owledge. Based on the knowledge they have about things around them. This will se rve for him to understand that mathematics is important for him to live responsi bly in society in which it is inserted. Mathematics is linked to understanding, ie build with meaning; learn the meaning of an object or event, learn how to mak e relationships between them. The mathematical knowledge should be presented to students as historically constructed and constantly evolving. Teaching resources such as games, books, videos, calculators, computers and other materials have a fundamental role in the teaching and learning. Everyone needs to be integrated into the process of teaching and learning of mathematics in a way that allows st udents to gain respect to do what he learns in school with what he experiences. Students bring to school knowledge, ideas and insights, built from the experienc es they experienced in their socio-cultural group. They reached the classroom wi th different basic tools, for example, classify, sort, quantify and measure. Als o, learn to act in accordance with the resources, dependencies and constraints o f their environment for survival in a society that every day becomes more complex, demanding new standards of producti vity that depends increasingly on knowledge. The daily needs make the students d evelop an essentially practical intelligence, in recognizing problems, seek and select information, make decisions and thus develop a broad capacity to deal wit h the mathematical activity. When this capacity is enhanced by learning the scho ol provides the better result. It is important not to underestimate the capacity of recognizing students who solve situaçõesproblemas, even fairly complex, maki ng use of their knowledge about it and trying to establish relationships between the familiar and new. Traditionally, the most frequent practice in the teaching of mathematics was one in which the teacher explained the contents orally, star ting from the definitions, examples, demonstrations of properties, followed by l earning exercises, establishment and implementation, and proposing that students learn by playing. This practice of teaching proved to be ineffective, because i t shows that the student has learned to play, but did not understand the content . Therefore, as a promoter of learning, the teacher should encourage students to build a significant learning that occurs from carrying out classroom activities that mimic the reality experienced by these students in their day to day. See b ibliography WORKS CONSULTED ABRANTES P. and others. Mathematics in Basic Education. Lisbon, Portugal, Ministry of Education / Department of Basic Education, 1999. ANTUNES, Ana Ruth. Math. 2001. Collection Curumim. São Paulo. Current, BRAZIL. Primary Education Department. National Curriculum: Mathematics. 2nd edit ion. Rio de Janeiro: DP & A, 2000. COLL, César. Psychology and Curriculum. São P aulo: Attica, 1998. CARRAHER, T. N. In life ten school zero. São Paulo: Cortez, 1988. DEMO, Pedro. Qualitative Assessment. Polemics Collection of Our Time; 6ed. Ed Autores Associados, 1999, Campinas, SP Felix, Vanderlei Silva. Mathematics E ducation. Passo Fundo: Clio Books, 2001. FIORENTINI, Darius Miorim, Mary A.€A re flection on the use of concrete materials and games in teaching math. Bulletin S BEM, São Paulo, v.4, n.7, p.4-9, 1996. HOFFMANN, Jussara. Assessment, Myth & Cha llenge: constructivist. Ed Mediation; Porto Alegre, 2001. A perspective GÁLVEZ, Greece. The teaching of mathematics. In: PARRA, Cecilia, et. al. Didacti

cs of Mathematics: Reflections psychopedagogical. Porto Alegre - RS: Artes Médic as, 1996. P. 26-47. GAMA, Maria Clara S. Salgado. The Theory of Multiple Intelli gences and its implications for education. Ph.D. in Special Education from Colum bia University, New York. GARDNER, Howard. Multiple Intelligences: the theory in practice 1. ed. Porto Ale gre: 2000. Kamii, Constance. The child and the number. Trad. Regina A. of Assisi . Campinas: Papirus, 1990, 28th ed. LIMA, Reginald N. de Souza. Mathematics: Fir st-Degree Contacts mathematicians. Volume 1. Cuiabá, MT, Ed UFMT, 2003. ________ _______________________________ First-Degree Contacts mathematicians. Volume 2. Cuiabá, MT, Ed UFMT, 2003. _______________________________________ First-Degree Contacts mathematicians. Volume 3. Cuiabá, MT, Ed UFMT, 2003. __________________ _____________________ First-Degree Contacts mathematicians. Volume 4. Cuiabá, MT , Ed UFMT, 2003. ________________________________________ Contacts mathematician s First Degree. Volume 5. Cuiabá, MT, Ed UFMT, 2003. ___________________________ _____________ Contacts mathematicians First Degree. Volume 6. Cuiabá, MT, Ed UFM T, 2003. ________________________________________ Contacts mathematicians First Degree. Volume 7. Cuiabá, MT, Ed UFMT, 2003. ___________________________________ ______ Contacts mathematicians First Degree. Volume 8. Cuiabá, MT, Ed UFMT, 2003 . MACHADO, José Nilson mathematics and mother tongue: analysis of a mutual impre gnation. 3. ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 1993. MOURA, Manoel Oriosvaldo. The serious p ursuit in the game: the play in mathematics. Education in Mathematics Magazine, v.2, n.3, p.17-24, 2 sem.1994. SAMPAIO, Maria Ferreira of Mercy RIBEIRO, Maria J . R. Consistency between assessment and curriculum organization. In: Teaching an d learning: reflection and creation. v. 3. São Paulo: CENPEC, 1998. SANT'ANNA Il za Martins. Why Evaluate? How to Evaluate?: Criteria and Instruments. Petropolis : Ed.Vozes, 1995. Vygotsky, L. S. Thought and language. São Paulo: Livraria Mart ins Fontes, 1989. _______________. The social formation of mind. São Paulo: Mart ins Fontes, 1984. WEISZ, Telma. Dialogue between the Teaching and Learning. 2-ed ., 10 - Rep. Ed Attica, São Paulo, 2002 WHEELER, D. Image and geometric thinking . CIEA - 1st Comtes Rendus 33e Rencontre Internationale, p.351-353, Pallanza, 19 81. Source: