MEANS OF TRANSPORT Since in ancient Egypt was discovered the wheel that began the revolution in lan d transport

. Since ancient times man the carriage of goods, using a variety of a nimal species and in any circumstance, simply that the man to achieve profits or even to improve their way of life, thereby sparing the larger efforts . Used th e rivers either frozen or not to transport larger (trunks). The Phoenicians inve nted the sail, allowing them to go further and have deeper draft vessels, removi ng from their decks rowers, thus saving them to a slow death and slavery. These men have evolved socially and saw their jobs better, learned new formations, suc h as handling the sails, rope work and build ships. Thanks to this invention hav e been set up cotton mills of cordage, building sites, learned new trades were s et up schools, universities, developed new science, new social strata that led t o the bourgeoisie and money changers. These, for yourself, develop the economy, created Bureau de change, was the end of the call economy directly. However, thi s type of economy came to the upside with the discovery by the Portuguese sea ro utes, new peoples and continents carrying cloths, china, oil, etc. weapons. and in return they brought spices that were sold in Europe at very high prices. Trad e flourished, it became imperative to increase the number of ships and increase your draft. There are other commercial developments, the decay barter, now buy i t with gold coin and silver. To meet the needs of this invention was necessary t o develop agriculture, planting more flax and hemp plant more, the more wind res istant looms family no longer met the needs of demand, became industrialized wea ving of sails and clothing suitable for sailors. At this time, the major produce rs of linen began as the Egyptians, the upper Nile, which exported to Europe and Asia, receiving in exchange other goods that were in deficit, or gold as paymen t. Reflecting on this invention so simple, almost no one realizes the economic a nd social transformation that it brought us, this is not to say that there was a chain reaction, but an economy in jail, not to mention the economy, because a w ithout the other does not. Analyzing the effects from the production of flax unt il you get to sail, and this become a ship's engine, the changes that did not su ffer, and the persons or industries involved. 1 Since the beginning of civilization, but still the man who try desperately to kn ow is, how and where it came from, who created this event to improve their livin g conditions. Many of curiosity and mostly by economic interests, because he is ambitious and not content with what you have, but it was so many that have perpe tuated his name or on behalf of humanity or to his disadvantage. Among many disc overies that man has done, since it exists, would not be possible to enumerate t hem, some are known to us, there were other important but because it clashed wit h other interests largest and most economically powerful do not know them. It is a wonder of science that emerged in the seventeenth century and revolutionized the industrial world, we speak: the steam engine. This machine was invented in E ngland and made known to the world for industrial and manufacturing. At this tim e, there was a major technological change with profound impact on the production process of economic and social. A century later is put into service the first s team locomotive. Was thus created what would be called the 1st industrial revolu tion and came to expand the world from the nineteenth century. At this time, a p riest, named Bartolomeu de Gusmão, makes his first trip air on a hot air balloo n and between Lisbon and Barreiro, the man continues to live day to day life wit h the increasingly easy, becoming more sedentary agriculture, the primary sector , it gets dropped. In 1908 Holy Mount in Paris, invented the first plane that wi ll launch the era of air transport, even in France, invented the 1st car and ste am Carlo Goods, called the father of the automobile, discovers the 1st engine co mbustion. There is then the real start of the 2nd industrial revolution, with th e development of roads, cars are built in series, steamboats, trains, farm machi nery, industrial, etc.. The appearance of the steam engine of James Watt, applie d to transport, particularly the railway, this displacement allowed at speeds ne ver imagined by the human race.€Although widely experienced, but the technique did not allow a large transportation safety, so it was not until the invention o f Rudolf Diesel, and by combustion engines, so this is a huge increase in road a

