1 ITEM 26: PSYCHOLOGICAL MATURITY Summary 1. Concept and types of maturity 2. Maturity of development 2.1 2.

1 deve lopment Phases I-Phase 3 development. Characteristics of the maturity in April. Personal maturity: concept and characteristics 5. Psychological capacities matur e personality 1. CONCEPT AND TYPES OF MATURITY The Dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy (DR AE) defined maturity as the "wisdom or prudence with which man is governed." Som ething similar is meant by psychological maturity for most people. "Autonomy", " conduct appropriate to the circumstances", "weight and balance," "stability", "r esponsibility", "emotional closeness," "clarity of objectives and purposes, "" s elf-control ", etc. Yet it is, first of all, to distinguish the different ways o f understanding the maturity that would have from other points of view other tha n psychological. Social maturity from the standpoint of social (more or less col loquial) the term maturity is associated with some returns that are considered " markers" of the transition from adolescence to the adult world: getting and keep ing a job, financial independence, start a family own , etc. The legal maturity of legal maturity concept assumes that most people who reach a certain age "lega l" may assume the responsibility inherent in certain activities. Thus, sets the minimum age requirements required by law to perform various behaviors and rights "adult" Being hired labor (working age), driving a car, drink alcohol, vote, ma rry, start a business audience, obtain the permission of firearms, criminal age, etc. 2 Application of ripeness Some associations and law ripeness used as personal need to make judgments and t ake relevant decisions. -American Psychological Association (APA) in its rules o n the criteria for accreditation of doctoral training in psychology and other st andard uses of maturity (although it says nothing about how to foster it and und er what criteria) (Griffin, 1976). "Code of Canon Law (1983) Among the impedimen ts to marriage vows is (canon 1095) the lack of maturity of trial or, in a broad er sense, personal immaturity whose presence demonstrated by either spouse befor e marriage can also be seen as grounds for invalidity. Among the impediments tha t preclude the receipt of orders is (canon 1041), "suffering from some form of m ental illness amentia or another ..." among which include personal immaturity. Criminal Code Certain levels of immaturity of personality are considered mitigat ing criminal behavior. 2. MATURITY OF DEVELOPMENT Human life is subject to a development process from c onception to old age. Although each individual life is unique, all basically go through the same sequence. This is crucial in understanding human life, and that the significance of events and special relations is strongly colored by the lif e stage in which they occur. The development has its origins in the hereditary d isposition, which also provided the environment required for "development." Here dity and environment are an indissoluble whole. Using the genetic material does not convey qualities already developed but only provisions, ie, possibilities to determine the basic qualities that the environment is responsible for configuri ng and concrete. 3 2.1 Stages of development The authors have endeavored to determine what roles, s kills and behaviors are unique to a particular stage of development, thus able t o determine the maturity of a person but did not reach the fullness of its devel opment, maturity "final." The following table is a leading exponent of this way

of understanding phasic maturity. PSYCHIC DEVELOPMENT STAGES (REMPLEIN) BREASTFEEDING (1st year of life) Age of sl eep ................................. first 2 months ........................ Ag e .................. version to the world ..................... 2 months to 1 ye ar EARLY CHILDHOOD (1-5 ½ years) age of language acquisition ......... ......... ....... 1-2 ½ years old obstinacy First ........................ ........ 2 ½ to 3 ½ years of the game seriously Age ............................... ........... .. 3 ½ to 5 ½ years later childhood (5 ½ to 10 ½ -12 years) First configuration changes ............... .............. 5 ½ to 6 ½ years Children half .......... .................. ................................ 6 ½ to 9 years later ....... .... Children .................................................. 9-10 ½ or 12 YO UTH (10 ½ -12 20-21) ......... Prepubertal Girls Boys........................... ....................... .. 10 ½ to 13 ..................... ................... 12-14 Puberty ............................................... 13-15 14-16 ...... ................... .................... Youth Crisis .......................... ............. 15 ½ to 16 ....... Adolescents 16-17 .............. .............. .................. ........................... ................... 16 ½ to 20 .. ADULTHOOD 17-21 (20-21 to 56-58) Early ................................. Media ............................... ........... 20-21 to 30-32 ..................... ............................. 30-32 to 42-44 ......... Delayed (advanced )...... ........................ AGE ...................... 42-44 to 56-58 (56-58 in ade lante9 Presenectud ............. ............................................... . 