1 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS.

Course: Bachelor of Business Administration Discipline: General Theory of Admini stration CLASS 6 - Structural Approach OBJECTIVE To identify the origins of the structural approach. Understand its cha racteristics, representations, advantages and main contributions to the Administ ration. Structural Approach Jose Enrique Paniagua Master of Education PPGE / FACED PUCRS paniagua@pucrs.br Modified by prof. Sedin Joseph Nardelli Drinking PhD in Production Engineering f rom sedinei.beber @ pucrs.br 1. INTRODUCTION The word structuralism is a union of structure (from the Greek stru = order) plu s ism. According to Ferreira, the structure is "the arrangement of elements or p arts that relate to each other, and determines the nature, characteristics or fu nction or operation of the whole: the structure of an enterprise" (1999, p. 845) .. . Affirms that the term structure is equivalent to the concept of systems. Chiavenato (2003 p. 320) defines structure as stable elements which are in time and space to form a whole, and in the administration "corresponds to the way org anizations are organized and Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 2 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. structured. " Complementing it is important to say that the whole is not the sum of the parts, the structure assumes that there are other relations between the parties and that each party has properties that imply the dependence of the whol e. The whole to have meaning for Administration, has its own meaning, must act so t hat each structure relates to the other and ends up defining the overall structu re. The theories that preceded the structural approach was the classical theory, foc using on formal aspects of organization, and the Theory of Human Relations, more concerned with informal aspects as Caravantes, cloth and Kloeckner (2005). With the decline of these theories in the late 1950s, there is the structuralist theory, representing a new perspective in the administrative field, as shown be low. CLASSICAL THEORY (FORMAL) THEORY OF HUMAN RELATIONS (INFORMAL) Structural theory

Figure 1 - Approximation of Classical Theories and Theories of Human Relations, forming the structural theory. It should be emphasized in the design of Chiavenato (2003), which is organizing formal and informal. The formal organization is characterized by rules, regulati ons and hierarchical structure to order the relations between its members. The i nformal organization is the set of interactions and relationships that develop b etween people, becomes concrete in the customs, traditions, ideals and social no rms. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 3 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. With the structural theory was a link between the two concepts of formal and inf ormal organization, resulting in a more complex theoretical overview of the orga nization. Thus, with the focus of the whole, there is the structuralist theory. The structuralists have expanded the focus of studies of organizations, in view of problems called the functions of social conflict. For Chiavenato (2003, p.289), structuralism "is directed at the whole and the re lationship of the parties to constitute the whole. The totality, the interdepend ence of the parties and the fact that the whole is greater than the sum of its p arts. " Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Figure 2 - The whole organization is greater than the sum of its parts. Adapted: CHIAVENATO (2003, p.289) The interdependence of the parties and the fact that the whole is greater than t he simple sum of the parts, we can say, is the main characteristic of structural ism. 2. KEY FIGURES Many researchers have developed the proposal structuralist among them Max Weber, Blau and Scott, but Amitai Etzioni is considered the figure Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 4 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. central. His studies were more focused on organizational sociology, looking for inter-relating with the external environment.

Theories and Classical Theory of Human Relations were directed to industrial org anizations. Etzioni (1976) distinguished itself by expanding the study of organi zations in a broader sense and in full. In his book "Complex Organizations", which guided all the basic structuralist, r ecalled that in general, in modern societies, people "are born in hospitals, are educated in schools and universities,€work in one or another organization and, according to their participation in political and religious activities, also fre quently occupy seats in complex organizations "(Etzioni 1976, p. 13). The structuralists have expanded the focus of studies for cultural organizations , nonprofit, prisons and hospitals. Observed that there conflict of interest between the needs of the organization and individuals. According to the author on the study, the conflicts can be minimized, but not un known, never completely eliminated, and more, it can even be used for growth and the resolution of certain kinds of organizational problems in order to call fun ctions of social conflict. Etzioni (1976) argues that different groups could cooperate in certain spheres a nd compete in others, but rarely are or may become one big happy family, how oft en they suggest the authors of the Theory of Human Relations. They emphasized that there is a logic integrative rather than dichotomous logic, opening up important fields of study in organizational theory, such as question s of power, the very conflicts and alienation. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 5 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. 3. SOCIETY OF ORGANIZATIONS The organizations are as old as mankind, the pharaohs and emperors of ancient Ch ina, the Church and the hosts developed forms of organization. With the developm ent of mankind, a growing number of organizations were being asked to meet the g rowing social and human needs, developing organizations small, medium and large public and private. In the design of Etzioni (1976), organizations have undergone a development over four steps, as shown in the following figure. DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS NATURE Nature was the sole basis for survival. WORK The elements of nature began to be transformed. CAPITAL

