lebaron you see in this 0.

1: Germinal - Emile Zola I] Author: Emile Zola, French writer (Paris, April 2, 1840 - Paris, September 29 , 1902), is considered the leader of Naturalism. He played a major role in the r etrial of Alfred Dreyfus. The son of François Zola Single (7 August 1795 to 27 M arch 1847) a naturalized Italian engineer, who will work on the canal that bears his name in Aix-en-Provence and Emilie Aubert (February 6, 1819 to October 17, 1880) originating in the Beauce Burgundy, Emile Zola was born in Paris. The fami ly moved to Aix-en-Provence and knows the father's death, serious financial diff iculties. At school he was a classmate of Paul Cézanne to whom he must meet pain ters like Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, Manet. He returned to Paris in 1858. In 1859, Emile Zola failed twice in the Bachelor (because of French). Not wanting to be dependent on his mother, he abandoned his studies and looking for travail.Il fou nd work as a messenger at Hachette and this is being asked to write stories. Emi le Zola died in 1902. II] Germinal (novel) is a novel Germinal by Emile Zola pub lished in 1885, the thirteenth in the series Les Rougon-Macquart, and perhaps th e most famous. The action takes place in the coal fields of northern France, dur ing a strike caused by the reduction of wages. Besides all the technical aspects of mining and the conditions of life in the settlements, Zola shows us the begi nnings of political organization and labor of the working class, but also the di visions between anarchists and Marxists. The novel was prescient than twenty yea rs before the disaster Courrières, 1099 at which minors were killed. 1. The nove l (summary): The hero is Etienne Lantier, son of Gervaise Macquart and Lantier A ugustus (see The Bilingual Book). Like most members of the branch Macquart, he i nherited a discernible madness in his eyes, which can turn deadly violence under the influence of drink or anger. Driven by a workshop railway Lille for slappin g one of his superiors, he arrived one evening at Montsou (northern France), in the mining area, where he will be hired as a putter (he who pushes the carts) by Maheu, who befriends him. Workman irreproachable, Stephen has a passion for soc ialism. He is in touch with his former foreman Pluchart, who sent him books and pamphlets he read avidly but without method; Rasseneur stayed with the landlord, he has long conversations with the anarchist Souvarine supporter of violent act ion. When the strike erupts, he is leading all appointed, and will lead the revo lt until its final defeat and will be unfairly criticized by other miners. The n ovel is simultaneously a love story to the tragic end. Stephen fell in love with Catherine, daughter of Maheu, a reciprocal feeling. It is nevertheless possesse d, despite her young age (fifteen years) by Chaval, a brutal man and jealous. St ephen is shocked by the miserable living conditions of minors, and when the mini ng company, alleging the economic crisis, decides to lower wages, his rebellion exasperated. Dreaming of a more just society, it spread revolutionary ideas and pushing miners to strike. Weeks elapse. The strikers starved themselves as a ban d unleashed furious cries of "Bread! bread! ". But I'armée intervenes, and minor s are resigned to resume work. After the failure of the strike, the well blew So uvarine the Voreux, where Stephen and Catherine are trapped with Chaval. In a fi t of madness, Stephen shattered the skull of Chaval. Their love runs free from c oercion, but Catherine, dying, died shortly after, in the bowels of the mine. Et ienne, saved, went to Paris. He has lost his illusions but a heart full of hope. He knows that one day will come when the work force, still germinating, will be organized to overcome injustice. The novel ends with a hopeful note justifying the title gave Zola as the seeds germinate wheat and other food plants, the revo lt of minors carries the seeds of other struggles, larger that will change the w orld one day: "Some men were pushing a black army, avenging, which slowly germin ating in the furrows, growing crops for the next century, and whose germination was going to soon break ground. The "legendary solidarity of minors" between sil icosis and gas explosions, manifested in the mobilization of Anzin (1884) and Co urrières (1906).€The last coal mine in France in Lorraine Creutzwald closed Apri l 23, 2004. 2. Synopsis: A young unemployed, Etienne Lantier, is hired to Montso u mines in northern France. He made the acquaintance of a family of miners, Mahe u, and falls in love with their daughter Catherine. But this one, which is

