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CPM - Certification Program for Maintenance Personnel
Electrical Design Electrical
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Electrical Design - Electrical
© SENAI - ES, 1996
Work done in partnership SENAI / CST (Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarão)
SENAI - National Service of Industrial Learning DAE - Division of Business Assis
tance Department of the Holy Spirit Regional Avenida Nossa Senhora da Penha, 205
3 - Vitória - ES. CEP 29045-401 - PO Box 683 Phone: (027) 325-0255 Fax: (027) 22
7-9017
CST - Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarão AHD - Division of Human Resources Develop
ment AV. Brigadeiro Eduardo Gomes s / n, Lime Tree Garden - Serra - ES. CEP 2916
0-972 Phone: (027) 348-1322 Fax: (027) 348-1077
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Summary
Electrical Drawings ................................................ ...........
....................................... 03 ....... Symbols Charts Electrical and
Electronics .................................... Diagrams Electrical Building S
ervices ........................... 09 ................... .....................
............................. ..................... 23 • Lamp and Switch Simple
....................... .................................................. • ...
....... 23 Lamp, Socket and Switch Simple ................................ .....
............................... 24 • Lamp Switch and Two-Section ...... ........
.......................................... 24 ............. • Lamp and Two Paral
lel Switches (Three-Way )......................... ....................... 26 •
Lamp, Two Parallel Switches (Three-Way) and Intermediate (Fourway Match ).......
.. .................................................. ..........................
........................ .............. 27 • Signaling devices (bell and buzzer)
.......................... • Connections .............................. 28 ....
.......... Fluorescent Lamps ..................................................
• Symbols ........................................ ....... 29 ..................
................................ Industrial Electrical Diagrams ................
........ 31 ...................... .............................................

..... Match Engine ............... 37 ............................... ..........
........................................ • Direct Departure ....................
..... 43 ..................... .................................................
. • Key ....................................... 43 star-triangle ..... .........
......................................... ......................................
.. 44 • Changing direction of rotation of AC motors ............................
..................... 46 • Trim or autotransformer starting ....................
........................ ............. 46 Years ................................
... .................................................. .........................
.......... 49
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Electrical Drawings
Introduction When we run any electrical installation, we need various data such
as location of the elements of an installation routes, drivers, load distributio
n, shields, etc ... So we can represent these data, we are obliged to use the fl
oor plan of the building in question. In this blueprint, we must represent, acco
rding to the general rule of drawings ABNT NB-8, the following: - the locations
of electrical energy consumption, their commands and directions of the circuits
that are connected - the location of Tables and distribution centers - the path
of drivers and their projection mechanical (including dimensions of the conduits
and boxes) - a line diagram detailing the circuitry section of the conductors,
the switching devices and protection - the characteristics of the material to em
ploy, sufficient to indicate the suitability of its use both in ordinary cases,
as in special conditions.€As the floor plan is reduced in proportion 50 or 100 t
imes smaller, it would be impossible to represent the components of a facility s
uch as they are presented below.
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It would be difficult and unnecessary to draw it into smaller size, so we use a
reduced form of diagram, called the single line diagram, where the control devic
es, protection, power consumption, drivers etc.., Are represented as in the exam
ples below:
Lamp Socket Switch
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These and other symbols are standardized by ABNT through specific rules. This si
ngle line diagram is only represented in low plants, but the electrician needs a
nother type of scheme called stranded, which show details of connections and fun
ctioning, representing all its drivers, as well as symbols explaining the operat
ion, as the schema below:
For the electrician, the model of an electrical installation does not advance, b
ecause a building is hardly the same as another, although the connections are si
milar. The design of electrical schematics as standards recommended by the ABNT
is a language that should be known by both the designers and engineers and elect
ricians, so it is essential to all those who devote themselves to the specific b
ranch of electricity. The study of these schemes aims to enable the student to r
ead, interpret and implement schemes of electrical circuits, so that we can carr
y what has been written by the designer in the form of drawing the floor plan fo
r the work to be performed. The designs of architectural blueprints, details, et
c.. Are made not with the actual dimensions, because they require a paper the si
ze of what we are designing. In the case of a floor plan, would be so great that
it would not fit in the room, and difficult to read.
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We design what we want, reducing all the dimensions proportionally on a scale. W
e can, for example, reduce all equally 10 times. We have here a scale of 1:10 (r
ead: one to ten). It is clear therefore that the scale is a relationship between
the scale used to represent an object in the design and its actual size. Some e
xamples will serve to clarify the concepts. Example 1 - An object is 10 meters l
ong. If its length is represented in a drawing for 1 meter, which was the scale
used?
the
Scale =
Length in the drawing 1 meter = = 1:10 Actual length 10 meters
Example 2 - We know the scale used on a floor plan is 1:50. Measuring, drawing,
the width of a room we found 3.4 cm. What is the actual size of the room?
the
January 50
Means
1 m 1 dm 1 cm
represents represents represents
50m 5m 0.5m
3.4 cm x 0.5 = 1.7 meters 1.7 meters represent 3.4 cm.
Example 3 - A plot is being represented in a scale drawing. If the ground 12 met
ers is shown in the drawing by 24 cm, what is the scale used in the design?