56 - Aging from 1968 to 1970 ............................................ 58 . ..................... 68-70 onwards 2.2 Stages of ego development The following figure is another good example of ho w to understand the maturity at different stages of life and how the self is exp erientially matured up to the "personal stage" transcendent, that is what will e nable in turn, based on personality traits and learning, the person achieves a g reater or lesser existential maturity. 4 DEVELOPMENT PHASE I Responsibility-Solidaridad (unlimitation guidance and direction) Know-love Identity-Soledad (space-time limitation) Eccentricity Oneness Interdependence Power-Valer Central Unit agenciality PERSONAL PHASE (eccentric, transcendental) Live-Broadcast Anonymous Experiencing sensorimotor Symbiosis Patican INDIVIDUAL PHASE (identity, self-centered) Experiential PHASE (anonymous-symbiotic) 5 Stages of development are the Phase I-experiential characteristics, individual a nd personal or transcendent, by passing the self from its emergence in the child until its full development in the adult. A) Phase experiential (anonymous, symb iotic) Stage of development (first two years of life) in which he lives in an ab solute dependence on a "fusion" psychosomatic (symbiosis) with his mother and hi

s surroundings. The child is alive but experience remains anonymous, diffuse (no limits) to the environment and pathic (passive, totally helpless) to his surrou ndings. The word "pathic" is a term derived from Greek (disease, illness) to ref er to functions or aspects that I suffer (suffer) but may adopt an active attitu de towards them. By Experience understand the experience. The type of interactio n with the environment in which the living being, affected by their needs and wh at it perceives in the environment, favorable or otherwise to the satisfaction o f those, "he behaves. The sensorimotor experiencing the kind of experience that "motivated" behavior during the symbiosis with the environment before the ego is experienced as an individual. The drive is aimed at experiential testing of life in the immediate, original and dynamic of its processes (living life). It manifests as sensory input and a motor drive. Sensory input (to experi ence): The goal of this drive is to experience sensations and feelings, emotions and feelings, for his sensitive and exciting value. This momentum is satisfied by any kind of sense of adventure, risk, danger, etc. Driving pulse (the activit y): The self-movement is "living the life." This being active, typical of early childhood and youth, not pursue any individual or personal performance. The need for movement is met with gambling activities. B) Single Phase (identity, self-c entered) Phase of the mother-child relationship, which follows the symbiotic sta te and provides the child begins to perceive themselves as a separate entity fro m the mother, psychological consciousness of individual identity. At this stage, individual or "egocentric", which goes from 2-3 to 9-10 years, the child's moti vations revolve around the experiences and self-evaluation and impressions of it s value (acceptance) and power (recognition) . The individual experience is char acterized by the unit (I feel one, defined and distinct from the environment) by 6 centrality (the self is experienced as the center of the universe) and the agenc y are (capable of being an agent of his acts). The changes that occur in the exp erience of relationship and communication with the world will lead to, at this s tage, particular experience of loneliness (existential loneliness) caused by the discovery of spatial limitation (finitude) and temporal (transience) the human being. For Egocentrism understand the tendency of individuals to relate everythi ng to himself, with disregard for the interests of others. Unable to "decenter"€ to see things from the point of view of others, can only address the problems it faces in terms of person (or perceived value in things as they are of any use f or me). This attitude, which is characteristic of normal pre-operational thinkin g in children four to six years, is also in poor mental and some personality dis orders. Not to be confused with "selfishness" or excessive affection of someone to himself, putting his own convenience to that of others. C) Phase personal (ex ocentric, transcendent) The need to overcome the experience of space limitations (finite) and temporal (fugacity) that the experience of individuation is to man , is a stimulus for the emergence of personal drive. For him, the man sucks, tra nscending itself (no longer the center), find their place in the world and parti cipate interdependently with him. In the personal stage or "significant" develop ment, the experience tends to lose self-centeredness and to organize exocentric (some external to the individual objectives) so that the needs of the person fin d their satisfaction in the discovery of the significance and meaning of the uni verse and, with it, the very existence and their own experiences of interdepende nce, solidarity and responsibility. The impulses that motivate behavior in this phase are the impulse to know (to "discover") and the impulse to love (to create ). Experience of exocentric interdependence (relational being that has its cente r, its meaning outside of itself), is the basis of liability. The experiences of knowledge and love to have these experiences, a director is the only way to ove rcome existential solitude. The oneness, the oneness experience (if only, dear b y itself) is the basis of self esteem and emotional self accordingly. Interdepen dence means the style of human relationship characterized by

