de a Latin word "designate" which me ans designate Drawing manages to show a form that usually correspond to a real c oncept or object. It is subject to the strictest dimensionality and is usually m onochrome, or very few colors in different gradaciones.Para Chinese and Japanese art, writing and drawing are the same and are the most noble expression of bein g humano.La artistic execution of the drawing, rule, is brief, spontaneous, so o ften associated with the period prior to the completion of a work more tedious, like a painting or sculpture. Serves as a working tool, such as sketch, note or reminder. This technique has been cheaper and can be carried out in multiple med ia and with different materials. You can sgraffito (scratched drawing on a hard surface), recorded, or cover a surface. It uses charcoal, stilettos and chisels, all sorts of graffiti and mica, pastel, sanguine, silver tip, chalk, ink, etc. The brackets are the most varied, but today is preeminent paper: parchment, leat her, shingles, slate, stone, cloth and other muchos.El first paper used in the W est it is believed the twelfth century, spread by the Arabs. The first factory w as in Italy and is the thirteenth century. The spread of the drawing took place with the advent of printing and then quickly moved to the engraving and woodcut techniques that contributed to the massive presence of the images in the Modern World. DRY graphite drawing techniques, charcoal, pastel, colored pencil, sanguine and sepia. WET brush and ink, pen and ink, markers and pens. TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Dry GRAPHITE PENCILS Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) used <<Point of plata>> to get very subtle patterns, but had some drawbacks in the need to prepare the base. Therefore continued to seek, to find a means of drawing more immediate <<the grafito>>. Throughout the centuries artists have used the pencil in different ways, with minimal lines Ing res, Degas too loosely, thoughtful studies of the Pre-Raphaelites, the definitio n and firmness of Picasso ... The pure line drawing technique is more difficult, such as Matisse is used to solve tones, colors, textures and shapes in a few li nes. [COMPOSITION] Graphite is a natural carbon, as coal is created by the earth pressure on wood. Coal is formed only by pressure, but a combination of heat and pressure crystall ized amorphous carbon layers of graphite crystals. [TYPES] Pencil drawing. 1. standard hexagonal pencil. 2. round pencil drawing. 3. pencil . 4. large hexagonal pencil. 5. rectangular pencil sketch. 6. and 7. graphite ro d. [MEDIA] Preferably white or colored paper. The type of paper depends on the absorption, weight or weight and texture. [Erasers] The pattern is characterized by its easy to clear, for we use different types of tires. The most common are rubber eraser standard bread 1 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Dry [Pencil line]

The type of pencil, the pressure in the line, paper, alters the quality of the l ine [MANCHA A PENCIL] The plot and the stain is used to create tonal scales, depending on the type of pencil and paper used. 2 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Dry COAL The Carbon is used since cave men covered the walls with pictures of wild animal s, using sticks burned. This technique can be used for more elaborate designs su ch as Jim Dine ago, but it is natural to use the ease and vivacity of coal, as t he drawings of Daumier or freer Millet who embodied the atmosphere, light and co lor of the field. Degas uses it to demonstrate the importance of line, form and movement stresses Matisse. At present, charcoal is produced by sophisticated met hods, but simply burned wood, and is the most ancient that has been used for dra wing. For their production is often used willow cane. [TYPES] The usual way is called charcoal coal of various thicknesses and hardness. 1. Charcoal thin sauce. 2. Charcoal medium sauce. 3. Charcoal thick sauce. 4. Ch arcoal scenery. 5. Charcoal pencil. 6. Compressed carbon bars. 7. Vine charcoal. Compressed Coal> They are made of coal dust Compressed bars with a binding mediu m. and are more difficult to remove the charcoal. Charcoal pencils> A thin rod o f wood charcoal coated tablet.€There are also pencils made from rolled paper in stead of wood, which are less messy and easier to handle. Its portfolio ranges f rom extra soft HB 2B 4B 6B think it would be hard. [MEDIA] Most good quality papers are suitable for this technique, but the best are soft and grainy, because they retain more carbon and supports better removed and rubb ed. Smoother papers are good areas for compressed coal. For your stay we will us e fixatives [TECHNICAL] The coal is suitable for both online and to spot and great for previous sketches for ease of correction with a cotton cloth or rubber model. Another way to hold the charcoal is parallel to the paper, to create different lines. To achieve to nal effects podenmos use the stump, when we draw with charcoal tablet. The stump sirber to spread the coal and create incremental or mixed tones 3 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Dry PASTEL Although in the s. XV and XVI bit clustered pigments were used to draw with colo rs, to s. XVIII is not set as such the art of painting in pastel. Some of the ea rliest and best examples worked in France s. XVIII. The true pioneer is Rosalba Carriera, Venetian painter and one of the few women who achieved fame in the art s. XIX. The freshness and spontaneity of the cakes are about the spirit Impress ionist, Degas is the main cake between the Impressionists. [COMPOSITION AND TYPES] Pastries are powdered pigments mixed with gum tragacanth Philosophical Elements or resin to coalesce. There are a wide variety with different degrees of hardnes s and shape. The variety of tones is very important for a good color. The bright

