VOCABULARY FOR SELECTIVITY M ª Victoria Landa REMOVE RA RA CTU M ª Victoria Landa • APSE • Alfiz • PADDING • • arch horseshoe arch

arch • • • ARCO ARCO transverse arches • • stilted arch lintel or header • archivolts • barrel vault cross vault • • • dome • Caryatid columns attached CLOISTER • • S OLOMON • COLUMN COLUMN: Capital FUSTE BASA • Buttress • CRUISE • DOME: DRUM, cap s, FLASHLIGHT, pendentive Enjuto • SPILL • Entablature • Gable • GIROLA • Panelling • FRONTON • Niche • JAMBA • Mullion • Pilar • Pilas tro • PLANT • Chairs • • clerestory eardrum • Transept M ª Victoria Landa APSE Chapel or chapels set at the head of a temple behind the main altar of the nave of a temple. It has generally semicircular or polygonal and usually go to the fu rnace roof deck with M ª Victoria Landa Alfiz M ª Victoria Landa Frame, usually rectangular, which frames the arches on its outer face, boxed. Co mmonly used in Islamic art PADDING Facing blocks comprising consolidated in any joints or seams, so that each of th em is raised M ª Victoria Landa Structural element of support and shock pushes laterally and has a curved ARCO M ª Victoria Landa M ª Victoria Landa Semicircular arch M ª Victoria Landa Stilted arch His arrow is greater than the light M ª Victoria Landa Horseshoe arch The curve extending below the semicircle

M ª Victoria Landa Pointed arch It consists of two portions of curve at an angle in the key and whose lower surf ace is concave. Characteristic of Gothic M ª Victoria Landa ARCO transverse Transverse to the axis of the church as part of the vault and separating into se ctions and relieving their weight to the lateral walls M ª Victoria Landa Parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ship, and that separates it from other ARCO arches M ª Victoria Landa Lintel or header Sustained horizontal element in one piece, which supports a load and produces ve rtical pressures on the supports. Lower part of the entablature that rests direc tly on the abacus of the columns in the jambs of a vain M ª Victoria Landa Archivolts M ª Victoria Landa • Each of the threads that form a series of arcs, and concentric flared on a cov er. Common in Romanesque and Gothic VAULT Masonry, a curved surface, which is supported by walls, pillars or columns. Enge nders the movement or repetition of the arc. M ª Victoria Landa Barrel vault Resulting curved longitudinal development of an arch on two parallel supports M ª Victoria Landa Ribbed vault M ª Victoria Landa Caryatid Female sculpture made by the supporting role rather than a column, pillar or sim ilar. Atlante is called if male. M ª Victoria Landa Dome High rise building on the cruise, usually shaped tower with a square or octagona l, with the task of illuminating the interior of the building. M ª Victoria Landa

CLOISTER • Patio square or rectangular in which columns and arches with four galleries op en bays. M ª Victoria Landa COLUMN Sustaining element of circular cross section whose essential parts are base, sha ft and capital M ª Victoria Landa COLUMN CAPITALS FUSTE M ª Victoria Landa BASA Pilasters Column attached to a wall or pillar M ª Victoria Landa Solomonic column It is named the spine twisted or spiral upward. The name derives from its allege d presence in the Temple of Solomon (Jerusalem) M ª Victoria Landa CAPITALS Top of the column, which presents various motifs in the order adopting M ª Victoria Landa FUSTE Part of the column that is the right foot, between the capital and base M ª Victoria Landa Stop bottom of a column, formed by various molding (bulls, escocias ....) on whi ch rests the shaft BASA M ª Victoria Landa Buttress M ª Victoria Landa • vertical reinforcement of a wall, usually abroad, which contains offsets and l ateral pressures. It is also called "bracket."