July willingness to influence others and be sensitive to them, the tendency to provid e and receive support, to trust and to trust one to define oneself in relation t o others, and seeing oneself not as a solitary but linked to others that are imp ortant to life itself. The concept differs from the unit, which is defined as im potence, helplessness, lack of control and need of assistance. Out of solidarity means the experience of participation in a cause or joint venture with other cr eatures, which carries the same interest, commitment and obligation to them (acc ording to its category), and a relation, especially with the human community, af fective bond (which would affect a person affects me). PHASES / COMPONENTS OF THE LOVE EXPERIENCE 1. Experiential phase (erotic love or appetitive)-Attraction for a good vitally me realize (I like, I like) 2. Phase ego (narcissistic love or reflective)-Inter est in an asset that makes me (makes me valuable, powerful) as an individual (fo r me, it's worth me) 3. Phase transcendent (altruistic love or delivered), dedic ation, commitment to an asset that makes me giving meaning to my life (it makes me happy) 3. FEATURES OF THE MATURITY not easy to specify what are the traits of psychic m aturity. The various authors and schools have been providing the most essential features, according to their individual visions, and ultimately complement each other. 3.1 The maturity and self-actualization humanistic psychology to a mature person is one that achieves, or is on track to achieve "the maximum potential performa nce of the unique and unrepeatable person, all that this particular person can b ecome . Maslow (1983, 1991), after studying the self in people who, in his opini on, had achieved during his life this ideal state, comes to list 18 traits that he says characterize both self-actualizing subjects as well as a "society health y "or" good society. " However, it should be noted that the study was methodolog ically weak and that the features described by Maslow, seem to be rather, their own projections 8 values or at least those of their social group of reference: an elite of intelle ctuals, artists and scientists imbued with liberal values of the American middle class (Heath, 1997a). Features that characterize the self-actualization (Maslow, 1991) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. A more adequate perception of re ality. Acceptance (of oneself, others and nature). Spontaneity, simplicity, natu ralness. Focus on the issues. Need a private space. Autonomy and independence of culture and relationships.€Clear appreciation (ability to appreciate freshness and naivete basic commodities of life) Mystical experience, top or "cap" (peak-e xperience). Sense of community (Adler Gemeinschaftsgeguhl) Interpersonal Relatio ns deep but selective. Democratic structure of the character. Difference between means and ends, certain ethics. Philosophical sense of humor not hostile. Creat ivity. Resistance to adaptation, irrespective of culture. Imperfections (boredom , stubbornness, irritability, etc). Values and self-realization. Elimination of dichotomies (reason / emotion, work / play). 3.2 The maturity as a process of becoming a whole person (ogers, R 1959, 1984) T he self is a natural and spontaneous process of differentiation potential, the r esult of an actualizing tendency which lies within the subject in its self. Upda tes in the encounter between people and leads the individual to live more fully. It is only possible when the subject receives from childhood "unconditional pos

itive regard or recognition" by others and thus builds a self-recognition system , equally positive. Personal maturity is equivalent to optimal psychological adj ustment characterized "by complete congruence between the Self (yourself) and ex perience or the complete openness to experience" for everyone "to become the per son you really are." The fundamental goal of her therapeutic work, and in genera l of all truly human relationship is the elimination of possible inconsistencies between the real unto itself and the self ideal, favoring the "growth trends." 9 Rogers growth trends (changes experienced by clients as an effect of the therape utic process) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Stop using the masks, "fronts" exte rnal. Away "compelling image of what should be." Fail to meet social and cultura l expectations imposed (or conformity). Stop trying to please others. Developmen t towards self-determination and autoorientación. They begin to understand their own development as a process of "becoming" begins to conceive of the self with its increasing complexity. Begin to open, frank, friendly and intimate, the expe rience. Development of acceptance of others. Developing self-confidence. 