not insensitive to Stephen, is the mistress of a worker brutal Chaval. Stephen i s shocked by the miserable living conditions of minors, and when the mining comp any, alleging the economic crisis, decides to lower wages, his rebellion exasper ated. Dreaming of a more just society, it spread revolutionary ideas and pushing miners to strike. Weeks elapse. The strikers starved themselves as a band unlea shed furious cries of "Bread! bread! ". But I'armée intervenes, and minors are r esigned to resume work. Then Souvarine an anarchist worker sabotages the mine. T he galleries filled 's collapse in. Many miners die. Stephen is blocked with Cat herine and Chaval. This causes it. Etienne kills and became the lover of Catheri ne, who died of exhaustion in his arms. Etienne, saved, went to Paris. He has lo st his illusions but a heart full of hope. He knows that one day will come when the work force, still germinating, will be organized to overcome injustice. III] Title: Germinal was the seventh month of the Republican calendar. He started 21 or March 22 and ended on 18 or April 19. In this way, the title obviously refer s to Zola uprisings in order to establish a new order of the great Revolution. B ut the primary meaning of "Germinal" is linked to the cyclical renewal of nature , which is in spring (March and April). In this revival is related symbolically awakening among minors, an awareness of their condition: life force takes over i n the hope of improving their situation, if necessary by violence. The last chap ter of the novel evokes the arrival of spring, one April morning (from 4:00 to 6 :00 in the morning)! This view is confirmed by a letter from Zola to a correspon dent Netherlands, five years after the publication of the book: "As for the titl e of Germinal, I only adopted after much hesitation. I was looking for a title e xpressing the thrust of new men, the effort that workers make, even unconsciousl y, to emerge from darkness laboring so hard when they are agitated again. And on e day, by chance, that the word came to my lips Germinal. I do not want first fo r being too mystical, too symbolic, but it represented what I wanted, April 1 re volutionary, a flight of society lapsed in the spring. And gradually I got used, so that I could never find another one. While it remains unclear to some reader s, it has become for me like a sunburn that illuminates the entire work. Ill] Li st of characters: • Etienne Lantier, 20, hero of the novel, love of Catherine. • Catherine Maheu, 15, in love with Stephen, mistress Chaval. • Antoine Chaval, 2 5, lover of Catherine, brutal and jealous. • Family Maheu: family type composed of minors: - Father Maheu said Bonnemort 58 years. - Maheu's son, Toussaint, 42. - Constant Maheu said Maheude, wife of Toussaint, 39. - The seven children: Zac hary. Catherine, putter, 15. Jeanlin trammer, 11 years. Alzira, the little cripp le, 9. Lenore, 6 years. Henry, 4 years. Estelle three months. • The Levaque: - J erome Levaque 40 years. - Angelique, The Levaque 41 years. - Rosalie, 18, of Zac hary mistress (whom she has two children). - Bebert Jeanlin friend of 12 years. - - Louis Bouteloup, the "landlord", lover of Levaque, 35. • The Pierron: - Fran cis Pierron, 30 years. - Suzanne, Pierronne, 28. - Lydia, 10 years - - Danseart, head captain, lover Pierronne, 40. - - The Brule, 50. • Souvarine, Russian anar chist, sabotages the mine, 28 years. • The Hennebeau: - Philippe Hennebeau, Dire ctor General of Mines Montsou 48 years. - White Hennebeau mistress Negrel, 40. • Paul Negrel, engineer fiance Cecilia Gregory, 25. • The Gregory: - Leo Gregory, 60. - Amelia Gregory, 58. - Cecile Gregoire, engaged to Paul Negrel, strangled by Bonnemort 