the
Scale =
24 cm 0.24 m 0.24 1 1 = = = = = 1:50 12 12 m 12 m 12 50 0.24
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Scale 1:50 (most common in architecture). Each meter in the drawing corresponds
to 50 meters that is real:
1 cm corresponds to 0.5 m
Measured with the meter on the drawing 4.7 cm. This corresponds to 4.7 x 0.5 = 2
.35 m. We must therefore work in the 2.35 m mark
Each 1:100 scale drawing in meters 100 meters corresponds to real, ie:
1 cm corresponds to 1m
Measured with the meter on the drawing 6.9 cm. We should make the work a = 6.9 x
6.9 m.
Each 1:20 scale drawing meters in 20 meters corresponds to real, ie:
1 cm represents 0.2 m
With a meter mason measured on the design and found a distance 6.75 cm. We shoul
d make in the work 6.75 x 0.2 = 1.35 m.
Each 1:25 scale drawing meters in 25 meters corresponds to real, ie:
1 cm is 0.25 m
In detail design,€measuring a distance with any metric scale (meters mason for e
xample), we found 35.4 mm or 3.54 cm. The actual value to be marked in the work
should be 3.54 x 0.25 = 0.885 m or 88.5 cm.
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Graphical symbols of Electricity and Electronics
Introduction The work relates to national and international symbol of greater us
e, compared to symbology Brazilian (ABNT) and the international (IEC), with the
German (DIN), and the North American (ANSI) to facilitate the modification of sc
hematics, according to foreign standards, to the Brazilian regulations, the prof
essional and present the correct symbology in use nationwide. The symbolism is i
ntended to provide graphic symbols to be used to, in blueprints or diagrams of c
ircuits for electromechanical controls, represent components and the relationshi
p between them. The symbology applies widely in the industrial, educational and
other events where electrical in nature need to be sketched graphically. The mea
ning and symbolism are in agreement with the abbreviations of the major national

