CH8 Statistics I) Vocabulary: 1) origin: Originally Statistics collects and examines all the information likely to intere st the

state (status). The statistics were first provided information on â ¢ the p opulation (number, gender distribution, ages, occupations ... ....) â ¢ The econom y (the country's wealth of food stock, number of vessels ... ...) Currently, sta tistical methods are used in many areas: * Demography (Population Studies) * Eco nomy (Competitive Analysis) * Medical (health, drug efficacy ....) * Agronomy (c ultivation method, fertilizer efficiency) Industry (work, quality control) * Soc iology (poll) 2) population The set of reference which will be called the comments is: Population 3) individual: Each element of the entire population is called: * * individual or statistical u nit. 4) character a) NOTE: In statistics, the population observed is generally given in reading, t hat is to say, by the statement of property (s) must possess the statistical uni t for belonged to all, that we call: * character (s) or * statistical variable ( s) b) qualitative: The character is said: Qualitative when he does not take a nu meric value. Opinions, behaviors, colors, categories, qualities of individual .. .. c) quantitative: * The discrete discrete quantitative character is told when it can take a finite number of numeric values: The number of siblings the number of rooms of an apartment. * The continuous continuous quantitative character is told when it can take an infinite number of numeric values: The size, weight in dividuals. The duration of telephone calls. 5) Sample: When the study population is too large or impossible to observe in full the statistician selects certain criteria a subset of the population known as: Sample To test the effectiveness o f an insecticide. To assess the votes in elections. II) Statistical Series: 1) terms and classes: The character studied can take different values known: how the different modalit ies will be marked x 1, x 2, x 3, ... ..., xp In the case of a continuous variab le, we proceed to a grouping classes [x 1, x 2 [[x 2, x 3 [, ... ..., [x p-1 xp] 2) effective: a) a method or a class: The size of a term xi is equal to the number of individu als who take this value is denoted by n i. Different staff will be graded No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, ... ..., np b) total: The total equals the number of individuals of the population is denote d N We have N = n 1 + n 2 + n 3 + ... ... + npc) Σ notation: We can write N = Î £ Σ ni = ni = n1 + n2 + n3 + ... + np symbol Σ (sigma) represents L addition. d) Table: The case of a discrete character: Value of character xi Case Number or a continuing nature: Value xi character or Staff x1 n1 [x 1, x 2 [n1 x2 n2 .................. ................. [X 2, x 3 [n2 xp np .................. .................. total N [x p-1, x p] np total N

e) Example: Distribution of eight grades of a student in mathematics. Notes 8 10 effective 2 3 Distribution by age groups of the population of a city. age in ye ars [1, 25 [[25, 60 [owner in thousands 30 55 February 13 [60, 100] 25 January 18 Total 110 3) frequency: a) Definition: The frequency of a value is the ratio of the actual value of the total workforce. b) Rating: The frequency of modality xi, denoted fi, is equal t o fi = ni / N c) Table: Data are presented as a frequency table or we complete t he plan by an additional line with frequencies. Value x1 x2 xi character ... ... ... xp total workforce or n1 n2 ... ... ... np N frequency fi = ni / N f1 f2 .. . ... ... fp a value xi of Staff or character frequency fi = ni / N [x 1, x 2 [n 1 f1 [x 2, x 3 [n2 f2 .................. .................. .................. [ X p-1, x p] fp np Total N 1 d) Property: The sum frequency is always 1. Indeed: = n1 / n2 + N / N + n3 / N + ... + np / N = n1 + n2 + n3 + ... + np / N = N / N = 1 4) actual or cumulative frequencies: a) Definition: The actual cumulative increasing value xi is the sum of actual va lues less than x i. The cumulative frequency of increasing value xi is the sum o f frequency values less than or equal to x i. The cumulated number of decreasing value xi is the sum of actual values greater than x i.€The cumulative frequenc y decreasing a value xi is the sum of frequency values greater than or equal to x i. b) illustration: Number of DVDs purchased in the last two months by student s in a class of second. III) Plots: 1) pie charts and bar: a) Representation: The qualitative variables are often represented as pie. The m easurement of each angular sector is proportional to the number (or frequency) o f the modality. The qualitative variables are represented by bar charts. b) illu stration: Diagram of the urban population of eight thousand inhabitants. 2) bar chart: a) representation: discrete quantitative variables are often represented by bar graphs. b) illustration: Number of DVDs purchased in the last two months by stud ents in a class of second. 3) Histogram a) representation: continuous quantitative variables are often represented by hi stograms. The area of each rectangle is proportional to the size or frequency of the modality. b) Illustration: Distribution of wages in an enterprise in hundre ds of euros. Histogram: a rectangular base is 5 employees. IV) Statistical parameters: 1) average: a) discreteness: b) continuing: It completes the picture by indicating for each class its center x1, x2, x3, ...

.., xp. It calculates the average of the discrete series obtained. c) example: d) Property: If we multiply each value in a series by a real k, the average is multiplied by the number k. If we add real value k each series, the series average increase of k. e) Example: The second class A and B have respectively 28 and 33 students. O n the same control mathematics grade-point average of 9.8 is that of 2A 2B is 10 .4. The average score of the control over the two classes is: 2) median a) definition: Either a quantitative series ordered. The median, denoted by me in this series i s a value that divides the population into two subpopulations of the same size. It corresponds to a cumulative frequency increasing from 0.5 to 50%. b) discrete character: In a statistical series of n terms in ascending order, th e median Me: * the middle term, if n is odd, * the half-sum of two terms of the environment, if n is even. c) example: The notes of a math grade student are: 7, 8, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 The median score is 10. The math scores of a student of a second are: 5, 8, 9, 10, 10, 14 are taken for median score is 9.5. d) continuing: 3) mode: a) definition: For a series qualitative or quantitative discrete mode of the series is the valu e of the character that has the greatest effect. In the case of a series grouped into classes, the modal class is the class that has the largest effective only when the classes have the same amplitude. The mode or modal class are not necess arily unique b) example: 4) scope: a) Definition: We call a series of extensive statistical difference between the highest value of the character and the smallest value of the character of this s eries. b) example: The lowest note of a duty is 2, the highest score is 18 is th e extent of 16. © xavier innkeeper