Structure, function and organization of nerve cells • glial cells: - To protect and assist neurons Microglia and astrocytes

or - To accelerate the nerve impulse or oligodendrocyte or Schwann cell • Neurons: - Sensitive - Interneurons - Motor Glial cells Neurons: basic structure 1. Soma 2. Dendrites 3. Core 4. RER (Nissl substance) 5. Axon hillock 6. Neurofi lament 7. Mitochondria 8. Axon 9. Myelin sheath (Schwann cell) of Ranvier 10.Nod o 11.Axón 13.Botones collateral synaptic terminals 12.Ramificaciones Neurons: myelin sheath Neurons: examples Neurons: Diversity Neurons: functional components Neurons: functional organization of components Source of nervous tissues: gray and white matter Distribution of nerve tissue Control of the reflex arc Antagonistic control of muscle contraction General organization of the central nervous system: brain General organization of the central nervous system Brain: organizational structure Brain Mesencephalon Cerebellum Medulla pons or Family encefálic Brain: structural organization Neural pathways: two examples of sensory pathways Functional areas of the brain: Positron emission tomography Functional areas of the brain: Positron emission tomography Without stimulus Auditory stimulus Functional areas of the brain: Positron emission tomography Without stimulus

Visual stimulus Functional areas of the brain: Positron emission tomography Without stimulus Memory Functional areas of the brain: Positron emission tomography Without stimulus Foot movement Brain: general functional organization Functions relating to language: example of integration between areas Functions relating to language: description Functions relating to language: description Functions relating to language: description CNS Brain Cerebellum Brainstem Diencephalon Cerebral Lump Thalamus Hypothalamus Midbrain Medulla Spinal Cranial Nervous system Spinal cord Somatic SNP Self Nerves Sympathetic Parasympathetic Nervous System Organization Monopolar: They have a two-way single extension, which acts both as axon and den drite. Most of these are responsible for unipolar neurons perceive stimuli: in i nvertebrates Bipolar: They have two extensions, one serving as input and output dendrite that acts as an axon. Neurona bipolar: the retina, inner ear, olfactory nerves and the sensory ganglio n dorsal root Snakes: These are the most typical and abundant. They have a large number of sma ll extensions of entry, dendrites, and one output, the axon. Multipolar neurons: spinal motoneurons, hippocampal pyramidal cells, cerebellar Purkinje cells. SESORIALES Neurons (afferent) are those that carry the information captured by C onnecticut Center ISSUED TO RECEIVERS (spinal cord and brain). Dendrite DO NOT H AVE THESE NEURONS Motor neurons (efferent) LEADING GENERATED IN RESPONSE TO THE CENTER MADE effect

ors (muscles and glands). Dendrite HAVE THESE NEURONS highly branched. ASSOCIATI ON NEURONS (striping) is located in THE INTERIOR OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND A RE ANSWERS makers The nerve fibers or axons, can be of two types 1 .- Myelin: so called because they are coated with the membrane of cells called Schwann cells. This membrane is rich in a phospholipid called myelin and rolled several times around the nerve fiber. Thus, several Schwann cells come to cover all the fiber forming a sort of cover CNS myelin sheath cells called myelin. As the sheath is formed by several cells at points of contact between adjacent c ells that cover is interrupted to receive those places called nodes of Ranvier. The nerve impulse moves by leaps, from node to node, so it moves faster. 2 .- Unmyelinated or bare: are the fibers that are not covered by myelin sheath. The nerve impulse moves around the axon crossing, so it's not going so fast SNP amielinizadas cells Unmyelinated nerve fibers in the impulse is conducted, as an ongoing investment wave voltage to the terminal buttons of axons The nerve impulse The nerve impulse is a wave of electrical nature that is created in the neurons and some sensory cells, to influence them some kind of stimulus, external or int ernal. This stimulus can be anything, a chemical, pressure, levels of some chemi cal, a mechanical wave, the light, cold or heat, etc.. Using special measuring instruments can detect neural activity in the form of ti ny electrical currents, this is the case of electroencephalography. • The speed is proportional to the diameter of the axon and ranges from 1-100 m / s. • The speed of nerve impulse conduction is proportional to the diameter of the axon and the distance between the nodes of Ranvier • The amount of stimulus needed to trigger the activity of a neuron, is called t he threshold of excitability. • reached this threshold, the response is effectiv e, regardless of the interruption or augmentation of the stimulus. That is, foll ows the law of all or nothing. • During depolarization, the neuron is not excita ble, that is, is in refractory period. When the nerve impulse reaches the end of the axon of a neuron has to "jump" to the dendrites of the next neuron, a small space between them, called the synapti c space .. "It is the communication between neurons" They are classified according to the contact and the type of transmission Synapse CLASSIFICATION A place where contact is established axoaxonal synapses osomática axodendrítica Synapse CLASSIFICATION Transmission Type Chemical Synapse Synapse Electrical Synapses mixed There are direct channels that carry ions from cell to cell. Synapse Synapse ax