3.3 The maturity and positive mental health means positive mental health ideal i nvolves not only the absence of symptoms (mental disorder), but a desirable posi tive functioning. Getting people to be mature, from the point of view cognitivoc omportamental, should be the goal of all mental health program. Mature people ar e not only healthier, but also self-efficacious in promoting health in all, the psychological well-being is related to positive mental health and every turn is based on healthy lifestyles. For Jahoda (1958), mature personality is one that " actively masters his environment, shows a certain unity of personality and is ca pable of perceiving the world and themselves properly." To Ryff (1989 th), the r equirements for psychological well-being are virtually the same. Characteristics of people with positive mental health (Jahoda, 1958) 1. Sound le vel of achievement and aspiration. 2. Realistic perception of the world. 3. Emot ional balance. 4. Integrated social and emotional functioning. 5. Satisfactory s ocial adjustment. 6. Sense of purpose. 7. Adequate self-esteem and self-efficacy . Requirements for psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989 meetings) 1. Self-acceptan ce: positive self-rating and past life. 2. Environmental domain: Ability to hand le life emotionally and own environment. 3. Positive relationships with others: Presence of high quality interpersonal ties. 4.Propósito in life: Belief that li fe has a purpose and is significant. 5. Personal Growth: A sense of personal gro wth and development. 6. Autonomy: Meaning of self-determination. 10 3.4 The competition mature Certain styles of coping with stress, which provide e xcellent resistance to it, and some defense mechanisms, more competent than othe rs to adapt, are considered characteristic of maturity. Resistance to stress (hardness or "hardiness") coping style characterized by str ess: 1. COMMITMENT ("commitment") Ability to believe in and recognize their own values, goals and priorities, and assess their own capabilities and what one doe s. Tendency to engage yourself in different life situations with a general sense of purpose. Possession of a belief system that minimizes the threat perception to the various life events. 2.€CHALLENGE ("challenge") Tendency to assess stress as a challenge (healthier than the tendency to do it as a threat). The challeng e is seen as an opportunity and an incentive for personal development. They tend to make such assessment to stress people cognitively flexible and good toleranc e for ambiguity. 3. CONTROL personal sense of control over external events facil itates adaptation to stressful situations and health. People with high perceptio

n of control not only seek explanations about what happens in terms of the actio ns of others or the destination, but also and especially so in personal responsi bility. Defense mechanisms Defense mechanisms are psychological strategies or processes of the unconscious and automatic that I use in conflict situations in order to p revent the onset and / or maintenance of anxiety (Gelder). They are unconscious intrapsychic processes that mitigate the emotional conflict and anxiety. Althoug h often make conscious efforts for the same purpose, the actual defense mechanis ms are unconscious (Kaplan). Yet it can be used voluntarily as techniques for co ntrolling the harmful effects of stress Defense mechanisms with a high adaptive level Membership: Attend to others for h elp or support, which means sharing the problems without trying to attribute the m to others. 11 Altruism is dedicated to meeting the needs of others. Unlike the self-sacrifice sometimes characteristic of reaction formation, you get a bonus of either vicari ous or type the responses of others. Anticipation: You experience emotional reac tions occur before the conflict or the threat or anticipation of its consequence s, possible future developments, and considering a realistic alternative respons es or solutions. Assertiveness: Express your feelings and thoughts directly in a non-coercive or manipulative. Self-observation: Think about your own behavior, and acting accordingly. thoughts, feelings, motivations and Sense of humor: Stresses amusing or ironic aspects of conflicts or stressful sit uations. Sublimation pipe: potentially maladaptive feelings or impulses into soc ially acceptable behaviors (eg., Contact sports to channel aggressive impulses.) Withdrawal: Avoid intentionally think about problems, desires, feelings or expe riences that make you upset. 4. PERSONAL MATURITY mature fullness of life is not a stage or stage of developm ent but an individual achievement. All individuals reach adulthood but not every one gets the personal maturity. The mature personality is oriented in an axiolog ical order, in which the experiential is assumed by the individual and the exper ience and shaped by the transcendent individuality. FEATURES OF THE MATURITY Guidance Experiential Development of the higher forms o f objective thought. Volitional capacity developed as a consciously accepted axi ological order. Development trends impulses transitive (transcendent). Affectivi ty capacity of experiencing, knowing the meaning of the experience. Ability to l ead, meaning assume and transcend their own feelings as the project implementati on. Conduct Resolution of the three essential issues of life: "Occupation: work profession," Integration love and sexuality-realization through love with. Guida nce existence: Who am I, where am I?, Where did I come?, Where do I go?, Etc. 12 EXPERIENCE love ones good, do good to something or someone who is considered an asset is an experience that transcends the self and which results in the exaltat ion and existential health, wholeness and existential development and psychologi cal maturity. 1. Exaltation health and cognitive experiential Interest Good pulse Perception benevolent