18. Study of some characters: Etienne Lantier: It is with him that opens and closes the book. Born in 1846, he was the son of Gervaise Macquart and her lover, Augus te Lantier. At the age of twelve, he worked as an apprentice in a factory bolts. Subsequently, he was sent to Lille and became a mechanic. At the beginning of G erminal€Stephen has twenty-one years. He wandered for eight days on the road Nor th in search of work. Stephen was a young boy "very dark, handsome man, looking strong despite its members menu" (I, 1). Catherine finds it "pretty, with her de licate face and his black mustache" (iv, 1). It is owned by a hereditary disease : the last child of a race alcoholic, he suffered "in the flesh of any such line age hardened and crank alcohol (I, 4). He became nasty, even want to kill him wh en he drinks. He feels "a sudden madness of murder" (VI, 3) when confronted Chav

al. Yet Stephen was able to control himself, and when he kills his rival is in a state of self-defense. Lorsqu'Etienne reaches Montsou, it is naive, shy, has li ttle experience of women, and Catherine confused with a boy. Their love thrives game looks, misunderstandings, repressed desires: he would never join him in his bed when he knows she is waiting. He will have finally, after killing Chaval th e bottom of the flooded mine, just before it expires. The term love has a tragic outcome. Stephen enters the underworld, the realm of the dead: "A sunken road s inking. He has three initiators: Bonnemort Maheu, Catherine. His career, politic s and love, is a dual quest: quest for social justice and the beloved. Angered b y the suffering of his comrades, he threw himself lost in the revolutionary acti on. The strike failed. He leaves as he came, but matured: he knows that the seed s of revolt will be collected in future centuries. The adventure of Stephen corr esponds to a personal training: he learned a trade, finds love, is formed as a l abor activist and symbolizes the realization of a whole class, the working class . Etienne has not the makings of a hero: the narrator shows a prey to the weakne sses that somewhat discredited. His dreams of bourgeois ambition personal self-e steem, tainting his willingness to help the people and their desire of social ju stice: he feels "the joy of being the leader, obedience to see when [...] He is the master "(III, 4). Catherine and Maheu: The Maheu working in the mine for fiv e generations and represent the typical family of miners. Vincent Maheu said Bon nemort father Maheu, the oldest child still at work, at least at the beginning o f the novel, aged 58, is the living antithesis of Mr Gregory, aged 60. Distingui shing sign Bonnemort He spat regular coal. Chatterbox with Stephen, when it come s to Voreux Bonnemort will prove much more cautious thereafter. Bonnemort is des igned by Zola as "the product of the mine" is suffering from bronchitis or silic osis, but he escaped three times with death, as indicated by its nickname, "Bonn emort. Usually referred to as "the old Bonnemort", he worked for 50 years at the mine (45 years back). Although paralyzed, at the end of the novel, he has enoug h strength to strangle Cecile Gregoire, in a fit of dementia and, perhaps, resen tment "secular" is a murderous act of revenge for a century oppression. Toussain t Maheu, aged forty-two years, is pikeman. It is a good worker, conscientious, w orking hard in the difficult conditions of the mine. Maheude (his first name Con stance), wife of Toussaint Maheu, "a heavy beauty, already deformed trenteneuf y ears by his life of misery and the seven children she had borne" (II, 1). Fundam entally sound, reasonable and prudent, it embodies the progressive awareness of minors. She headed the procession of strikers, and urged his married throwing br icks at soldiers guarding the pit. She resigned when everything is destroyed aro und her, to resume work exhausting, "broken the backbone" (VI, 7). Catherine, fi fteen years, is a slender girl with red hair. The pale skin of his face was "alr eady spoiled by the constant washing with black soap" (II, 1). She has big eyes "a limpid green water source and whose face still digging black crystal" (VI, 1) . Courageous, she gets up at four o'clock in the morning to prepare the meager b reakfast of the family. Arriving at the mine, it grows with its sedan weighs sev en hundred kilograms. She is the mistress of Chaval who brutalize, but to whom s he remains faithful: "It was her man, who had had the first" (IV, 5). Attracted by Stephen, she represses her love for him. Chaval: "A tall thin man of twenty-f ive, bone" (III, 1). "His mustache and goatee red blazed in his dark face, large nose to beak of an eagle" (IV, 1). By contrast, rival Chaval is undertaking: fi rst triumph, it will be defeated by Stephen.