nd air. Portugal was no exception and a natural evolution tended towards the dev elopments that had already been felt across Europe. Faced with the prospect of b eing able to offer transport numbers of people more than that offered by carriag es, wagons or diligence, and to the extent that it was developing a network of r oads, also the road transport of passengers began to gain ground, especially aga inst its most direct competitor, the train. 2 A bus could easily get to places often inaccessible for any train, and if there were perfecting the means of transport as a result of direct competition between the means. If the car competed with the train, it competed with the plane's pro gress of steam navigation and railways, iron were monitored since the late ninet eenth century, the emergence of new transport, such as the automobile and the ai rplane. The development of the car goes back to 1886 when it appeared the first machine driven by an internal combustion engine. Many engineers and technicians contributed to the outbreak of new means of transport: in Germany, Daimler Benz, Diesel, France, Panhard, Peugeot and Michelin. In the early years of the twenti eth century, France and Germany occupied the first position in production cars. In 1914, however, the United States has already manufactured 56% of total world of automobiles, most of whom belonged to the Ford plant, where the installation of assembly lines favored the cheaper and increased production. As for aviation, and after decades of experiments with balloons and blimps, it fell in 1903, Orv ille Wright feat to fly with a gasoline engine and propeller. In 1909, the broth ers designed a Voisin biplane and his partner L. A Bleriot monoplane, with which crossed the Channel. Was then altered the relationship of man to the space allo cated and the conquest of the air. The aviation industry experienced a remarkabl e surge in the period 1914-18, when put to the service of military interests. An other invention has already had its beginnings in ancient Greece by rubbing ambe r with sheepskin observed that pieces of straw were attracted to the amber. In 1 773 it is already known that there are two kinds of electricity in 1880 and put into operation the power system, which after several improvements and for econom ic reasons enter the field of railways. Nuclear power also has its space is used to move ships and large reactors. Aviation develops from a simple twin to exist ing reactors, carrying "more" and people farther and farther away, competing wit h other modes of transport. But man, this is still little known to you already i nterested in others who never saw, only part of their imagination, develop new e nergy and new means of transport, invented rockets, unmanned aircraft, powered b y more energy dangerous kind, because he is not yet known, but has its headquart ers and arrange to meet other new areas. This man is no longer fit in itself and part for the space, she dreamed of traveling and go inhabit other planets, thus giving a start to globalization extraterrestrial, mimicking the one that the Po rtuguese began 500 years ago. 3 The development of transport, social developments brought the man and behaviors hitherto unseen, with the invention of the candle, a little invention, developed agriculture, weaving, cordage, shipyards, astronomy emerged from other social s trata , merchants, sailors, merchants, money changers etc.., with mechanization developed and are abandoned each other. It was necessary to build steel mills, e xploring mines, the industry appeared to extract ore, coal, coal and oil etc. .. Appeared new Mester, had to develop literacy, they have set up schools universi ties, industrial areas and its periphery large bedrooms, the workers had nowhere to leave their children appeared nurseries, childminders ATL's labor unions, pa tronage, new diseases coupled with industrialization appeared new hospitals, new areas other medical specialties. To make a wheel of the train, there must be mi ners, sailors, shippers, mills, factories molding parts turners mechanical tuner s. All these industries have developed different social classes, as necessary so that exert their influence in society. There are more advantaged social classes than others,€those who are in the tertiary sector, forgetting that the raw mat erials are due to the primary sector, which are sometimes the most disadvantaged . In addition, there were working-class neighborhoods where social classes are m ore than evident, district miners, metallurgists, the bank, a transport company

example of CP etc.., Where the difference between the social spheres is notoriou s in the neighborhoods and people who inhabit them, for example, has more chance to ascend into a more comfortable lifestyle or balanced the son of a metalworke r or banking that of a miner or farmer. There are other social classes to suppor t less developed transport, tighter living in suburbs degraded in a quite human. Linked to transport there is the category of traders and transporters, importer s, exporters, which are the most benefited, to the point of making cartelization . One way or another, that since the creation of the steam engine which has faci litated the life to man, making us increasingly hostage today means of transport and fuel supplies. But since early man discovered this hazard and then in the s eventeenth century in England began to be demonstrations against the machine tha t was launched on the streets thousands of employees so that the factories were mechanized. However, now through another phase of change. Globally, the oil beco mes an increasingly scarce as well, so even if you are looking 4 energy alternatives to fossil fuel, accounts for the major developments known to man in such a short period of time. Also, the road will pass in a more or less distant future for a change, you start to notice today, particularly in buses ca lled "environmentally