Capital becomes a basic factor of social life. ORGANIZATION The dominance of the organization revealed its independent character in relation to nature, labor and capital, using them to achieve their goals. Figure Development Organizations Source: Adapted from Etzioni (1976) The structuralist theory focused on the study of organizations in their internal structure and interaction with other organizations. 4. ORGANIZATION MAN Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 6 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. This conception of man is perceived differently in each theory, as the figure th at follows. HUMAN ORGANIZATION CLASSICAL THEORY Economic Man Theory of Human Relations Social Man Structural theory Organizational Man. The organization man reflects a collectivist and cooperative personality, going to play different roles in organizations. Chiavenato (2003) this man should poss ess the following characteristics: • flexible, motivated by the constant changes in modern life, e. .. diversity of roles in various organizations. • • tolerant of frustration: to avo id emotional distress. able to postpone the rewards can compensate and work routine at the expense of personal vocations. • able to have permanent desire fo r achievement. Since each person belongs to different organizations, she plays different roles, occupying different positions and must follow rules and regulations are also di fferent. 5. ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONS

Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 7 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. The structuralists, to analyze organizations, conducted a multipronged approach, trying to reconcile these aspects in Theories and Classical Theory of Human Rel ations, involving the following organizational aspects: formal and informal orga nization arises as a result of the synthesis between Theory and Classical Theory of Human Relations . As the wage and material rewards, as well as social and sy mbolic, organizations use rewards to motivate people, was also a combination of Classical Theories and Theory of Human Relations. The different approaches adopted by organizations, model, synthesis and characte ristics are presented through the following figure. Organization Model System used approaches Typical Characteristics Focus: the internal parts of the system.€BACKGROUND Closed Emphasis: planning an d control expectancy of certainty and unpredictability ClassicTheory Theory of B ureaucracy Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 8 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. NATURAL Open Focus: system and its interdependence with the environment of uncertainty and un predictability Expectancy Modern theories of management grounded in systems theory Figure 3 - The rational model and the model natura Source: CHIAVENATO (2003, p. 295) Levels of the organization express authority hierarchy are arranged in three tie rs, as illustrated in the following figure. LEVELS OF HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY Institutional (Strategic level) Where do leaders and senior officials, aiming to deal with matters in the long t erm, relates to the external environment. MANAGEMENT (Intermediate Level) Aims to transform plans into programs.

TECHNICIAN (Operational level) Aims to monitor the implementation of operations and tasks. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 9 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. Regarding the diversity of oganizações Classical Theories and the Theory of Huma n Relations focused factories, since the structural theory focused organizations small, medium and large private and public companies of various types (or goods -producing industries, service providers , commercial, agricultural) military or ganizations (Army, Navy, Air Force, religious organizations, charities, politica l parties, prisons, labor unions, etc.).. For inter-organizational analysis, while previous theories were concerned with t he phenomena occurring within the company, the structuralists departed from the assumption that organizations run on transactions with other organizations, resu lting in a interdependence between them, ie each organization interacts with the external e nvironment and with other organizations within it. 6. TYPOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS It is known that no two organizations alike, all are different. However, accordi ng to Chiavenato (2003), they have features that allow to classify them into typ es, which is the way to reduce the variety and allow analysis of organizations. The structuralists Etzioni and Blau and Scott shared the organizations according to their type, as shown below. TYPOLOGY OF ORGANIZATIONS ETZIONI BLAU AND SCOTT PSYCHOSOCIAL SYSTEM Lesson 06 - structuralist approach Who Benefits COMTeoria General Administration ORGANIZATION 10 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. Source: adapted from Chiavenato (2003) Etzioni emphasized psychosocial systems of organizations, dealing with a simple typology, based on the types of control, little consideration to the technologic al structure used and the external environment. The following figure shows this typology. Types of Organizations Types of Power