and international standards adopted in the construction and installation of org
ans and components of electrical systems
ACRONYM
MEANING AND NATURE Brazilian Association of Technical Standards operates in all
technical areas of the country. The texts of rules are adopted by government age
ncies (federal, state and municipal) and business firms. Consist of Standards (N
B), Terminology (TB), Symbolism (SB), Specifications (EB), Method of testing and
standardization. (PB). American National Standards Institute Institute of Stand
ards U.S., which publishes recommendations and standards in virtually all techni
cal areas. In the area of control devices for low voltage has often adopted the
specifications of UL and NEMA.
ABNT
ANSI
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ACRONYM
NATURE AND SIGNIFICANCE International Commission on Rules of the approval of Ele
ctrical Equipment Specifications international, primarily to the installation ma
terial. Manufctures Canadian Electrical Association Canadian Association of Manu
facturers of Electrical Material. Canadian Standards Association Canadian Organi
zation for Standardization, which publishes the standards and granting certifica
te of compliance. Danmarks Elektriska Materielkontrol Danish Authority Control o
f Electrical Materials, which publishes standards and granting certificates of c
onformity. Deutsche Industrie Normen Association of German Industrial Standards.
His publications are appropriately coordinated with those of VDE. International
commissions Electrotechinical This committee comprises representatives of all i
ndustrialized countries. Recommendations of the IEC, published by the commission
, are already partially adopted and go to an adoption in full by the various cou
ntries, or in other cases, you are making an approach or adaptation of national
standards to the text of these international standards. Japanese Electrotechinic
al Japanese Electrotechnical Commission Committee.
EEC
CEMA
CSA
DEMKO
DIN
IEC
JEC
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ACRONYM
MEANING AND NATURE Standards of The Japan Electrical Manufactures Association St
andards Association of Manufacturers of Electrical Equipment in Japan Japanese I
ndustrial Standards Japanese Industrial Standards Association. Kenring Elektrote
chnische van materialen Dutch Association of Electrical Materials test. National
Electrical Manufacturers Association National Association of Manufacturers of E
lectrical Equipment (USA). Österreichischer Verband für Elektrotechnik Austrian
Association for Standardization, whose determinations generally coincide with th
ose of the IEC and VDE. Svensk Standard Swedish Association of Technical Standar
ds. Underwriters Laboratories Inc Entity national test of the area of fire prote
ction in the United States, which among others, performs tests on electrical equ
ipment and publishes its requirements. Union tecnique de l'Electricité French As
sociation of Technical Standards. Deutscher Verband Elektrotechnik German Associ
ation of Technical Standards,€that publishes standards and recommendations in th
e area of electricity.
JEM
JIM
KEMA
NEMA
OVE
SEN
UL
UTE
VDE
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Diagrams Electrical Building Services
Lamp and Switch Simple Scheme Multipolar
Single line diagram
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Lamp socket and switch Simple Scheme Multipolar
Single line diagram
Lamp Switch and Two-Section Layout Multipolar
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Single line diagram
When deserjamos represent a single line diagram, a group of lamps at one point (
buff), we must indicate, next to the symbol of lamps, the number of lamps of the
group in order of firing. Example: A chandelier with three lamps, in which two
lamps light up a section and another section, command the third lamp. Multipolar
Scheme
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Single line diagram
Lamp and Two Parallel Switches (Three-Way) Scheme Multipolar
Single line diagram
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Lamp, Two Parallel Switches (Three-Way) and Intermediate (Four-Way) Scheme Multi
polar
Scheme Operation
Single line diagram
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Signaling devices (bell and buzzer) Scheme Multipolar
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Single line diagram
Links of Fluorescent Lamps In practice, called fluorescent lamp, the lamp consis
ts of a set itself, reactor, support and gutter, where quick startup time. The t

ype "conventional" still consists of a "starter." So we can connect this assembl
y to the network, it is necessary to interconnect its components. This operation
is only possible by reading the wiring diagram posted in the reactor, and this
pattern varies with the type of reactor and its manufacturer. Below, we see some
examples of wiring diagrams of the reactors. Connecting simple reactor, such as
"conventional."
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Connecting dual reactor, such as "conventional."
Connecting dual reactor, "quick match."
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Symbology
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Symbology
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Example of a general plan to install light of residence. It is piped installatio
n in conduit, fed by single phase system.
Example of a general plan for the installation of light with open facility in in
sulators "cleat."

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Plant design residence
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Develop Project Electric presented, highlighting the items described below: a) e
ncoding partial circuits b) Division of circuits through Sectors.
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Develop Project Electric submitted:
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Industrial Electrical Diagrams
Introduction To control, regulation and protection of electric motors, which con
stitute the elements of electrical power industry, using different devices such
as contactors, circuit breakers, regulators, relays (protection, auxiliary), ele
ctromagnets, flags, electromagnetic coupling , alarms, mechanical brakes, etc..,
interconnected by electrical conductors. These devices are electrically connect
ed to an electrical installation generally designed to perform the operations re
quired in a particular order. The electrical diagrams are drawn, essentially deenergized and not mechanically driven. When a diagram is not represented within
that principle, it should be shown the changes. The diagrams are divided into th
ree major groups for teaching purposes: Schematic Designed to facilitate the stu