CRUISE Space crossing the nave of a church or longitudinal with the cross or transept M ª Victoria Landa DOME Spherical vault. Usually covers a square, whose step or circular or octagonal gi ven by "tubes" or "scallops." M ª Victoria Landa When you want to get a higher elevation of the dome, it is not to rest on the tu bes or scallops, but on a ring or drum, often a cylindrical or octagonal. M ª Victoria Landa DRUM BODY OF LIGHT that sobreleva the spherical cap, forming a ring. M ª Victoria Landa CAPS M ª Victoria Landa TORCH Remate, usually on a dome that serves to light M ª Victoria Landa Pendant Each of the four curvilinear triangles on which rests a dome. They serve to move from square to circular. M ª Victoria Landa SPILL • hole or aperture in a wall, whose width increases from the frame or jamb, to o ne or both sides of it. M ª Victoria Landa The undercutting of the jambs of a vain is used to increase light reception, as a greater opening in the exterior wall M ª Victoria Landa SPILL Triangular space between the sides of the arch and arch panels. Also called alba nega Enjuto

M ª Victoria Landa Entablature Type of flat roof consisting of architrave, frieze and cornice on the classical orders M ª Victoria Landa CORNICE FRONTON architrave Panelling M ª Victoria Landa Panelling M ª Victoria Landa Part of the entablature of the horizontal and specifically the part between the architrave and cornice in the classical orders. Can be formed by triglyphs and m etopes, or be a frieze run. It usually takes decoration Attempt triangular facade, porch, window, etc.. The space defines is called the eardrum, especially if it is decorated. The front wall can also be curved or be split FRONTON M ª Victoria Landa Gable • Targeted Crowning wall between the towers of the Gothic façade. You may also s ee topping spans, piers or abutments. This decorative element is formed by two l ines that create an angle atop pointed out, much like a gable M ª Victoria Landa GIROLA • Hall around the back of the sanctuary surrounding the altar. It is an extensio n of the aisles and only exceptionally occurs without them. Appears in the Roman esque pilgrimage church to facilitate the transit of the faithful by the sacred precinct and is held in the Gothic cathedrals. Also called ambulatory M ª Victoria Landa Niche • Any cavity in the wall. You may also be called "niche." Its purpose can be con structive in order to alleviate the thickness of the wall or symbolic or decorat ive. Usually encompasses a statue. In some cases, can shelter an entire home. It is often crowned by a dome quarter sphere. M ª Victoria Landa JAMBA Vertical element, which is part of a vain side that holds, with his partner, a l intel or arch of a window or door M ª Victoria Landa Mullion • vertical architectural element that splits light or width of a window or nothi ng. Also called Mainel

M ª Victoria Landa Support free, usually polygonal and making the same architectural feature column . Usually more robust than the column, particularly the pillar compound. PILAR M ª Victoria Landa Pilastro Pilar townhouse M ª Victoria Landa PLANT Architectural drawing of a work displayed in the horizontal section, with delimi tation of its massive and spans M ª Victoria Landa CHAIR Each of the parts or regular hewn stones that form part of the wall, usually rec tangular M ª Victoria Landa TIMPANO Designated area that closes the pediments and that usually leads decoration. In the covers of the medieval church is formed by the lintel and the archivolts M ª Victoria Landa Transept Transept that cuts the long nave of a church, granting the symbolic form of cros s. The cross section where both vessels is called cruise and arm ends. M ª Victoria Landa Clerestory Series of ornamental windows, games for mullions (mullion) conducted the bulk of the walls of the nave above the arches that give the aisles should not be confu sed with the rostrum, which has a width equal to the aisle on which it is built. It is part of the gallery that opens to the nave to follow these ceremonies. Th e gothic is a narrow passage open in the thickness of the wall of the nave, whic h later formed part of the windows. M ª Victoria Landa M ª Victoria Landa LTUR ESCU M ª Victoria Landa Ataurique BALAUSTRES • • • • BULK ROUND BALDAQUIN • CANON • contraposto • Equest rian • ENCARNACIÓN • STUFFING • Grotesque • Imagery • Mocárabe • RELIEVE: relief s and carvings • • schiacciata RETABLO M ª Victoria Landa

