The history of logistics Past, present and future.

José Augusto Gama Cerqueira Dantas Currently we have heard a lot about logistics, companies consider it a competiti ve advantage, but ultimately, what is Logistics? Before understanding what is lo gistics, we need to understand how it started. The word originated from Greek Lo gistics Logistik, which logisticus is derived from the Latin, meaning both calcu lation and reasoning in the mathematical sense. Since the origin of man, even wi thout his knowledge, logistics was used because of the need for constant displac ement of nomadic tribes. These dislocations occurred due to climate change, food shortages or even by threats from rival tribes. Subsequently, the logistics wer e always present in the wars since the armies needed to move troops and supplies . The chief proponent of the use of logistics for military purposes was Alexande r the Great, his empire reached several countries, including Greece, Persia and India. Alexander the Great was born in 356 BC, and at 16 was already Macedonian army general. At age 20, after the death of his father, assumed the throne. His empire lasted only 13 years, with his death in 323 BC. Some details of Alexander the Great made the greatest emperor of his time: He included the logistics in t heir strategic planning, had a detailed knowledge of the enemy armies and the la nd where there were battles and alliances developed and the decisions centered, Alexander the Great was solely responsible for all decisions, was the central po int of control, so managing the logistics system and incorporating it into the s trategic plan. Alexander was the first to employ a specially trained team of eng ineers and foremen, besides cavalry and infantry. These early engineers played a n important role in the success of Alexander the Great, they had the task of stu dying how to reduce the resistance of the cities that were attacked. The foremen in turn, operated the best logistics system existing at that time. They followe d the hosts ahead with a mission to buy all the supplies needed to set up wareho uses and advanced on the path (many companies now use the same system to supply) . Those who cooperated were spared and subsequently rewarded, and those who resisted were killed. The army of Alexander the Great consumed daily about 100 tons of food and 300,000 gallons of water! T he army of 35,000 men of Alexander the Great could not carry more than 10 days s upply, but thanks to the advanced warehouse, his troops marched thousands of mil es, an average of 32 km per day. His army was responsible for the largest march ever heard the story, drove 6400 km, out of Egypt and came to Persia and India . . Other armies moved at an average of 16 or 17 km per day, as dependent on the o x cart, used to transport food. A bullock cart was moving at about 3.5 kilometer s per hour, for a maximum of five hours, after which the animals were exhausted. Horses moved to 6 or 7 miles per hour for eight hours a day. 5 horses were need ed to haul the same load as an ox cart. Another great secret of Alexander was th e innovation of armaments. Its engineers developed a new type of spear, called S arissa, who was 6 feet long, it was widely used by infantry. With this weapon, h is army defeated a combined army of Persians and Greeks of 40,000 men lost only 110 soldiers. In 333 BC, his men defeated an army of 160,000 men commanded by Da rius king of Persia at the Battle of Amuq Plain. Because of that success, the va st majority of cities surrendered to the Macedonian army without the need for bl oodshed. During the Second World War, the Allies led by the United States realiz ed that the effectiveness of the displacement of troops and all the apparatus ne eded for the war could mean victory, since a poorly supplied army could hardly b e effective. This development of ideas led to the largest logistical operation t hat is known today, the Day "D", or Victory Day. In just one day, landed in Fran ce, specifically the beach in Normandy, about 300,000 men, who were supported by 5,500 ships and 15,000 aircraft. Each man carried about 30 pounds of equipment, totaling 9,000 tons, not counting the drive needed food, medicine, vehicles, com

munication and other needs. This operation has cost about 20,000 lives.€The sto ry considers the success of this operation led to the Allied victory and defeat of the Triple Alliance, which considered the logistics as a matter of little imp ortance in order to further the development of weapons for war. After the war, t he United States, companies began to emphasize customer satisfaction, which coul d provide an increase in profit, once the customer happy to buy again, thereby i ncreasing revenue, Customer Satisfaction becomes later the cornerstone for the C orporate Logistics. During the '60s, the industry realized that the concepts cou ld be applied to the logistics industry itself, is not linked to production, but linked to the storage and physical distribution. By this time began the study o f utilization and rationalization of spaces and the physical distribution of pro ducts as a way to gain and efficiency. In Brazil, no company knew or apply logis tics concepts. In the '70s, the United States, begin studies to calculate the co sts of maintaining inventories and defined the methodology for its calculation. Some leading companies in retail are beginning to see the benefits of logistics especially in storage and physical distribution. Brazil's automobile manufacture rs are beginning to explore the benefits of logistics, especially in regard to t he handling and storage of parts and components, depending on the complexity of a car, which involved about 20,000 SKUs and the lack of any of them meant the in terruption of production. The '80s brought the great development of Logistics in the United States and Europe, the computers allowed the mathematical calculatio ns were carried out in time infinitely faster. Several techniques were developed as Kanbar, JIT, MRP and others. The effectiveness of logistic practice s begin to integrate Logistics, Marketing, Sales and Production. In Brazil there is the first group discussion and study of logistics, the automobile company ar e to adopt the JIT, Just in Time Kanbar and developed by Toyota. The ABRAS, the Brazilian Supermarkets Association creates a department to study logistics and a nalysis of relationships between suppliers and supermarkets. The ABRAS creates t he PBR or standard pallet Brazil, unifying the use by all suppliers and all the supermarkets. This decision has brought an increase of brutal efficiency, reduci ng time of loading and unloading of vehicles. In the late 80s, arrived in Brazil the first logistics operator, the Brasildock's. This decade was marked by high inflation and a strong investment in stocks. The companies earned the appreciati on of products in stock and application of financial resources in cash was the e ra of 'easy retail. " The '90s were marked by the formation of worldwide global markets, MCE, European Common Market, NAFTA and Mercosur. In the U.S., Europe an d Asia, the companies now recognize the importance of logistics, both in respect of the Storage and Distribution, now integrating also the Productions. Several concepts were created as ECR. Efficient Consumer Response and Efficient Consumer Response, EDI, Electronic Data Interchange or Electronic Data Interchange, ERP, Enterprise Resource Planning or Business Planning Resources, among many other t echniques. In Brazil, the 90 are marked by the end of inflation with the advent of the Real Plan, companies suffer a blow with the end of "Inflationary Ciranda, and gains in value stocks and those resulting from financial investments. Once companies realize that maintaining high inventories would mean losses, because t here would be no gains in their recovery. Computer technology has undergone a profound evolution taking the prices of comp uters to acceptable levels, thus, the widespread use was brutal, enabling the im plement programs such as WMS, or Warehouse Management System Warehouse Managemen t System, the use of codes bars for stock control and routing systems for vehicl e fleets. Retailers and industry begin to find a way in Logistics to have better control their inventories, production and distribution. Even in the 90s the fir st privatizations take place on highways, ports, telecommunications, railways an d container terminals, resulting in significant improvement in services, lower p rices resulting from competition and offering more services. New logistics opera tors in Brazil land, bringing more competition, and availability of services inc reasingly specialized. In Brazil began a new line of business, e-commerce or Int ernet commerce,€where the consumer could easily leave home without access to a

