CONFLICT OF PLANET EUROPE CHECHNYA Official name: Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (internationally unr ecognized) Capital: Grozny Government

type: Islamic Republic. Population: 1,000, 000 inhabitants: 53% Chechens, Russians 29%, 12% Ingush and the rest other natio nalities. Area: 19,300 km ² Language: Chechen-Tushi, Ingush and Chechen Religion : Muslim majority and Orthodox WHY ARE AT WAR? Chechnya's independence calls for Russia since Tsarist imperiali sm incorporated it into their domains. When the USSR dissolved, Dzojar Dudayev, was elected president of the Chechen republic and proclaimed independence. In 19 94, Boris Yeltsin attacks to curb separatist tendencies in the Federation and to ensure the passage of Russian oil pipelines crossing the Caucasus. The Chechens are reluctant and launch an effective guerrilla warfare and terrorist actions. Alexander Lebed appears on the scene, an officer who negotiates with the new Che chen president, Aslan Maskhadov. Both sign a peace treaty in August 1996. The pl an involves total autonomy. In 1999 the country is free but is at the brink of c ivil war. The more radical groups take control. From here a chain of terrible at tacks and kidnappings by Russia unleashed a broad 'anti-terrorist operation "tha t is not yet complete. KOSOVO Official name: Serbia and Montenegro (composed of two republics, Serbia a nd Montenegro, and two autonomous provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina) Capital: Belg rade (Pristina, Kosovo) Type of Government: Presidential republic Population: 10 ,825,900 Area: 102 350 km ² Language: Serbian (95%) and Albanian (5%) Religion: Orthodox (65%), Muslim (19%), Catholics (4%), Protestant (1%) and others (11%) WHY ARE AT WAR? Relations between the Albanian majority and Serb minority have a lways been and remain strained. In addition there are serious security problems for the Serbian and Gypsy minorities after the 1999 war. Most of the displaced h ave not been able to return home. NAGORNY - KARABAKH Official name: Nagorno Karabakh Capital: Stepanakert Governme nt type: republic is proclaimed itself independent since 1991. It is not recogni zed internationally or by the European Union nor Russia, nor by the two republic s is the dispute, Azerbaijan and Armenia, although the latter supports independe nce. Population: 144 500 inhabitants Surface area: 4,400 km2 Language: Armenian Religion: secular state WHY ARE AT WAR? It is an eternal conflict between neighb ors. Take a piece of land to the territory next door, whatever the cost. Armenia wants full sovereignty and Azerbaijan proposes a situation of autonomy maintain ed by herself. Nagorno is in the middle and is where conflicts develop. ASIA AFGHANISTAN Official name: Islamic State Afghan Transitional Capital: Kabul Gove rnment type: transitional government Population: 27,755,775 Area: 647,500.00 km ² Language: Pashtu (35%), Afghan-Persian (50%), languages Turkic (11%), 30 minor languages (4%) Religion: Muslim-Sunni (84%), Muslim-Shiites (15%), minority (1% ) WHY ARE AT WAR? After the eviction of the power of the Taliban, who are students of Islam, fundamentalist groups took its place, preventing the development of d emocracy in a country where the situation is chaotic. In addition, the Taliban h ad a concept of the Muslim extremist and made things serious in its name: violation in short, many Human Rights. After this problem i s Al Qaeda: A network of various terrorist groups. This group is the enemy of fr eedom and democracy which is headed by bin Laden. Finally there will be election s this year. IRAQ Official name: Republic of Iraq Capital: Baghdad Government ty pe: To be decided in elections on January 30 Population: 24,683,313 Area: 438,31 7 km ² Language: Arabic (official) language and the Kurdish minority groups. Rel igion: Muslim (95%) of whom are Shiites (60%) and the rest (40%) are Sunni. Ther