€It is also the "traitor", the yello w refuses to participate in the strike and betrayed by ambition (to become capta in): He denounced the strikers to the police, directs Borains in the abscence of striking miners. If Stephen is physically attractive, Chaval required by its se verity, brutality coarse. Zola believed that the name of a character should be c arefully chosen ("we often see a whole character in the assembly of certain syllables Zola confided in a letter Elie de Cyon, 29 January 1882, and he added that the name embodies the profound persona lity, "the very soul of the character"). Chaval by name , suggested the horse (" a bitch") while walking through the pits, women force him to drink "the mouth in to the trough, they will throw him" a handful of dung "(v. 4). Chaval is charact

erized by reversals, his emotional instability: first hostile to the strike and decided to participate at the meeting of the Plan des Dames, he rallied to the c ause employers under the influence Deneulin and proves provocative and scab. Sou varine: the engine-Voreux Rasseneur it is housed in the room next to Stephen. "H e must have been thirty years, slim, blond, with a delicate face, framed by larg e hair and beard light "(I, 3), and steel gray eyes a reflection of concern. He shrugs off the hopes socialists, not believing in anything, or the effects of th e strike, nor to wage enhancements despising those workers who only dream of bec oming citizens. Caught then a nihilistic rage, he sabotages the casing of the ta nk that holds water bodies. It is at the end of the book a mythic dimension: Mes senger of the extermination, he must not die. Hennebeau The Philippe Hennebeau, forty-eight, is the Director General of Mines Montsou. Born into a poor family, an orphan, he was the School of Mines to become an engineer. It married the daug hter of a wealthy mill owner of Arras, but unhappy husband, betrayed by his wife who cheats on him with his own nephew Negrel, experiencing another form of mise ry that the miners, the moral squalor. Faced with strike, it makes no decisions and left to spoil things. Hennebeau Mrs., wife of the Director of Mines Montsou. Blonde, sensuellem she's bored with the husband she despises and who does not e arn enough money. It Console with lovers and the latest is none other than the n ephew of her husband, engineer Paul Negrel, fiance Cecile Gregoire. cynic, it sh ows no compassion for minors. Paul Negrel, the engineer of the pit, "was a boy o f twenty-six, slim and handsome, with curly hair and brown mustache. His sharp n ose, bright eyes, gave him a lovable ferret (v. 1). He became the lover of Mrs. Hennebeau per game which works to arrange her engagement with Cecile Gregoire. W hen the destruction of mine, he put all his energy to find survivors and embrace s Stephen, a survivor of the disaster. Gregory: Leo Gregory, aged sixty years, i s a shareholder of the Company rentierm Montsou. The strike did not trouble him, and he refuses to admit that the situation is serious. To feel good, he did som e charity. Ms. Gregory, his wife, aged fifty-eight years, is short and fat. The one and only live for another their daughter, Cecilia, and his tragic death plun ge them into despair. Cecile Gregoire, only daughter of Gregory, engaged to Paul Negrel, is under eighteen years. She has a "superb meat, fresh milk" (II, 1). S poiled by his parents, she was raised in a blissful ignorance and likes to do ch arity. She died strangled by Bonnemort. IV] Germinal film: The success of the no vel to readers and film makers: Germinal is the