Chemistry - Prof. SIMONE MORGADO Lesson 1 - element, substance and a mixture.

Concepts of Chemistry Chemistry is a science that seeks to understand the mysteries of matter, its org anization and change, and the energies involved in these transformations. The ch emicals are those curious beings who every day create new plastics, medicines an d try to explain the world around us. Matter is anything that occupies a place in space and has mass. Today we know th at matter consists of very small units that we call atoms. Like a curious child, that when the parent buys a game to ride, ride an airplane in your hand and giv es it all apart, dismantled the chemical matter, the child was left with several small pieces in your hands, and the chemicals were left with various types of a toms that are the Chemical Elements. 2. Matter 3. Chemical element Element Iron Chemical Element is a set of atoms equal (same type). an atom of Iron And the language of the chemicals they are represented by symbols. Example: Oxyg en Element Sodium Chlorine Symbol Na (Natrium) Cl As we shall see in the next lessons atoms like "dating" then you do not find ato ms alone in nature they usually are linked to form molecules (or ion clusters). 1 4. Molecule The molecule is a group of atoms, the same or different, linked. Figure 3 And the language of the chemicals they are represented by formulas. Molecular fo rmula is the "portrait" of the molecule, provides us with qualitative and quanti tative aspects of the substance. The index appears in the formula indicates the number of atoms of the element in the molecule. H2o1 = H 2O An atom of oxygen Two hydrogen atoms Substance Ammonia Baking soda Water Acetic Acid Formula NH3 H2O NaHCO3 CH3COOH Elements 2 2 4 3 Atoms 3 4 6 8 5. Pure Substance A pure substance is a type of molecule, when formed by a chemical is classified as simple substances, and when formed by more than one chemical element is compo sed of substances classified. A substance has its properties defined and determi ned, each substance is identified by a set of physical, chemical, organoleptic a nd functional themselves. We can not find two substances with all properties the same. 2 Examples Figures 4:05 Substances Substances simple composite There are atoms that can be grouped in different ways, forming different substan

ces. For example, oxygen is able to form more than a simple substance, oxygen ga s and ozone gas, this phenomenon is the name of Allotropes. 6. Allotropes When a chemical element can give rise to more than a simple substance, such subs tances are called varieties or allotropic forms of an element. Figure 6 Now when we find in nature a material that presents more than one kind of molecu le will have a mixture. 7.Mistura A mixture is thus the meeting of more than one substance. A mixture has no speci fic representation, usually indicated by its components. A mixture has variable properties. 3 Examples: water, sugar, water and sand, sulfur and iron, nitrogen and oxygen, wa ter and alcohol. There is, however, mixtures are named individuals: atmospheric air: N2 (nitrogen-78%), O2 (oxygen-21%), Ar (argon-0, 9%), CO2 (carbon dioxide-0 , 03%) and other gases. Gas mixture of compounds called hydrocarbons. Steel: mix ture of iron and carbon. Brass: mixture of copper and zinc. Bronze: mixture of c opper and tin. 18 carat gold mixture of 75% gold and 25% copper. Figure 7 8.Materiais Homogeneous and Heterogeneous As seen previously, we can classify a material as a substance or mixture by chec king their physical, chemical, etc. .. Another criterion for classifying a mater ial is about his appearance or on the number of steps you have. A homogeneous ma terial is one that shows just a phase, as a heterogeneous material is one that h as more than one phase, when observed at ultramicroscópio. Figure 8 4 Note: the entire gas mixture is homogeneous. two pieces of gold in the same physical s tate, form a discontinuous phase. Water and ice are a heterogeneous material for med by a substance (as they are in different physical states). Each phase is hom ogeneous portion of the material. Questions in Chemistry class 1 1) The recently discovered fullerenes are allotro pic forms of the chemical element carbon. Other allotropic forms of carbon are: a) carbon-13 isotopes. b) limestone and marble. c) silicon and Germanic. d) carb on monoxide and carbon dioxide. e) diamond and graphite. 2) On the chemical elem ent oxygen is CORRECT to say: 01.€Is found in nature in two varieties, the comm on oxygen and ozone. 02. Oxygen is a common constituent of the atmosphere. 04. O zone has a molecular formula O2. 08. Undergoing oxygen common to lightning, it c an be converted into ozone. 16. The ordinary oxygen is employed as an oxidant fo r combustion reactions. 3) It constitutes a heterogeneous mixture consisting of: a) ice cubes and water solution of sugar (glucose). b) N2 and CO2 gases. c) wat er and acetone. d) water and blackcurrant syrup. e) kerosene and diesel oil. 4) Bronze, dry ice and diamond, respectively, are examples of: a) mixture, substanc e and simple substance composed. b) mixture, composite substance and simple subs tance. c) composite substance, mixture and simple substance. d) composite substa nce, simple substance and mixture. e) simple substance, mixture and substance co mposed. 5) Taking samples of the following: I. chlorine gas 5 II. atmospheric air III. Brass IV. diamond represent the pure substances) I and II b) I and III c) I and IV d) II and III) III and IV 6) On simple substances ar e formulated the following propositions: I. are formed by a single chemical elem ent; II. their formulas are represented by two chemical symbols, III. may occur as allotropic varieties, IV. can not form mixed with substances composed. INCORR