e are also Christian groups, Yazidis and Baptists who make up the rest of the po pulation. WHY ARE AT WAR? Iraq invaded Kuwait with the regime of Saddam Hussein, which was called "Persian Gulf War." He accused Kuwait of taking more oil than his share. The UN and other countries forced him to destroy their nuclear weapons, chemica l and biological and repair the damage to this country. But the conflict continu ed despite the intervention of the countries to end this violence. Finally, on J anuary 30, 2005 general elections will be held to form a national assembly to dr aft a permanent constitution, which must be approved by referendum. ISRAEL Official name: State of Israel Capital: Jerusalem Type of Government: Rep ublic Population: 21 946 km ² Language: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officiall y for Arab minority, English, Yiddish, Russian Religion: Jewish (82%), Muslim (S unni mainly, 14%), Christians (2%) and others (2%). Palestine is on the east coa st of the Mediterranean Sea in southwestern Asia. Now largely divided between Is rael, Jordan and the Palestinian autonomous territories of the West Bank and Gaz a Strip. WHY ARE AT WAR? The UN decided to give land to one of the towns hardest hit in t he second world war, the Jews. But they were granted a land where Palestinians l ived with a different culture and different religion. "Conflict in Gaza": Palest inian Territory in southwestern Asia bordering Egypt, the Mediterranean Sea and Israel. It has an area of about 360 km ². In 1949 an agreement was reached betwe en Israel and Egypt signed after the first Arab-Israeli War. Today, the Palestin ian Authority governs the Gaza Strip as autonomous area except for Jewish settle ments to remain under the authority of the Israeli government. "Conflict in the West Bank" territory of southwest Asia, the Middle East, west of the Jordan Rive r and occupied by Israel since 1967. It has an approximate area of 5879 km2, wit h a population of 973 500 inhabitants, almost all Palestinian Arabs, the rest ar e Jews who have settled in the area since 1967. In 1967 the region was conquered by Israel during the Six Day War. In 1974 Jordan gave bargaining rights for the future of the territories to the Organization for the Liberation of Palestine ( PLO). Under the agreements reached in the late 1970s between Egypt and Israel, t hat country agreed to grant more autonomy to the inhabitants of the area. Some A rab leaders urged the creation of an independent Palestinian Arab state controll ed territory. Since December 1987, a wave of protests (intifada or "uprising") r equiring the Palestinian autonomy led to a tough Israeli repression. In July 198 8 the Jordanian King Husayn I yielded to the PLO all Jordanian claims to the reg ion. In November, the PLO proclaimed the establishment of a Palestinian state th at included the West Bank. After decades of violence between Arabs and Israelis to the territory, the top leaders of both sides agreed to sign a historic peace treaty. In 1993, the Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in the U.S. signed an agreement providing for the establishment of limited Palestinian autonomy in principle to the Gaza Strip and West Bank town of Jericho. In 1994, Jericho, Israeli troops evacuated the city taking over the Palestinian Authority. But give the Palestinians the West Bank land has not been a breakthrough in the peace process. JAMMU AND KASHMIR Official name: Jammu and Kashmir Capital: Srinagar (summer), J ammu (Winter) Type of Government: One of the 29 States comprising the Federal Re public of the Indian Union. Leading figure a Governor (appointed by the Presiden t of India for five years) a Legislative Assembly (which dissolves every 5 years ) and a Legislative Council (without a period of dissolution) Population: Area: 206 703 km ² Language: Hindi (official), English and several regional languages and dialects (Urdu, Kashmiri, Dogri, Pahari, Ladakhi) Religion: Muslim (80%) and Hindu (20%) WHY ARE AT WAR? Control of Jammu and Kashmir is a struggle being India and Pakis tan. Since 1947, claims its accession to Pakistan. In the 90 babies are born sep

aratist group demanding independence. Official name SRI LANKA: Sri Lanka Capital : Colombo Government type: democratic republic Population: 19,905,165 habit. Are a: 65 610 km ² Language: Sinhala and Tamil are the official. English is recogniz ed use Religion: Buddhism (69%), Hindu Tamils (15%), Christianity (8%) and Islam (7%) WHY ARE AT WAR? The fight against the Tamil minority Sinhalese government for in dependence of the territories to the north and east of the island. NEPAL Officia l name: Kingdom of Nepal Capital: Kathmandu Type of Government: Constitutional M onarchy Population: 27,070,666 Area: 140,800 km ² Language: Nepali (official lan guage, 90% of the population), 10 languages and about 30 dialects Religion: Hind uism (86.2%), Buddhism (7.8%), Islam (3.8%), other (2.2%) WHY ARE AT WAR? A harsh and cruel civil war that began in the mid-90s between th e royalist government and Maoist guerrillas. Underlying causes are because (bein g a very poor country,€one of the poorest in the world) their living conditions are very poor and struggle to improve them. Also, are kept