dy and understanding of the operation of a facility or part thereof. The diagram
elements arrange themselves so that they can facilitate their interpretation an
d not following the spatial reality. This means that several elements of current
drivers and the control and protection are represented according to their posit
ion in the electrical circuit, independent from the constructive relationship of
these elements. The schematics are classified into three types:
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Simplified Single Line Diagram representation, usually of unipolar leads, withou
t the control circuit, where only the main components are considered. In princip
le any project to an electrical installation should start with a line diagram.
Multipolar diagram is a representation of connecting all its components and driv
ers. In contrast to unifilar, all components are represented, and occupied the p
osition need not obey the actual physical location where they are. As both circu
its (main and auxiliary) are both represented in the diagram, one does not have
an accurate view of the "function" of the installation, making it difficult, abo
ve all, the location of a failure in a large installation.
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Functional Diagram (Elementary) As the diagrams were
ve been replaced by functional. This type of diagram
ess and mode of action of the contacts, facilitating
stallation and monitoring of the various circuits in
fects.

stranded losing utility, ha
represents clearly the proc
the understanding of the in
the location of possible de

Functional Diagram basically consists of two circuits: Circuit or Main Force Whe
re are all elements that have direct interference in feeding the machine, ie, th
ose elements through which flows the current that feeds their machine. Auxiliary
Circuit or Command Where are all the elements that act indirectly on opening, c
losing and signaling devices used to drive the machine in normal and abnormal op
erations.
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The functional diagrams are the most important from the standpoint of
lowing for an overall idea about the command system adopted, which is
ng point, providing key data for the subsequent implementation of the
ction diagrams, in the work of assembly but also to prepare a list of

design, al
the starti
interconne
materials.

Block Diagram Another type of explanatory diagram used is often called the Block

Diagram.€Essentially consists of a simple design whose goal is to present the o
perating principle of an electrical installation industry. The need for block di
agrams are often in the interest in the workings of a facility without having to
analyze in detail the complete functional diagram, which would take too long.
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Layout Layout Assembly The assembly is an important document for guiding the mou
nting location and repair of all equipment failures that constitute an electrica
l installation. The layout involving machinery, electrical equipment, facilities
, etc.. Should reflect the actual distribution of devices, bus, drivers, etc..,
And its separate elements, to indicate the paths used for interconnecting the co
ntacts of these elements.
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Identification of terminals on Interconnection Diagrams If two or more parts of
a plant are interconnected by conductors, these are linked on both sides of the
terminal block (terminal block). Both sets of terminals as the terminals are ide
ntified by letters and numbers. For drivers, the criterion was chosen to identif
y its destination in each terminal connection. Note the example below that repre
sents an interconnection of three terminal strips with their respective numberin
g.
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Match Engine
Direct part in almost all utilities supply electric power to allow direct starti
ng for motors up to 5 HP (3.72 kW). It is understood by direct match, the match
with the voltage supply. Operational Sequence Connection Being under tension ter
minals R, S and T, and pressing the button b1, c1 contactor coil is energized. T
his action causes the close contact of seal c1, which will keep the coil energiz
ed, the main contacts will close, and motor function. Circuit Circuit Force Comm
and
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Adjournment To stop the operation of contactor, press the button b0; this will o
pen, removing power from the coil, which will cause the opening of the contact s
eal c1, and consequently the main contacts, and stopping the engine. Note: A con
tactor can also be controlled by a switch from a pole. In this case, remove the
buttons b0 and b1 and c1 contact seal, and be introduced to the control circuit
of the key b1. Loop Command Single Line Diagram
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Above 5 HP to use devices that reduce the voltage applied to the terminals of th
e motors and thus merely the starting current. Such devices are key star-triangl
e This key can be manual or automatic and applies when the engine's induction, a
nd three-phase cage rotor. The command button activates the contactor star b1 c2
and at the same time, the device delay d1, c2 normally open contact acts on the
contact c1, closing the contactor coil c1 network. Once the motor starts to sta
r. After the delay time, contact opener d1, c2 star contactor operates and shuts
down. When the contact opens opener c2, c3 closes the contactor triangle, becau
se the contact normally open c1 c1 was already closed when called. The engine op
erates in the triangle. If we want to stop the engine fires up button b0, interr
upting the network contactor c1. The normally open contact c1 opens, the contact
or triangle is turned off and the engine stops. Star-delta starting auto engines
. Circuit Circuit Force Command
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Single Line Diagram
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Reversal of rotation of AC motors b1 When the button is pressed to energize the
contactor coil c1 and opens the normally open contact of c1, the motor starts wi
th the rotation, for example, to the right. When it activates the b2, c1 contact
or OFF, through contact and contactor opener c2 c2 "ON" via contact closure for
the command button. The command "ON" to the contactor C2 is only effective when
the contact c1 opener contactor is closed. The motor is braked and starts to rot
ate counterclockwise, for example, on the left. Circuit Strength Circuit Command
Single Line Diagram
Compensator or autotransformer starting. The command button triggers the coil b1
c1 and d1 delay switch. Thus closes the normally open contact of c1 and c3 coil