Control Used Entry and Residence of participants through People Involvement of participants Examples Coercive Coercive Rewards and Punishments Coercion, imposition, alienated, with force, threat, based on fear. fear. Belief , faith, belief, ideology. Morale and motivation as self-expression Calculative. Rent-seeking Prisons and jails REGULATIONS Normative Moral and ethical Churches, hospitals, universities. Utilit Remunerative Economic incentives Interest, perceived advantage. Companies in general Figure 4 - Types of Etzioni Source: Chiavenato (2003, p. 299) Blau and Scott present a typology of organizations based on who benefits from th e organization. It's a simple typology and unidimensional, has the advantage of emphasizing the strength of power and influ ence over the beneficiary organizations. This typology does not provide informat ion about the deferent technologies, structures, or psychosocial and existing ad ministrative systems in organizations. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 11 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. TYPOLOGY OF SCOTT AND BLAU MAIN TYPES OF ORGANIZATION BENEFICIARY EXAMPLES Professional associations, coope ratives, unions, mutual funds, trusts, etc. Corporations or family businesses Ho

spitals, universities, religious organizations and social agencies, philanthropi c organizations. Military organization, public safety, post and telegraphs, sani tation, legal and criminal organization. Even the members of the organization Association of mutual beneficiaries The owners or shareholders of the organization Organizations commercial interests Customers Service organizations The general public State Organizations Figure 5 - Typology of Blau and Scott Source: CHIAVENATO (2003, p. 300) 7. ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES Goals are states in which demand is what we have, as stated Chiavenato (2003), a re future situations, serve as standards, serve as a yardstick for evaluating an d comparing the productivity of the organization. Represent the intentions of the organizations; scope shows the extent to which o rganizations are effective and successful. The structuralist and neoclassical authors were concerned with organizational ob jectives. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 12 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. How organizations interact with society that is always changing, they can change their goals in the process of adjusting to emerging problems and unforeseen, re quiring adjustments. Structuralism is a process of interaction between the organization and the envir onment, causing the organizational goals change through the influence of interna l and external factors. The goals are not static, because they are constantly evolving, changing the org anization's relations with its environment, requiring a continuous review in lig ht of changes in the environment and the organization. 8. ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT Chiavenato (2003, p.302) states that "... environment is everything that involve s the organization externally. For structuralists, the environment consists of o ther organizations that make up society. " The organization relies on other orga nizations to follow his path and achieve their goals.