ECT are a) I and II b) I and III c) II and III d) II and IV) III and IV 7) I - w ater (l) and water (s). II - oxygen gas. III - ethanol and sand. IV - carbon dio xide and hydrogen gas. For the systems above, we can say that there is: a) pure substance in I. b) in substance consisting II. c) single-phase mixture in III. d ) biphasic mixture in IV. e) mixture that can be separated by decantation in IV. 8) It is characteristic of pure substance: a) be soluble in water. b) have phys ical constants defined. c) having melting point and boiling point variables. d) undergo combustion. e) be solid at room temperature. 9) Augusto dos Anjos (18841914) was a poet who, on many occasions, sought his inspiration in sources of sc ientific order. Below we quote the first stanza of his sonnet entitled "Profiles Kettles." In these verses, Augusto dos Anjos makes use of words in chemistry. 6 The effective oxygen from the air, heat and carbon and the wide ether are worth three times less than that of Augusto Hooks Americo Sousa Falcão ... a) One wor d refers to a gas which are diatomic molecules and is essential for the breathin g process of animals. Write the formula of the gas. b) Another word refers to a gas mixture. One of the constituents of this mixture is present in much greater quantities than the others. Write the formula of the major constituent of the ga s mixture and also give the percentage by volume of the same in the mixture. c) A third word refers to a chemical element that can form the characteristic chain s and combining with other elements, mainly hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, const ituting the majority of organic compounds that allows the existence of life on o ur planet. Type the name of the chemical. 10) Choose the alternative that presen ts, in sequence, the correct terms that fill gaps in the following statement: "A SUBSTà NCIA_____ IS FORMED POR_____, APENAS_____ CONTAINING AN EVEN ..." a) compo und, molecules, elements, atom b) compound, molecules, atoms, element c) chemist ry, elements, molecules, atom d) simple, atoms, molecules, elements and) simple; molecules, atoms, element 11) are given three systems: A: oil, water and ice; B : oil, carbonated water and ice; C: oil, water and granite. The number of phases of each system are respectively: a) 3, 4 and 5 b) 3, 3:05 c) 3, 3:03; d) 3, 4 a nd 3 e) 3, 4 and 4. 12) Rate substances into simple and compound, justifying you r choice. a) N2 b) SO3 7 c) Br2 d) and CaCO3) NH4OH 13) Which of the following mixture is always homogene ous? a) oil and water b) water and alcohol c) water and salt d) iron and sand) s and and water 14) Consider the following group of substances: H2S + CO2 + C6H12O 6 The number of substances, the number of chemical elements and total number of atoms is, respectively: a) 3, 4, 30 b) 3, 7, 30 c) 5, 4, 27 d) 7, 3, and 27) 4, 3, 30 15) What is the alternative incorrect? a) The substances are represented b y formulas. b) The molecules are composed of atoms. c) The atoms are made up of elements. d) CO2 is a chemical compound. e) O2 is a simple substance. 16) The la bel of a bottle of mineral water is reproduced below. Chemical Composition proba ble calcium sulphate 0.0038 mg / L of calcium bicarbonate 0.0167 mg / L Based on this information, we may classify the mineral water as a) pure substance.€b) s imple substance. c) heterogeneous mixture. d) blend. e) colloidal suspension. 8 17) The blood has red color due to hemoglobin. In the hemoglobin molecule is pre sent ion of a chemical element that is responsible in large part by its color. T he total amount of this element in the body of a human adult is about four grams . This quantity is enough to make a small object such as a nail. a) Write the na me of the chemical. Hemoglobin is responsible for transporting oxygen from the l ungs to the cells, where it performed the oxidation of carbohydrates. This react ion is the release of a gas that is absorbed by the blood that carries to the lu ngs where oxygen is exchanged for restarting the cycle. b) Write the name of the method of gas released in the reaction that occurs in cells. 18) "The fish are dying because the river water is without oxygen, but in larger stretches of rapi ds the amount of oxygen increases." Upon hearing this information in a technical environment, a student who was passing by the waterfront was confused and made

the following comment: "I see water in the river and I know that water contains in its molecules, oxygen, so how can have finished the oxygen in the river? " a) Write the formula of the substances mentioned by the coach. b) What is the conf usion committed by the student in his reflection? ANSWERS 1) AND 2) V, V, F, V, V 3) 4) B 5) C 6) D 7) A 8) B 9)) O2, B) N2, approximately 78% C) carbon 10) E 1 1) 12) A and C, substance simply because they are composed of a single element. B, D and E substances composed as they are to be composed of more than one eleme nt. 13) B 14) A 15) C 16) D 17) A) Fe, B) whose formula is Carbon dioxide CO2 18 ) a) Water: H2O b) The oxygen used by fish in the breath is oxygen gas: O2. The student has confused the substance with oxygen the element oxygen. The dissolved gas may end, but the oxygen of the water molecule is part of their constitution . 9 10