separate ethnic group s that belong to the Hindu majority. BURMA Official name: Union of Myanmar (form erly Burma) Capital: Yangon (Rangoon) Government type: Military Council Populati on: 42,720,196 Area: 676,000 km ² Language: The Myanmar (Burmese) is official. A lso other tribal languages are spoken as the Karen and the Shan Religion: Buddhi st (87%). There are also minorities animist, Muslim, Hindu and Christian WHY ARE AT WAR? The country is ruled by a military junta. It refused to recognize the r esults of the 1990 election. It has a strong control and dominion over the group s that oppose the regime. It has also been accused of violating the rights of et hnic minorities. EAST TIMOR Official name: Democratic Republic of East Timor Cap ital: Dili Government Type: Republic Population: 1,019,252 Area: 15,007 km ² Lan guage: Tetum (official), Portuguese (official), Indonesian and English. Religion : Roman Catholic (90%), Muslim (4%) and Protestants (3%). WHY ARE AT WAR? Supporters of independence and integration into Indonesia shed t heir blood in the streets of East Timor. The UN imposed the sovereigntist option that determined the polls. PHILIPPINES Official name: Republic of the Philippines Capital: Manila Type of G overnment: Republic Population: 86,241,697 Area: 300,000 km ² Language: Filipino and English are official languages and eig ht major dialects Religion: Roman Catholic (83%), Protestant (9%), Muslim (5%), Buddhist and other (3%) WHY IS AT WAR ? The activity of separatist Islamic terro rist groups is the main conflict in this country. Defy the Philippine government demanding an independent state in Mindanao (island of the Philippines richest a gricultural and mineral resources but where the population is very poor). There are many bombings and kidnappings, mainly to tourists. NORTH KOREA Official name: Democratic People's Republic Capital: Pyongyang Gover nment type: authoritarian socialist Population: 22,697,553 Area: 120,540 km ² La nguage: Korean Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, a minority Christian and syncretic chondogíos. Although the practice of religion is almost non-existent SOUTH KOREA Official name: Republic of Korea Capital: Seoul Type of Government: Republic Population: 48,598,175 Area: 98,480 km ² Language: Korean, English Reli gion: No affiliation (46%), Christians (26%), Buddhists (26 %), Confucian (1%), shamanistic, chondogios, and other (1%). WHY ARE AT WAR? Korea is divided into two states, North and South. In 1950 North Korea attacked South Korea. Have different orientations: capitalist and communi st, this is one of the causes and also North Korea has never recognized boundari es, the boundary between the two countries (to be established at the 38th parall el).

AMERICA COLOMBIA Official name: Republic of Colombia Capital: Bogotá DC Type of Governme nt: Presidential republic Population: 42,310,775 Area: 1,141,178 km ² Language: Spanish (official) Religion: Catholicism (96%) WHY ARE AT WAR? Colombia is a cou ntry that has had three illegal armies. It is also destroyed by the guerrillas ( FARC and ELN) and paramilitary groups (AUC) who are struggling against the guerr illas. Added to this is drug trafficking, crime and more than 11,000 children so ldiers. MEXICO Official name: United States of Mexico Capital: Mexico Federal District G overnment type: Federal Republic with 31 states. Population: 104,959,594 Area: 1 ,972,550 m2 Language: Spanish and several indigenous languages. Religion: Cathol ic (89%) and Protestant (6%) WHY ARE AT WAR? In this country called the Zapatist a Army of National Liberation (EZLN) who wanted to end the marginalization of in digenous people of one of its member called Chiapas. What he did for this is to declare war on the Federal Government of Mexico in 1994. Since then, the Zapatis tas have held numerous farms and set them autonomous municipalities outside the Federal Government, which are common target of paramilitary groups operating in the area. AFRICA ALGERIA Official name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria Capital : Algiers Government type: Presidential Republic with a bicameral parliament Pop ulation: 32,129,324 Area: 2.382 million km ² Language: Arabic and Berber are als o the official languages and French Religion: Islam " WHY ARE AT WAR? Fighting b etween the Islamists and the government lasted for more than 40 years. The victo ry of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the 1990 elections,€the military coup to prevent their entry into government and the strong repression then was