multitude of products. Globalization erupts around the world, forcing the market s to be competitive. In this decade we live in, the United States, Europe and As ia put forward the concept of logistics Supply Chain or Supply Chain, where the integration is now complete between retail, industry, the parts supplier and sup plier of raw materials for assembly of parts, or integrate into an automobile as sembly plant for example, the dealership where the car is sold, the company wher e it is assembled, the industries that supply the parts for the automaker, and i ndustries that provide the components for assembling auto parts, until the final link in the chain, thus making it possible to gain scale. In this case when a n ew car is sold, the chain gets the information and program to start production t o meet the replacement well. In Brazil we are experiencing a very rapid growth o f technical logistics. Universities begin undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate and even PhDs in this area. Small businesses feel the need to monitor developments as the market becomes very competitive, profits are low, and have the right product at the right time, in the right quantity at the right place at the lowest possible cost becomes a differential. Customer satisfaction becomes more important goal, all companies are concerned to meet well before then, this concern comes to the point that large food industries begin the logistical process in the selection of properties where the field begins production raw product, a farm that produce chickens for example, and this process only ends the day after the consumer has consumed the product, if it had no sign that the problem is the logistics proce ss was perfect. Finally after we understand how it started and how has the logis tics can try to understand where it's going. The seamless integration between al l departments, resulting in greater control and improves the flow of information , which becomes the greatest asset of a company, even higher than the capital. R ival companies are replaced by greater cooperation, uniting around a common goal , we have the example of the union of the two largest newspapers in Sao Paulo, F olha de S. Paulo and O Estado de Sao Paulo, who joined forces and consequently a chieved a significant reduction in spending logistical distribution. Today, the car that distributes the Folha de Sao Paulo also distributes O Estado de Sao Pau lo. It created the concept of Perfect Order, called OTIF, on time, in full, whic h means, serviced on time and complete, where all items have been met within the agreed time. Many industries have adopted this concept to measure their efficie ncy. Thinking of integration, companies increasingly will increase the integrati on of supply chain, achieving a reduction in cost of products, this reduction, w hich will be passed on to consumers. Expanding the concept of "four Ps", namely: â ¢ "Product", or product, where the company decides the product to be produced acco rding to market need. â ¢ â ¢ "Price", or money, as set by the market. "Promotion" or promoting, understood as announced in a comprehensive way, focusing primarily on advertising. â ¢ "Place", or square, emphasizing the distribution covering the whole consumer mar ket. This concept allows to produce the product that the market needs, set your price , put on consumer markets and ultimately spread their existence. We could go on talking endlessly about the course of logistics, but both would need to predict what will be the ways that technology will follow, because the two are increasin gly intertwined. Perhaps the ultimate solution is a single world system, fully i nterconnected, where all information, properly protected, will flow between all

the world's computers, allowing complete control over the flow of information. A nother major trend is the Logistics Verde, where industries, airlines and retail , make available their products with the least possible aggression to the enviro nment. This concept, completely new, instead of integrating all the links from p roduction to consumption, while maintaining the quality of the environment. Toda y, the industry does not help worrying about the maintenance of industrial polic ies that do not harm the nature and ship its products on older vehicles that pol lute about 100 times more than modern trucks. Likewise, retail products availabl e to consumers, using old equipment, which consumes a much larger load of featur es such as, paper and electricity. The industries will use efficient transport of environmentally, involving Biodie sel, which can pollute less and be a source of renewable energy, and also distri butors and sellers who care about this practice. Another major trend is the incr eased integration between various modes of transportation, expanding the use of waterways and railroads are more efficient in terms of greater efficiency, profo undly changing the matrix of transport. Now answer to you what is Logistics? Bibliography: ⠢ ⠢ http://www.g Social Responsibility in the Supply Chain: An Integrated Vision for Enhancing Competitiveness In: Meeting of Organizational Studies, 2., 2002, Recife. Anais ... Recife: Centre of Organizational Reality: PROPAD / UFPE: ANPAD, 2002. 1 CD. ⠢ ALIGLERI Lilian Mara ALIGLERI Luiz Antonio, Gabardi CAMERA Márcia Regina. ⠢ Sce narios for the Strategic Road Freight Transport in Brazil, Thesis Submitted to t he Graduate Program in Production Engineering from Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 2005. MYOSHI KATO, Jerry.