is energized. The motor starts with reduced voltage and closes the normally ope
n contact and contactless seal c3. After the preset time, the relay switches d1
connection, then opens the closed contact and closes the opener c1; energizes th
e coil is c2. So opens the contact opener c2 and c3 coil is energized and the en
gine part with full voltage.
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When you want to stop the motor drives is what the button b0 c2 de-energizes the
coil and the relay switch, stopping the motor.
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Circuit diagram autotransformer starting Strength
Automatic
of
Engines
with
Circle Command
Single Line Diagram
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Exercises: 1. Select the alternative that identifies the components that are rep
resented in the diagram below stranded:
a) b) c) d) e)
(((((
)))))
simple and light switches; intermediate switches and light bulbs, switches and p
arallel light bulb; unipolar switches and fluorescent lamps; NRA
2. The figure below represents:

a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (
) Diagram of a stranded star-triangle;) block diagram of a direct three-phase mo
tor starting;) the functional diagram (strength and command) of a direct three-p
hase motor starting;) the circuit diagram of a key compensatory; ) the functiona
l diagram of reversal of the direction of rotation of three-phase motor.
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3. Given the connection terminals of the single-phase motor below, do:
a) in connection 110V, and its connection with its reversal;
b) in connection 220V, and its connection with its reversal;
4. What is the maximum power that a 220V three phase motor can have, starting ri
ght from the grid and how it should be linked to its coils that has better perfo
rmance?
5. Make a schedule and FUNCTIONAL UNIFIL liaison office of a three phase motor s
tarting direct reversal.
6. Make a schedule and UNIFIL FUNCTIONAL connection with a three-phase motor sta
rting STAR TRIANGLE.
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7. Name the following symbols:
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8. Type the name of the fixture represented by each of the symbols below (ABNT)
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9. Type the name of the fixture represented by each of the symbols below (ABNT)
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10. Draw the outline of a Multipolar plug in a lamp through a three-way switch.
11. Show how would the previous connection in the form of single line diagram.
12. Biphasic distribution network of photocell commanding mercury vapor lamp (22
0V).
(110V)
Notes: a) The photocell must be isolated behind the pole, so that the photo-elec
tric cell is facing in the opposite direction to artificial lights (neon signs,
etc.) in order to avoid incorrect operations. b) If the header of the secondary
on both sides of the pole installation of photocell will be made in screw top st
rap. In case of a tangent screw additional 16 x 45 mm. c) On wood poles arm is a
ffixed by machine screw 16mm x comp. appropriate. d) In the case of wooden pole,
the photocell will be posted on the top screw support the frame of the neutral,
and added a square nut for bolt 16 mm.
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13. PVC conduit network switch commanding a double team with mixed light switch.
14. Hydraulic system containing a magnetic key, key buoy and pump single phase.
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15. Emergency lighting system with battery.
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