est bars are more soft and fragile. Are presented as round bars, square bars, co ated Crayon timber [MEDIA] The color and texture of the medium, either paper, cardboard or canvas has an im portant role in the outcome. Papers: You must take into account the type of pape r (weight, absorption, and texture), the color range, etc ... Ingres paper would be an appropriate role, even sandpaper give good results as well grab the pigme nt particles. [TECHNICAL] The strokes should be confident and free, too rub with your finger or the stump is an effort to mix colors resulting in a polished surface. You can alternate th ick and thin strokes, the sharp edge or flat, and can also vary the pressure. We can apply the layered cake each setting as developed Degas (impesto with cake). 4 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Dry [ATTACHMENT] You must hit the falling support for all loose particles of pigment can be set s tored under pressure or use a fixative, but it reduces the brightness of the pie OIL PASTEL [COMPOSITION AND TYPES] The oil pastels are more like the wax crayons to soft pastels. They consist of p igments, waxes, oil and animal fat. They are more flexible than wax crayons are more difficult to handle high temperatures. The white spirit or turpentine to di ssolve us sirber color. [TECHNICAL] The surface of the cake can be manipulated in various ways, such as textured or scaling effects, overlapping colors to find the effect we seek. We can do color TASKS polishing the color, but to create softer effects can be used turpentine. The result of oil pastels is completely different from the cakes cigars, more re lated to oil painting. They are useful for sketches and notes in the open, and e asy to combine with watercolor washes. 5 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Dry Sanguine and SEPIA The chalk was one of the favorite techniques of Renaissance masters, the Great C entury French and the time of the Fêtes Galantes. The chalk of the nineteenth c entury, in particular, was used by many designers for the diversity of its nuanc es. For artists interested in the color remains the ideal material to highlight the forms and expressions of the female body, for example. For this reason the c halk often used for the realization of portraits, sketches of nudes, clothing or landscapes. [COMPOSITION] The chalk is a variant of the pie, that is, a stick of dry pigment powder. What is the difference on the cake is the origin of the pigments that give it a disti nctive color. It is an iron oxide known as hematite. The variety of red shades o f this stone ranges from scarlet to crimson red to brown acid or a tone close to the red plum.€The sepia is obtained from the ink sac of squid and cuttlefish, giving a few shades of dark brown and terracotta.

[TECHNICAL] This technique can achieve the effect of creating a full-color image with only t hree, sanguine, white and black, called drawing <<a three couleurs>> is often us ed for portraits. Combining the color of the bars with paper and pencils will gi ve different sensations of brightness in the picture. The warmth and softness th at makes red chalk drawing is one of its main features, so artists have used thi s technique mainly for its delicacy naked 6 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Dry Colored Pencils In the past, artists were not using colored pencils for their poor resistance to light. At present this has been improved and increased choice also introducing water-soluble pencils and soluble in turpentine. Among the contemporary artists who have worked with colored pencils is David Hockney. [COMPOSITION] They are manufactured in the same way as those of graphite, except that mine are not heated in an oven because destroy the pigments. The pigment sticks are dipp ed in melted wax to acquire the necessary properties for drawing. It consists of : · Pigment · Insert (chalk, talc or kaolin) · Binder (cellulose gum) [SUPPORT] Colored pencils are very sensitive to the nature of the support surface. The col d-pressed paper (NO) gives different results when soft tissue (HP). The white pa per or primed with 100% made of rags and the surface HP is best for their stay a nd detail. [TECHNIQUES] You can create very different effects from sketches in soft colors and great det ail to work with a wide tonal gradation. 7 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Wetlands PEN AND INK L ink as a means of drawing, has been used for a long time. The ancient Egyptian s and Romans used reed pens for drawing and writing on parchment and papyrus. Eu rope in the seventh century and used bird feathers, until they invented the stee l pen in the early nineteenth century and marketed quality paper, allowing exper imentation. The pen mark is a direct and unequivocal, that is fixed and permanen t, some of the many great artists who used the pen to reliza notes are Leonardo (14521519), Rembrandt, Durer Holbein ... [TYPES OF FEATHERS] 1. Quill. 2. Reed pen. 3. Mapping Pen. 4. Steel drawing pen. 5. Pen, with pen ti p. 6. With a flat pen. 7. With round pen. 8. Technical Pen. 9. Marker 10. Fiber tip pen. Besides the traditional feathers and cane and wide range of steel pens are new t ypes, which can be classified as: wet pens, fountain pens and feathers deposit. Wet feathers> are cheap, with a variety of tips. The pen nib and handle calls to othpick. Fountain pens> only work with most writing inks, with less variety of p ens than the last. Plumas deposit> the ink is poured into the tank instead of ab sorbing as fountain pens.

Some pens, especially steel, are very flexible and can vary the width along the line. The technical pens create a uniform line. Reed pens make a smooth thick li ne. The mapping produces a sharp line and curled. Lightness is the main characte ristic of a feather. [Ink and media] Ink drawing. Made for artists, waterproof. Dried in a hard and shiny film that l ets you apply more layers on top. The most used is the ink (or black ink drawing .) Ink not water resistant. They are similar to watercolor diluted, enter the ro le that drawing inks and are matte. Papers. It takes a rather thick paper (120g) , which accepts washes, watercolors and corrections. Avoid porous and absorbent surfaces, but degree of absorption can be useful. To make a precise and definite line, we need a hard surface paper. 8 TECHNIQUES OF PLASTIC EXPRESSION GRAPHIC DESIGN TECHNIQUES Wetlands BRUSH AND INK Oriental brush drawing focuses mainly on the line. In the West, there is that tr adition of accuracy of the brush, but has a practical role to fill, edit and man ipulate. [TYPES OF BRUSHES] One of the highest quality brushes are made with sable, are the most expensive, not only for the quality of the brush, but also because of the shortage of mater ial. The finer the bristles of the brush over a quantity of material collected. [MEDIA] The traditional media is paper or silk, but you can use canvas or other media. J apanese and Chinese papers are excellent for drawing with a brush, are thinner a nd Western absorbent papers. The work depends on the support, if a smooth or tex tured paper, and the type of brush. A paper easy to find that we can use is the basic, which will allow us to work very well with this technique. [DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES] 9