LABOARATORIAS TECHNIQUES OF BIOLOGY NUCLEAR MORPHOLOGY OF LEUKOCYTES THEORETICAL INTRODUCTION The core is an essential part of eukaryotic cell compartment

, as is where is the genetic material responsible for the characteristics that the body has, typical ly, is unique and is located in the center of the cell, the nucleus size can var y according to the metabolism and the DNA content of the cell. It is bounded by the nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope, which separates the nucleus from the c ytoplasm, and consists of a phospholipid bilayer. It consists of an outer nuclea r membrane is continuous with the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and an inner membrane that is continuous with the lumen of the ER. The nuclear envelope is full of pores that communicate the interior of the nucleus and the cytosol, and are complex structures known as nuclear pore complex, which regulate the tra nsit of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is com posed of an aqueous solution of proteins, RNA, nucleosides, nucleotides and ions , where the nucleoli and chromatin. Most of the nuclear matrix proteins are enzy mes involved in transcription and DNA replication. The nucleolus is usually sphe rical, may be single or multiple, is where there is transcription of ribosomal R NA and assembly of ribosomal subunits. Chromatin - Filaments formed by DNA and p roteins, comprising the euchromatin, active portion and barely visible, and hete rochromatin, portion inert or slightly active and visible, so the chromosomes du ring cell adivisão. Blood is a tissue fluid that circulates through the blood va scular system of vertebrates is created in the red bone marrow and its role in s ustaining life of the organism. It consists of a yellow fluid, plasma and cells, generically called formed elements. Plasma is composed of special proteins, ami no acids and other organic substances, lipids and carbs. The formed elements, th ey emphasized classroom practice except platelets, are called: 2 • • • Erythrocytes (red blood cells or red blood cells) are specialized cells in the t ransport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues by hemoglobin. Are produced ins ide the bones from bone marrow cells. Or leukocytes (white blood cells) are spec ialized cells in the body's defense, fighting viruses, bacteria and other invade rs that penetrate the body. Platelets or thrombocytes: tiny disks are round or o val, about 2 mm in diameter, which participate in the process of blood clotting. Represent fragments of megakaryocytes, which are extremely large white blood ce lls formed in bone marrow. Leukocytes also known as white blood cells are produced in bone marrow and prese nt in the blood, lymph, lymphoid organs and various tissues. A normal adult has between 4 million and 11 million leukocytes per micro liter (cubic millimeter) o f blood. The types of leukocytes were analyzed in practice: Neutrophils: are inv olved in defense against bacterial infection and other small inflammatory proces ses. They are also called Micrófagos and is the most abundant in human blood, po ssess segmented nucleus (usually three lobes). Lymphocyte: they are more common in the lymphatic system, can be classified into large and small lymphocytes. Lar ge lymphocytes have diameters of 10-15 micrometers. Rounded nuclei with dense ch romatin and eccentric. Monocyte: They are different, where necessary in macropha ges, but also phagocytose, Nucleus is large and without targeting with delicate chromatin prepared as networks. Three other types of leukocytes are the elements

of the blood: macrophages, basophils and eosinofolo. . 3 OBJECTIVES In examining the blood film slide containing different cell types, identifies th e core, and through these identifications can ditinguir cells in - Core-Lymphocy tes great. - Neutrophil-Core polilobulado, connected by a filament plant. - Mono cytes-Core like a bean. Materials • • • • Light Microscope Slide Smear Blood Tissue paper Reagents Oil immersion METHODOLOGY 1 -) We use the optical microscope, with care, leaving it ready for use. 2 -) op ens flat diaphragm and place the system condenser / diaphragm in the highest pos ition, because it is one that allows for better lighting. 3 -) He moves the gun, putting in place the lens of a smaller increase. 4 -) got to the final slide wi th the cells present, 5 -) cleans up with the same tissue, 6 -) places the slide with the coverslip up, snap it in platinum,€securing it with staples. 7 -) was focused on the blood film, that is, getting a clear picture, 8-) It moves the bo lt macro and starts to analyze it. 9 -) Optimizes the focus with the micrometric screw. 10 -) is used all the objective, starting with the 40x to 400x 11 -) end s with the analysis with the objective of 1000x, remembering that the technique of adding oil immersion is necessary for a better result . 4 RESULTS Neutrophil • • • • His view, identifying it accurately has been possible through the technique of o il immersion. Your core is polilobulado usually has three lobes connected by a t hin filament nuclear. The cytoplasm is abundant and has fine granules dispersed. Its granules are divided into primary and secondary. Primers appear in promyelo cyte stage. The secondary (specific) found in the myelocytic stage, prevalent in mature neutrophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant cells among the leukocyte s (50 -70%). Lymphocyte • • • • Its nucleus is oval and occupies most of the cell, is very dense and central. Th e nucleus-cytoplasm ratio is particularly important. The rather abundant cytopla sm. Generally lymphocytes among blood leukocytes are the smallest cells. 5 Monocyte • • It is the largest of the blood cells. Its nucleus is large, eccentric and renifo

rm, irregular and presents its cytoplasm is slightly basophilic. 6 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Visualization of leukocyte neutrophil • • When viewed in the peripheral blood th rough a blood smear stained and the neutrophils is presented as a cell diameter between 12-15μm (microns). Its granules are divided into primary and secondary. Primers appear in promyelocyte stage. The secondary (specific) found in the myel ocytic stage, prevalent in mature neutrophils. Visualization of Lymphocyte leucocito • Lymphocytes are small cells. According t o its diameter are classified as: small white blood cells (the diameter varies b etween 7 and 10 mm), mean leukocyte (the diameter varies between 10 and 12 mm) a nd large lymphocytes (diameter is greater than 12 mm). Preview leucocito Monocyte • • • • Her size comes to measuring up to 50 um repre sents 3-7% of blood leukocytes. The cytoplasm is slightly basophilic and contain s a few azurophilic granules and vacuoles often present. Are precursors of macro phages. In which they become from the time they leave the blood vessels and migr ate to the tissues. Monocytes which migrate from the blood into the tissues are called macrophages. Macrophages are responsible for protecting the tissues. Keep the tissues free of foreign bodies. They are also the predominant cells in athe rosclerosis. 7 Conclusion The lesson was satisfactory, since we managed to achieve the proposed conclusion is that: the cellular components of blood are the erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, which are suspended in plasma. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are the most numerous of the three cellular components, and typically account for almos t half the blood volume. These cells are filled with hemoglobin, which allows th em to carry oxygen from the lungs and release it to all body tissues. Oxygen is consumed to provide energy to cells, leaving the carbon dioxide as a metabolic p roduct, which remove the red cells of tissues and transport to the lungs. The wh ite blood cells or leukocytes are cells which are mainly in the blood and circul ate it to the function of fighting infections or foreign bodies, but on occasion s can attack the body's own tissues. It is a part of the body's immune defenses. They are called white blood cells and since this is the color appearance under a microscope. They are manufactured in bone marrow from hematopoietic cells that differentiate into myeloid precursor cells (for granulocytes, monocytes and mac rógafos) or lymphoid cells (for lymphocytes). 8 REFERENCES • • • • • Junqueira, Luiz and CARNEIRO, José, Cellular and Molecular Biology, 8th edition, São Paulo Editora Guanabara Koogan, 199 ... http://www.webciencia.com/11_03nucl eo.htm http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/leucocitos http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sang ue http://www.fcf.usp.br / Education / Graduation / Branches / Exclusive / Inser t / Attach / LinkAnexos / C% C3% A9lulas% 20sangu% C3% ADneas.pdf 9