Continuing, the author says in reference to the interaction between the organiza tion and the environment is fundamental to the understanding of structuralism, w ith the following criticisms: • • • much is known about the interaction between people, we know something about the interaction between groups, and no one knows almost nothing about the interactio n between organizations and their environments. Two concepts are fundamental to the inter-organizational: In terdependence of organizations and organizational set. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 13 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. As the interdependence of organizations with society, no organization is autonom ous or self-sufficient. For the whole organization, every organization or class of organizations have in teraction in their environment, forming an organization. The structuralists bega n a new cycle theory management: the gradual disengagement of what occurs within organizations as to what happens outside them. 9. ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY To cope with its environment and achieve goals, each organization develops strat egies (Chiavenato, 2003). The structuralists also developed these deliberate ways of maneuvering in order to manage their trade an d relations with the various interests affected by their actions. According to him, the structuralists concede the existence of two strategies: Co mpetition and Cooperation, as shown in the following figure. STRATEGIES COMPETITION is a complex system of relationships and involves competition for re sources (such as customers or • Adjust; • Cootação or coopção; always involves i nteraction between the feuding factions. • Coalition. Buyers or potential member s), nor COOPERATION: what if subdivided into: Regarding the adjustment is to negotiate on the decision about future conduct th at is satisfactory to those involved. The adjustment involves direct negotiation with other environmental organizations. As the co-optation or coopção occurs when the organization brings within itself elements from other organizations potentially Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 14 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. threatening to share his process of political decision-making and away from poss ible retaliation. It is the acceptance of representatives of other organizations (such as creditor banks or financial institutions) by the group leader of an or ganization. Regarding the coalition refers to the combination of two or more organizations t o achieve a common goal.€For the structuralist strategy is a function of organiz ational policy, not the product of a single person, but the result of action of various agents, which allows you to map the current power structure in the organ ization. 10. ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT The structuralists disagree that there is harmony of interest between employers and employees (as stated the Classical Theory), or that harmony must be preserve d by the Administration, through a comprehensive attitude and therapy (as stated to the Theory of Human Relations). Both theories left out of discussion the issue of conflict, probably due to its prescriptive character. For structuralists, conflicts are generating elements of change and development of t he organization. Based on Chiavenato (2003), conflict is the general condition of the animal worl d. Conflict means the existence of ideas, feelings, attitudes or interests that may clash. Etizioni (1976) argues that it is inevitable the conflict between organizational goals and individual needs, conflict can be reduced but not eliminated. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 15 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. CONFLICT Presupposes the existence of disagreement, disapproval, disagreement, inconsiste ncy, discrepancy, inconsistency, opposition. Agreement, approval, coordination, resolution, unity, agreement, consistency, ha rmony. The sources of cooperation lie in the similarities of interest, real or supposed , between individuals and organizations. The sources of conflict are located in some real or perceived divergence of inte rests that exist within a continuum that ranges from a frontal collision and com prehensive conflict of interest, in one extreme to different interests, but not incompatible in the other end. Conflict and cooperation are integral components of organizational life and are regarded as two aspects of social activity.

The conflict causes changes and innovations as solutions are reached. However, t hese solutions form the basis of new conflicts that will generate new changes, w hich lead to other innovations, and so forth, creating a cycle, as shown in the following figure. CONFLICT CHANGE AND INNOVATION CHANGE AND INNOVATION CONFLICT Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 16 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. It is stated that "conflict is disguised or suffocated, he will seek other forms of expression such as abandonment of employment or increase in accidents, which in the end, have disadvantages for both the individual and the organization" (C hiavenato, 2003, p. 306). Through conflict, we can evaluate and adjust the power system of the organizatio n to the real situation and thus achieve the harmony of the organization. 11. CRITICAL ASSESSMENT Structuralism brought to the Board a considerable contribution (Chiavenato, 2003 ), Convergence of various approaches divergent: Theory Classical, Theory of Human Relations and Theory of Bureaucracy (integration and expansion of these theories), extending the approach: Focus on the total organization moves fully to the organization, theoretical double tren d: Integrative with concern to join, and conflict, with the division in the orga nization. The two approaches can be combined, broader organizational analysis: I t stimulated the study of non-industrial and non-profit organizations: schools, universities, hospitals, unions, prisons, etc.., Theory of crisis: it has more t o say about the issues of complex organizations than with their normal and theor y of transition and change: the path represents a systemic approach. It is concluded that the structural theory and a transition to systems theory. 12. REFERENCES Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration 17 Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING AND ECONOMICS. Caravantes, Gerard R., Panna, Claudia C., Kloeckner, Monica. Administration: The ories and Case. 1.ed. São Paulo: Person Prentice Hall, 2005. CHIAVENATO, Idalber to. Introduction to the Theory of General Administration. 7.ed., Rio de Janeiro:

Campus, 2003 ETZIONI, Amitai. Complex Organizations: A study of organizations i n the face of social problems. 1. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 1976. FERREIRA, Aurélio Buarque de Holanda. New American Heritage: Dictionary of the English language, 3 . ed., Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira. 1999. Lesson 06 - structuralist approach General Theory of Administration