friendly" powered by bio-diesel, hydrogen, natural gas or electric. It is therefore necessary to operate a new development that will dicta te the future course of transportation of passengers, both in Portugal and in th e world. The invention of means of transport in addition to having originated th e development of other industries has led to the creation of large infrastructur e particularly roads and railways, ports and airports. This invention has brough t social and behavioral changes at all levels and that the man had never met unt il then. With the discovery of the candle began shipping, people began to travel between nations and continents, the first people we met were the Greeks, Phoeni cians and others in northern Europe that have already docked in Lisbon to market their products with they knew each other ways to market and conduct business, t here was a profound change in the way of being of the people. Then they gave up the Portuguese discoveries that have come to radically change our habits and way s of being. Appeared a new company until then unknown, coming from the bourgeois ie of merchants and money changers who was the envy of the nobility began to los e influence. As this was a growing business and very coveted, the enrichment app eared effortless: there were pirates on the high seas. These means of transport were not always used for the best purposes, as was needed cheap labor in other c ontinents appealed to the trafficking and slave trade, where people were selling merchandise as if it were, a social behavior never before seen seen, this form of slavery not only changed the behavior of the enslaved as the locations where they were sold, were regarded as inferior beings and undifferentiated, had only duties of obedience, the slave traders were people without ethics or morals and laws were the whip. This form of slavery lasted until the eighteenth century. Th e domain of man by man has always been an ambition and transport through these m oved up huge armies that arrived quickly and moved large quantities of ordnance, cite the Portuguese navy, the invincible British navy, and the Philippines from Spain, that with the massacre made by Captain Fernando Cortes in Mexico, led to the extinction of the Andean communities (Incas, Aztecs etc.). It was necessary to fortify the coastline making huge ramparts and putting enormous weapons to d efend the coast, which led to the development of a another company and other ind ustry, the military. 5 We too, the Portuguese had our share, deported blacks from Africa to the plantat ions of sugar cane in Brazil which led to the mixture of races, these slaves bro ught with them their culture and today, there is samba in Brazil, in Cape Verde, warm, etc. .. The first weapons that the Japanese saw were the Portuguese who l ed them to trade.€But thanks to these means of transport that Ferdinand Magella n proved that the earth was round dispelling myths that pointed to the contrary. The locomotive was also used in 1st and 2nd World War to transport men, weapons and logistical support, built railways is huge for this cause, he cites to Sard inia for the heavy water plant, the Manchuria. In Angola the British built the B

enguela railway line with a distance of 1000 km to explore and carrying the ores of the Congo, thus reaching more easily and rapidly to the metropolis. The car initially placed in the service of people was quickly adapted to the war leading to massive tank destroyers. In olden times, people traveling between countries and continents using large vessels that took many days of transatlantic travel w as exhausting and dangerous; refer to the Titanic, there were several classes of passengers. Today, such operations are carried out only on luxury cruise ships or container ships, bulk carriers, tankers and fishing, carrying everything a co untry needs from raw materials to food. With the development of the aircraft, sh ip and train lost importance, the plane can reach the same day to anywhere in th e world, with an enviable comfort and class this affordable development allowed in addition to a shift faster, better socialization and experience between peopl e can have lunch and dinner in Prague in Lisbon. Different countries, different people and cultures, not speaking of the goods that arrive faster, permitting tr opical products fresh every day, read newspapers from around the world ... Still , this mode of transport was also put at the service of war and today with in-fl ight refueling allows countries to bomb a distance once unimaginable. The evolut ion of road transport along with the development of road network contributed to the demise of the mule drivers and abandonment of breeding traction but helped p eople to travel more easily between people, allowing you to reach in few hours w hat took days now to have more time for yourself, the more health care and schoo l, met new people, new ideas, other ways to socialize. With the passage of time and due to the evolution of the automobile, people started to move individually, leaving the public transport 6 allied to aging and depopulation of some areas were drastically reduced or no lo nger exist because they are not profitable. Trains also resented this effect wit h the exception of large urban centers. In my house