novel Zola's best known and most widely read of the general public. It is also "the most classic studied at scho ol," according to Dominique Goust, director of the Livre de Poche, all editions of "pocket" confused, it sells, Each year about 180,000 copies of the novel by Z ola phenomenon that probably the film by Claude Berri, Germinal, will not fail t o amplify. Besides, today, Zola is one of the ten most authors played in the wor ld. The three novels of Zola, who obtained the greatest benefit of filmmakers in order of importance, the drinking den, with 10 adjustments, Nana, with 8 adjust ments, and Germinal, with 7 adjustments (including that of C. Berry). Zola is a writer eminently cinematic, if one seeks to identify the number of films, with m ore or noin of freedom,€were adapted from his work: there are no less than seven ty! The first film to date has been adapted from the drinking den and was produc ed by Pathé in May 1902. They are victims of the alcoodisme, Ferdinand Zecca. Zo la would have seen in his life, only this film, four months before his death. Re garding Germinal, the first adaptation is that of Ferdinand Zecca: The Strike (1 903), now lost film, lasting 15 minutes, produced by Pathé. The second adaptatio n, now lost, is a "film drama in eight scenes": the Black Country (1905), Lucien Nonguet. Third adaptation: In the land of darkness (1911-1912) of Victorian Jas set (film produced by Flash). The fourth film is in fact the first that attempts to accurately illustrate the novel Germinal (1913), silent film of 140 minutes, directed by Albert Capellani, with the collaboration of André Antoine, director of the theater of Odeon. The fifth time is a director unknown: Germinal, presen ted in 1920 by Braudy. The sixth time was a landmark: Germinal (1963), Yves Allegret. The film was almo st entirely made in Hungary, from a screenplay by Charles Spaak. The following d

istribution: Jean Sorel (Etienne Lantier), Bertha Granval (Catherine), Claude Se rval (Maheu), Claude Brassesa (Chaval), Bernard Blier (Hennebeau), Pierre Destai lles (Maigrat), Philippe Lemaire (Negrel). The film was a commercial failure. In Germinal, Pierre Assouline (Fayard, 1993) mentions the project, which was not f ollowed, an adaptation by Sartre, for a realization entrusted to Marcel Pagliero . While C. Berry was writing his script Germinal, Eric Barber turned Le Brasier, movie based on a novel by Jack London, but also of Germinal, Zola. Berri is mom entarily abandon his project: The Blaze is a big budget (90 million francs), sho t in Poland, France and Belgium. The film was released in 1991 without any succe ss, which allows Berri get back on script writing and then turning Germinal, whi ch will be released in September 1993. Here, for the record, a few other films, on the theme of the mine were, near or far, inspired by the novel by Zola, Germi nal: 1932: The Tragedy of the mine, by Georg Wilhelm Pabst. Pabst is inspired by the disaster Courrières (No-offset), which resulted in the deaths of 1200 Frenc h miners in 1906, and it is the action of the drama after the First World War. T he mine, located right on the border between France and Germany, in the Pabst fi lm allows the director to say a generous internationalism and fratenité "working class" that circumstances make pathetic. A gas explosion in effect, determines the Westphalian miners to assist their French comrades, not without facing a dra matic crisis of conscience. Before shooting his Germinal Berri held to plan, his team this film by Pabst, report at once realistic and visionary, turn to the sp irit of "poetic realism". 1933: Borinage, Joris Ivens and Henri Storck. This is a documentary tracing the lives of coal miners of the coal of Belgium, following a strike of several months. 1938 Grisou, M. de Canonge, adaptation of a play wr itten by Dalio and Pierre Brasseur. 1941: Flag burning, Jacques de Baroncelti (t he action is set in a copper mine). 1946: The House Under the Sea, Henri Calef. 1949: Daybreak, Louis Daquin. © Xavier Tavernier Allias lebaron http://dreamcorp oration2.0.googlepages.com http://0-le-baron-noir-0.space.live.com the.black.bar on @ hotmail.fr

Related Interests