synapses are less

common and exist only in some organs such as heart and liver. They are very rare in the point S electrical synapse Mixed synapses two contact areas, a chemical and other utilities. • electrical synapse • In them, the electric current passes from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic neuron, because they are close together • The two cells are linked by a protein channel called connexons that allows the passage of ions from one neuron to anot her. • The nerve impulse is bidirectional and produce these synapses between axo ns and cell bodies, dendrites and cell bodies and dendrites and between cell bod ies. It is a snapshot synapses allowing immediate responses Chemical synapses • In them, the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron are separated by synaptic cle ft and the passage of nerve impulses from one neuron to another is due to the ex istence of chemicals in the membrane of the axon called neurotransmitters Synapse I. Conduction N. in the synapse • The process that allows the passage of nerve impulses from one neuron to the p ostsynaptic presynaptic can be summarized in three steps: 1. The depolarization wave: Open for calcium channels, allowing their entry. The entry of this ion stimulates the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynapt ic membrane. 2. The union of the two membranes releases the neurotransmitters in to the synaptic space. 3. The neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsyn aptic membrane, thus opening the channels for sodium and Conduction of nerve impulses in the synapse • The process that allows the passage of nerve impulses from one neuron to the p ostsynaptic presynaptic can be summarized into three stages: 1. The depolarization wave: Open channels and allows calcium entry. The entry of this ion stimulates the fus ion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. 2. The union of the two membranes releases the neurotransmitters into the synaptic space. The neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, thu s opening the channels for sodium and potassium. This generates a new wave of de polarization in the postsynaptic neuron. 3. ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA OF NEURONS • THE OPERATION OF THE neurons is determined by alterations electrochemical membra ne level, leading to electrical state DOS. • 1 .- REST OR POTENTIAL • 2 .- MEMBRANE ACTION POTENTIAL

RESTING POTENTIAL • It is the result of the difference in concentration of certain ions between th e outer and inner membrane of the neuron. Distribution of ions into the neuron • potassium ions (K +) and sodium (Na +) are on both sides of the membrane. • Th e difference in charges between the inside and outside is given by the presence of negatively charged proteins within the axon. In the resting state the k + ion concentration in the cytosol of the axon is abo ut 30 times higher than outside, whereas the concentration of Na + is 10 times h igher in the interstitial fluid within the cytosol The distribution of these ions on both sides of the membrane is regulated by thr ee factors: 1. Diffusion of particles in favor of a concentration gradient 2. Th e attraction of oppositely charged particles and repulsion of like charges in Ma rch. Properties of the membrane itself RESTING POTENTIAL In the resting potential: • l.€The K + ion concentration is higher in the cytoso l as diffuse out of the axon to pass through the exhaust channels of K +. • 2. T he negative charges can not accompany the K + ions so that the inside is negativ ely charged compared to the outside 3. The excess of negative charges inside attracts K + ions, which prevents them from leaving the cell. 4. As a result, achieves a balance that not a movement of K +. When the membrane reaches this equilibrium is said to be polarized and is the resting potential ACTION POTENTIAL • is an electrochemical phenomenon PRODUCED BY A CHANGE IN THE CONCENTRATION OF IONS BETWEEN THE MIDDLE EXTRA • E INTRACELLULAR ACTION POTENTIAL involves two st eps: • 1. Depolarization MEMBANA • 2. Repolarization MEMBRANE Membrane depolarization Membrane depolarization • Each time a neuron receives a stimulus increases the permeability of the membr ane to the sodium channel opening voltage-gated sodium. At this point says that the membrane is depolarized Sodium ions enter the axon reversing the polarity of the diaphragm momentarily. This change in sodium permeability lasts only half a millisecond. Then the sodiu m channel closes and the region returns to its initially stimulated property of impermeability to sodium ions. • The depolarization wave that propagates along the axon is known as • NERVOUS IMPULSE Membrane repolarization Membrane repolarization • Once you have closed the channels for sodium voltage, repolarization begins wi th the opening of the voltage-gated channels for K + and K + ions flow outward f

rom the axon • This outward flow of ions K + counteracts the polarity caused by the massive i nflux of Na + ions and the resting potential recovers very quickly. • Subsequently, the sodium-potassium pump is responsible to move Na + and K + ac ross the membrane and restore the initial concentrations. • During the time period in which the membrane restores its initial polarity and the relative amounts of Na + and K + inside and outside the cell, the neuron is unable to generate and drive a new nerve impulse. This situation is mastered re fractory period and lasts a very short period of time. SPREAD OF I. N 04/24/09 Direction of nerve impulse • The I.N. propagates due to the electrical change that occurs in the membrane, and moves only in one direction because the fragment is behind the action potent ial area maintains a short refractory period, in which voltage-gated channels ar e not be opened. Role of the myelin sheath • The myelin sheath is not just an insulator, also serves to increase the speed of a nerve impulse conduction. • This is because the Na + and K + can only move outside and inside the axon at the nodes of Ranvier • Consequently, the nerve impulse jumps from node to node, greatly accelerating driving