• TORSO Ataurique Stylized floral decoration, inspired by the classic acanthus widely used in the art Caliphate of Cordoba M ª Victoria Landa BALAUSTRES M ª Victoria Landa Lateral enclosure for stairs, balconies, terraces, etc., low rise, consisting of small columns and balusters resting on a base and supporting a handrail or guar drail.€Each baluster alternating bulbous shapes or straight lines and curves its name derives from the balustrade, variety of pomegranate. BALDAQUIN Canopy on pillars covering an altar or a tomb with a sense Memorial M ª Victoria Landa ROUND BULK • It is applied in the figures executed sculpture in three dimensions and isolat ed in space, so that they can be viewed from any point of view. Also known as Ex empt. M ª Victoria Landa CANON • Rule of human proportions, as the ideal type. The rule provides the ideal prop ortion of the human body from a module. The Egyptians established that the modul e would be the fist and coded the perfect length of the individual in cuffs 18: 2 for the face, 10 from the shoulders to the knees and the remaining 6 for the l egs and feet. The Greeks felt that the module was the head and set it at 7 Polyk leitos heads in the V century a. C. Lysippus in the fourth century C. set it at 8 heads. During the Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci proposed that the height of an individual is the same as that of his outstretched arms. M ª Victoria Landa Contraposto • adequate compensation to any movement or es, in order to break every law of frontal It is a creation of Greek artists in front es. Its use in Polykleitos apply it to the called crossover rate also synovial M ª Victoria Landa EQUESTRIAN • Work of sculpture in the round depicting the human figure on horseback. M ª Victoria Landa ENCARNACION Giving color to body parts hidden by the garments in painting or sculpture. Spec ifically imagery in wood, this was coated with plaster on which was applied dire ctly on color. posture of the human body in sculptur and hieratic, rigid forms, etcetera. of the Oriental and Egyptian sculptur rhythm Doryphoros crossed by what is

M ª Victoria Landa STEW Results scrape the color applied to the gilded surface, making drawings, so that it appears the gold. M ª Victoria Landa Grotesque Decorative motif based on fantastic creatures, plants and animals linked and com bined to form a whole. Widely used in the Renaissance following the discovery of these grounds in the Domus Aurea of Nero, which, given its deterioration, like a cave M ª Victoria Landa M ª Victoria Landa Imagery Art of carving sacred images M ª Victoria Landa Mocárabe Decorating juxtaposed prisms and directed downward ending in a narrowing also pr ismatic, whose surface is concave. Stalactites formed as a single or clustered. Are characteristic of Islamic art. Decorate arches, vaults and Islamic capitals. Also called M ª Victoria Landa mucarna • Sculpture is not free. Enhanced sculptural representation of figures in a plan e. According to extend beyond the half plane, half or less than half the thickne ss of the figure, or is found consolidated in relation to the area of the plane, called respectively "high relief", "Middle relief", "Under relief "and" Hollow. " RELIEVE M ª Victoria Landa High relief • Sculptures protruding from the plane on which are more than half of its volume or bulk. Typically two-thirds. M ª Victoria Landa Relief that protrudes less than half of its bulk on a facing. Bas M ª Victoria Landa RETABLO Architectural framework that serves both as an ornament on an altar, and for the placement of pictures, paintings or reliefs It covers the wall behind the altar and can be done on wood, stone or metal. M ª Victoria Landa

Schiacciata Technical highlight mostly used in the Italian Renaissance (the first is traditi onally attributed to Donatello, with his St. George and the Dragon), but was als o used by the Romans, which mimics the effects of atmospheric perspective in the sculpted relief. It does so through a gradual decrease of the projection of the figures, since a high relief on pictures located in the foreground, a relief to extremely subtle in the figures located on the bottom. M ª Victoria Landa TORSO Human representation that lacks a head, arms and legs. And it corresponds with t he trunk of the human body with or without head M ª Victoria Landa R A TU PIN M ª Victoria Landa • PORTRAIT • STILL LIFE • • Chiaroscuro Escorza • Fade • ENGRAVING • OIL • AERIA L VIEW • LINEAR PERSPECTIVE PAINTING GENDER • • • Dark • Triptych Altarpiece M ª Victoria Landa PORTRAIT Portrait of the artist makes himself M ª Victoria Landa STILL LIFE Gender M ª Victoria Landa presents a pictorial composition based on inanimate (d ead animals, plants or things). Also called "Still Life." Chiaroscuro Art paintings have a contrast of light and shadow.€Applied specifically to highl ight the displays against a dark background, could assume the third dimension. M ª Victoria Landa Dark Chiaroscuro technique of abrupt transition from light to shadows M ª Victoria Landa Escorza Way of representing a leading figure in the background plane to create contrasti ng lines or planes. The figure in reality would be prepared perpendicular or obl iquely to the plane which has been performed. M ª Victoria Landa Fade • chiaroscuro technique of smooth transition from the lights to the shadows with vague and blurred contours. It is typical of Leonardo's painting and its contri bution to the aerial perspective. M ª Victoria Landa