that the Government was faced with the radical Islamists and that still endures. The international community has denounced many times but there are still many victim s. WESTERN SAHARA Official name: Western Sahara Capital: No capital Type of Gove rnment: The legal status of territory and sovereignty are unresolved Population: 250,559 Area: 266 000 km2 Language: Arab Hassaniya Moroccan Arabic Religion: Mu slim WHY IS AT WAR? The Saharawi people struggle to create their own state again st Morocco. The latter has invaded a large part of its territory and seeks the a nnexation of Western Sahara since the wants and considers a province of their co untry. Morocco also has the support of the United States that are interested in the phosphate, minerals and oil fields. SENEGAL Official name: Republic of Seneg al Capital: Dakar Government type: multiparty presidential and Population: 10,852,147 Area: 196,200 km ² Language: French and Wolof (official) Religion: Muslim Majority IS WHY WAR? Senegal suffers separatist rebellion in th e Casamance region. Moreover, and although it is one of the most stable countrie s in Africa, there are many social tensions due to overcrowding. Many people for such a small country. Coupled with this there are also border tensions with its neighbor, Mauritania. CONAKRY Official name: Republic of Guinea Capital: Conakr y Government type: multiparty Republic Population: Approximately eight million A rea: 245,850 km ² Language: French (official), Fulani, Mandinka, Susu, Kissi, Pu laar, others. Religion: Muslim (85%), Christian (8%) and animist cults (7%) WHY ARE AT WAR? Half a million refugees moving to Guinea to escape the guerrillas of the countries that have borders with Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, seeking better living conditions. But when they get to Guinea to the abuse of Guinea's o wn militias. They are subjected to the very violation of the most basic rights. LIBERIA Official name: Republic of Liberia Capital: Monrovia Type of Government: Presidential Population: 3,390,635 Area: 111 370 km ² Language: English (offici al) and 20 other languages (quepelés, Bassa, Vai, Grebo, craví, guisí, ruff, Cre ole 'Liberian English'..., etc.) Religion: indigenous beliefs (40%), Christianit y (40%) and Islam (20%)

WHY ARE AT WAR? In recent years, the fighting between rebels and security forces of Charles Taylor that he formed the National Patriotic Front for the Liberatio n of Liberia (NPFL) led to thousands of refugees and civilian casualties. Taylor out of power and then signed a peace accord between the guerrillas and the Libe rian Executive may mean the beginning of the end of 14 years of bloody civil war . Although there are still many rebels who refuse to surrender their weapons in exchange for nothing. IVORY COAST Official name: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire Capital: Yamoussoukro is the official capital since 1983, but Abidjan is the adm inistrative and commercial center, home to foreign embassies Government type: Go vernment of National Reconciliation Population: 16,393,221 Area: 322,462 km ² La nguage: French (official) coexists with 60 indigenous languages, among which is the Dioula is the most used. Religion: Animist, Muslim, Catholic, and indigenous Christians. WHY ARE AT WAR? Falling raw material prices in the 80's and the 199 9 coup have made this country is in a deep crisis that seems to have no end. The African Union has asked the UN more military presence in this country where it has been very difficult to deliver humanitarian aid. NIGERIA Official name: Federal Republic of Nigeria Capital: Abuja Type of Govern ment: Democracy bicameral legislative Population: 137,253,133 Area: 923,770 km2 Language: English is the official language, but there are 200 languages from dif ferent ethnic groups among which are the haus, in the north, the Ibo in the sout heast and the Yoruba in the southwest Religion: Islam (50%), Christianity (40%) and indigenous beliefs (10%). The north is mostly Muslim, predominantly in south east and southwest Christianity practiced both traditional African religions as well. WHY ARE AT WAR? Religion divides in two to Nigeria. Over the past 15 years , clashes between Christians and Muslims have left nearly 12,000 dead. In this w ar because of religion, we must add, ethnic conflicts and the struggle for contr ol of oil. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Official name: Central African Republic Capital: Bangui Type of Government: Pres idential Population: 3,742,482 Area: 622 984 km ² Language: French (official), S ango (national) and 68 other regional languages and dialects (Berry, band, Kreis han, sara, bagirmi etc) Religion: Christians, Catholics and Protestants (50%), M uslim (15%), animist beliefs (24%) WHY ARE AT WAR? The rebels who collaborated with Bozize's coup in March 2003 are up in arms. The civilian population is the real victim of human rights violatio ns, corrupt rulers and political instability. There is insecurity and hunger in the streets, increasingly frequent attacks by the Government to the media: these are the main threats on the road to peace in one of the richest countries in th e world in terms of resources (they have many sites gold, uranium and diamonds) but need much money abroad. DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO Official name: Democratic Republic of Congo Capital : Kinshasa Government Type: Republic presidential Population: 58,317,930 Area: 2 ,345,490 km ² Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Tshiluba, Kikongo R eligion: Catholic (49 , 6%), Protestant (29.4%), indigenous Christians (17.9%) a nd Muslims (1.4%) WHY ARE AT WAR? Despite the peace signed with Uganda and Rwanda in 2002, and the formation of a national unity government in July 2003, those involved in contro lling the rich areas of the Northeast, handling and fueling the clashes and kill ings between rival tribes . ANGOLA Official name: Republic of Angola Capital: Lu anda Government type: Presidential republic Population: 10,978,552 Area: Portugu ese is the official language and Bantu languages

Language: Religion: Traditional beliefs (47%), Catholics (38%) and Protestants ( 15%) WHY ARE AT WAR? There was a civil war that began in 1975, the date of its i ndependence from Portugal, and ended in April 2002. Faced the UNITA guerrillas a nd the Government of Dos Santos. The outcome was a million dead and four million displaced. Since then, many refugees want to return home even though they are e xpecting famine. ZIMBABWE Official name: Republic of Zimbabwe Capital: Harare Government type: Pa rliamentary democracy Population: 12,671,860 Area: 390,580 km ² Language: Englis h (official), Shona, Sindebele Religion: syncretism (mixture of Christianity and indigenous beliefs) 50% Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1% WHY ARE AT WAR? Robert Mugabe is the president after the 2002 elections were a total fraud. Opponents of his regime, calling for his resignation since then. Hunger and AIDS to the population crush. BURUNDI Official name: Republic of Burundi Capital: Bujumbura Type of Government : The peace agreements of 2000 established a transitional government that would combine every 18 months to representatives of the ethnic Hutu and Tutsi in power and that should lead to the conclusion election Population: 6,231,221 Area: 27, 830 km ² Language: The official languages are RUNDI or kurundi and French. A min ority Hema speak the language and Swahili is common in business circles. Religio n: Christianity (67%), traditional African religions (23%) and Muslims (10%) WHY ARE AT WAR? The hatred between the Hutu ethnic groups: slaves (86% of the origi nal population of the country) and Tutsi: the invaders (14%) are the country int o a bloody civil war that has lasted 11 years and has caused thousands of deaths and displaced. Peace talks are endangered by continued fighting by guerrilla gr oups. Burundi is also the third poorest country in the world. SOMALIA Official name: Democratic Republic of Somalia Capital: Mogadishu Governm ent type: Parliamentary Population: 8,304,601 Area: 637 657 km ² Language: Somal i (official), Arabic, Italian, English Religion: Muslim, Sunni WHY ARE AT WAR ? Several clans (closed groups) have been fighting to gain power. A continuing war in a country also serious drought problems. Although it appears that the peace process will see the light. SUDAN Official name: Republic of Sudan Capital: Republic of Sudan Government typ e: Military Dictatorship Population: 37,090,298 Area: 2,505,810 km ² Language: A rabic (official language, spoken by 60% of the population), English (language fr anca in the south of the country), Kiswahili (the east) and 115 other African di alects Religion: Sunni Muslim 60%, 15% Christian, 25% traditional African religi ons,€Animists WHY ARE AT WAR? An alliance of people and groups from the south wa s fighting against radical Islamic government of Omar Hassan al Bashir in defens e of ethnic and religious diversity, and redistribution of political power and e conomic resources. Signed peace in 2004, but racial violence continues in Darfur .