we use public transport ever y day, we all have to pass and only use the car in case of need, we only have fo ur people and a car that consumes gasoline of 95 octane. I remember a strange so cial behavior a few years ago when the subway reached Odivelas and people were t o behave differently because they spent more than three hours daily at home, the fact that they had been accustomed over many years of work. Because in urban en vironments we use in our daily commuting to work various types of public transpo rt at the same time, such as boats, trains, metro and bus, allowing us to work a t great distances every day returning home in other areas of our small country t hat is just a mirage, people are increasingly more difficult life, they feel as if relegated to a more distant country where every day, it is further, leading t o outbreaks of migration and displacement people from the interior to the coast where everything is more accessible and cheaper. It is known that today go by pl ane as well as convenient, it is safe. More and more people travel by plane, thi s transport is increasingly modern and convenient, the same applies in the train s among the new generation with speeds of "400 km hour," one can almost say that the car is more dangerous, die Each year 650 people not counting those who are maimed. In conclusion: The means of transport have evolved slowly until the Indu strial Revolution of Séc.XVIII. Initially, the introduction of technological ad vances and the application of steam to railway traffic and shipping, it was poss ible for the first time the transport of raw materials over long distances, repl acing animal traction and the sail, used until then. Subsequently, the discovery of the internal combustion engine, the application of electricity to transporta tion and, years later, with the automobile and airplane, it was possible to achi eve major technological advances, including€improving accessibility, reducing t he distance-time and distance-cost. This is a fundamental characteristic of our time, contributing to profound changes that have increased in large-scale opport unities for mobility and made the means of transport available to a growing numb er of people. 7 The opportunity cost represents the value associated with the best alternative n

ot chosen. People do less physical effort to get faster support to health center s, have more time for other tasks, such as family care, combating illiteracy, ap petite to discover new horizons, reducing the cost of raw materials and supplies , internationalization economy, etc. .. In contrast, came generate disputes. Wit h the constant development of mechanization and transport, today it is possible to have twenty people in a factory and produce by two hundred of old, or do shif t the factory to another country overnight, raising unemployment. With increasin g longevity of Social Security began to collapse, it was necessary to make new l aws and new calculations of reform, previously there were four staff members to a pensioner, the trend reversed already and is expected to soon be retired for t hree each owner. There was a low birth rate due to economic factors generated. I t was necessary to create homes and day centers because there is no possibility of having people at home where many due to the factors of longevity no longer ha ve families, or those that have abandoned, higher consumption of medicines, all this represents more social charges . To meet the needs of raw materials rose to extract oil that is transported on ships that reach 300 000 tonnes of crude oil , when they give themselves stranded enormous ecological disaster ("Epson Valdez , Alaska and" prestige "in Galicia). Increased greenhouse effect due to increase more and more cars and oil products; with them, new respiratory disease, skin a llergies among others. Became landscapes by creating new routes and parking faci lities, traffic signals acquired a prominent dramatic. Critics of public transpo rtation often claim that public transport attracts "undesirable elements" to str ike at times cause great inconvenience. It was in 1662, discovered the first pub lic transport license issued by the King Louis XIV to operate five routes with c oaches, Blaise Pascal defined the first concepts that would guide the public tra nsport service panel. Many cities note that new public transportation systems ha ve substantial economic benefits, leading to economic and social development of the region, and increasing the value of land in the region. A system of fixed pu blic transport and well planned, such as railroads, marshalling shipping, ports airports, main bus stations, apparently have a greater impact, perhaps because o f the construction of these transportation means taking a long term objective to provide transport to localities specific. Moreover, an efficient and well plann ed public transport system in August maximizes the economic and environmental benefits of investments for public tran sportation by encouraging the further development within a certain radius of the stations. Public transportation in a city provide the displacement of people fr om one point to another area of that city. The vast majority of urban areas of m edium and large companies have some kind of urban public transport. Its