I Transcendent emotional satisfaction Conduct Cognitive Facilitation 2. Fullness and development existential Love transforms the experience of a frie nd in the existential experience of fullness, guidance and direction. With it ov ercomes loneliness and existential finitude (the burden of spatial limitation) a nd is confirmed by the existence Love transforms the experience of collecting lo ved encouraging individual development and transcendent experiences of protectio n and raises individual confirmation (of the process independence, autonomy and self-sufficiency) and experiences of love for the lover (the person who confirms that he performed) 13 3.€Want psychic maturation and do good leads on the person who loves and support s the perceived loved the exercise of transcendent emotion own psychological mat urity: solidarity, interdependence, responsibility. 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS OF THE MATURE PERSONALITY The mature personality is char acterized from the psychological point of view: a) self-supportive, b) independe nce interdependent c) empowerment. These characteristics make it possible for ma n to psychological freedom and self-possession - emotional, cognitive and motiva tional-you need to transcend himself out of finding satisfaction in it. a) Selfsufficiency means that the individual is self-sufficient for emotional self-help , self-understanding cognitive and motivational self-stimulation, at least suffi ciently to be able to fend for itself without needing the support, understanding and encouragement others, so you can be really supportive (sufficiency is sough t to avoid being a burden and be able to download the other). That's when the ad ult has the ability to establish close emotional ties without fear of loss of id entity, to develop cooperative relations with others, friendship, love, to engag e in joint ventures and join specific groups. This in turn implies, skill sharin g, mutual trust, ability to sacrifice and commit to the other to be tolerant and accept the perceived differences in others. In short, the ability to confer to the needs and concerns of others of equal importance to their own. b) Independen ce implies that they possess the self-sufficient doses of emotional, cognitive a bility and self-demand motivational autoorientación like to meet a healthy inter dependence (where the other is significant, but not necessary, much less require d). In this respect, the affection of the adult will be conditioned by the final separation, real and intrapsychic, the family of origin and the commitment with the specific task of establishing new relations of intimacy, but now from a pos ition of subject " comfortable solitude "capable of caring, real and intrapsychi c self. c) Autonomy provides the necessary capacity for emotional self-control, self-control cognitive and motivational self-belief, one that could respond to t he 14 consequences of own actions and decisions (is governed by the same standards kno wing that, which takes over the answer, which is accountable for the consequence s "). PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MATURE (interpersonal relationship model pa ternal and maternal) SELF SUPPORTIVE (autobasto me, to not load / help the other ) Emotional ..................... Cognitive self-help Self-understanding ....... ... ................................. conative ... INDEPENDENCE ................ ............... Interdependent self-stimulation (the other, significant but not necessary) Emotional ...... Cognitive Esteem ....................... ...........

.............. .................................. .......... conative self-impos ed Autoorientación empowerment ( my government but I deal with the consequences) Cognitive Emotional Self ............................... ...... ............... ...... ........................... conative self-belief Self-control ........... .. REFERENCES Zacarés JJ, Serra A: The personal growth: perspectives from psycholog y. Pyramid: Madrid, 1998. Cervera S, Zapata R, Lahortiga F: Teaching practice of medical psychology and General Psychopathology. Newbook Editions: Pamplona, 199 7. Identify self-assessment questions as real (V) or false (F) the following sta tements 1. Psychological maturity does not necessarily coincide with social matu rity nor the legal maturity 2. You can determine the maturity of a person but di d not reach the fullness of its development in March. The so-called individual p hase of the "I" is characterized by the urge to experience sensations and play 4 . Egocentrism or tendency to relate everything to oneself with disregard for the interests of others, is normal in children of 4-6 years 5. The person who place s emphasis on the amusing or ironic aspects of conflicts or stressful situations is using a defense mechanism known as sublimation