or sfumato M ª Victoria Landa ENGRAVING Mechanical reproduction through the press, of a design previously done on a grid dle. • Drawing on wood, metal or other hard material obtained by cuts or scratches ma de with a chisel, punch or other similar systems. According to the procedure use d, we etchings, or smoke, or hollow, and many others. This procedure obtains a p rint by an array prefetching or plate M ª Victoria Landa OIL Painting technique where color pigments are diluted with vegetable oils, which re those that bind together and allow their attachment to the bracket. The oil xpands the range of colors, increase the contrast of light and dark tones, and bove all, allows the overlapping of transparent layers, called glazes. You can lso control the speed of paint drying. M ª Victoria Landa PERSPECTIVE M ª Victoria Landa LINEAR PERSPECTIVE • How to represent objects on a surface, so that they appear in the form and arr angement shown in the view of reality. In the geometric approach is intended to represent the lines of the figures in a convergent way to the bottom. Decrease a ccording to the so-called flight lines converging towards the vanishing point. I t can be applied mathematically. M ª Victoria Landa Aerial perspective • How to represent objects on a surface, so that they appear in the form and arr angement shown in the view of reality. The aerial perspective is intended to rep resent the atmosphere surrounding objects M ª Victoria Landa GENRE PAINTING • The topic of using scenes from daily life, craft, family, folk, etc., Both ind oors and in urban spaces or country. Help to understand life and customs of an e ra or country. M ª Victoria Landa READY-MADE • From English. Translatable as prepared. It refers to those elements that are m ade ready for use. In contemporary art, Marcel Duchamp gave this name to their c ompositions based on items taken directly from reality and juxtaposed to generat e new images. M ª Victoria Landa a e a a

Altarpiece • It is a pictorial part normally consists of several sheets or plates, which of ten can be folded back on themselves, by way of doors (more than three) M ª Victoria Landa M ª Victoria Landa • pictorial technique emerged in the late sixteenth century Italy, through the w ork of Caravaggio, consisting of a sharp contrast of light and shadow, causing v ery strong effects in the absence of smooth gradations and blurred. The light ar eas stand out for their bright colors. There are plenty of foreshortening, volum etric values and religious themes or popular. M ª Victoria Landa Dark Construction of three tables, linens or sheets of hard material, so that the sid es are folded onto the central LEAFLET M ª Victoria Landa HY YOU OR THE RA TE D M ª Victoria Landa Stoneface ICONOGRAPHY • • • • Natural • Symbolism Idealism M ª Victoria Landa It applies to the prevailing trend in the monumental concept, stately, stiff and content. It is manifested by rigidity in the expression and attitudes in sculpt ures or paintings. Opposes "Naturalism." Very characteristic of Egyptian art. No t to be confused with lack of expression. Stoneface M ª Victoria Landa ICONOGRAPHY Science studies the origin, the formation of images and the development of figur ative subjects and attributes that can be identified, and are accompanied usuall y issues, in addition to its relationship with the allegorical and symbolic. M ª Victoria Landa M ª Victoria Landa M ª Victoria Landa Idealism • The tendency of artists looking as close as possible to the perfect representa tion of the items d his works, always seeking the archetypal overcome the flaws or defects that any individual model features. Idealism attempts to bridge the o bjectivity (which actually exists) and subjectivity (what each person thinks he sees) to achieve the full reality. M ª Victoria Landa

Naturalism • artistic tendency is to represent nature as closely as possible. It refers to the realistic representation of objects in a natural environment. Naturalist is the art that pays attention to detail precise and appropriate, and which portray s the things "as is". M ª Victoria Landa SYMBOLISM Modes of expression opposite to realism and consistent in suggesting ideas or em otions from pictures rather than describe. M ª Victoria Landa Art movement that arose around 1888 reveals mystical concerns and has a limited influence. About 1900 he merged with the art nouveau symbolism is defined as ide aist, synthetic, decorative .... subjective elements that are indeed common to m any styles. Many of his works are inspired by the Bible and mythology, mystery a nd magic express. The symbolism of the architecture achieved only sporadically i n the figure of Gaudi and sculpture. It manifests itself rather in the painting which combines ideological and methodological aspects. M ª Victoria Landa M ª Victoria Landa PAU VOCABULARY MURCIA M ª Victoria Landa 2008-2009