adequate supply in countries like Portugal is generally of municipal responsibility. Pol lution decreases, since fewer cars are used for the transportation of persons, i n addition to allowing the movement of people possessing no means of acquiring a car, and need to travel long distances to the workplace. The ability to sleep o n the way to work is an attractive option for many people who use public transpo rt systems. Public transport passes multipurpose venue has a low price, for peop le with limited salaries and seniors over the age of sixty-five years. In additi on, we have no stress, do not pay parking. In towns and in addition to those alr eady enumerated there are other types of transport, Elevator: Facilitate enough vertical movement of people in buildings and towers. Escalators move people shor t distances, shopping centers, subway stations, train etc.. Wheelchairs to trans port disabled whether electrical or other mechanical, taxi for people who prefer other comfort or agility or when another type of public transportation is nonex istent in a given region,€helicopter for urgent patient transport, aircraft, us ed by people who need to travel long distances or to an isolated region. Metro, used by thousands of people every day (the Lisbon was opened in 1959) is already there metro area that is no more than a tram in larger point. The public transp ortation system is developed and used by people of different social classes can visit friends more regularly, receive mail, the markets are serviced regularly, we have basic necessities every day throughout the year, etc. .. We can buy tuli ps every day even though they are grown in Holland, eat fruit or other products

from all countries and continents, the fast food that arrived with the Macdonald 's, the construction of large canals made a massive contribution to the Industri al Revolution , example (the Panama Canal, Suez) also the River Douro is now nav igable. Was at sea that was conducted for the transportation of bulky goods, hea vy, in the eighteenth century and without it there could have been large-scale h eavy industry or large cities. The widening of roads was a factor and a mechanis m of industrialization, because as an investment base, so powerful, as of mid-ni neteenth century that historians do not hesitate to speak of a revolution in tra nsportation in the Industrial Revolution . 9 Although in 1825 the Scottish engineer Adam Mac has improved the quality of the coating of roads and pavements, while in France and England, has multiplied the construction of canals, the transport revolution is characterized, first, by app lication of steam power to shipping and rail transport. In conclusion: The story is not allocated to roads, rail, ships, planes and automobiles, profound implic ations for economic, social and even cultural. Thus: Agriculture found new marke ts and might sell kinds of rapid deterioration in areas distant from, and specia lize their production. Urban centers were supplied regularly, avoiding supply cr ises. Encouraged to use and absorption of iron, coal and wood, for the equipping and use of new means of transport. Drove up the steel and metallurgy in general , supported a number of technical progress, that stands out the invention of the Bessemer converter. Was stimulated and accelerated industrialization, assuring him the supply of raw materials, as well as quick and safe disposal of their pro ducts at decreasing costs, given the large quantities transported. · Expanded t rade, contributing to the field of national and world markets. The reduction of tariffs and transport costs, low product prices have stimulated, in turn, the ma ss consumption. Especially the creation of national markets was the most crucial consequence of the revolution in transport. For the first time, ended the isola tion of vast regions, built since then in a web of connections that span people, goods and capital. However, a unified market with a size of a domestic market w as a prerequisite to industrial modernity and the assertion of states. Develop t o large industrial company, based in joint stock companies of national dimension s acting with the concurrence of capital varied origin. Indeed, the magnificent opportunities offered by enlargement of markets led to expansion of business and industrial concentration, resulting in the fusion of industrial capital and fin ancial capital. To this end, favored to financial transactions through the devel opment of activities and bond loans, and built the modern banking unit. · It cr eated a huge mobility of people, which include manpower and Migrants also respon sible for the settlement of vast areas in the U.S. and Russia, for example. Incr eased between tourism, thanks to the joint rail travel with the movements of lar ge intercontinental liners. 10 Emergence of new professions, such as rail, sailors, drivers, mechanics and load ers, which allowed absorb manpower available. Easier to match and was justified more frequent production of periodicals. In conclusion, the distances are shorte ned, circulated new ideas, attitudes have evolved, capitalism has triumphed, exp loited us humbled us and now that is in crisis, are we to save them with our tax money, so they in can continue to explore. Jose Antonio da Silva Costa 11